Political Events Influencing the American Civil War

To what extent did political events influence the American Civil War?



The U.S. Civil War was fought between the Union of the North and the Confederate of the South from 1861 to 1865.  The Union of the North consisted of 20 states, many in which had large and successful cities such as New York City.[1]  The Confederate of the South was made up 11 states, with most states ideal for large scale farming.[2] The North had a population of 18.5 million people, where as the South had a total population of 9 million people, 3.5 of these people were enslaved. “The Union forces outnumbered the Confederates roughly two to one”[3]

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Following the election of Abraham Lincoln, the first state to succeed from the Union was South Carolina. The Civil War was the bloodiest battle in American history with around 620,000 deaths. Existing factors that put the United States into the Civil War were, major differences between the North and South, including the major abolition debate as well as the State vs Federal rights. 

Deeply rooted within each of these causes were the Politics revolving around Slavery.  Politics influenced a lot of the events of the Civil War with some examples being the Lincoln Douglas Debates, The Emancipation Proclamation, and the many new Amendments.  These political events divided the population as well as created much aggression through the Civil War.  Although tough fighting from the Confederates and their leader, Robert E. Lee along with the Union leader Ulysses S. Grant with the help of Abraham Lincoln were able to lead the North to victory, beating the South. The War officially ended on April 9th, 1865. 


There was a lot of tension forming between the North and South prior to the actual start of the Civil War. In addition to the fundamental differences in values and beliefs, there were very visible, and clear differences between the North and South. The North had booming growth in their industry and economy[4], creating a wide gap in the economy between the North and the South.

  While the North was experiencing growth in industry and manufacturing, the South’s economy was still based almost entirely on slavery through agriculture and farming, 2 of the main exports being Tobacco and Cotton.[5]  Doing the intense labor of this large-scale farming, was black slaves. Since slavery/slave farming was at the root of their economy, the South was incredibly against the growing abolition movement being pushed by the North. 

Causing Southerners more anger were acts passed in the years prior to the Civil War, one that was the Kansas-Nebraska Act.  This act was made by Democrats. This act states that “the people who lived in a region should determine for themselves the nature of their government.” [6]  This set forth the idea that the settlers of a new land would be able to decide upon. With the admittance to their Union, they would become a free or a slave state. 

While they were facing much backlash from the newly implemented Act, the North established the Republican party. This new party was established on the belief of “opposing slavery’s extension into the western territories.”[7]  Today the Republican party is more similar to the Democrat party of these times and vise versa.

Edging closer to the brink of war -in 1859- John Brown raided Harper’s Ferry with the intention to start slave revolts, and destroy the “Peculiar Institution”[8] of slavery.  Through this act of violence, Southern citizens became increasingly fearful of the North’s intentions to do with the existence of, and the root of their economy, slavery. 

The last straw that launched the North and South into a Civil War was tAbraham Lincoln’s election. Abraham Lincoln was a representative from the Republican party. His campaign stated that  “slavery would not spread any farther than it already had.”[9]  Shprtly after Lincoln’s victory, South Carolina seceded the Union,[10] resulting in the beginning of the American Civil War. 

Course of events

         Before Abraham Lincoln’s election into presidency, he was involved in 7 debates with Stephen A. Douglas, who was a member of Congress since 1843.[11]  They fought for the open seat on the senate, Lincoln and Douglas not only discussed the important issues of Slave Rights and Sectional conflict, but also further political conflicts that would influence the future politics to come.

  Douglas was a democrat, and wanted re-election into his position on the senate. Fighting against him was Lincoln, running for senate representing the newly formed Republican Party. These debates were especially significant because it was believed that the outcome of the debates would “determine the ability of the Democratic party to maintain unity in the face of the divisive sectional and slavery issues.”[12]

Uncertainty amongst the Democratic and Republican parties further made citizens have anticipation for these debates. However in the end, Lincoln did lose the debates and Douglas was elected into senate. Abraham Lincoln had managed to win the popular vote,[13] demonstrating a significant shift of political views. The result of these 7 debates was the beginning of a large divide in the political parties. 

Further dividing political parties, was the Emancipation Proclamation.  Elected in 1860, the current president of the time, Abraham Lincoln, issued the Emancipation Proclamation 3 years into the Civil War.  The Proclamation stated that “all persons held as slaves within the rebellious states are, and henceforward shall be free.”[14]However this did not completely end slavery in the nation. The Emancipation Proclamation was a huge turning point of the war and created the shift of fundamental morals and values. This proclamation freeing and recognizing black men -only men, no women- also allowed for men of color to now fight for the military in the war. By the beginning of October 1864, “approximately 180,000 African-Americans, comprising of 163 units, served in the U.S. Army, and 18,000 in the Navy.”[15] The Emancipation Proclamation created a lot of controversy on the topic of the future of Slavery, as well as sparked conversations amongst political leaders over black rights.[16]  Additionally shifting political views, this document reinforces Abraham Lincoln’s pchange of his previous statements about the war being about preserving the confederacy, to a war ending slavery. 



After the Civil War it continued to leave a continuing impact on the United States. Following the Civil War, the United States entered a period of reconstruction. During this time, the divide in politics was stronger than ever and the issues of slavery and black rights were still there with strong tensions amongst both parties. On top of the issues of Slavery and Black rights, new issues occured of how the nation was to be reunited, what system of labor should replace slavery, and what would be the status of the former slaves.[17]  

In the beginning of the reconstruction period, President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. To take Lincoln’s position, was vice president Andrew Johnson. Jackson was not popular with the Republican Party, with the quick rejection of his new reconstruction plan, the Republican congress adopted new laws and constitutional amendments.  The new Amendments passed were the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, each of these forever changing United States history.

The 13th amendment abolished slavery in the United States.[18]  The 14th amendment granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States”[19] including slaves that had just been freed following the Civil War.  The 15th amendment established “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” 

Each of these new amendments guided the United States to what it is today.  Through the passing of the 13th Amendment, slavery was almost completely abolished. Freed slaves were allowed citizenship due to the 14th Amendment. The 15th Amendment, gave a wider variety of people a right to vote, more voices were able to be represented, this also paved the road to women’s right to vote.[20]



The extent in which political events influenced the Civil War is significant. Some of the events influencing the course of the Civil War were, the Lincoln Douglas Debates, the election of Lincoln, and the Emancipation Proclamation. 

The Lincoln Douglas Debates evoked the Civil War by laying a foundation of newer ideas, challenging the old ideals of slavery. The 7 debates created shift of political views as well as a large divide of political parties and citizens. The Emancipation Proclamation issued by Abraham Lincoln played a crucial role in the Civil War.  Although it did not completely abolishing Slavery, the Emancipation Proclamation freed many slaves and allowed new morals and values. Colored men were now able to enlist in the war creating stronger forces on both sides. This document also signals Lincoln’s perspective change of the war being fought for preserving the confederacy, to a war for freedom for all. 

Additionally, the adaptation of these 3 new amendments determined the overallxoutcome of the Civil War. With the passing of the 13th Amendment, slavery was almost fully effectively abolished. The 14th Amendment granted citizenship to previous slaves, allowing them to be a true member of society. The 15th Amendment gave more people the right to vote making more of a democracy. The extent of Political involvement regarding the Civil War was immense. 



“Civil War .” Civil War: Election of 1860. Accessed December 15, 2017. https://www.mtholyoke.edu/~newdow/Politics%20116/electionof1860-2.html.

“Civil War Timeline.” HistoryNet. Accessed December 15, 2017. http://www.historynet.com/civil-war-timeline.

Conrado Fontanilla. “Political and Economic Causes of the American Civil War.” Owlcation. June 28, 2016. Accessed December 15, 2017. https://owlcation.com/social-sciences/Consolidated-Political-End-Economic-Causes-of-the-American-Civil-War.

“Facts.” National Parks Service. Accessed December 15, 2017. https://www.nps.gov/civilwar/facts.htm.

Gienapp, William E. “Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War” Oxford University Press, 2002

“Learn.” Civil War Trust. Accessed December 11, 2017. http://www.civilwar.org/learn/acticles/civil-war-facts.

“List of Political Factors During the Civil War.” Synonym. Accessed December 15, 2017. http://classroom.synonym.com/list-political-factors-during-civil-war-5337.html.

Martyris, Nina. “Slavery, Famine And The Politics Of Pie: What Civil War Recipes Reveal.” NPR. June 02, 2015. Accessed December 15, 2017. https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/06/02/411518221/slavery-famine-and-the-politics-of-pie-what-civil-war-recipes-reveal.

“Politicians.” National Parks Service. Accessed December 15, 2017. https://www.nps.gov/civilwar/politicians.htm.

Shmoop Editorial Team. “Politics in The Civil War.” Shmoop. November 11, 2008. Accessed December 15, 2017. https://www.shmoop.com/civil-war/politics.html.

“The Emancipation Proclamation.” National Archives and Records Administration. Accessed December 15, 2017. ttps://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured-documents/emancipation-proclamation.


Different Festival Events In Islam Communities Religion Essay

A festival is an event, usually and ordinary staged by a local community, which centers on and celebrates some unique aspect of the community and the festival. Festivals of many types, serve to meet specific needs, as well as to provide entertainment. These times of celebration after a sense of belonging for religious, social or geographical groups. Modern festivals that focus or cultural or ethnic topics seek to inform members of their tradition. There are neumerous types of festivals in the world. Though many have religious origins, others involve seasonal change or have some cultural significance. There are two principal types of festival like (i) Seasonal festival (ii) General Festival.
Festival In Nepal
          Everybody knows that Nepal is a land of mountain, but it is also land of festival. Every year more that 50 festivals celebrated in Nepal. Generally national festivals celebrated on some fixed dates and according to the lunar calendar astrolgers set their religious festival. Different types of festival are as follows:
ƒ˜    € New Year:         In Nepal it is known as “Navavarsho”. This is the first day of “Baisakh”. According to the Nepali officially calendar this very first day is observed usually in the second week of April. It is a national holiday. People go for picnic and have get together on this day.
ƒ˜    € Saraswati Puja: This day is celebrated as the birthday of “Saraswati” the goddess of learning. To please their goddess students worship their pens and books and expects her favour in their exam and studies this day falls between January/February and its very auspicious day for marriage.
ƒ˜    € Shivaratri (Moha- Shivaratri): Shivaratri is one of the major festival in Nepal. It is the night of Lord Shiva which falls between February/March. In south east Asia and Inia it is the most worshipped God and more than 1,00,000 lac of Hindu gathered in the “Pashu Patinath” temple. In winter the worshiper take dip and bath in the holy river and fast for the whole day.
ƒ˜    € Teej:          This festival is celebrated in August/September. On this day hindu women’s day for her men. Generally women wears red Saris. On this day women observe fast and they pray to Lord “Shiva” for their husband’s healthy and prosperous life.
ƒ˜    € Tihar: This is the second biggest festival which falls between October/November. It is the festival of light. People worship Laxmi-the Goddess of wealth. They believe the Goddess Laxmi will enter their house, so they clean their houses and lit candles, oil lamps and the whole place took illuminating. This festival ends with “Bhai Tika”- brothers day when a sister pray long and healthy life for their brother. Gambling is not illegal on this festival because it is also gambling time in Nepal.
ƒ˜    € Holi:         In Nepal this festival is known as “Phagu”. It is a festival of waters and colours. Holi is one of the most joyous occasion for Hindu community.
*Origin of this festival:
The celebration of Holi is very ancient in its origin and by its very origin is celebrates on ultimate triumple of the ‘good’ over the ‘evil’.  Originally Holi is an agricultural festival celebrating the arrival of spring. The festival of Holi is also associated with the enduring love between Lord Krishna (an in carnation of Vishnu) and Radha, and Krishna in general. According to legend the young Krishna complain to his mother Yashoda about why Radha was so fair and he so dark. Yashoda advised him to apply colour on Radha’s face see how her complexion will change-because of this Krishna is extended over-longer period.
Festival of Egypt
Egypt is a wondrous country with many festivals and celebrations. Some festivals are historical some are secular and some are religious. Some of the festivals are given below:
ƒ˜    € Sham al Naseem: In Egypt both Muslim and Christian welcome the very fast day of spring. Sham al Naseem means “the smell of Spring”. The people gather together for outdoor picnic on the twenty first of March. On the day they have some traditional foods like ‘Midamis’ (Kidney beans) and “Fasiyah’ (Dried fish).
ƒ˜    € Ramadan: Ramadan is a very important festival in the Islamic calendar and more than 90% of the people are Muslim in Egypt. To honour the time when the holy Quran was revealed to the prophet Mohammad (sm) and it is celebrated on the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. In this month Muslim people fast for entire month and they don’t eat, drink or smoke from sunrise until sunset. Generally the working hour are often reduced in this time for praying in Egypt. By taking “Iftar” the fast is broken with friends, family and community people. The end of Ramadan is marked with festival called Eid-Ul-Fitr.

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ƒ˜    € Egyptian Christmas: There is a small but significant community of Christian celebrate the Christmas, while most of Egyptian are Muslim. For the Coptic Christian of Egypt Christmas is celebrated on January each year. In this time the Christian community people fast and take only vegetable no meat or milk is taken from November 25th to the night of January 6th. The Pope of Orthodox Church beginning prayer at the big Cathedral in Cairo at 11 pm.
ƒ˜    € Wafa Al Nil: This festival is dedicated to symbol of Egypt the Nile River. Now a days painting competition, seminar, music concerts are the common terms of celebrating of this September month festival. It is among one of the ancient festival of Egypt.
ƒ˜    € Pharaonic Wedding: This celebration is held on the month of November and this festival is the symbol of ancient civilization of Egypt. Many couples visit to the Karnack temple and get married there.
ƒ˜    € Moulid an- Nabi: The prophet’s birthday is celebrated at Moulid an- Nabi. It’s held during the 3rd month of the Islamic calendar.
*Origin of the Celebration:
The earliest account for the observations of Mawli can be found in Mecca. When the house in which Muhammad (sm) was born. It was originally a festival of the Shia ruling class, not attended by the common people. Public celebration of the birth of Muhammad (sm) did not occur until four centuries after his death. The first official Mawlid celebrations occurring in Egypt towards the end of the 11th century. The first public celebrations by Sunnis took place in 12th century in Syria under the rule of Nuraddin Zangi. Today it is an official holiday in many parts of the world.
*Celebration of Mawlid:
Where Mawlid is celebrated in a carnival manner, large street processions are held and homes or mosques are decorated and food is distributed and stories about the life of Muhammad (sm) are narrated with recitation of poetry. Mawlid is celebrated in most Muslim countries and in other countries where Muslims have presence. Saudi Arabia is the only Muslim country where Mawlid is not an official public holiday.
Festival is an entertaining event. There are various types of festival in the world. Different countries celebrate of their own festival with their own style. Every festival has its own origin and history. Festival shows a countries culture, ritual and their religious aspects. In Nepal they celebrate their festival from their religious aspect and most of the people are Hindu. However in Egypt they celebrate their festival from their Islamic religious aspect. Actually both of the countries celebrate festival from different value.

Historical Events in Shakespeare’s King Richard II

The writings of Shakespeare are not just stories alone but rather historical accounts. Throughout his work, he touches on three different histories over a span of time. These histories can be grouped into the categories of English and Roman history. Writings that are considered under English history include the titles of Richard II, Henry VI Part 1, Henry IV Part 2, and Henry V. Plays listed under Roman history include Julius Caesar and Antony and Cleopatra. Many of Shakespeare’s plays written about English history are focused on the history and life of English kings. His work mentions some of the less popular kings of Edward III and Henry VII.

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 Shakespeare’s tragedies not only include important historical figures but rather are a source of crucial historical events which he is able to incorporate into his works. Richard II is seen as one of Shakespeare’s most politically controversial plays because of Richard II’s defeat and Henry Bolingbroke’s seizing of the thrown to become King Henry VI. This play mainly drew from sources of Holinshed’s Chronicles for the character development of Richard. Shakespeare also drew from Halles The Union and Two Noble but had a lesser influence on the characters and development of the play than Holinshed’s Chronicles. Throughout the play, Richard II slowly creates his own downfall which inevitably leads to him losing the throne. The play begins with the conflict of Henry Bolingbroke accusing Thomas Mawbery of treason. This feud is settled by Richard II allowing the two in battle by combat. The feud between Bolingbroke and Mowbray closely follows accounts of Holinshed’s Chronicles. Events in Holinshed’s Chronicles are altered by Shakespeare when mentioned in Richard II through the changes of character traits in Gaunt and York which are used to emphasize the divine appointment of King Richard. 

Many of Shakespeare’s ties to the Chronicles are solely focused on the pronouncing of Richard II’s status as a divinely appointed king. The most prominent example is seen through the character changes of Gaunt. Through his character, Shakespeare alters the material within Holinshed the most. Within Holinshed’s Chronicles, the character Gaunt has a greedy attitude and a disorderly person. In Richard II, Gaunt’s character changes by being one which embodies a voice of reason, knowledge, and a strong sense of loyalty to his country. This loyalty to his country is shown through Gaunt’s emphasis on Richard’s divine right to rule. Within the play, Gaunt is seen making speeches which are focused on this divine right to rule. His first speech that is focused on this is seen in the beginning of Act II when Gaunt is addressing the Duchess of Gloucester.  Despite knowing the truth about the murder of Gloucester, Gaunt decides to not support any actions that could potentially put Richard’s crown at risk. These actions of Gaunt to remain silent about the truth of who murdered Gloucester is an example of how strongly he agrees with the idea of the divine right to rule. Also these speeches that Gaunt makes in act II scene 2 are able to foreshadow the actions of bolingbroke and the suffering that comes with it.

This transformation of Gaunt from Holinshed’s Chronicles to being a selfish, greedy, aristocrat to being written into Shakespeare’s works as a character who shows a strong level of loyalty to their country and defends the ideology of divine right to rule shows the changes that Shakespeare is able to implement on certain figures. By switching up Gaunt’s character from Holinshed’s Chronicles brings forth the importance of divine right to rule to Richard II.

This is not the only account that Shakespeare changes within Richard II. Within Holinshed’s Chronicles, York is left in charge while Richard is away in Ireland. While in charge, York works to get together a small army which is planned to be used to confront Bolingbroke and his men. This army deems to be useless because the men refuse to fight against Bolingbroke. York then “came foorth into the church that stood without the castell, and there communed with the duke of Lancaster”(Holinshed, Chronicles). These actions of York are strange because he clearly is obeying orders to fight Bolingbroke but then changes up and decides to join Bolingbroke without complications. In Richard II, York’s feelings and actions towards Bolingbroke are clear to show that he is not a friend. During the play, York is appalled by the thought that Bolingbroke would consider rebelling against Richard. He then gives a speech which is focused on the divine appointment of Richard. York has no other choices than to go along with Bolingbroke which he is not pleased about. “It may be I go with you./But yet I’ll pause/For I am loath to break our country’s laws.”(II.iii.166-168).

Within the writing of Shakespeare’s Richard II, many historical events were included in the text. Holinshed’s Chronicles are seen throughout the book but rather seen to be changed and glorified than they were in their original source. Shakespeare doesn’t make noticeable changes to the character Richard himself but rather makes subtle changes to other characters which works to reshape the play from being a recount of certain historical events. These changes that Shakespeare makes are regarding the ideas of Richard’s divine appointment. Gaunts character changes from being a greedy, selfish character in Holinshed’s Chronicles to becoming a character who has a sense of knowledge and power in Richard II. Gaunt not only has been changed into this intelligent character but he also seen to have respect for his country and embodies a strong sense of patriotism. Shakespeare also reworks York’s character from the chronicles. Within Holinshed’s Chronicles, York works to assemble this army while Richard is away to go up against Bolingbroke. After gathering this army, York decides that he would just join Bolingbroke and not go up against him. This is not the case in Richard II which has York and Bolingbroke not on the same page. In the play, when York hears about the idea of going up against Bolingbroke he is shocked. He then works to give a speech about Richard’s divine appointment which shows his support of the king. These changes that are made by Shakespeare work to dramatize the events that happened within Holinshed’s Chronicles but not completely alter the historical information. Specifically, these two changes of Gaunt and York and used to emphasize the divine appointment of King Richard. By reshaping these characters, Shakespeare has worked to pull away from writing a direct historical account which follows Holinshed’s Chronicles to writing a play in which the focus is shifted off of the responsibilities of the monarchs.

Works Cited:

Shakespeare, William. King Richard II. Peter Ure, Ed. Cambridge: University Press, 1946.

“Holinshed’s Chronicles.” The Holinshed Texts – Reign-Based Table of Contents for the 1587 Edition, english.nsms.ox.ac.uk/holinshed/reign.php?edition=1587.


Important events of Islamic history

Tamim Ansary covered in his book “Destiny Disrupted” almost most important events of Islamic history from the rise of Islam as a religion till this recent decade. Indeed, He stated his by describing Arabs status before the emergence of Islam, and he used the term “The Middle World” referring to what nowadays known as Middle East. Concerning to the Prophet life, it was similar to most of God’s messengers, the life of Prophet Mohammed was not luxurious, he didn’t see his father, and his mother died too when he was still children. Prophet Mohammed grew up in his grandfather house, who predicted that this child “Mohammed” would have a significant status in the future. After his grandfather’s death, his uncle called “Abu Talib” adopted and treated Mohammed as a son. When he became an adult, most of people during this time look to the prophet as an honest, fair, truthful, and respectable, while he started his straggling with what called “midlife crisis”. Then, he began to visit the cave constantly, and in a certain day, he heard a voice called him to recite, this moment was the beginning of the prophecy of Mohammed (P.B.U.H.). In 622, after twelve years of revelation, the prophet with Abu Baker decided to leave Mecca and go to city called Yathrib “Medina”, which is the formation of Hijri calendar.

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After establishing of the first headquarter of Islam in Medina, the Prophet Mohammed had been died and this started new Islamic era which is Khalifate. Muslims were shocked even some of Prophet’s companions, when they knew that Mohammed “the Prophet” is dead! During this shock, Abu Baker, first man become a Muslim, became a first caliph. Then the caliphs were as following, Omar, Othman, and finally Ali. There were some controversial issues after Ali succession and the main issue was known as “Schism”. Following to these four rightly guided successors, there were many different ages, such as Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatimid, and Ottoman. Regarding to Umayyad, they faced several troubles as an empire with some Muslims who didn’t recognized them as a ruling family for Muslim, because it was for the first time the Khalifate become by inheritance. Also, at the beginning of Umayyad dynasty, some people named themselves as Shiites, who became after Ali’s death. Then, the Abbasid density replaced the Umayyad. Fatimid era was known of the Fatimid fighting against Crusade campaigns. Last Islamic Khalifate “Ottoman” it remained to more than six centuries that make the Ottoman Empire one of the most significant era of Islamic history.
Muslims were not so closed; indeed the location of the Islamic Empire encouraged them to interact with the entire world, while it is in the middle world. There were numerous efforts by many Muslim scholars to figure out what was wrong and how the Muslim world became like this, an example of these scholars were Hassan al-Banna, Jamal al-Din Afghani, and the one who preceded them Mohammed Abdul Wahhab. Many different ideas came up about this mysterious problems, one of the fundamental issues was the secular movement that certainly came from the West, by three main aspects which were Industrialization, Constitutionalism, and Nationalism. First of all, after the invention of steam engine, which was the most significant outcome of the Industrial revolution, Europeans managed to spread their goods in the entire world, while Muslims invented it -the steam engine- three centuries before the Europeans did, so why did it makes this effective transformation in the West, and did not in the Muslim world? Second, a new class emerged in Iran complained about the dominance of arbitrary power, therefore they demanded to create a society which could organize a good structure for each individual whether ruler or ruled, simply they wanted a constitution – an important precondition to reach democracy- like what Europeans have, in order to find a civil society. This rising group created the essentials of the secular modernist ideology in Islamic world. After approximately 30 years, the constitution had been accepted by Muzaffer al-din -Qajar king- in 1906. Third, the phenomena of nationalism was also one of the fundamental problems faced the Muslim World, specially the Turks who ruled the Muslim community during the last days of Islamic Caliphate. All of these events and types, which written above, are the leading principles of the rise of secular trends in many aspects of the Islamic community.
Despite all significant interactions between the Islamic empire with the external world in west and east in aspects, for instance; sciences, art, philosophy, and algebra, there were many controversies, and the most visible were the wars that Muslims fought, while Muslims won in many events, they lost many of them as well. Concerning the Islamic victories, starting from first battle “Bader” that Muslims won, which was between Muslims versus Qurush, then the rest of Mohammad’s conquests. Then, Tamim Ansary mentioned in his book the most important wars and battles such as “Manzikert in 1071 CE” which was between the Seljuk Turks against the Byzantines Empire, this battle opened a new era of wars between Muslims and Christians.
On the other hand, Islamic history witnessed many Islamic defeats as well. For instance, the Mongol invaded Bagdad, which destroyed completely, as a result the Abbasid Empire have been collapsed. In addition, the several crusade campaigns made the Islamic empire suffers from these ongoing and cumbersome campaigns even though Muslims won some of it , besides attracted the Muslims attentions to the military equipment instead of producing and manufacturing. Ending with the war the destroyed the Ottoman empire, the last Islamic Khalifate, after 1st world war, when Ataturk announced establishment of the first Turkey state, by during this act, when he saw that there is no reason to maintain what called Islamic Khalifate, while in realty the Muslim leaders of states were follow their interests despite the consequences whether it will help the Khalifate or not.
After the cancelation of Khalifate by Ataturk, each Muslim country looked to itself attempted to get its dependence as a state, the first country declared itself as a secular was Turkey. Also, almost all the countries in the Arabian Gulf were tried to create what is known the Arabism unity; they cooperated with the British government against the ottomans which was a one of many reasons that motivated Ataturk to abolish the Islamic Khalifate while most Muslims were actually divided. After the end of World War II, the state of Israel had been born in May 15, 1948, as a result of the Prime Minster of United Kingdom promise for Jew, when he promised them after the World War II to give them a country in order to be the homeland for Jews, as a result of their efforts which motivated the United States of America to intervener the war beside the alliances powers. The Arab catastrophe launched a new era of wars between what known later as Pan-Arabs verses Israel. After the mid of twenty century, Jamal Abdul Nasser recalled the Arabism, and spread the Nasserite ideas among most of Arab countries, but the Nasserites did not remains for a long time after the death of Nasser.
Concerning to what Tamim Ansary wrote “Medina in the time of Mohammed and the first three khalifas was the ideal community”when he described what is called Wahhabism and its founder Mohammed bin Abdul Wahhab, he argued that Wahhabism looks at the period of Prophet Mohammed and the first three Khalifas as the best community, which is extremely right, but the question is “where is the forth khalife Ali of the formula?” As a Muslims, we all agreed that the best community in Islamic history was at the beginning of Islam, to be more accurate, it is kind of hierarchy; the top was during Prophet Mohammed’s life, then the four khalifas as following Abu Baker, Oman, Othman, and Ali. For that reason, there is no doubt that we ought to recognize that there are four rightly-guided successors, not three. Therefore, Mohammed Abdul Wahhab would not say something like this, because according to Ansary “he was not an innovator; in fact, he has the anti-innovator”, so it will effects his movement if he mentioned only three out of the four rightly-guided successors, if he did so consequently no one will follow him. It could be some of Sufi thoughts reflected on author ideas.
He claimed that the Black Stone fell from the sky and pointing out that it could be a meteor, and he omitted the Muslims narrative that he ought to represent their perspective of events, which stated that the stone from the Paradise, and the angel “Gabriel” gave it to Abraham when he built the Kaaba. Also, he claimed that Omar himself, who is laying the foundation in Islam that Quran is the law and Sunnah is guide, which is not true because he would not do it without the of the Prophet Mohammed’s companions approval, because all of them took the Islamic principles from the Prophet Mohammed’s life. Tamim Ansary allegedly that complicity of Talha bin Ubaidullah and Al-Zubair bin Al-Awam in the murder Othman, or even killed him personally, which is purely lie and baseless speculation, and it has a smell of the writing of Shiites. According to Tamim Ansary, “Mecca had temples to at least a hundred pagan deities”, in fact, Ansary ought to say Mecca had only one temple -Kaaba- and there were many hundred pagan around and inside Kaaba.

Events Leading up to The Trail of Tears


The “Trail of Tears” was the controversial forced relocation of the Cherokee Indians in 1838. Around 20,000 Cherokee where rounded up and started the 1,000-mile march to their new lands in Oklahoma. The march started in the winter of 1838 when most Cherokee did not have shoes or appropriate clothing for the harsh winter weather out west. Approximately 4,000 Cherokees died during this journey. Many controversial events took place leading up to the “Trail of Tears”. The 1830 signing of the Indian Removal Act by President Andrew Jackson who proclaimed happiness and a great day for the country with the removal of the Indians from White settlements. He also announced his desires to replace these Indian savages and their wilderness lands with cities full of happy people, liberty, civilization and religion. Another damaging event for the Cherokee was the acceptance of the Treaty of New Echota by a minority Cherokee leader named Major Ridge. This Treaty was accepted and upheld by the US government and turning a blind eye to the complaints by majority Cherokee leader Chief John Ross. Although Andrew Jackson praised the signing of the Indian Removal Act as a positive for America to remove Indians from white settlements, this was a travesty to the Cherokee and to all Americans by letting race and greed determine the fates of a complete race of innocent people.

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While the US government wanted the Indians to move west of the Mississippi, they never really forced the Indians to move until a more aggressive President took office and that man was Andrew Jackson. With the signing of the Indian Removal Act in 1830 the Cherokee Indians fates were sealed along with other Indian tribes. This act was nothing short of a governmental extermination act written to remove a race of people. In Andrew Jackson’s own words in his message to congress’ he calls the Indians savages (Jackson,1830). Andrew Jackson goes on to talk about how the country needs to focus on white Christian settlements with art and factories instead of forest with savages running around. He felt that whites should be able to travel and settle freely in country and not worry about the savages. To try and make things more appealing for the Indians he tried to compare the Indians moving west as a positive event like the early white settlers leaving behind their families for new lands. While Andrew Jackson calls the Indians savages, writer William Bartram noticed they were people much like other civilizations (Stewart, 1996). Bartram observed the Indians and noticed they hunted, fished and grew crops just as white settlers do while at the same time having some of the same flaws with adultery and fornication. Bartram still noticed signs of the mistreatment of the Indians by dishonest and violent traders’ years after the signing of The New Land Purchase of 1773 where the Creek and Cherokee gave up two million acres of land (Stewart, 1996).  There were many reasons for the whites to want to remove the Indians from their lands. The white settlements were growing and looking for more land and they also wanted to eliminate the savages. Another reason for the removal of the Cherokee was the discovery of gold in the Georgia Gold rush that began in 1829 in Cherokee territory (Williams, 1995).  According to Grant Forman, the US government want to make a push to remove the Cherokee from the south because they felt it was inevitable since they had removed Indians in the north (Forman, 1932).

In 1835 the controversial signing of The Treaty of New Echota gave the Cherokees land away to the US Government (Ratified Indian Treaty, 1835). This treaty was signed by a minority leader party lead by Major Ridge and John Ridge. This treaty called for the removal of the Cherokees and was opposed in a letter to government by majority leader Chief John Ross (Ross, 1836). Chief John Ross states that the New Echota treaty was signed by fraudulent leaders of the tribe and should not have been recognized. In his letter to the US government he mentions how overwhelmed the Cherokee Nation is and how their hearts are sickened with their belongings being taken away. Chief John Ross also goes into details of how they have assimilated to the life of the whites by using Thomas Jefferson and George Washington as their leaders as well as becoming Christians. The US Government would deny Chief John Ross of his claims and upheld the signing of the Treaty of New Echota and eventually sending General Winfield Scott to Cherokee nation to remove them from their lands (Cashin, 1994). General Scott addressed the Cherokees by orders of President Jackson that he is to remove them from their lands by any means needed. General Scott hoped for a peaceful removal but did say that he would forcibly remove them with his many troops. This began the “Trail of Tears” in the winter of 1838 where around 20,000 Cherokee were rounded up and ending several months later in 1839 after 4,000 had died (Smithers, 2018). The “Trail of Tears” began in the Georgia, North Carolina mountains and ending in Oklahoma. Many of the Cherokee were not prepared for the midwestern winter and died due to the weather as well as disease and sickness. While this did have immediate consequences by having all of the remaining Cherokee removed from their homeland, some of the Eastern Band of Cherokee managed to stay behind and still live on the reservation today. While not great in numbers there are still a little over 2,000 Cherokee living in Cherokee, North Carolina. There is no doubt that this number would be significantly greater if it weren’t for the “Trail of Tears”.

In conclusion, it was wrong to remove the Cherokee from their lands. The Cherokee tribe did what the things that needed to be done to fit in with the new white settlers even though they were on the land first. The Cherokee spoke English, farmed and traded with the settlers, and had domesticated animals. They also started dressing like the whites as well as adopting the Christian lifestyles. The US government should not have accepted a signed treaty by someone that represents the minority of Cherokee nation. In todays time this would be an act of war to accept a signed treaty by someone other than its rightful leader. However, Andrew Jackson knew that the US was more powerful than the Indians and would be able to take the land regardless. This is another blackeye for the history of the US and almost the elimination of a race. Growing up and even into adulthood, I have been able to visit Cherokee, North Carolina. At one point it was a poor community with a few tourist attractions setting in the Blue Ridge mountains. While right or wrong the town has thrived with the addition of a casino over the past 20 years and major changes have taken place. Even today the Cherokee people still have pride and it is still a nice experience to visit the town and the surrounding area. It has been 181 years since the “Trail of Tears” and many have not forgotten the despicable act, but it is good to see the Eastern Band of Cherokee still surviving on their ancestor’s homeland.


Transcript of President Andrew Jackson’s Message to Congress ‘On Indian Removal’ (1830). (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false&doc=25&page=transcript

General Winfield Scott’s address to Cherokee nation. Cashin, E. J. (1994). A wilderness still the cradle of nature: Frontier Georgia: A documentary history. Savannah: Library of Georgia.

Letter from Chief John Ross in opposition of the New Echota Treaty. John Ross, The Papers of Chief John Ross, vol 1, 1807–1839, Norman OK Gary E. Moulton, ed. University of Oklahoma Press, 1985, p. 458–461.

Cherokee Treaty at New Echota, Georgia (Ratified Indian Treaty); 12/29/1835; Indian Treaties, 1722 – 1869; General Records of the United States Government, Record Group 11; National Archives Building, Washington, DC. [Online Version, https://www.docsteach.org/documents/document/treaty-new-echota, July 14, 2019]

Foreman, G. (1932). Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

SMITHERS, G. D. (2018). CHEROKEE DIASPORA: An indigenous history of migration, resettlement, and identity. S.l.: YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

The Georgia Historical Quarterly: Volume LXXIII, Fall 1989, number 3. (1989). Savannah, GA: Georgia Historical Society.

Williams, D. (1995). Georgia Gold Rush: Twenty-niners, Cherokees, and Gold Fever. University of South Carolina Press. Stewart, M. (1996). The Georgia Historical Quarterly, 80(2), 393-395. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/stable/40583446


Three Most Important Events that Shaped Canada’s Future

The interpretation of Canadian history and significance of events may vary person to person but there are still main events that influenced the past, present and future of Canada. This research paper explores essential period in the history of Canada between 1770 and 1820. During this period, Canada was a part of British North America (BNA) and was mostly ruled by British and American governments. This paper argues that the American Revolution, the War of 1812 and the Quebec Act of 1774 are the most critical events that influenced and shaped Canada’s future between 1770 and 1820. This paper analyzes various secondary sources and history accounts. The examination of secondary sources reveals supporting evidences that the three aforementioned events left an indelible mark that helped shaped Canada’s future between 1770 and 1820.
Three Most Important Events that Shaped Canada’s Future 
It wasn’t easy for Canada to be formed. There were many series of events that eventually led to Canada being the country that it is now. There are three most important events that changed Canada’s future such as the American Revolution, the War of 1812, and the Quebec Act of 1774. During this time Canada was a part of British North America (B.N.A.) and was mostly ruled by British and American governments while the French-Canadians, First Nations, and other colonies either worked for the two countries or formed an alliance with them. Although Canada was constantly stuck between Britain and Americas conflict, they managed to endure all of the hardships. At this time, the Americans tried getting Canada to be on their side to get control over the St. Lawrence River and to get access to Canadas territory.

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The first event that helped shape Canada was the American Revolution, it was during this time that Canadians were under British rule and when the Americans planned on starting a war. Furthermore the Americans felt like they were overpowered by the British because their trading rights were being controlled by them. This has led American rebels to send out an invitation to Quebec indicating that they should leave British rule and to join them when the war begins but Quebec refused which angered the rebels. The invitation was to take control of the sea route from Britain going to the St. Lawrence River, also to drive the British out of Canada, and in November Montgomery “then captured Fort Saint-Jean outside Montréal” (D.N. Sprague, 2006, p. 1). Even though the Americans were lacking proper supplies, starving, freezing from the Canadian winter and were also suffering from diseases they still attacked Quebec during a snowstorm on December 31st, 1775 and Carleton was defending Quebec during the attack with 1,800 British soldiers and militiamen. Montgomery led his troops around the walls attacking Quebec from two different directions and the less secure areas of the town. but when their leader Arnold was wounded and carried to get away from the fighting his forces then surrendered under counterattack. They tried to maintain a siege of the town throughout winter but this wasn’t effective. When they left Montréal, remains of their force was defeated in Trois Rivieres, those who survived retreated and returned to New York which ended their invasion. The American Revolution led to the loyalists flooding BNA, helped populate Maritime Provinces, and created what is now Ontario and Quebec.
The War of 1812 was the second cause of how Canada’s future was formed, it started because the Americans wanted to stop impressment and because of the conflict between the United States and Great Britain and lasted from January 1812 to February 1814. In addition being part of the British colony, Canada was swept up in the War of 1812 that caused most of their territories to be invaded. Great Britain was at was with the French at this time that was led by Napoleon Bonaparte who was a military leader that wanted to subdue Europe, so when the Americans started trading with the French the British weren’t happy about it. Thus resulting to the removal of American sailors off of British ships and they were also forced to serve in the British Navy. In the spite of anger Britain convinced the “Native Americans in the Canadian territory that they needed to help them because the Americans were looking to annex, or add, the territory to the United States” (A. Burke, N.D., p. 1). The war had a significant effect on the local population of those who were living in Upper Canada, it made First Nations suffered great losses such as losing many warriors including the great Tecumseh and made them lose hope of cutting of the Americans expansion in the west. The war was nearing its end and both parties were tired of fighting one another so they signed the Treaty Of Ghent on December 24th and the lands that were occupied and taken from other were given back to its rightful owners. Overall, the war had contributed to Canadas growing national identity also including the idea that the civilian soldiers were responsible for repelling the American invaders.
The Quebec Act was the last major event that helped shape Canada. By passing the act, the British Parliament set a permanent government in Canada that would replace the temporary government that was created during the Royal Proclamation of 1763. This act was created to gain the loyalty of the French-speaking majority of the Province of Quebec which provided religious freedom for Roman Catholics which then established the Roman Catholic Church. It also restored French civil law in the colony of Quebec, allowing Catholic Canadians to be able to hold government positions without giving up their faith. Moreover, it enlarged Quebec’s territory which included unsettled lands that belonged to the Ohio Valley forcing the Americans to expand their colonies westward. The people were also required to pay tithes that were given directly to the churches in order to fund for their religious activities. The creation of this act angered Americans, especially those who lived in the regions of New York, Virginia and Pennsylvania because the lands of the Ohio Valley that were assigned to them by the Parliament have now been given to Quebec in which the seigneurial system would be applied to those new lands and the new areas would now be owned by the British Empire and the wealthy colonists in Quebec. Unlike the wealthy people of Quebec in which they were having no trouble with the act that had been established, the lower class people weren’t very fond of this act so they joined American causes to get rid of the rule the British Empire has established. The Quebec Act caused the Americans to act in a way that caused them to want to inflict war onto Great Britain, which made the Quebec Act to be one of the reasons that caused the American Revolution. Although it helped to bring on the American Revolution, the act, “for which Sir Guy Carleton was largely responsible, was very influential in keeping Canada loyal to the crown during the revolution” (R. Coupland, H.B. Neatby, N.D., p. 1).  As a result, the Quebec act changed B.N.A. in a way that it allowed Catholics to have freedom practicing their religious beliefs, their faith was no longer being questioned and could finally hold a government position as proud Catholics.
In summary, the three events stated above have played a crucial role in shaping Canada’s future and changing B.N.A. Although the events took place mostly because of the conflict between Britain and America, Lower and Upper Canada suffered more than the two empires. There were many losses for Canada there were also some benefits such as, the American Revolution allowed Canada to expand its colony and gain more population which added to Ontario and Quebec’s population, War of 1812 had an idea that the civilian soldiers were the ones responsible for keeping out American invaders and the Quebec Act provided French-Canadian Catholics freedom to practice their religious beliefs. From being in the middle of the constant conflicts of Britain and America, Canada has come a long way to be able to provide the people a safe, accepting, multicultural and a sustainable country for people to live in though it wouldn’t have happened without Great Britain and its colonists.

Berton, P. & Marsh, J.H. (2018). War of 1812. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/war-of-1812
BritishBattles.Com. (n.d.). Battle of Quebec 1775. Retrieved from: https://www.britishbattles.com/war-of-the-revolution-1775-to-1783/battle-of-quebec-1775/?fbclid=IwAR1iTvYKCYttdDKAL4XpAldTx1MGT-pFBqVas0xRTf8hpeCAwK7p-E7uMiw
Dagenais, M. (2018). Quebec Act. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/quebec-act?fbclid=IwAR3ceKjbsWTmbH1jCN1daUx8EiJzw1H___L4EB1xfA3_O7XvIJXzbqRO_PU
History.com Editors. (2018). Battle of Quebec (1775). History. Retrieved from: https://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/battle-of-quebec-1775?fbclid=IwAR0NEAkDx65u5ihY_pTPwgQrWWMz-_jOzUoL6_IOQJU1YjxIQLnZ3n1402A
Mayer, H.A. (n.d.). Canada and the American Revolution. Museum of American Revolution. Retrieved from: https://www.amrevmuseum.org/updates/reflections/canada-and-american-revolution?fbclid=IwAR0w6fbQboxve6bm9XS_rZBbrp6l4VmB3ISJvxP04t8b2opzYykq-V4xIm0
Sprague, D.N. (2005). American Revolution – Invasion of Canada. In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from: https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/american-revolution?fbclid=IwAR1ceWXJD9L8zz3eprrAu7R4EMdrGAZBo7M_-S5577X9O0Afte0ecJgNqFE
Taylor, R. (n.d.). Summary of the End of the War of 1812.  Access Heritage: The War of 1812 Website. Retrieved from: http://www.warof1812.ca/summary.html?fbclid=IwAR08d3fF4prnWRP8qMR1W5t3lyZ10oe8D6AZlto-4Y2Y76qxAQz5MrSY74s
The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. (n.d.). Quebec Act. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from: https://www.britannica.com/event/Quebec-Act
The Week Staff. (2012). America’s invasion of Canada: A brief history. The Week. Retrieved from: https://theweek.com/articles/473482/americas-invasion-canada-brief-history?fbclid=IwAR1ceWXJD9L8zz3eprrAu7R4EMdrGAZBo7M_-S5577X9O0Afte0ecJgNqFE


Difference Between The Tectonic Events Of Eyjafallajokull And Mount Merapi

The Difference Between The Tectonic Events Of Eyjafallajokull And Mount Merapi


  Figure 1: Eyjafallajokull                                          Figure 2: Mount Merapi

Table of Contents

Introduction 3

Tectonic Plate Theory 3

Plate Boundaries in Iceland and Indonesia 3

The Geological Events 3

The Claim and Research Question 3

Analysis 4

The Occurrence of Both Events 4

Trends/ Patterns Seen With Each Event 4

Human, Economic and Geological Impacts Of Both Events 5

Similarities and Differences Between the 2 Geological Events 5

Conclusion 6

References 7


Plate Tectonic Theory

Plate tectonics is a theory which suggests that Earth’s outer shell is divided into several plates which hover over the mantle, the stony inner layer above the core. The reason for plate tectonics moving is due to the convection in the mantle, where hot material near the Earth’s core rises and colder mantle rock sinks. (Lynn S. Fichter, 2000) The movement and interaction of crustal plates in the Earth’s lithosphere results in geological events such as volcanism, continental drift, seafloor spreading, and mountain building.

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Plate Boundaries In Iceland And Indonesia                                                                                                                                     According to Figure 3, Iceland emerged as a result of the divergent and spreading at this boundary which is situated between the Eurasian and the North American tectonic plate. (BBC, 2014) As shown in Figure 4, Indonesia is located between two continental plates: the Eurasian Plate and the Australian Plate and between two oceanic plates: the Philippine Sea Plate and Pacific Plate. (Weebly, 2017)



Figure 3: Iceland Mid-Atlantic Ridge Map     Figure 4: Plate Tectonics Of Indonesia

The Geological Events                                                                                                                       

Between the divergent plate boundaries, a significant volcanic event occurred at the boundary in Iceland, at Eyjafallajokull, in 14th April, 2010. The volcanic event to be compared for this essay is a volcanic eruption from Mount Merapi. It is located in Central Java, Indonesia, at the Indo Australian and the Eurasian plate, and the eruption occurred from October 26 to November 30, 2010.

The Claim and Research Question

The claim to be investigated by this essay is the fact that all volcanic events or earthquakes have the same devastating effect and cause as the 2010 Eyjafallajokull volcanic and earthquake events.  Based on this claim, the research inquiry to be reviewed by this investigation is: Did the volcanic events from Mount Merapi and Eyjafallajokull in 2010 both produce the same devastating effects and causes?


The Occurrence of Both Events

The devastating catastrophes befell due to the fact that both volcanoes are located in profoundly active zones, as depicted in Figure 6. The volcano of Mount Merapi in Indonesia discovered on a destructive plate margin at a subduction zone is more prone to volcanic occurrences and earthquakes, since it is part of the ‘Pacific Ring of Fire’. As shown in Figure 5, the Indo Australian plate being subducted below the Eurasian plate generates immense pressure and heat from friction within the plates. (Global Volcanism Program, 2011) This rendered parts of the Indo Australian plate into magma, leading to an explosive eruption. The Eyjafallajokull eruption, located in the Eastern Volcanic Zone in Iceland, occurred due to the magma chamber forming and remaining broad and near the surface. The surging magma caused ruptures and rifts in the overlying rocks, inducing earthquakes. (BBC Bitesize, 2017)       


Figure 5: Diagram of Mt Merapi, Indonesia            Figure 6: Map Of Tectonic Plates

Trends/ Patterns Seen With Each Event

Each geological case had unique trends and patterns. For instance, the Eyjafallajokull event aftereffect led the volcanic ash to be widely spread, intoxicating the nearby surroundings. As shown in Figure 7, the volcanic ash plume is drifting southwards of Iceland. However, the Mount Merapi volcano had an abrupt explosion propelling volcanic ash 6km into the atmosphere. (Express, 2018) Both eruptions resulted in volcanic ash plume, which further disproves the research question that both eruptions produce the same devastating effects and causes, as one eruption caused zero casualties whereas the Mount Merapi caused 353 deaths. Prior to both eruptions, it is apparent that seismic activity frequented, for a sustained duration of time.     


Figure 7: Volcanic Ash Plume From Eyjafallajokull Eruption     Figure 8: Volcanic Ash Explosion Of Mt Merapi

Human, Economic and Geological Impacts of Both Events                                                                                                    The aftermath of both events had considerably impacted on humans, economically and geologically. The disastrous eruption from Eyjafallajokull resulted in the airline industry to economically suffer as a direct casualty, due to heavy ash fall. Referring to Figure 10, it can be established that the airline industry lost $1.7 billion. Furthermore the import and export business expended over $3.8 billion per day, due to the shutdown of transportation. Various stretches of agricultural land were demolished due to unforeseen flooding and heavy ash fall. (Prezi, 2013) The Mount Merapi crisis had economically induced $600 million, due to the death of livestock, damage to tourism, manufacturing and agricultural sectors. (BBC Bitesize, 2017) Geologically, as shown in Figure 9, extensive environmental degradation took place, as settlements and hundreds of hectares of farmlands were buried under volcanic ash.


Figure  9: Aftermath of Mt Merapi’s Eruption

Similarities and Differences Between the 2 Geological Events

There are numerous similarities and differences between the two geological events. According to the table, it can be determined that both tectonic events of Eyjafallajokull and Mount Merapi occurred during the same year, 2010, and had the same volcanic explosiveness index of 4. A difference separating the pair of geological events is the duration of the eruption. There is a drastic variation between an initial period of 6 days with the Eyjafallajokull event and 36 days of the Mount Merapi event. An additional difference is the death toll of each event, as the Icelandic event reported zero casualties, however, the Indonesian event recorded 353 deaths.

Type of Information

Icelandic Event

Indonesia Volcanic Event


Eyjafallajokull, Iceland

Mount Merapi in Central Java, Indonesia


14 April 2010

October 26 – November 30, 2010

Death Toll



Damage Cost

Airlines: The US $1.7 billion

Import and export: over $3.8 million per day

Death of livestock and damage to tourism, manufacturing and agricultural sectors: $600 million

Magnitude (earthquake only)

Maximum 3.1

Maximum 7.7

Location of Epicentre

Beneath Eyjafallajokull ice cap

Length of Volcanic Eruption

6 days

36 days

Volcanic Explosiveness Index



Cause of eruption/earthquake

The magma chamber was broad and near the surface/ Rising magma caused fractures and breaks into the overlying rocks causing earthquakes.

The Indo Australian plate being subducted beneath the Eurasian plate caused great pressure between the plates which melted the Indo Australian plate to form magma. The magma was lighter than its surrounding.

Tectonic boundaries present

Divergent Plate Boundaries

Indo Australian Plate

Eurasian Plate

Other resulting effects


Extensive environmental degradation

Figure 10: Table of Icelandic Event and Indonesian Volcanic Event


Hence, Mount Merapi and Eyjafallajokull did not produce the same devastating effects and causes from volcanic events, as it has be determined through an analysis of the location, cause of eruption, and tectonic boundaries present. Both volcanoes are situated on points of tectonic boundaries that can seemingly lead to a gradual eruption.  Compare effects of the volcanoes (table) some caused more geological environment destruction, some caused more deaths, econimcs. This was caused by this, explain the difference, caused by different things (how it erupted)Therefore, it is clear that both of the disastrous volcanic events in 2010 did not have the same devastating effect and causes.

BBC. (2014). Geography of Europe. Retrieved November 11, 2018, from BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/geography/places/europe/revision/8/

BBC Bitesize. (2017, July 14). Volcanoes. Retrieved November 11, 2018, from BBC Bitesize: https://www.bbc.com/bitesize/guides/zww4nbk/revision/6

boston.com. (2010, November 8). Mount Merapi’s Eruption. Retrieved November 11, 2018, from boston.com: http://archive.boston.com/bigpicture/2010/11/mount_merapis_eruptions.html

Express. (2018, June 2). Indonesian volcano eruption: WATCH Merapi fire ash 6km HIGH amid Pacific Ring of Fire fears. Retrieved November 11, 2018, from Express: https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/968475/Indonesia-Mount-Merapi-eruption-volcano-Ring-of-Fire

Geography Blogspot. (2010, October). Mount Merapi Case Study. Retrieved November 11, 2018, from Geography Blogspot: http://gcsegeographyhelp.blogspot.com/2016/05/mount-merapi-october-2010-case-study.html

Global Volcanism Program. (2011, February). Report On Mount Merapi (Indonesia). Retrieved November 11, 2018, from Smithsonian Institution: http://volcano.si.edu/showreport.cfm?doi=10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN201102-263250

Lynn S. Fichter. (2000, September 13). Synopsis Of Plate Tectonic Theory. Retrieved November 18, 2018, from csmgeo.csm.jmu.edu: http://csmgeo.csm.jmu.edu/geollab/vageol/vahist/plates.html

National Geographic. (2010, October 28). Mount Merapi Erupts. Retrieved November 18, 2018, from National Geographic: https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/10/photogalleries/101026-indonesia-mount-merapi-volcano-eruption-world-science-pictures-photos/

News BBC. (2014, June). Mount Merapi. Retrieved November 11, 2018, from News BBC: News.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/8634944.stm

Prezi. (2013, April). Mount Merapi. Retrieved November 11, 2018, from Prezi: https://prezi.com/1qzxxqtxdldo/mount-merapi/

South China Morning Post. (n.d.). Mount Merapi eruption 2018: people ordered to stay away as Indonesia’s most active volcano rumbles. Retrieved November 11, 2018, from South China Morning Post: https://www.scmp.com/news/asia/southeast-asia/article/2147226/people-ordered-stay-way-indonesias-most-active-volcano

Weebly. (2017, April). Plate Tectonics In Indonesia. Retrieved November 18, 2018, from tectonicplatesindonesia.weebly.com: https://tectonicplatesindonesia.weebly.com/causes.html

Weebly. (2018, March). Mt Merapi Indonesia. Retrieved November 11, 2018, from Weebly: https://hazardsoftectonis.weebly.com/mt-merapi-indonesia-ledc-2010-picturesdiagrams.html

World Atlas. (2018, August 18). How many tectonic plates are there? Retrieved November 18, 2018, from World Atlas: https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/major-tectonic-plates-on-earth.html

Flood Frequency Analysis of AMAX Events

Flood Frequency Analysis of AMAX Events


1. Introduction

2. Data Analysis

3. Impact of Climate Change

4. Conclusion

5. References

6. Appendix


This report summarises the results of a flood risk assessment conducted using data obtained from a gauging station on the By Brook, upstream of Batheaston. The catchment area of 102km2 is predominantly rural with limited urbanisation in some areas (National River Flow Archive, 2018). This area has been assessed to identify potential sites for new residential developments to the east of Bath which have been planned in response to increased housing pressure within the city.

Figure 1. Catchment area of the By Brook gauging station showing elevation (NERC (CEH), 2012)

1.     Data Analysis

2.1   Description of the data

The data obtained from the By Brook gauging station gives the annual maximum peak flow for each water year from 1981 to 2015. River flow is recorded at 15-minute intervals, giving thousands of observations for each water year, but only the peak flow rate is used in the annual maximum series (AMAX). Although the AMAX data may be extreme compared to the flow rates recorded during the rest of each year, for flood engineering purposes these rates are the most important.

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The values for peak flow range from 5.88m­­3/s in 2011 to 17.67m3­­/s in 2005. The mean annual maximum is 9.52m3/s. Figure 2 shows that there is no apparent trend in the values for annual maximum peak flow over the observed period of time, with each maxima for successive years independent; these are common attributes of extreme event data (Stedinger, et al., 1993).

Figure 2. Annual maximum peak flow from gauging station on the By Brook


2.2   The Gumbel distribution

The estimation of T-year events is vital when conducting a flood risk assessment. However, with only 35 water years in the observed AMAX, it is not possible to obtain reliable return period estimates of more serious events without extrapolating beyond the data by applying a suitable probability distribution. The Gumbel distribution is an extreme-value distribution (Upton & Cooke, 2014), widely used to represent the probability of environmental events such as earthquakes and flooding. For this reason, the Gumbel distribution has been used to describe the AMAX data from the By Brook in Figure 3 below.

Figure 3. Gumbel distribution of AMAX data showing pdf and cdf

The cumulative distribution function (cdf) for the Gumbel distribution is


with the probability density distribution (pdf) defined as


The Gumbel distribution has 2 parameters, µ and α. These can be estimated using


where s is the sample standard deviation, and


where 0.5772 is Euler’s constant.

2.3   Goodness-of-fit

The Gumbel distribution is one of many other distribution functions that could also potentially provide good descriptions of the data, and so it is important to verify its utility. One way to do this is to calculate the probability, for each event in the AMAX series, of an event occurring that exceeds the event itself using the Gringorten plotting position formula

r–0.44n+0.12, r=1,…,n

where r is the rank of observation, i.e. r = 1 for the greatest peak flow in the series, and n is the number of observations. The inverse of the plotting position gives the return period for each event. The Gumbel reduced variate, yT can then be calculated for each event using

yT= –ln⁡(–ln⁡1–1T)

where T is the return period of the event.

Figure 4. Relationship between peak flow and estimated return period.

By plotting the peak flow against the Gumbel reduced variate, the data points should produce a straight line as shown in Figure 5. Only the Gumbel distribution will do this – other distributions will show a curve.

Figure 5. Gumbel distribution fitted to By Brook AMAX data and plotted on Gumbel probability paper

The data in Figure 5 corresponds relatively closely to the straight trendline giving visual, graphical evidence that it is well described by the Gumbel distribution.

Another method known as the Χ2 test investigates the goodness-of-fit numerically. The data is divided into a number of bins k, each covering an equal range of probabilities, with the upper bin level defined as


 The number of observations ni in each bin is then used to calculate the test statistic Χ2.


The value for Χ2 determined by the data was 4.4. This is then compared to the 90% quantile in a chi-square distribution with 4 degrees of freedom (calculated using the number of bins and Gumbel parameters). From statistical tables (Kokoska & Nevison, 1989, p. 59), the critical value
(4) = 7.7794 > 4.4, meaning the Gumbel distribution is accepted as a credible choice at a 10% level of significance.

2.4   Design flood estimates

Using the By Brook AMAX data, T-year flood events have been calculated from the Gumbel distribution. A level of uncertainty has been considered to allow for the limited range of AMAX data.

The precision of a design event is its standard deviation. The range of uncertainty for a 95% confidence interval is defined as:


where z(1-q/2) is the upper (q/2)100% percentile of the standard normal distribution. For q = 0.05 i.e. a 95% confidence interval, from standard statistical tables (Kokoska & Nevison, 1989, p. 56) it is found that z(1-q/2)= 1.96. The standard deviation of the T-year event sxT, can be derived as

sxT =αn1.11+0.52yT+0.62yT2

The estimated peak flow rates and associated uncertainties for T-year events can be seen below in Table 1.

T-year Event Return Period

Estimated Peak flow


Lower confidence interval peak flow (m3/s)

Upper confidence interval peak flow (m3/s)

10 years




50 years




100 years




200 years




Table 1. T-year event peak flow rates at the By Brook for 10, 50, 100 and 200 year return periods with a 95% confidence interval.

2.5   Risk during the lifetime of the development

New residential developments should have a design life L of 100 years (Ministry of Housing, Communites and Local Government, 2014). Assuming the structure can safely withstand a 100-year flood, the probability r that an event will exceed this and cause the structure to fail can be calculated from


where r is found to be 0.63. Although there is only a
= 0.01 probability that the structure will fail each year, it may not be considered sufficient that there is a 63% chance of failure within the design life. If a much lower chance of failure is desired, the structure would need to be designed for the appropriate T-year event seen below in Figure 6. However, the cost of this may exceed the benefits as, for example, a risk of failure of 25% would require design for a 348-year event, for which peak flow in the By Brook could be up to 25.27m3/s after considering uncertainty.

Figure 6. Risk of failure of a structure within a 100-year design life when designed to accommodate a given T-year event

3.     Impact of Climate Change

3.1   The problem

The Gumbel distribution that has been applied to the AMAX data from the By Brook assumes a constant mean value and a constant variance. Climate change, however, is causing increased temperatures, and a warmer atmosphere can hold more moisture leading to more intense rainfall (Reynard, 2017). This means that the return periods of more extreme events may decrease, and so the predicted flow rates of T-year events must be adjusted to account for future flood risk.

3.2    Impact on design flood magnitudes

The By Brook lies within the Severn River Basin District. If the proposed residential development is in Batheaston, there is a significant area encompassed by Zone 3a where the By Brook meets the river Avon, as seen by the dark blue zone in Figure 7. Zone 3a represents an area with “a 1 in 100 or greater annual probability of river flooding” (Ministry of Housing, Communites and Local Government, 2014).

Figure 7. “Flood map for planning” for Batheaston showing the flood zones (Environment Agency, 2018)

The Environment Agency defines buildings used for houses as “more vulnerable” (2017). Therefore, if situated in flood zone 3a, they fall under the allowance categories of Higher Central and Upper End. Using Table 2 below, assuming the category of Higher Central and a design life of 100 years, the allowance factor is 35%.

Table 2. Peak river flow allowances by river basin district (Environment Agency, 2017)

River Basin District

Allowance Category

Total potential change anticipated for the ‘2020s’ (2015 to 2039)

Total potential change anticipated for the ‘2050s’ (2040 to 2069)

Total potential change anticipated for the ‘2080s’ (2070 to 2115)


Upper end




Higher Central








A 100-year event with a 35% allowance factor is therefore 25.20m3/s – up to 29.33m3/s with uncertainty (see Table 3 below.) Now considering climate change, if the structure has a design life of 100 years and the risk of failure in this time is desired to be as low as 25%, it would need to withstand a flood event of 34.12m3/s (with uncertainty).

Table 3. Peak river flow adjusted for climate change

T-year Event Return Period

Estimated Peak flow


Peak flow adjusted for climate change (m3/s)

Peak flow with uncertainty adjusted for climate change (m3/s)

10 years




50 years




100 years




200 years




4.     Conclusion

The effects of climate change can significantly affect design flood estimates, especially when the uncertainties caused by limited data are applied. The new residential developments near Batheaston should be designed to withstand an appropriate flood event based on preferred risk of failure and proximity to the flood Zones, taking all that has been discussed in this report into serious consideration when a specific site is to be chosen

5.     References

Environment Agency, 2017. Flood risk assessments: climate change allowances. [Online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/flood-risk-assessments-climate-change-allowances#table-1[Accessed 5 November 2018].

Environment Agency, 2018. Likelihood of flooding in this area. [Online] Available at: https://flood-map-for-planning.service.gov.uk/[Accessed 5 November 2018].

Kokoska, S. & Nevison, C., 1989. Statistical Tables and Formulae. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Ministry of Housing, Communites and Local Government, 2014. Flood risk and coastal change. [Online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/flood-risk-and-coastal-change#flood-zone-and-flood-risk-tables[Accessed 5 November 2018].

National River Flow Archive, 2018. 53028 – By Brook at Middlehill. [Online] Available at: https://nrfa.ceh.ac.uk/data/station/spatial/53028[Accessed 4 November 2018].

NERC (CEH), 2012, Catchment area of the By Brook gauging station showing elevation. Available from: https://nrfa.ceh.ac.uk/data/station/spatial/53028 [Accessed 4 November 2018]

Reynard, N., 2017. Is climate change causing more UK floods?. [Online] Available at: https://nerc.ukri.org/planetearth/stories/1849/[Accessed 5 November 2018].

Stedinger, J., Vogel, R. & Foufoula-Georgiou, E., 1993. Frequency Analysis of Extreme Events. In: D. Maidment, ed. Handbook of Hydrology. New York: McGraw Hill Professional, p. 18.2.

Upton, G. & Cooke, I., 2014. A Dictionary of Statistics. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

6.     Appendix

Group 37 AMAX data:

Water Year

Peak Flow (m3/s)








































































Factors Influencing Buyer Behaviour in Events

Event Stakeholder Behaviour
Contents (Jump to)
The Context
Stakeholder Behaviour
Wilson (2000) stated that he believes the factors determining buyer behaviour is a proposition that is extremely difficult in that the processes are both complex as well as difficult to understand as a result of the many external influences at work acting upon and affecting the decisions. The purpose of buyer behavioral models is to aid marketers in mapping out the factors and influences that could affect the outcome, and then weighing those factors to assist in the decisions that will result in their favor.

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Identifying the buying behaviour patterns of both the attendee and the sponsor in the sports sector of the events industry entails considering that such is taking place within a semi controlled environment which in effect aids the sponsor as there are less outside competing influences vying for the attendees attention even though the atmosphere is charged with intense mental and other stimuli. The relationship involved in the setting indicated, sports sector of the events industry, means that the sponsor represents the marketer seeking to influence the outcome with reference to the attendee, to have him or her try, purchase, or consider their offering. In this context, the sponsor is seeking multiple outcomes representing a past, now and future connotation in that the preceding represent either changing an attendees preconceived notions or ideas of his offering, this represents past influences, having the attendee purchase or try the product within the setting at the event, and influencing the attendee to re-consider their ideas on his offering that could result in trial, consideration, inquiry, trial or purchase after leaving the event.
These preceding multiple objectives are valid approaches in that a singular approach, seeking ‘now’ results, overlooks and ignores the other equally important factors that are present in any gathering of distinctly different individuals of varied age groups, experiences, backgrounds and demographics. The opinions expressed by Engel et al (1968) suggest that an advertiser or sponsor should be mindful not to overstate nor understand the attributes, features or other aspects of their offering as this might result in a negative perception when real world circumstances such as actual usage or trail occur. Dubois (2000) reminds us that theorists such as Sigmund Freud have attempted to analyze what might influence individuals studying the psyche as well as subconscious motivations as their means of doing so.
The implications of planning for such an event means that sponsors must consider a number of differing and unique aspects in consideration of the circumstantial context in the planning of marketing activities.
The Context
Buyer behaviour differs from consumer behaviour in that the former is the domain of business and marketing professionals seeking to understand this phenomenon (Schiffman et al, 2000). The Sheth et al (1969) model, which consists of multi variables, attempts to inculcate knowledge concerning a consumer’s purchase along with their behaviour, through the utilization of a transformation process. In this model it shows the stages concerning influences that affect the behaviour process (Sheth et al, 1969):

The ‘Significative’ Stage
The ‘Symbolic’ Stage, and
The ‘Social’ Stage

Contained within the preceding stages ‘reference groups’ are mentioned, which Bearden et al (1982) describe as “… a person or group of people that significantly influences…” the behaviour of an individual. The three types of reference groups described by Bearden et al (1982) are:

Information Influences:

This type of group seeks out the information by which to make a decision that is reliable.

Utilitarian Influences:

This group seeks to want to appear like others within the group to either avoid punishments and/or to receive certain benefits.

Value-expressive Influences:

In this reference group the influenced party accepts the positions and or perceptions of others as a result of the need to belong.
The preceding contextual ramifications are factors which need to be considered by sponsors in their more active role in the process as they represent influences upon the attendee. It should be noted that the Sheth et al (1969) model does not predict purchase behaviour; it simply lays out the influences that might affect behaviour that can then be utilized as a frame of reference. The model explains how influence and inputs are evaluated as well as utilized by the buyer as a result of perceptual and learning constructs (Sheth et al, 1969), and then goes on to identify the eventual outcomes and outputs of the process. Marketers utilize buyer behaviour, models, to aid them in arriving at assumptions. The preceding helps them to analyze, understand, evaluate, criticize and monitor a specific market and or product. Chisnal (1994) indicates that there are the following uses for models:

That they aid in mapping out the various characteristics that might affect the eventual purchase of an offering in a manner that is more simplified.

And that they result in marketing strategies that are more effective as they are developed as a result of outcomes that are likely as predicted from the model.

Additionally, Chisnall (1994) indicates that a well-structured and effective model will be:


In that the model(s) must be applicable to marketing situations that are real.


In this instance the models need to be both well constructed as well as clear.


This type of model is verifiable in terms of occurrences in the real world.
The utilization of multi-variable models refer to the attendee, sponsor aspects as being examined herein as the factors, circumstances and influences acting within and without are more complex as well as include multiple relationships and aspects from behavioral sciences. Said models are more representative concerning the actual characteristics regarding buyer behaviour, however they are not easily analyzed.
Inherent in this equation is the consideration of temporal constraints. The situation that considers the buyer behaviour in the sports sector of the events industry that is time dependent. Said events have a time period correlation which represents the length said event shall take place. Fraisse (1963) pointed out that individuals are usually influenced by conditions of situation in making judgments about time. The preceding is important in helping to mold buyer behavior in that studies conducted regarding the influence of varied mood states has shown that it has a factor in the way they estimate the duration of an event as well as their temporal orientation (Hornik, 1981). The further implications of the foregoing presents the opportunity for sponsors to introduce an additional element into the equation to aid in increasing the net effect of their efforts, as well as the other input variables. As all of these factors have differing effects with respect to their input on buyer behavior, common sense dictates that the utilization of as many non-conflicting elements as possible will thus skew the potential outcome more in one’s favor. Thus, understanding the need to induce a positive and uplifting mood as a factor in buyer behaviour inducement represents an opportunity to increase the net effect of the message, action, influence or course one desires or seeks to obtain as a result. Hornik’s (1981) studies suggested that individuals in a positive mood will more than likely be disposed to be future oriented, whereas individuals in a negative mood will have an orientation more geared to the present, or now. This explains the utilization of bright lights, colors, theme music and a festive atmosphere as important variables.
The preceding is the general overall mood present in events conducted in the sports sector as they are seen or perceived as recreational or entertaining, thus striking or establishing a pre-conceived mood expectation that needs to be amplified or at least rise to those expectations in order to maintain the positive future orientation factor. The second time-based research that enters into consideration is called ‘intertemporal choice.’ (Hornik’s, 1984) Hornik (1984) continued his work on temporal studies in another work in this area brought out the fact that in such, intertemoral choice, decisions concerning buying behaviour entail the consideration of costs and benefits that are spread over time. Utilization of presentation, message delivery and the non-complexity of information are important variables to be attended to as part of the planning of marketing activities.
Stakeholder Behaviour
With the conditional boundaries being understood as occurring in the sports sector of the events industry, the analysis contains a number of constraints which can be adjusted to work in favor of the sponsor, but which work upon the attendee. The proper event, based upon its demographic and other component factors, represents an opportunity for a particular business or corporation to have a forum to reach segments of their demographic profile on a more personal and controlled basis. The event entails a participatory structure whereby the attendee either elects to make an appearance, or is expected to do so by his peers, or other considerations. As the first option is the overwhelming choice, due to the voluntary nature, said attendees are more than likely to be in an anticipatory mode with the expectation of an enjoyable time.
With this as the foundational mood sponsors should be more disposed to buying into the circumstances as a platform to reach attendees, who conversely are likely to be in a more receptive mood to influences as a result of the festive occasion, in general. Chisnall (1994) refers to the foregoing, on the part of the attendee, as the importance of social considerations in consumer behaviour. Palmer (1998) as well as Chisnall (1994) refer to the importance of establishing and building customer loyalty as variables in the buying process. The foregoing applicability with respect to sponsors in event marketing is a factor of the manner in which the event is conducted, organized and the interest factor inherent within the event and sporting connection. The loyalty of the attendee can be enhanced by his perception that the sponsor or advertiser support the activity, thus tend to be viewed positively. Today’s general public is aware of corporate participation and support as a result of pronouncements in the media, as well as comparison with other activities. This awareness represents the opportunity to establish a foundation of loyalty perception that is beneficial.
The importance of the social setting is a further positive aspect which influences and impacts upon buyer behaviour, as well as the group associations (Rice, 1997). The relatively ‘captive’ nature of event marketing has its appeal in reaching a defined number of individuals within a context and setting that is conductive to buying behavior as well as one which the marketer has considerable control, and influence, relative to the other participants. Sherif et al (1961) refer to the preceding as involvement as described below:

High involvement products set up the parameters for a positive balance in the relationship between the performance outcome and the expectation level(s)

Low Involvement products set up or result in a negative relationship correlation between performance and expectations.

The preceding implication is that active participation and a level of balanced and believable performance sets the foundation for trust and thus a positive relationship. There is effort on the part of the sponsor to be there through selling means, thus setting up an important component of buyer recognition, and thus influence. Passive advertising or promotional forms entail magazine or print utilizations and thus are not participatory. The distinction is that a specific occurrence, or event, entails the participation of active as well as passive individuals, with the advantage going to the active participants influencing the passive. The attendees represent the passive element and thus the climate for buyer behavior is enhanced as it brings together both elements under conditions that foster more intense involvement and interaction.
Buying behaviour is a condition that can either be amplified or left at its relative levels based upon the everyday forces, influences and circumstances of and behavioral group. This includes attendees as well as sponsors. The common glue that binds the aforementioned is the relationship between the two parties. They represent passive and active modes, and these forces are consistently present as a condition of life. We are either being influenced, or influencing. The levels and amount of individuals thus affected, is a determinant of the degree of organization as well as purpose and offering. Thus, underwriting events within the sporting sector represents an optimum opportunity to be associated with a captive audience that is coming together for a festive occasion, be this a baseball, football, soccer or basketball game or other competitive endeavor.
Such an occasion represents a situation whereby a sponsor’s interest in such an event is heightened as a result of it providing more buying behavioral factors to be brought to bear. This thus creates buying behavior difference on the part of the attendee. Increased buyer behavioral patterns are also present on the attendee side as a result of the same elemental input factors that influence such an event, as described by (Sheth et al, 1969), Bearden et al (1982), and Chisnal (1994) in their mention of ‘significance, symbolic and social stages”, along with influences of an ‘ informational, utilitarian or value-expressive nature, and the mapping out the ‘characteristics useful in developing marketing strategies’, respectively.
Bearden, W., Etzel, M. J. 1982. Reference Group Influence on Product and Brand Purchase Decisions. Vol. 14, Issue 9, p-184, 09/1982. Journal of Consumer Research
Chisnall. Peter. 1994. Consumer Behaviour. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, New York. ISBN: 0077076168
Dubois, B. 2000. Understanding the Consumer: A European Perspective. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, the United States. ISBN: 0136163688
Engle, J.F., Kollat, D.T., Blackwell, R.D. 1968. Consumer Behavior. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, New York, United States
Hornik, Jacob. 1984. Subjective vs. Objective Time Measures: A Note on the Perception of Time in Consumer Behavior. 06/1984, Vol. 11, pp 615-618. Journal of Consumer Research
Hornik, Jacob. 1981. Time Cue and Time Perception Effect on Response to Mail Surveys. 05, 1981, Vol. 18, pp 243-249. Journal of Marketing Research
Palmer, Adrian. 1998. Principles of Services Marketing. McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, United States. ISBN: 0077097483
Rice, Chris. 1997. Understanding Customers. Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN: 0750623225
Schiffman, L., Kanuk, L. 2000. Consumer Behavior. Prentice Hall, London, The United Kingdom
Sheth, J.N., Howard, J.A.. 1069. The Theory of Buyer Behavior. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York, United States
Sherif, M., Hovland, C. 1961. Social Judgment: Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Communication and Attitude Change. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn. United States
Wilson, D.F. 2000. Why divide consumer and organizational buyer behaviour?. Vol. 34, Issue 7, pp 780-796. European Journal of Marketing

Impact of Significant Life Events

The transitions imply all of us. The layer of rain of the amendment suppose a question of low level survival for “millennia “. Then the people evolved an exclusive methods for they get accustomed to changes and surprise . The normal changes can conquered by the education. The considerable change can prove our individuality and mesh left they go of completely supported values, hops. Sometime “transition” are showed under the “diagram”. after events of life keys show up to 10-20 period in our spam of life.
The transition can be widely divided in two types. These types are,
Awaited Transition
An awaited transition can be defined as an expectation that the people who waits for the changes. Then they knew the changes that go to past as the child’s, marriage or birthing etc…
Can be Unexpected ( transition )
it will happen with a knowledge. This one, humans don’t’ know the changes that are going to happen. for example
: Dismissal, death etc….
There are some variables that the following of style of adaptation of the influence is:

Social Fund
Individual Behavior

the transition more significant than different also, some changes or this Transition are acknowledgeable like at the Awaited if persons are extraordinary a little also the Unexpected Transition persons unconscious turning capably of facing the change. then a transition is more significant.
Different responses made to significant life event and transition by individuals
Answer 1.2
” that the stages of life are the different step along which an individual should happen during all his process of life ” (more Difficult states 2009) it includes this one:

the development or infancy
the discovery or years adolescents
the establishment or juvenile adulthood
the continuation or average adulthood
to push back or major

Nevertheless, normally aptitude for an individual to cope with the events of life in truth related to the stages of the life of the person. Our individuality presents the approach in another direction. You look at latest most of the time as pessimistic or optimistic, dependent or independent, careful or adventurous, impassive or emotional, passive or aggressive, adept or lead agency; generally, these are the character of cholera congenital,
Nevertheless other attribute example the emotion that one or low other / authority becomes visible to the study and in particular to challenge basis different and respect we enter to grow. According Erickson, culture has a tremendous influence in human behavior, it has developed and placed more accents in the outside world that wars and depression
1. Infancy (of the birth to 18 months)
Result of development of ego: suspicion against confidence
Principal force: wait and I walk
2. The early infancy (it begins Eighteen months to Three years)
Effect of development of ego: shame against autonomy
Principal force: it goes to, the courage and car – control
3. The age of game (from three to five years) Result of development of ego: he blames against initiative Central force: target
1. The school age (from 6 to 12 years)
Result of development of ego: inferiority against industry
Principal forces: competition and method
2. The adolescence (from 12 to 18 years)
Result of development of ego: confusion of role against identity
Fundamental forces: loyalty and allegiance
3. The young adulthood (from 18 to 35 years)
Result of development of ego: isolation, solidarity and intimacy
Principal forces: love and affiliation
4. average adulthood: (from 35 to 65 years)
Result of development of ego: me absorption or stagnation against generativamente
Critical forces: it worry and production
5. Late adulthood: (from 65 years to death)
Result of development of ego: desperation against integrity
Essential forces: Knowledge
The direction of a particularly difficult depends event the stages of our life. And when we have seen with the various stages of life Erickson, we can or to cope with an important event that the death of a member of our family that he will be joined for our standard of living which can be adapted or insufficient to help us to confront this dramatic event in the Pacific.
The young man of 10 is lit more challenge to conquer the death of his father that they are compared by the adult of 57 which has a number of life experiences.
Personality is organized and dynamic thu characteristics owned by an individual who determines only that it or its cognitions, the behaviors and the motivations in various situations.
I. The Ego
More difficult (2009) states that ” This is the structure of the personality that it treats with the demands of veracity or reality; it is called the executive power of the personality because a use of reasoning makes to take decisions “.
The II.st The superego
It is the judge or the moral branch of the personality that it identifies or door to the spirit if something goes wrong or is correct, it is considered as our conscience. Personality changes of an individual to other because, in a sense, each person is not only and the personality that only simply means that people have different reactions, approaches when they meet the challenges in his life.

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Group responds to significant life events
Williams (1999) explain this the change they are the ordinary series for which each one reacts to startle and to adapt, and to have to go during several stage to get accustomed completely to events keys in our work and person life, loss, damage, divorce or loss of work and new matters, the employment or the substitution radically change our life.
The excellent events as well as the scare can destabilize our minds, need that we change drastically ours thoughtfully the world,
This one takes more time that most of persons understands, often with a stage of the interior bottomless disaster approximately six months later, until we could stop they go of the past and settle completely to our new reality.
These procedures influence every person, most of cultures, after principal events of life. These ten happen to twenty times in the life of the people of the majority. Of being understood and I support these events they can be decisive points and opportunity.
Or they can go forward to the severe error of judgment, sadness, breakdown, broken matters, career and sometimes suicide. When we have an individual disaster, or we see others in one, in general we contemplate the immediate situation.
If there is exterior sensitive factor these can begin a transition. And the additional enthusiasm, the incredulity, the denial, the suspense, the losing confidence, the confusion and the depression are the primary responses to the transition.
The social support is
A network of members of the family and friends who gives positive reactions. • Persons that give emotional support. • Honest clashes when you establish a style of life of the resumption. The framework consists of gifts of its success, the reminders you dedicate when and understanding when you are discouraged and injury. • The citizens of his life not that does not accept no excuse of you, but contributes to keep its foot and dedication to progress.
. The importance of social support is • applauded up to continue to sacrifice and the power to create the change. • Motivate to persist jobs in the change. • Support and estimated nostalgia when you are the experience a plateau that they imply the small visible change. • Believe that the difficulties on you and the hard work that you create. • This will be chase costs means in which you can change its style of life • more difficult and longer Work in his work or efforts to be improved. Them · they turn in more affected and interested into his progress and development. Them · they become more careful in his efforts to change.
More sensitive fact on the time and effort had to do the essential change of his life.
Answer 14
Mckibbin and – (2008) the state tension, such as the response of entrant to a human being has by force shall exercise, in extreme or the other type of require placed on them. Many things in the work can lead to the tension, and the individual will find some things more stressful that different. The Walsh (2005) stipulates that the concept of the tension popularly has to do with the feeling » under the pressure ‘, unable to cope with the requirements of the situation.
Financial commitments and problems
Poor-quality living condition
Personal relationship
Health problems
Excessive work roles/long hours
Lack of sleep
Lack of rest and relaxation
Sources of Stress
Prejudice, discrimination and hostility from others
The Asbridge and To – (2008) it describes that small quantity of the tension can be well for us, but tension of some times increases and get in the way with our health. When someone under tension bodies produces a hormone called the adrenaline.
The sudden liberation of the adrenaline in the bloodstream causes several effects in the short term, even a beat of rapid, more rapid heart respiration, dry mouth, wide open eyes, sweaty hands, the need to go to the services and a pale face.
These signs of the tension do not last a lot of time when they need the energy. If a stressful situation does not improve, then the person can fall ill.
The tension impact in each one especially worries the following of workpeople the potential impact is in workpeople of care

Social Retreat
Lack of concentration
Problems of Health

To reduce the tension it is necessary to conquer the things that caused the tension, which is not always easy. Below they are some ways of relieving the tension:
· Change the situation to remove the thing this causing the tension.

formation of direction of Time might help to avoid the tension caused by the lack of the time.
Emotional expression – speaks of or notes down feelings, putting the positive aspect in a list and denials.
Assertive formation can go to the source of the problem.
skills of Relaxation as therapy of watering, massage, hipnoterapia.
Medicines prescribidas for GP
Therapy to help to organize thoughts to look at a situation differently.
game of Role – they calculate strategies of adapting themselves practising them first.

Others social networks may provide support to individuals experiencing
Answer 2.2
According Kubler (1969) there are five fundamental stages in cases of death are denial, anger, the negotiation, depression and finally acceptance. Diagram below describe the time
Source: http://www.armchairadvice.co.uk/bereavement/emotional/responses.asp

Kubler (1969) states that “Denial is a aware or unaware rejection to agree to evidence, truth, and many more, relate to the scenario concerned, It’s a resistance mechanism and completely usual, Some people can become locked in this period when dealing with a shocking change that can be ignored, Death of course is not particularly easy to avoid or avoid indefinitely”.

He further describes that “Anger can manifest in different ways People dealing with emotional upset can be angry with themselves, and/or with others, particularly those close to them, knowing this helps keep detached and non-judgemental when experiencing the anger of someone who is very upset”.

Kubler (1969), provides that “the tradition of stage negotiator for the people face death can lead to the try to negotiate with any God in whom the individual believes, people turn a volume of the serious minor trauma that it can negotiate or look to place a negotiation, the negotiation rarely that it provides a sustainable exit, mainly if it is a matter of life or death”.

It is mentioned as preparatory affliction. In a sense it is the process of clothing or the formation led to ‘ the consequence” although this stage means different things according to which this implies, is a kind of acceptance of the touch accessory. It is usual to feel the sorrow and sadness, fear, suspense, etc. : This shows that the person began to accept at least the reality”.

Kubler (1969) define ” this stage truly they change according to the state of the person, although largely this is a sign that there is some touching separation and objectivity, the agonizing People can enter this stage a lot of time before the people that they stop, the one who must happen essentially for her own individual stage of deals with the sorrow “.
The loss is the Unexpected transition normally like a human being for which each one spends this one she organizes the time it will change to the person to the person that one day confronting the loss they need the social support of that time they can come to the normal life.
Answer 2.3
External sources of support
General Practitioner
The people faced the transition some time that he is depressed in this case, they can go to its GP and go to them on the problem you face and GP prescribe anti depressants. The doctor is its first person to consult.
The adviser is Adviser the person when you go and to go to someone who has been formed to be a good auditor and help to the conversation of the population on his problem. The adviser can be capable to help him to understand his feelings and thoughts better.
Me – they help groups
where a group of people that they have all transferred to a transition or depression is together to speak and to support another. This can help to feel less when you find another people which has the same classes of feelings as you and also it can show him the means that they have adapted itself. The discovery that you can help and support can help another people to feel better.
Psychiatric Disorders specialist
that it is the person who deals with serious depressed that he continues during many time. Then it will listen to his problem and will the treatment.
Psychiatric Nurse he / she is the people who is his house regularly and conversation with you on the progress and registers all.
Answers 3.1
It is the aim of the company to ensure that no present or future employee or applicant for employment receives less favourable treatment on the grounds of sex,marital status ,disability ,races colour, nationality (including citizenship ) or ethnic be shown to be justifiable.
the elimination of any discrimination in employment
the promotion of equality of opportunity
an also guidance on the steps that need to be taken to ensure that employment practice remain within the law
The policy will be implemented ti accordance with appropriate statuary requirement of
The equal pay Act 1970
The equal (Amendment) Regulations 1983
The sex discrimination Act 1974
The race relations Act 1976
Recommendation for improving the support available in the organisation for individuals and their social networks significant life event
Answer 03, 3
Communication is about the way people reach out to one another. It is an essential part of all relationships, and the ability to communication well with service users, colleagues and other is to basic requirement for doing your job.
An also it’s not just talking-we uses touch, facial experience and body movements when we ploughs communicating with people personally, and there plough many means of written and electronic communication in today’s society.
It is important that we reads to communicate well even where there plough differences in individual’s abilities and methods of communication; you will also need to be able to communication effectively on complex and sensitive issues.
Recording information is important and serves much valuable purpose. Record We need to understand the significant of what our and how it is record.
Ex-, 1 How to identify the support individuals need
2 Overcoming difficulties in communication
3 How to find out about likely communication problems
4 Communication differences
5 Listening effectively
You differ from communication and Actions for this
(efficacy of contribution of personnel with experience)
01) Different language
1 Smile
2 they have a friendly expression
3 gestures of Use
4 pictures of Use
5 heat of spectacle and stimulus – repeat his words with a smile to verify the understanding
02) Hearing of damage
1) To speak clearly, listen carefully, and answer to what is said to him
2) To remove any distraction and other noises
3) To make sure that any resource to the hearing works
4) Mail of use where assigned
5) Singing of use where assigned.
03) For contribution of Personnel of physical disability
1 They make sure that the surroundings are adapted and accessible
2 they bear in different mind with the production of voice if it is necessary
3 they do not frequent
4 they remember that any corporal language cannot be appropriate
04) For contribution of Personnel Learning disability
1) to judge the appropriate level of the understanding
2) our to answer in the right level
3) To remain patient and to be ready to keep on covering the same ground
4) To be ready to wait and to listen carefully to the response
05) Visual damage
1) to use the touch of being assigned to communicate the worry, the compassion and the interest
2) to use the tone of voice rather that expressions to communicate the humor and the response
3) The contract of an insurance that all the visual communication is transferred in something that can be heard, tape or someone reading