A Explanation Of Different Financial Terms Finance Essay

The main objective of the Finance Manager is to manage funds in such a way so as to ensure their optimum utilization and their procurement in a manner that the risk, cost and control considerations are properly balanced in a given situation. To achieve the objective the Finance Manager performs the following functions in the following areas:-
The need to estimate/forecast the requirement of funds for both the short term (working capital requirements) and the long term purpose (capital investments).
Forecasting the requirements of funds involves the use of budgetary control and long-range planning
Helps to decide what type of capital structure the company needs to have return: whether these funds would be raised: from loans/borrowings or from internal source (share capital)
To raise sufficient long term funds to finance fixed assets and other long term investments and to provide for the needs of working capital
Investment Decision
In projects using the various capital budgeting tools like payback method, accounting rate of return, internal rate of return, net present value.
Assets management policies are to be laid down regarding the various items of current assets like accounts receivable by coordinating with the sales personnel, inventory with production
Dividend Decision
Taking into consideration, earnings trend, share market price trend, fund requirement for future growth, cash flow situation and others.
Financial negotiation
Plays a very important role in carrying out negotiations with the various financial institutions, banks and public depositors for raising funds on favourable terms.
Cash Management
The finance manager needs to ensure the supply of adequate, timely and cheap fund to the various parts of the organization.
That there is no excessive cash idling around.
Evaluating financial performance
To need to constantly review the financial performance of the various units of organization generally in terms of ROI (return on investment. Such review assists management in seeing all the funds have been utilized in the various divisions and what can be done to improve it.
Dealing with relevant parties in the Financial Markets
Where the company is a listed entity, the need to interact with the Stock Exchange
To deal with money markets and capital markets for financing or investment of idling funds
To foster relationships with bankers, investors, underwriters of equity and bond issuances and other government regulatory bodies.
For those who are uninformed, they tend to think the sole function of this position is that of the head of Accounts Payable and Accounts Receivable, but it goes far beyond that capacity. In fact, the finance manager is in charge of any financing and accounting function throughout the company.
The role of this position involves that of not only financing functions such as Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable, and Billing, but it also involves that of budget projections and working with the Chief Financial Officer to make sure that the company’s funds are stable and assisting with any budget cuts that become necessary.
The finance manager is the head of both the Accounts Payable and Accounts Receivable areas of the company. As such, he will be the one to set policy and direct procedures for both areas of business. That includes hiring staff based upon need, following budget guidelines for expenses including staffing, assuring that procedures are followed by all staff members, setting reasonable quota system to assure work is completed in a timely fashion, and interacting with department supervisors on a regular basis in order to stay abreast of happenings within the department.

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The finance manager will also compile reports that show all of the conditions within his department including expenditures, open invoices, production standards, quality control standards, and timeliness of both payment of invoices and processing of payments. The finance manager is also responsible for the billing operation of the Accounts Receivable Department and making sure that guidelines for timely billing are followed as well.
The finance manager also is the one who will work with other executives in order to develop the budget for each year. He will work with the Chief Finance Officer and Chief Executive Officer in order to develop an equitable solution for each year’s expenditures in both staff, office supplies, and any other needs that the company has including training, business trips, out of town meetings, and staff entertainment expenses. The finance manager has a very important position within a company, and his decisions will determine the financial stability of the company, at least within the areas that fall under his control. It is also his job to make certain that other departments and areas of the company follow their budgets and make the most use of the company’s money by avoiding frivolous expenses.
Nature of Financial Management
Financial management is that part of total management which is concerned primarily with the financial affairs of an organization and the translation of actions, both past and proposed, into meaningful and relevant information for use in the management process. It includes the functions of budgeting, accounting, reporting, and the analysis and interpretation of the financial significance of past events and future plans. It sometimes also includes other related functions such as internal auditing, management analysis, and others. It is not primarily concerned with the technical procedures and methodology of those individual functions. Rather, it is characterized by the coordination and correlation of those functions into an effective and broad system of financial control that will assure that they, collectively more than individually, become an integral part of the management of the organization.
Financial management involves the art of interrelating data to obtain a perspective of the total financial situation that will assist managers in program planning and decision-making. A very simple operating program may require only a minimum of financial management, and this, in some cases, can be provided by the manager himself.
Financial Management is also an important field of Management Sciences. It is a combination of Managerial Finance and Corporate Finance. Managerial Finance concerns with the managerial use of financial techniques, whereas on the other hand, corporate finance deals with corporate financial decisions.
In both the cases, it is extremely important for Managers in an organization. Financial Management is used to determine the best way to use the money available to an organization in order to improve the future opportunities to earn money. Thus the financial managers use techniques such as Valuation, Portfolio management, Hedging and capital structure etc for better decisions about the future of an organization.
On the other hand, it is also used to interpret financial results in a given year or time period using financial analysis techniques. This helps in judging the actual performance of an organization in that time period. Financial management helps in proper allocation of costs, anticipate future expense, and budgeting for the future.
Retained Earnings
The accumulated net income that has been retained for reinvestment in the business rather than being paid out in dividends to stockholders. Net income that is retained in the business can be used to acquire additional income-earning assets that result in increased income in future years. Retained earnings are a part of the owners’ equity section of a firm’s balance sheet.
Retained earnings also called retention ratio or retained surplus, it is the percentage of net earnings not paid out as dividends but retained by the company to be reinvested in its core business or to pay debt. Retained earnings are one component of the corporation’s net worth and increase the supply of cash that’s available for acquisitions, repurchase of outstanding shares, or other expenditures the board of directors authorizes. It is recorded under shareholders’ equity on the balance sheet. It is calculated by adding net income to or subtracting any net losses from beginning retained earnings and subtracting any dividends paid to shareholders, as shown here:
Smaller and faster-growing companies tend to have a high ratio of retained earnings to fuel research and development plus new product expansion. Mature firms, on the other hand, tend to pay out a higher percentage of their profits as dividends. In most cases, companies retain their earnings to invest them in areas where the company can create growth opportunities, such as buying new machinery or spending the money on research and development. If a net loss is greater than beginning retained earnings, retained earnings can become negative, creating a deficit.
Debenture
A debenture is a debt instrument, which is not backed by collaterals. Debentures are backed by the creditworthiness and reputation of the debenture issuer. Besides, a debenture is a long-term debt instrument issued by governments and big institutions for the purpose of raising funds. The debenture has some similarities with bonds but the terms and conditions of securitization of debentures are different from that of a bond. A debenture is regarded as an unsecured investment because there are no pledges (guarantee) or liens available on particular assets. Nonetheless, a debenture is backed by all the assets which have not been pledged otherwise.
Normally, debentures are referred to as freely negotiable debt instruments. The debenture holder functions as a lender to the issuer of the debenture. In return, a specific rate of interest is paid to the debenture holder by the debenture issuer similar to the case of a loan. In practice, the differentiation between a debenture and a bond is not observed everytime. In some cases, bonds are also termed as debentures and vice-versa.
If a bankruptcy occurs, debenture holders are treated as general creditors. The debenture issuer has a substantial advantage from issuing a debenture because the particular assets are kept without any encumbrances so that the option is open for issuing them in future for financing purposes. Usually, debentures are categorized into the following types and their definitions are also given below:
Convertible Debenture: Convertible bonds or bonds that can be converted into equity shares of the issuing company after a predetermined period of time. “Convertibility” is a feature that corporations may add to the bonds they issue to make them more attractive to buyers. In other words, it is a special feature that a corporate bond may carry. As a result of the advantage a buyer gets from the ability to convert; convertible bonds typically have lower interest rates than non-convertible corporate bonds.
Non-convertible debenture: Simply regular debenture cannot be converted into equity shares of the liable company. They are debentures without the convertibility feature attached to them. As a result, they usually carry higher interest rates than their convertible counterparts.
Corporate Debenture:  Debentures issued by companies and they are insecure in nature.
Bank Debenture: This type of debentures is issued by banks.
Government Debenture: This includes Treasury Bond (T-Bond) and Treasury Bill (T-Bill) issued by the government. They are usually regarded as risk-free investments.
Subordinated Debenture: This is a particular type of debenture, which ranks below regular debentures, senior debt, and in some instances below specific general creditors.
Corporation Debenture: Corporation debentures are issued by various corporations.
Exchangeable Debenture: They are like convertible debentures, but this debenture can only be converted to the common stock of a subsidiary company or affiliated company of the debenture issuer.
Seed Capital
Seed capital means the initial capital used to start a business. Seed capital often comes from the company founders’ personal assets or from friends and family. The amount of money is usually relatively small because the business is still in the idea or conceptual stage. Such a venture is generally at a pre-revenue stage and seed capital is needed for research & development, to cover initial operating expenses until a product or service can start generating revenue, and to attract the attention of venture capitalists.
Seed capital is needed to get most businesses off the ground. It is considered a high-risk investment, but one that can reap major rewards if the company becomes a growth enterprise. This type of funding is often obtained in exchange for an equity stake in the enterprise, although with less formal contractual overhead than standard equity financing.
Banks and venture capital investors view seed capital as an “at risk” investment by the promoters of a new venture, which represents a meaningful and tangible commitment on their part to making the business a success. Frequently, capital providers will want to wait until a business is a little more mature before making the larger investments that typify the early stage financing of venture capital funding.
Seed capital in other words can be said as money used as the initial investment for a new product or service launch. Seed capital enables businesses to launch a new product or service without depending fully on a business loan. The funds for this form of financing are typically provided by private investors who are looking for a high return on their investment of at least 30 percent. The investors look to invest in an industry with a market of at least $1 billion, and they also want an industry with few competitors for the business. Businesses that typically obtain seed capital are young companies around one year of age that have not produced a product or service for commercial sale yet. The companies are so new, so it can be difficult to obtain a regular commercial loan that is sufficient for covering all of the related start up expenses.
Cash Credit and Overdraft
Cash credit is a short-term cash loan to a company. A bank provides this type of funding, but only after the required security is given to secure the loan. Once a security for repayment has been given, the business that receives the loan can continuously draw from the bank up to a certain specified amount. This type of financing is similar to a line of credit.
Furthermore, cash credit is a facility to withdraw the amount from the business account even though the account may not have enough credit balance. The limit of the amount that can be withdrawn is sanctioned by the bank based on the business cycle of the client and the working capital gap and the drawing power of the client. This drawing power is determined, based on the stock and book debts statements submitted by the borrower at monthly intervals against the security by hypothecating of stock of commodities and/ or book debts. The excess withdrawal of cash is made generally on demand from the customer and the customer has to pay interest on the excess amount he/she has withdrawn. The cash credit facility is quite useful to those businesses where cash payment like wages, transportation, cash purchases are to be made and the receivables are not realized in time.
An overdraft facility is a formal arrangement with a bank which allows an account holder to draw on funds in excess of the amount on deposit. Overdraft facility financing is most commonly used by businesses as a way of making their working capital more flexible, although it can also be available to individuals. Banks which offer this service typically have a number of expectations from customers who use it, and it is important to be aware of these expectations before entering an overdraft facility agreement.
The idea behind overdraft facility agreements is that sometimes one needs a bit more money than is available on deposit to deal with various expenses. For example, a business which is always slow in March and April might like to use its overdraft facility to make payroll and keep current with all accounts and creditors. Or, a business might need to make a big one-time expense which exceeds the funds on deposit. With an overdraft facility, people can repay the funds at their convenience. The bank may charge an overdraft fee for accessing the overdraft facility, and the interest rate can be higher than that for other types of loans. The bank also has the right to demand repayment in full. Balancing an overdraft facility wisely can free up capital and make people more stable financially, but unwise use can lead people into a spiral of debt which may be difficult to escape.
The amount of an overdraft facility is also curbed; people are not allowed to continually take money out and not repay it. The amount of the overdraft is usually pegged to account history and financial information, with the goal of ensuring that people do not end up borrowing more than they can realistically repay through an overdraft facility. The agreed limit can be negotiated with the bank, and some banks are willing to reevaluate if customers feel that their circumstances have changed.
Similar to personal overdraft facilities, a business overdraft is a prearranged spending limit with your bank. Many businesses find an overdraft useful for those times when cash flow is a problem for a short period of time. Overdrafts are not a good option for funding larger needs, such as capital or expansion expenses. For these needs it is less expensive to obtain a separate business loan. Business overdrafts may also be subject to more fees than a personal overdraft. Examples include fees to open the overdraft, to renew the overdraft, or sometimes even a fee for not using the overdraft. When used judiciously, overdraft facilities can be a great help in managing the occasional financial shortfall.
Commercial Paper
Commercial paper is a form of financing that consists of short-term, unsecured promissory notes issued by firms with a high credit standing. Generally, only large firms of unquestionable financial soundness are able to issue commercial paper. Most commercial paper issues have maturities ranging from 3 to 270 days. Although there is no set denomination, such financing is generally issued in multiples of $100,000 or more. A large portion of the commercial paper today is issued by finance companies; manufacturing firms account for a smaller portion of this type of financing. Businesses often purchase commercial paper, which they hold as marketable securities, to provide an interest-earning reserve of liquidity. Commercial paper is sold at a discount from its par, or face, value. The size of the discount and the length of the time to maturity determine the interest paid by the issuer of commercial paper. The actual interest earned by the purchaser is determined by certain calculations.
Commercial paper is not usually backed by any form of collateral, so only firms with high-quality debt ratings will easily find buyers without having to offer a substantial discount (higher cost) for the debt issue. For the most part, commercial paper is a very safe investment because the financial situation of a company can easily be predicted over a few months. Furthermore, typically only companies with high credit ratings and credit worthiness issue commercial paper. Over the past 40 years, there have only been a handful of cases where corporations have defaulted on their commercial paper repayment.
There are two methods of issuing paper. The issuer can market the securities directly to a buy and hold investor such as most money market funds. Alternatively, it can sell the paper to a dealer, who then sells the paper in the market. The dealer market for commercial paper involves large securities firms and subsidiaries of bank holding companies. Most of these firms also are dealers in US Treasury securities. Direct issuers of commercial paper usually are financial companies that have frequent and sizable borrowing needs and find it more economical to sell paper without the use of an intermediary. In the United States, direct issuers save a dealer fee of approximately 5 basis points, or 0.05% annualized, which translates to $50,000 on every $100 million outstanding. This saving compensates for the cost of maintaining a permanent sales staff to market the paper. Dealer fees tend to be lower outside the United States.
Bridge Finance
Bridge financing is a method of financing, used to maintain liquidity while waiting for an anticipated and reasonably expected inflow of cash. Bridge financing is commonly used when the cash flow from a sale of an asset is expected after the cash outlay for the purchase of an asset. For example, when selling a house, the owner may not receive the cash for 90 days, but has already purchased a new home and must pay for it in 30 days. Bridge financing covers the 60 day gap in cash flows.
Another type of bridge financing is used by companies before their initial public offering, to obtain necessary cash for the maintenance of operations. These funds are usually supplied by the investment bank underwriting the new issue. As payment, the company acquiring the bridge financing will give a number of stocks at a discount of the issue price to the underwriters that equally offset the loan. This financing is, in essence, a forwarded payment for the future sales of the new issue.
Bridge financing may also be provided by banks underwriting an offering of bonds. If the banks are unsuccessful in selling a company’s bonds to qualified institutional buyers, they are typically required to buy the bonds from the issuing company themselves, on terms much less favourable than if they had been successful in finding institutional buyers and acting as pure intermediaries.
There are 2 types of bridging finance which are closed bridging and open bridging.
Closed bridging finance is where there is a date for the exit of the bridging finance and is sure that the bridging finance can be repaid on that date. This is less risky for the lender and thus the interest rate charged is lower.
Open bridging is higher risk for the lender. This is where the borrower does not have an exact date for the bridging finance exit and may be looking for a buyer of the property or land.
Capital Market
A capital market is a market where both government and companies raise long term funds to trade securities on the bond and the stock market. It consists of both the primary market where new issues are distributed among investors, and the secondary markets where already existent securities are traded. In the capital market, mortgages, bonds, equities and other such investment funds are traded. The capital market also facilitates the procedure whereby investors with excess funds can channel them to investors in deficit. The capital market provides both overnight and long term funds and uses financial instruments with long maturity periods. The financial instruments are traded in this market such as foreign exchange instruments, equity instruments, insurance instruments, credit market instruments, derivative instruments, and hybrid instruments.
The primary role of the capital market is to raise long-term funds for governments, banks, and corporations while providing a platform for the trading of securities. This fundraising is regulated by the performance of the stock and bond markets within the capital market. The member organizations of the capital market may issue stocks and bonds in order to raise funds. Investors can then invest in the capital market by purchasing those stocks and bonds. The capital market, however, is not without risk. It is important for investors to understand market trends before fully investing in the capital market. To that end, there are various market indices available to investors that reflect the present performance of the market.
Every capital market in the world is monitored by financial regulators and their respective governance organization. The purpose of such regulation is to protect investors from fraud and deception. Financial regulatory bodies are also charged with minimizing financial losses, issuing licenses to financial service providers, and enforcing applicable laws. 
Capital market investment is no longer confined to the boundaries of a single nation. Today’s corporations and individuals are able, under some regulation, to invest in the capital market of any country in the world. Investment in foreign capital markets has caused substantial enhancement to the business of international trade. 
The capital market is also dependent on two sub-markets – the primary market and the secondary market. The primary market deals with newly issued securities and is responsible for generating new long-term capital. The secondary market handles the trading of previously-issued securities, and must remain highly liquid in nature because most of the securities are sold by investors. A capital market with high liquidity and high transparency is predicated upon a secondary market with the same qualities.
Money Market
The money market is a component of the financial markets for assets involved in short-term borrowing and lending with original maturities of one year or shorter time frames. Trading in the money markets involves Treasury bills, commercial paper, bankers’ acceptances, certificates of deposit, federal funds, and short-lived mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities. It provides liquidity funding for the global financial system. The money market consists of financial institutions and dealers in money or credit who wish to either borrow or lend. Participants borrow and lend for short periods of time, typically up to thirteen months. Money market trades in short-term financial instruments commonly called “paper”. This contrasts with the capital market for longer-term funding, which is supplied by bonds and equity. The core of the money market consists of banks borrowing and lending to each other, using commercial paper, repurchase agreements and similar instruments.
The money market is a subsection of the fixed income market. We generally think of the term fixed income as being synonymous to bonds. In reality, a bond is just one type of fixed income security. The difference between the money market and the bond market is that the money market specializes in very short-term debt securities (debt that matures in less than one year). Money market investments are also called cash investments because of their short maturities. Money market securities are essentially IOUs issued by governments, financial institutions and large corporations. These instruments are very liquid and considered extraordinarily safe. Because they are extremely conservative, money market securities offer significantly lower returns than most other securities. 
One of the main differences between the money market and the stock market is that most money market securities trade in very high denominations. This limits access for the individual investor. Furthermore, the money market is a dealer market, which means that firms buy and sell securities in their own accounts, at their own risk. Compare this to the stock market where a broker receives commission to acts as an agent, while the investor takes the risk of holding the stock. Another characteristic of a dealer market is the lack of a central trading floor or exchange. Deals are transacted over the phone or through electronic systems. 
Venture Capital Funds
Venture capital (also known as VC or Venture) is a type of private equity capital typically provided for early-stage, high-potential, growth companies in the interest of generating a return through an eventual realization event such as an IPO or trade sale of the company. Venture capital investments are generally made as cash in exchange for shares in the invested company. It is typical for venture capital investors to identify and back companies in high technology industries such as biotechnology and ICT (information and communication technology).
A venture capital fund refers to a pooled investment vehicle that primarily invests the financial capital of third-party investors in enterprises that are too risky for the standard capital markets or bank loans. Venture capital funds mean an investment fund that manages money from investors seeking private equity stakes in startup and small- and medium-size enterprises with strong growth potential. These investments are generally characterized as high-risk/high-return opportunities. Theoretically, venture capital funds give individual investors the ability to get in early at a company’s startup stage or in special situations in which there is opportunity for explosive growth. In the past, venture capital investments were only accessible to professional venture capitalists. While a fund structure diversifies risk, these funds are inherently risky.
Most venture capital funds have a fixed life of 10 years, with the possibility of a few years of extensions to allow for private companies still seeking liquidity. The investing cycle for most funds is generally three to five years, after which the focus is managing and making follow-on investments in an existing portfolio. This model was pioneered by successful funds in Silicon Valley through the 1980s to invest in technological trends broadly but only during their period of ascendance, and to cut exposure to management and marketing risks of any individual firm or its product.
In such a fund, the investors have a fixed commitment to the fund that is initially unfunded and subsequently “called down” by the venture capital fund over time as the fund makes its investments. There are substantial penalties for a Limited Partner (or investor) that fails to participate in a capital call.
It can take anywhere from a month or so to several years for venture capitalists to raise money from limited partners for their fund. At the time when all of the money has been raised, the fund is said to be closed and the 10 year lifetime begins. Some funds have partial closes when one half (or some other amount) of the fund has been raised. “Vintage year” generally refers to the year in which the fund was closed and may serve as a means to stratify VC funds for comparison. This free database of venture capital funds shows the difference between a venture capital fund management company and the venture capital funds managed by them.
Present Value
Present value means the current worth of a future sum of money or stream of cash flows given a specified rate of return. Future cash flows are discounted at the discount rate, and the higher the discount rate, the lower the present value of the future cash flows. Determining the appropriate discount rate is the key to properly valuing future cash flows, whether they are earnings or obligations. The calculation of discounted or present value is extremely important in many financial calculations. For example, net present value, bond yields, spot rates, and pension obligations all rely on the principle of discounted or present value. 
If offered a choice between $100 today or $100 in one year ceteris paribus, a rational person will choose $100 today. This assumes a positive interest rate for the time period. This is described by economists as Time Preference. Time Preference can be measured by auctioning off a risk free security – like a US Treasury bill. If a $100 note, payable in one year, sells for $80, then the present value of $100 one year in the future is $80. This is because you ca
 

Flip Flop Circuit Explanation and Study

A flip-flop is a term referring to an electronic circuit (a bistable multivibrator) that has two stable states and thereby is capable of serving as one bit of memory. Today, the term flip-flop has come to mostly denote non-transparent (clocked or edge-triggered) devices, while the simpler transparent ones are often referred to as latches; however, as this distinction is quite new, the two words are sometimes used interchangeably .
A flip-flop is usually controlled by one or two control signals and/or a gate or clock signal. The output often includes the complement as well as the normal output. As flip-flops are implemented electronically, they require power and ground connections.
Introduction – Basic Flip-Flop Circuit
A flip-flop circuit can be constructed from two NAND gates or two NOR gates. Each flip-flop has two outputs, Q and Q’, and two inputs, set and reset. This type of flip-flop is referred to as an SR flip-flop or SR latch. The flip-flop in figure has two useful states. When Q=1 and Q’=0, it is in the set state (or 1-state). When Q=0 and Q’=1, it is in the clear state (or 0-state). The outputs Q and Q’ are complements of each other and are referred to as the normal and complement outputs, respectively. The binary state of the flip-flop is taken to be the value of the normal output.
When a 1 is applied to both the set and reset inputs of the flip-flop in Figure 2, both Q and Q’ outputs go to 0. This condition violates the fact that both outputs are complements of each other. In normal operation this condition must be avoided by making sure that 1’s are not applied to both inputs simultaneously.
The NAND basic flip-flop circuit in figure operates with inputs normally at 1 unless the state of the flip-flop has to be changed. A 0 applied momentarily to the set input causes Q to go to 1 and Q’ to go to 0, putting the flip-flop in the set state. When both inputs go to 0, both outputs go to 1. This condition should be avoided in normal operation.

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Master-Slave Flip-Flop
Introduction
A master-slave flip-flop is constructed from two seperate flip-flops. One circuit serves as a master and the other as a slave. The logic diagram of an SR flip-flop is shown in figure.The master flip-flop is enabled on the positive edge of the clock pulse CP and the slave flip-flop is disabled by the inverter. The information at the external R and S inputs is transmitted to the master flip-flop. When the pulse returns to 0, the master flip-flop is disabled and the slave flip-flop is enabled. The slave flip-flop then goes to the same state as the master flip-flop.
In addition to these two flip-flops, the circuit also includes an inverter. The inverter is connected to clock pulse in such a way that the inverted CP is given to the slave flip-flop. For example, if the CP=0 for a master flip-flop, then the output of the inverter is 1, and this value is assigned to the slave flip-flop. In other words if CP=0 for a master flip-flop, then CP=1 for a slave flip-flop.
A master-slave flip flop can be constructed using any type of flip-flop which forms a combination with a clocked RS flip-flop, and with an inverter as slave circuit.
An RS master-slave flip-flop consists of two RS flip-flops; one is the master flip-flop and the other a slave. The inverted CP is given to the slave flip-flop. Now when CP=0, the master flip-flop is disabled. So the external inputs R and S of the master flip-flop will not affect the circuit until CP goes to 1. The inverter output goes to 1 and it enables the slave flip-flop. The output Q=Y and Q’=Y’.
When CP=1, the master flip-flop is enabled and the slave flip-flop remains isolated from the circuit until CP goes back to 0. Now Y and Y’ depends on the external inputs R and S of the master flip-flop.
Assume that the flip-flop is in a clear state and no clock pulse is applied to the circuit. The external inputs given are S=1 and R=0. This input will not affect the state of the system until the CP=1. Now the next clock pulse applied should change the state to SET state (S=1, R=0). During the clock pulse transition from 0 to 1, the master flip-flop goes to set state and changes the output Y to 1. However this does not affect the output of the system since the slave flip-flop is isolated from the system (CP=0 for slave). So no change is observed at the output of the system.
When the CP returns to 0, the master flip-flop is disabled while the slave is enabled. So the information from the master is allowed to pass through to the slave. Since Y=1, this changes the output Q to 1.
In a master slave flip-flop it is possible to change the output of the flip-flop and the external input with same clock pulse. This is because the external input S can be changed at the same time while the pulse goes through its negative edge transition. When CP=0, change in external input S would not affect the state of the system. From this behavior of the master slave flip-flop it is quite clear that the state change in flip-flops coincide with the negative edge transition of the pulse.
Negative edge transition means an inverter is attached between the CP terminal and the input of the slave. In positive edge triggered master slave flip-flops an additional inverter is attached between the CP terminal and the input of the master. Such flip-flops are triggered with negative pulses. Negative edge of the pulse affects the master and positive edge affects the slave.
Timing Diagram
The timing relationship is shown in figure and is assumed that the flip-flop is in the clear state prior to the occurrence of the clock pulse. The output state of the master-slave flip-flop occurs on the negative transition of the clock pulse. Some master-slave flip-flops change output state on the positive transition of the clock pulse by having an additional inverter between the CP terminal and the input of the master.
Let us say that a clock of certain frequency is fed to the FF, and consider the case of JK being 11. The propagation delay of FF is very very less than the clock pulse time.The FF continues complementing the output an unpredictable number of times, thus leading to anomaly in the final output after the pulse time of the clock is completed.At the end the clock pulse, the value of O is uncertain.This continuous toggling of output when clock is HIGH is known asRace Around condition. This can be eliminated by

Clock time should be less than the propagation delay time of the latch.
By using Masterslave JK Flip flop.

Pulse-Triggered Master-Slave
These flip-flops are constructed from two separate flip-flops. The term pulse-triggered means that data are entered into the flip-flop on the leading edge of the clock pulse, but the output does not reflect the input state until the trailing edge of the clock pulse. This is due to the master flip-flop being rising edge triggered and the slave flip-flop being falling edge triggered as illustrated in the figure below.
Master-Slave J-K Flip-Flop
A master slave flip flop is a cascade of two S R flip flops with feedback from the outputs of the second to the inputs of the first. Positive clock pulses are applied to the first flip flop and clock pulses are inverted before these are applied to the second flip flop.
The logic symbol for the master-slave flip-flop only indicates the initial inputs to the master and the outputs from the slave as indicated by the J-K master-slave flip-flop shown in figure
Operation of master-slave J-k flip flop
Whe CK=1, the first flip flop is enabled and the outputs Q and Q(toggle) respond to the J & K according to its truth table.At this time the second flip flop is inhibited because its clock is LOW. When CK goes LOW, the first flip flop is inhibited and the second flip flop is enabled, because now its clock isHIGH.Since the second flip flop simply follows the first one it is referred to as slave and he first one as the master.
Master-slave D flip-flop
Consider the following terms:
RIPPLE THROUGH: An input changes level during the clock period, and the change appears at the output.
PROPAGATION DELAY: The time between applying a signal to an input, and the resulting change in the output.
These problems can be overcome by masterslave D Flip flop.
A master-slave D flip-flop is created by connecting two gated D latches in series, and inverting the enable input to one of them. It is called master-slave because the second latch in the series only changes in response to a change in the first (master) latch.
The term pulse-triggered means that data is entered on the rising edge of the clock pulse, but the output does not reflect the change until the falling edge of the clock pulse.
It responds on the negative edge of the enable input usually a clock.
For a positive-edge triggered master-slave D flip-flop, when the clock signal is low (logical 0) the “enable” seen by the first or “master” D latch (the inverted clock signal) is high (logical 1). This allows the “master” latch to store the input value when the clock signal transitions from low to high. As the clock signal goes high (0 to 1) the inverted “enable” of the first latch goes low (1 to 0) and the value seen at the input to the master latch is “locked”. Nearly simultaneously, the twice inverted “enable” of the second or “slave” D latch transitions from low to high (0 to 1) with the clock signal. This allows the signal captured at the rising edge of the clock by the now “locked” master latch to pass through the “slave” latch. When the clock signal returns to low (1 to 0), the output of the “slave” latch is “locked”, and the value seen at the last rising edge of the clock is held while the “master” latch begins to accept new values in preparation for the next rising clock edge.
By removing the leftmost inverter in the above circuit, a D-type flip flop that strobes on the falling edge of a clock signal can be obtained. The truth table obtained is as follows:
CONVENTIONS:

The circuit is set means output = 1
The circuit is reset means output = 0
Flip-flops have two output Q and Q’ or (Q and Q)
Due to time related characteristic of the flip-flop, Q and Q’ (or Q) are usually represented as followed:
Qt or Q: present state
Qt+1 or Q+: next state

POINTS TO REMEMBER:

When using a real flip-flop, the following information is needed to be considered:
propagation delay (tpLH, tpHL) – time needed for an input signal to produce an output signal
minimum pulse width (tw(min)) – minimum amount of time a signal must be applied
setup and hold time (tsu, th) – minimum time the input signal must be held fixed before and after the latching action.

USES:

A flip-flop is used to store one bit, or binary digit, of data.
Any one of the flip-flop types can be used to build any of the others.
Many logic synthesis tools will not use any other type than D flip-flop and D latch.
Level sensitive latches cause problems with Static Timing Analysis (STA) tools and Design For Test (DFT).
Many FPGA devices contain only edge-triggered D flip-flops
The data contained in several flip-flops may represent the state of a sequencer, the value of a counter, an ASCII character in a computer’s memory or any other piece of information.
One use is to build finite state machines from electronic logic. The flip-flops remember the machine’s previous state, and digital logic uses that state to calculate the next state.
Frequency division: a chain of T flip-flops as described above will also function to divide an input in frequency by 2n, where n is the number of flip-flops used between the input and the output.
Master Slave Flip Flop is useful in eliminating race around condition.
They are used in both asynchronous and clocked sequential systems.

 

Explanation of the General Aggression Model

Abstract

When considering the General Aggression Model, it serves as a model to produce understanding and advice options for why humans act aggressively as entities, within assemblies, or a nation.  The model makes use of three mainframes that give multiple descriptions as to why aggressive inclinations improve during a specific timeframe.  The general aggression model describes three processors used to help researchers give an accurate description as to why individuals develop a destructive state of mind and why it advances over certain periods or whether it is developed through individual people and evolves over specific periods of time or through the nature kingdom or cognitive emotion, that leads to an outcome.  Specific reasons for an individual to develop the psychotic mentality that would give them the desire to even harm people within society could possibly have something to do with one’s environment or negative life experiences that would cause them to behave in an aggressive manner.  Another factor that can contribute in an individual’s mental compacity and bring about violent behavior could be experiences that affect the mental state of and individual or the introduction of negative thoughts from people who represent hate groups or possible terrorist groups.

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Explanation why Anger Develops

     Some offenders develop a type of aggressive behavior even though they may not have grown up in a hostile home environment. It is important to understand how aggression or violent behaviors develops within normal individuals over a lifespan of years.  According to Mikulincer & Shaver (2014) the general aggression module the general aggression module serves the precise purpose of helping researchers to understand how one develops such violent tendencies and the cause for conditions of the violent behavior.  There are many different explanations that researchers have developed when bearing in mind that include the individual’s atmosphere and their complete genetic background. 

     Mikulincer & Shaver (2014) discussed how violence within an individual could formulate over a period of 40 years from childhood to adulthood by way of learning or based on situations that may bring about violent behavioral actions.  Typically, individuals who commit acts of terrorism deal with some type of mental issues or influence by specific cultures or leaders of specific terroristic groups.  Sometimes the young men may easily become influenced by the leaders of terroristic groups due to a lack of attention from their fathers or the fact that they may be homeless with no positive influence in their lives and no outlet for their anger.  They may feel hostility within their government and develop animosity towards specific types of individuals or aim to make a statement by taking innocent lives in the process of performing suicide bombing or other terroristic acts.  The anger issues and hostility tend to develop in people who veer towards terroristic actions at an early age and some may possibly have witnessed hostility within their environment or biologically have some disorders that cause the to react in violent manners.

Factors that Contribute to Aggression

     Some factors that may contribute to anger such as antisocial behavior, aggression and violence.  In hunter/ gathering ancestors 25,000 years ago, aggression and violence played a legitimate part, despite revolutionary modifications in human life.  The various societies within such Greek, Egyptians, and Roman societies were considered thousands of years ago to be brutal and hostile groups (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2014).  Some individuals may have issues that tend to be hereditary or cultural behavior such as cults that are passed down aggressive issues that are reflected on innocent people in society that drives them to take lives and this could be an issue passed down through the individuals’ families.  They may be trained to show aggression and are taught and mind manipulated at young ages to turn their mindset of the government and to be rebellious enough to handle weapons and inflict fear upon societal groups. Through experience of poverty or obtaining family members owing debt terrorist groups may appoint a younger person to join the terrorist group.

    Even nowadays violence and aggression continue to grow round the nation and delinquent behavior tends to involve acts that go against personal or cultural standards for correct behavior.  This typically entails violence and hostility however most of the days. People who behave in a delinquent manner typically interact in abnormal behavior like being deceitful, thieving, and different illegal activities (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2014).   

     It is understood that the universal aggression model tends to focus mainly on how violence unfolds in a single cycle of enduring social dealings ((Mikulincer & Shaver, 2014).  By utilizing GAM (general aggression model) in an effort to better understand anger and some psychological theories of this form of violence includes the frustration-aggression theory, socioecological models, cognitive neoassociation theory, social learning theory, script theory excitation transfer theory, and social interaction theory (DeWall, Anderson, & Bushman, 2011).

     Table 1

Three Issues Within the General Aggression Model

Person and Situation Inputs

The GAM considers both situation and man or woman truth exceptionally enduring traits, motivations, attitudes, beliefs, and different persistent expertise structures and much less enduring cognitive, affective and arousal states that occur in specific contests. Person and situation input are immediate motives in that they supply the most direct guiding force in the back of aggression behavior although the behavior, such as provocation, exposure to weapons, a warm environment, unpleasant odors, loud noises, violent media, and physical pain.

Internal States

Type of therapy introduced to sexual convict that reassures the individual to change their views on their sexual lifestyle and how creation views as it concerns the predator’s communication with people 

Outcomes

Type of plans involving the use of medications such as Depo-Provera that generally drops sexual predator’s testosterone levels which triggers the view that sexual hostility is related to a sort of hormone inequality

Aggression Before and After the Single Episode Cycle

 

Possible Future Benefits of Treatment

     According to Holmes (2011) there is confidence for the growth of behavior for sexual criminals and how society observes the ones convicted of sex crimes.  Seager, Jellicoe, and Dhaliwal (2004) view programs attempting to reverse the criminal sexual habits of sex offenders as a constant problem when assessing the effectiveness of dropping recidivism.  The description of recidivism is the propensity for a felonious sex offender to reiterate sex offenses.  In this sense it is rather difficult for those providing the offender’s treatment, to determine whether or not the convicted felon is dedicated to change or whether the individual is participating in the treatment process just to minimize his or her jail time. 

Not every convicted felon enters into a treatment plan honestly desiring to change their way of conducting themselves in the natural world.  For some individuals, it is not a simple task to get rid of a strong desire that was developed due to specific circumstances that took place in the offender’s youthful years that caused him or her to behave in the manner that they have.  Doren  (2008) states that according to recent studies, there is no true determination of whether psychopaths benefit from certain treatment.  The factors on whether the treatment for sexual deviance behavior is beneficial to the sexual offender is solely based upon the determination and willingness of the felon to deter from their wrongful behavior. 

It is important for these felons to be encouraged to make a change not just so they can be released from prison quicker, but so that they can function as what we deem normal individuals in this world without judgment placed on them simply because of what they have experienced in their youth.  The main purpose of providing psychological and medical treatment to sex offenders is to attempt to cure the mental illness or defect that may cause them  to act out their darkest desires with no remorse or feeling of guilt, which is considered humanistic normality.  If the offender genuinely wants to change their behavior it would be proven through their actions when committing to therapy.  Levenson (2010) insist that when offenders interact within the therapeutic method and skills associated with honest reference to others, psycho-therapy could possibly provide chances for evolving active caring aids that are pertinent for dropping lapse threats.  Even though offenders may receive the therapy they run the risk of turning back to their criminal way and committing the same sex crimes again even after treatment or release after the fact.

Conclusion

        In conclusion, there are many different kinds of sex offenders that exist in the world.  Some offenders have different kinds of sexual fetishes that they tend to act on and in their actions commit major crimes against adults and children.  Commonly, humanity will view these criminals as sick individuals and never think about the possibility of treatment for such a twisted individual.  Even fellow inmates will see a sex offender as a license and consider them as unfit to dwell within society.  Although people may feel that these criminal sexual offenders should be put to death because of the horrible crimes they have committed, others may feel that there is hope for these types of individuals. 

     The assistance that these convicts may be able to receive may consist of cognitive therapy, behavioral therapy, and medical treatment.  Cognitive therapy helps the sexual convict to change their views on their sexual lifestyle and change their views as it deals with interconnection with people.  Behavioral therapy uses incentives such as gifts and penalties to influence the felon’s behavioral patterns.  Another treatment used is the medical treatment which could include medication that will lower the testosterone in the sexual predator so that the aggressive part of their behavior is suppressed.  The types of treatments have had some positive effects on certain offenders who were genuinely attempting to change, however there have been a number of instances where felons have manipulated the process of treatment for personal gain or just to simply seem as if they were trying to do better.  When this occurs, society begins to view these criminals as hopeless individuals who should not be given a second chance at life due to the extent of their actions and crimes committed.  Even though sexually deviant criminals tend to be psychopaths who think they are smarter than law enforcement, their intentions when considering changing their mindset will no doubt become clear as the possibility of treatment is introduced to them.

 References

Doren, D. M., & Yates, P. M. (2008). Effectiveness of Sex Offender Treatment for Psychopathic Consumer Satisfaction and Engagement in Therapy.  International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 52(2), 234–245. 

Holmes, S. T. (2011). Sex crimes: patterns & behaviors (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage  Publications. ISBN-13: 978-1412952989

Levenson, J. S., Prescott, D. S., & D’Amora, D. A. (2010). Sex Offender Treatment: in Prison: Consumer Satisfaction and Engagement in Therapy.  International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 54(3), 307–326. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X08328752

Seager, J.A., Jellicoe, D., & Dhaliwal, G.K. (2004). Refusers, Dropouts, and Completers:  Measuring Sex Offender Treatment Efficacy. International Journal of Offender Therapy    and Comparative Criminology, 48 5, 600-12. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0306624X04263885

 

Explanation of theme

Explanation of Theme
The theme of this spring Carnegie Hall program is painful love. Whether unrequited, long distance, untimely ended, or secret, the types of love represented by the songs on this recital are painful to each of the narrators in a profound way.
Program Notes
Henry Purcell, an English Baroque composer, began his studies at a young age as a chorister in Westminster Abbey, later attending the Westminster School and receiving the position of organist at Westminster Abbey in 1676. He began composing at nine years old and in all, composed 65 strophic songs, 148 theatrical songs, and four main operas, including the famous Dido and Aeneas. By 1690 he was considered a full time composer for the theatrical stage. “Not all my torments,” the first song of the program, comes from Purcell’s Gresham Manuscript and is said to have been written around 1693. It is one of the early composer’s most melismatic pieces and only utilizes four lines of text from an anonymous source, describing a lover’s despair at his unrequited love. The second song “What shall I do?” is derived from Purcell’s opera, Dioclesian, a tragicomedy in five acts written in 1622. The opera is based on the play The Prophetess by John Fletcher and Philip Massinger. The librettist, Thomas Betterton, an English actor born around 1635, had an extensive acting career and collaborated efficiently with Purcell on Dioclesian. “What shall I do?” appears in Act III of the opera, at which point the character asks what he can to do show Aurelia, his love, the way he feels about her without pushing her away. The final Purcell song is “Draw near, you lovers,” poetry by Thomas Stanley. Stanley, English author and translator, wrote “The Exquies” in 1647, from which the text of the song is derived. The narrator describes the pure sadness he feels about his experiences with love and that even in death he feels the turmoil of his misery.

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The next set of songs is by Italian bel canto composer Vincenzo Bellini. He was a child prodigy and began composing at six years old, later continuing his studies at the conservatory in Naples under Nicolo Zingarelli. Considered the “quintessential composer of bel canto opera,” he wrote 12 operas, of which La Sonnambula and Norma are considered his greatest. The four songs on this program are all considered composizioni/romanze da camera, which are songs written for the amateur singer and comparable to miniature arias, with little thought to the fusion of poetry and music. Dedicated to Countess Sofia Voina, “Il fervido desiderio” describes the narrator’s longing to see his lover. “Il fervido desiderio” is no. 1 of Bellini’s Tre Ariette. “Vanne, o rosa fortunata,” number 2 of Sei Ariette, tells the story of someone who envies a rose because, unlike him, it can rest on the bosom of Nice, his true love. In “Vaga luna,” an arietta also from Bellini’s Tre Ariette – number 3 – the speaker sings to the moon of the longing he feels for his far away lover and asks it to relay those feelings to her. The final song of the set is “Per pieta, bell’idol mio,” number 5 from Sei Ariette, in which the speaker begs for his lover to not say he is ungrateful and acknowledges the pain he feels because of his love.
The piece that begins the second half of the recital, “Ah! Mio cor” from Handel’s Alcina, is sung by the character Alcina. Although the character is a soprano role, the aria can be sung by mezzo sopranos as well. Alcina is a sorceress who seduces every knight that arrives on her island and casts a spell on the knight Ruggiero, who then falls in love with her. The aria appears in Act II, Scene 1, at which point Alcina finds out that Ruggiero has escaped from her and describes her pain and unhappiness. Alcina is based on Ludovic Ariosto’s Orlando furioso, an epic poem set around the time of Charlemagne’s rule and is an opera seria consisting of a prologue and four acts. The composer, G.F. Handel, was German-born and at a young age, was already proficient on the pipe organ and harpsichord; he studied composition and the keyboard with Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow. Later moving to Italy and working for the Medici family in Florence, the prolific composer is best known for his numerous operas, oratorios, and concerti.
The “La Maja dolorosa” songs are derived from Enrique Granados’ Coleccion de tonadillas, written in 1910, poetry by Periquet. Granados was a Catalan born Spanish composer influenced strongly by the painter Francesco Goya and is well known for his tonadillas, which are short songs and scenes about everyday life that are written in the vernacular and not danced. These three “La Maja dolorosa” songs trace the terrible feelings a woman experiences after her lover has passed away.
 

The Psychoanalytic Explanation Of Criminal Behaviour

Psychological theories have tried to explain why and how the crime occurs. The psychoanalytic point of view, two main theories: Freud’s theory of stages of sexual development and the theory of addition of Intent by Bowlby in 1947. These theories conclude that there is a correlation between the formation of personality in childhood and future criminal behavior. Freudian theory of development, suggesting that we go through several stages of development; these phases are motivated by his sexual desires. These desires are unconscious elements – driven by internal forces – as claimed by Freud are id, ego and superego.

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want is impulsive individual, which is regulated by the superego. The ego operates on the socially desirable. The works herein in accordance with the pleasure principle, which can be interpreted as an obligation to take care of immediate needs (for example, this could relate to the conduct fly). Those requirements are explored through the innocent children – through the four stages of sexual development. Freud’s theory believes that crime is affected by mental disorders, which caused a conflict between id, ego and superego, or it may be the result of incorrect recording of one of the stages of development. This mental disorder is often manifested as behavioral problems such as aggression or social passivity.
Therefore, Freud would say that crime is caused by a difficulty not overcome childhood. The adult shows criminal behavior has developed a personality defect, on the basis of the conflict, impulsivity and aggression. Freudian theorists believe that this conflict during his childhood or his early years was the adult without the capacity to feel empathy, remorse, regret or guilt, and failed to develop a sense of right or wrong. Therefore, the theory of Freud believes that crime is the result of personality defects that have been affected by disruption and lack of progression in stages of development has occurred in childhood.
In addition Bowlby (1947) and Ainsworth (1969) also explored the idea that early childhood experiences can affect adult behavior and delinquency perspective. Bowlby (1947) research on young offenders found that offenders, as the children had lost contact with the separation or experience with their natural mother were more prone to delinquency in adolescence. Ainsworth also looking for children and temporary separation from their mother or encourages children to antisocial act – either to withdraw or show aggressive tendencies. These studies have added support for the concept of attachment theory, which implies that social factors in the life of one person can affect the likelihood of crime and / or criminal activities.
Glueck and Glueck (1950) conducted a comprehensive review of over 400 factors and their potential to cause juvenile delinquency. We compared a control group of 18 men 500 11 youths to an experimental group of 500 young people of similar age who were in institutions for juvenile offenders. The results showed that young offenders were 1.5 times more likely to have experienced a distant relationship with his mother. In addition, parenting skills also seem to have an impact on the likelihood of criminal behavior.
For instance criminal boys were 2 times more likely to have experienced physical punishment to their parents. In addition, he found Glueck and Glueck (1950), parenting skills, parent of the child criminal were 2 times more likely to be incompatible with their discipline techniques, compared to non-criminal families. In addition, they received most of the boys interviewed (93%) of homes where it has been lax parental supervision, and they were allowed to make their own decisions. Therefore, these results suggest that the attachment or association between a child and their primary care entity is important in personality formation and development of their moral beliefs.
This research also shows how the use of the death of parents can be a cause of crime and anti-social and criminal. However, later research was to show that this conclusion is incorrect. Subsequent studies have indicated that parental permissiveness was a cause of juvenile delinquency and aggression. This last point is a critique of the Freudian approach to parenting. Freudian theorists argue that parents should be permissive and allow children to fight their way through situations without the main problem causing internal injuries in children by being too strict in its expectations with your child. Freudian theory is convinced that a healthy development can be encouraged by warm parent-child bond, which the child is helped to reveal the interactive discourse and reveal unconscious conflicts, which impede the progress of the child. This is why Freud’s theory suggests that anti-social or criminal behavior is strongly influenced by early experiences and abilities of the child to progress effectively during sex.
The problem with the evaluation of Freudian theory and attachment in the lack of scientific validation of these theories has gained. Freud himself said that his theory does not need empirical testing. Therefore, it was suggested that Freud’s psychological beliefs were mainly based on subjective speculation theory (Torrey, 1992). But this statement leads to significant problems in replicating studies and reliability testing. Arguably, the personality and behavior is an individual property – but on the evaluation of the relationship between psychological theories and crime, it is impossible to treat each person as an individual entity.
The reports are often general and said that juvenile offenders are likely to commit a crime, that is, to evaluate this argument is also important for reliable studies on this. Therefore, the above account lacks reliability and validity of the possibility – due to differences in methods of investigation that these studies used to collect, and generalize the results. Most of the research, which tries to find an association between childhood events and the behavior of adults against questionable validity – the nature of the material they are seeking.
For example, the assessment of childhood experiences is difficult – because it is retrospective information. If they rely on self-reported information is open to distortions, development or minimization of events. In addition, if the details of criminal behavior or child care impacts the professional look, but can also be distorted due to the nature of relying on a third person to interpret the events of the person concerned. Therefore, must be brought to your attention that the evaluation of the relationship between early experiences of crime and is a complicated issue that can not have a clear conclusion to be drawn. Another complication involved in the evaluation of psychological theories such as attachment theory is that the conclusions are highly dependent on social and cultural ideologies of childhood and acceptable behavior. For example, children and parents from different social groups and different cultures interact differently.
This means that what has to be lax parenting techniques in a social circle can be considered different in the second. Similarly, the concept of criminal behavior is also determined by political ideology, and how societies view certain types of behavior. Different societies and cultures can tolerate certain types of behavior than others. Another complication in the evaluation of psychological theories, such as the Freudian approach to personal development is not taking into account the environmental effects that may influence the early years of the child, for example, parents of the above, but other social factors may play an important role in whether a person may be exposed or involved in criminal activities.
For example, social adaptation, examines the factors that prevent an individual to commit crimes or act different way. Factors that may affect companies in this way for people to meet the desirable behavior may include education, family, church, social networks and communities where they live While Freud’s theory does not address how moral development occurs during childhood but it is not practical to include as social interaction can affect your inner thoughts.
In conclusion, based on the theories of Freud and the attachment to assess the relationship between early life experiences and crime we have had little scientific evidence that criminal behavior is the result of the experiments childhood. Given the likelihood that parental figure will be involved in the early years of a person’s life, parenting styles have been posted in this discussion. But the evidence cited above gives mixed views on whether certain parenting techniques adopted during childhood have a significant impact on how a young adult would act in the future. It may be useful to evaluate other factors such as environmental and social aspects as well as psychological factors, such as individuals, children and adults react to situations in your life as a child and an adult on growth. It is possible that some life events may have influenced the individual response to anti-social way – however, if these events do not occur in the first years of life, psychological theories such as Freud and founder of the theory can collect important indicators of potential and actual criminal behavior.
 

Explanation of Types and Plants

Chapter 2
Multiferroics
2.1 Introduction to Multiferroics:
H. Schmid used the term multiferroic for the first time in 1994. Those materials which combine multiple ferroic properties such as ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity and ferroelasticity are known as multiferroics. Simultaneous coexistence of at least two ferroic properties takes place in the same phase in multiferroics. It has the feasibility of exhibiting coupling between ferroelectricity and magnetism which is known as the magnetoelectric effect (ME). This ME enables the external electric field to change magnetization [1].

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Each multiferroic property is closely connected to symmetry. The principal ferroic properties can be characterized by their behavior under time and space inversion. For example the direction of polarization P is reversed by Space inversion while leaving the magnetization M invariant. In turn, time reversal will change the sign of M, while the sign of P remains invariant.

 

Space invariant

Space variant

Time invariant

Ferroelastic

Ferroelectric

Time variant

Ferromagnetic

Ferrotoroidic

A simultaneous violation of space and time inversion symmetry is required by Magnetoelectric multiferroics [2].
There are also various potential applications of multiferroic such as information storage, spintronics, sensors and microelectronics devices in the field of material science due to the presence of strong coupling of electric, magnetic and structural order parameters. These parameters gave rise to simultaneous occurrence of ferroelectricity, ferroelasticity and ferromagnetism [3].
Application of magnetic field can induce intrinsic polarization and application of external electric field can induce magnetization in any magnetoelectric compound. Apart of industrial application, these coupling of properties in magnetoelectric compounds makes them important from physics point of view because of their enriched physical properties. However very few materials shows both these ferroic properties at or above room temperature [4].
Two fundamental forces of nature are magnetism and electricity. Combination of these two properties in a single multiferroic material is applicable for many practical applications such as they can be used as magnetic sensors in which the sign of their electric polarization changes with a small magnetic field. These effects are important to understand as multiferroics are not only quite rare but their properties also helps to develop materials where these effects are suitably strong for applications.
A beam of x-rays are used to study the magnetic properties of multiferroics. The electronic states of the iron ions in the crystal are specifically probed by the x-rays which are related to its magnetic properties. This experiment reveals that these electronic states extend throughout the material in a periodic manner. It breaks the crystal symmetry and leads to a shift of the electrically charged atoms in the crystal which is responsible for multiferroic properties.
Each iron atoms is surrounded by a symmetric arrangement of oxygen atoms and the magnetic moments of the iron atoms are in disorder at room temperature whereas the magnetic moments are assumed to have the shape of a screw at low temperatures. The energy of the chemical bonds are slightly altered by each magnetic moment in the crystal which depends on the relative orientation between the chemical bond direction and the magnetic moment. The resulting force distorts the crystal structure which leads to an electric polarization [5].
Recently, multiferroics due to their potential properties such as comprising of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic ordering in elastically distorted systems have drawn a major attention of researchers for fabrication of magnetic and ferroelectric devices. High dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, high temperature phase transition and small structural distortion occurs mainly due to the electric, magnetic and stress field applied on the materials for multifunctional applications. In the process of development of new materials, many novel materials have been detected for different purposes due to their useful and interesting properties [6].
2.2 Types of Multiferroics:
Multiferroics can be divided into two groups:

Type-I Multiferroics2) Type-II Multiferroics

Type-I Multiferroics:

This type of multiferroics are older, more numerous and are good ferroelectrics. Above room temperature, the critical temperatures of the magnetic and ferroelectric transitions can be well. In these materials, the coupling between magnetism and ferroelectricity is unfortunately weak [14]. Different origin of ferroelectricity and magnetism in type-I multiferroic are mostly due to different active subsystems of a material. There is a certain coupling between breaking time reversal symmetry, breaking spatial inversion symmetry, ferroelectric order parameter, magnetic order parameter in such type-I multiferroics. In these materials, ferroelectricity can have a number of possible microscopic origins [7].
For example: BiFeO3 with the ferroelectric transition temperature Tc higher then the Neel transition temperature TN. [8]

Type-II Multiferroics:

Due to the recent discovery of a novel class of multiferroics, there is the biggest excitement as ferroelectricity exists only in a magnetically ordered state and is caused by a particular type of magnetism. A nonzero electric polarization occurs in the low temperature phase [14] . For example CuFeO2 with Tc = TN [15].
The magnetic and/or electric polarization of the barrier controls the current driven through a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with a multiferroic tunnel barrier. Multiferroic tunnel junctions is referred to the junctions with a multiferroic tunnel barrier. The use of a multiferroic material as a tunnel barrier and ferromagnetic materials as leads in MFTJs would lead to 8 possible resistive states of such junctions [9].

Figure 1.3: Multiferroic tunneljunction (left) and eight resistive states that it provides (right). The ferroelectric polarization is depicted with the black arrow; the white arrow stands for the magnetization.
Cupric Ferrite (CFO): type-II multiferroic has attracted increasing attention due to the recent discovery of ferroelectricity in the first magnetic field induced phase. It is considered as a distinct class of magnetoelectric (ME) multiferroics [10]. Magnetic field induced generates a spontaneous electric polarization parallel to the helical axis in delafossite compound CuFeO2 [11]. Delafossite crystals have general formula ABO2, where A represents cations which are linearly co-ordinated with two oxygen ions and B represents cations, situated in distorted edge-sharing BO6 octahedra [12]. The materials possesse R m space group and have found very useful device applications because of different properties such as superconductivity, large magnetoresistance, thermoelectric effects and multiferroicity [13]. It has Hexagonal crystal structure.

Figure 1.Crystal structure of CuFeO2 with the hexagonal unit cell [14]
These effects make them potential candidates for device applications in such kind of multiferroic materials. CFO was first discovered by Friedel and Hebd12 in 1873 and it is considered to be one of the promising materials of this group [15].
CFO was broadly studied in past decade due to its pleasing antiferromagnetic properties at liquid helium temperatures. Numerous magnetic phase transitions and multiferroicity due to geometrical frustrations at low temperature are seen by this antiferromagnet on a triangular lattice [16, 17, 18, 19].
The delafossite structure of CFO consists of hexagonal layers of Cu, O and Fe accumulated with a Cu-O-Fe sequence along the c-axis in order to form a layered triangular lattice antiferromagnet. It is a p-type semiconductor with low conductivity σ=1.53 53 S/cm, high Seebeck coefficient S=544 V/K, and a small bandgap of 1.15 eV. The electrical and optoelectrical properties of CFO were explored by by Benko and Koffyberg [20, 21].
By combining two of the fundamental forces of nature i.e magnetism and electricity in a single multiferroic material in which one controls the other is not only of basic interest, but also significant for practical applications. Multiferroic materials can also be used as magnetic sensors in which the sign of their electric polarization is changed with a small magnetic field. A new mechanism has been verified after studying the properties of the multiferroic CuFeO2 by which magnetism and electricity can be coupled in a single material. Magnetism and ferroelectricity are coupled in different ways in multiferroics. Apart of multiferroics being quite rare, a better understanding of their properties is essential as it helps to develop materials where these effects are suitably strong for applications. the magnetic properties of CuFeO2 using a beam of x-rays were studied by the researchers. This study reveals that these electronic states extend throughout the material in a periodic manner which is directly responsible for the multiferroic properties as it breaks the crystal symmetry and leads to a shift of the electrically charged atoms in the crystal. Each of the iron atoms is surrounded by a symmetric arrangement of oxygen atoms and the magnetic moments of the iron atoms are in disorder at room temperature.
The energy of the chemical bonds is slightly altered by each magnetic moment in the crystal which depends on the relative orientation between the magnetic moment and the chemical bond direction. The crystal structure is then distorted by the resulting force which leads to an electric polarization [22].
Several routes for the synthesis of multiferroics are being applied such as solid state synthesis hydrothermal synthesis, sol-gel processing, Sol-Gel autocombustion, vacuum based deposition, floating zone [23]. In the present study, modified Sol-Gel autocombustion technique is used.
Processing techniques influence the physical properties and the ideal synthesis techniques provide superior control over the parameters such as crystallite size, distribution of particle sizes and interparticle spacing which have the greatest impact on the magnetic and other properties [24, 25]. In present work we have adopted sol-gel auto-combustion technique because of some advantages over other methods like the reagents are simple compounds, special equipments are not required, agglomeration of powders remains limited and dopant can be easily introduced into the final product. The properties of the final product such as particle size, surface area and porosity depend on the method of combustion [26, 27]
2.3 Plants:
According to the literature reviews, various microorganisms such as fungi, yeasts algae and bacteria are used for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles but presently a new trend has come to force the use of plants for the fabrication of nanoparticles because of its spontaneous, economical, eco-friendly protocol, suitable for large scale production and single step technique for the biosynthesis process [28].
The major mechanism examined for the synthesis of nanoparticles mediated by the plants is due to the presence of phytochemicals which are responsible for the spontaneous reduction of ions are flavonoids, terpenoids, carboxylic acids, quinones, aldehydes, ketones and amides [29].
The botanical details about the currently used flowers for the study of synthesis of Cupric Ferrite are as follows:

Delonix Regia [30]

Rank

Scientific Name and Common Name

Kingdom

Plantae – Plants

Subkingdom

Tracheobionta – Vascular plants

Superdivision

Spermatophyta – Seed plants

Division

Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants

Class

Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons

Subclass

Rosidae

Order

Fabales

Family

Fabaceae ⁄ Leguminosae – Pea family

Genus

Delonix Raf. – delonix

Species

Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf. – royal poinciana

Rosa indica: [31]

Rank

Scientific Name and Common Name

Kingdom

Plantae – Plants

Subkingdom

Tracheobionta – Vascular plants

Superdivision

Spermatophyta – Seed plants

Division

Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants

Class

Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons

Subclass

Rosidae

Order

Rosales

Family

Rosaceae – Rose family

Genus

Rosa L. – rose

Species

Rosa indica L. – cyme rose

Vinca [32]

Rank

Scientific Name and Common Name

Kingdom

Plantae – Plants

Subkingdom

Tracheobionta – Vascular plants

Superdivision

Spermatophyta – Seed plants

Division

Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants

Class

Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons

Subclass

Asteridae

Order

Gentianales

Family

Apocynaceae– Dogbane family

Genus

Vinca L. – periwinkle

 

Hibiscus [33]

Rank

Scientific Name and Common Name

Kingdom

Plantae – Plants

Subkingdom

Tracheobionta – Vascular plants

Superdivision

Spermatophyta – Seed plants

Division

Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants

Class

Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons

Subclass

Dilleniidae

Order

Malvales

Family

Malvaceae – Mallow family

Genus

Hibiscus L. – rosemallow

Species

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. – shoeblackplant

Jasmine [34]

Rank

Scientific Name and Common Name

Kingdom

Plantae – Plants

Subkingdom

Tracheobionta – Vascular plants

Superdivision

Spermatophyta – Seed plants

Division

Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants

Class

Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons

Subclass

Asteridae

Order

Scrophulariales

Family

Oleaceae – Olive family

Genus

Jasminum L. – jasmine

Euphobia milli [35]

Rank

Scientific Name and Common Name

Kingdom

Plantae – Plants

Subkingdom

Tracheobionta – Vascular plants

Superdivision

Spermatophyta – Seed plants

Division

Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants

Class

Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons

Subclass

Rosidae

Order

Euphorbiales

Family

Euphorbiaceae – Spurge family

Genus

Euphorbia L. – spurge

Alamanda [36]

Rank

Scientific Name and Common Name

Kingdom

Plantae – Plants

Subkingdom

Tracheobionta – Vascular plants

Superdivision

Spermatophyta – Seed plants

Division

Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants

Class

Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons

Subclass

Asteridae

Order

Gentianales

Family

Apocynaceae – Dogbane family

Genus

Allamanda L. – allamanda

Species

Allamanda cathartica L. – golden trumpet

References
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[6] Jyoshna Rout, R. Padhee, Piyush R. Das and R.N.P. Choudhary, Adv. Appl. Phy. 1 105, (2013).
[7] Daniel Khomskii, Classifying multiferroics: Mechanisms and effects, Am. J. Phys. 2, 20 (2009).
[8] Randy Fishman, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Monday, 22 September, 2014
[9] http://inside.hlrs.de/htm/Edition_01_11/article_11.html
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[20] F. A. Benko and F. P. Koffyberg, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 45, 57 (1984).
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[22] Tanaka, Y., et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 127205 (2012).
[23] D. Varshney et al., J. Alloys Compd. 509, 8421 (2011)
[24] Candac T S, Carpenter E E, O’Connor C J, John V T and Li S, IEEE Trans. Magn. 34, 1111 (1998).
[25]Pillai V, Kumar P, Hou M J, Ayyub P and Shah D O,Adv. Coll. Int. Sc. 55, 241 (1995).
[26] Aruna S T and Patil K C, Nano Structr. Mater. 10, 955 (1998).
[27]M.Y. Salunkhe, D.S. Choudhry, D.K. Kulkarni, Vibr. Spectrosc. 34, 221 (2004)
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[30] http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=DERE
[31] http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=ROIN5
[32] http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=VINCA
[33] http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=HIRO3
[34]https://plants.usda.gov/java/ClassificationServlet?source=display&classid=JASMI
[35]https://plants.usda.gov/java/ClassificationServlet?source=display&classid=EUPHO
[36] http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=ALCA7
 

Explanation of How the Brain Works and How Changes can affect Behaviour

This approach tries to explain how the brain works and how changes in structure and function can affect some ones behaviour.
The first factor is Neuroanatomy which studies the brain’s anatomy and neural structures. Evidence by Raine et al (1997) included a study of 41 murderers and compared them with 41 control subjects by PET scans; this showed a lack of activity in the prefrontal cortex of the murderer’s brains which controls emotions and reasoning (emergency brake). The strength of this type of study is that it is scientific, looking at cause and effect and can result in effective treatment. However, Porrino and Lyons (2000) did a study on the prefrontal cortex and showed there may be other causes for the person’s lack of control. This could involve social and environmental issues or prolonged drug use such as cocaine. Neuroanatomy has given us a greater understanding of a living brain both into mental illness, and anti-social behaviour, but we cannot just rely on this form of science as it is only part of the jigsaw.

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Another theory is brain Biochemistry ‘Rivers of the mind’ (Rita Carter1998); which looks at the effect that chemicals, such as hormones or neurotransmitters have on mood and behaviour. One of these neurotransmitters, Dopamine, is involved with behaviour and emotions. Wise and Stein (1973) studied schizophrenia in patients who had died leading to the ‘Dopamine Hypothesis’; that schizophrenia is thought to be the result of overstimulation of Dopamine (D2) receptor in the mesolimbic and mesocortical systems. This suggested that schizophrenia can be treated by chemicals not taking into account any other approaches. However, the individual is not helped to take responsibility for their own actions. This may also make the person feel alienated by a purely biological prognosis.
Biochemical research has made remarkable improvements in mental health and anti-social behaviour through drug treatment; but dependency can lead to problems. This can be countered by naturally increasing ‘feel good’ chemicals such as Serotonin through healthy eating and exercise rather than traditional drug therapy (M.Copson 2007).
Infection may also change someone’s behaviour through its effect on the brain. A paper by S Barondes (1990) reported that in the 20 Century half the patients in psychiatric hospitals had a disorder called Dementia Paralytica. Henry (1941) investigated this and found a connection with a late manifestation of syphilis. Treatment came through penicillin and the disease and associated dementia was eradicated.
This case is a strong argument for the fact that one diagnosis does not mean a final solution. Further investigation by other approaches showed that what they thought was a mental illness was in fact the result of infection. This case would have been easy to solve if at the time we had technology such as PET scans like those researched by D. Geffen (University of California 2006) to identify that they didn’t have dementia. There are not many clear links between infection and behaviour. This may be due to the fact that modern medicine quickly eradicates infection before it becomes a mental problem.
A further factor is Genetics; the study of hereditary traits and how they affect behaviour. Studies by E Viding et al (2005) on over 3600 twin pairs showed behaviour problems in psychopathic children was due to 80% genetic hereditary influence. Genetic diagnosis like this is very scientific and can be backed up by data and evidence from studies. The fact that we can study twins with the same DNA makes results look conclusive. However, Paul Bennett (2003) made the point that, if parents treated them exactly the same, they could be influenced by environmental factors and not solely by genes. This approach also does not account for free will, social influence and reinforcement, especially between very close identical twins.
Lastly, Evolution, also known as Neo Darwinism believes that we have dormant animal instincts in our sub-conscious mind, explaining some anti-social behaviours or phobias. Rita Carter (1998) writes how homo-sapiens became stronger than Neanderthals because they had developed greater awareness of their environment and better survival instincts such as the fear of spiders and heights. These factors may be why today certain people have the same fears and lose control when their sub-conscious mind takes over. However, some fears may have been learned by association and been influenced by the parent, creating a phobia in the mind by reinforcement of the fear. Many behaviours classed as anti-social, such as male promiscuity or racism were probably once of benefit and still exist in our brains (R. Carter 1998). Some may be down to social influence but there is a strong case for their evolutionary link.
Psychodynamic Approach
The psychodynamic approach was mainly initiated by Sigmund Freud. His research proposed three theories.
His ‘Theory of the Unconscious’ described three levels; the conscious mind, being only the small amount we perceive to know at that moment in time. The pre-conscious would be something that we are aware of but not conscious of. The unconscious mind is what we are unaware of and out of the reach of the conscious mind. Freud believed that the unconscious mind controlled much of our behaviour and actions (R. Gross 2005).
This theory came about after the treatment of ‘Anna O’ by Freud and Breuer (1880). It showed a girl who suffered an illness for over two years which resulted in a series of physical and psychological disturbances; there were no signs of biological illness. Freud and Breuer treated Bertha with psychoanalytical techniques and cured her symptoms (S. Freud 1909). However, it may have been due to a biological reason such as epilepsy as described by Orr-Andrawes (1987).
Freud carried on with this research and came up with the ‘Theory of Personality’, which had three basic components, the Id, Ego and Superego. The Id is driven by basic instincts of aggression and sex; the ‘pleasure principle’. The Superego on the other end of the scale is one of controlling desires. The Ego has the role of balancing the Id and Superego out. If there is an imbalance of these three personalities, there could be a situation of mental health problems. With the Id it could result in animal behaviour or sexual aggression and with the Superego this could lead to anxiety or neurosis.
This leads to our childhood development; Freuds ‘Theory of Psychosexual Development’ which has five stages. The first stage is known as oral, where a child receives pleasure from the area of the mouth. At this point the child is in Id personality. The second anal stage has the child finding pleasure through anal means; here the child develops Ego. Further stages are phallic (3-5 years) which involves the Oedipus complex and develops the Superego. From 5-puberty is the latent stage moving onto the genital stage where the sexual Id returns in adolescence (P. Bennett 2003). Freud believed that if a child did not progress through these stages that they would develop behaviour problems. However, he was unable to predict behaviour from this theory and only used adult case studies, rather than looking at children (K. Cherry Psychological Guide 2010).
Freud’s ideas had a great impact on Psychology and are still used today. Anna ‘O’ and Little Hans gave credible support to Freud’s theories and his approach helped causes of mental disorder with no physical or biological symptoms. However, Freud’s theories were not in a controlled environment and were open to bias and lacked scientific support. Freud was on cocaine at the time and his theories are too deterministic; not taking into account the ability of free will.
Behavioural Approach
This approach believes behaviour is learnt by our experiences, association or environmental influences.
Classical Conditioning is known as stimulus-response learning. Ivan Pavlov (1901) studied dogs’ salivation. He noticed dogs started to salivate when food entered the room. He rang a bell when giving the dog food. He then took away the food on later visits and just rang the bell. The dog still produced saliva. This proved the dog had learnt that the bell represented feeding time; a conditioning reflex. The neutral stimulus (the bell) had become a conditioned stimulus (P. Bennett 2003). This at first seemed the solution to changing behaviour, but after time if no reward was given the behaviour returned back to pre-conditioned state.
In the case of Operant Conditioning Skinner (1953) designed a puzzle box for a rat or pigeon. Skinner’s analysis of behaviour was the ABC of operant conditioning:

Antecedents: the stimulus conditions, such as a light going on when a lever is pressed.
Behaviours: operants, such as pressing the lever
Consequences: what happens as a result; reinforcement or punishment? (R. Gross 2005)

He showed that behaviour can be guided by reward or punishment; rewarded behaviour will increase in frequency, where as punished behaviour will not be repeated (P. Bennett 2003).
Finally, Social Learning is by association from other people or environment. This can be shown with individuals imitating their role models, such as the media influencing people’s appearance through magazines with slim models getting paid lots of money and gaining high stature. This may have caused eating disorders in females, revolving around identity and body image (Gordon 2001 from R. Gross 2005). However, eating disorders can be a result of a number of factors such as genetics in twin studies so it is not necessarily that simple (A J Holland 1984).
In conclusion, the behavioural approach has provided strong counter arguments to the nature side of the nature-nurture debate and behaviourists have produced many practical applications, some of which have been very effective. It can be argued that behaviourists ignore innate biases in learning due to evolution and inherited factors and that their research was all in scientific laboratories and had no environmental considerations.
Cognitive Approach
Cognitive thinking involves conscious mental processes like a computer. The brain organises and manipulates information from daily life. This can be seen in the ‘cognitive triad’ (what we think about ourselves and the world affects how we feel about ourselves and the world, which affects the way we act).
Cognitive disorders can be caused by dysfunctional thought processes which can lead to depression, phobias, aggression and even anorexia. The information about how we think and behave can be altered by psychological therapy; correcting the thought processes of a person who over generalises and magnifies a particular problem. This therapy would also stop the person looking at life in a way where they question themselves; ‘I should have done that’, ‘I should look this way’. These feelings can create a cognitive disorder in the brain leading to a feeling of worthlessness. Reilly (1998) demonstrated this through a case study on treating a suicidal patient and decreasing their hopelessness.
In a case like Clive Wearing (who has no long term memory after contracting a virus), cognitive psychologists were able to identify that it was his hippocampus that had been affected, which sends messages from short-term to long-term memory, but cognitive therapy would not have helped cure his case due to the permanent damage caused to his brain.
The strengths of the cognitive approach are that it is scientific and the theories can be tested, like in the case of Clive Wearing. It can also explain the irrational behaviour of a person through cognitive disorders by the process of therapy and identifying malfunctioning thought processes, giving treatment to create a positive outlook. This approach has given explanations to many aspects of human behaviour and it also takes into consideration many of the other approaches in psychology.
Its weaknesses are that it ignores social and cultural factors and the emotional effects of human life. It assumes that information processes apply to everyone. The rule is however, that the more complex the cognitive process is, the more likely there are to be individual differences (Parkin 2000).
The Social Approach:
The Social Approach has a great deal to do with the environment the person is in. The assumptions made about behaviour come down to the fact that; it occurs in a social context, even when nobody else is physically present and that people’s behaviour, thought processes and emotions are influenced by other people and society (G.Hill 2009). This idea does not take into account the fact that people bring with them individual differences (learnt or inherited) into social contexts and that this can affect their behaviour.
Zimbardo et al (1973)’s prison simulation experiment showed how dressing up as a prison guard with the power that went with it, altered the behaviour of normal thinking males to one of a controlling tyrannical person. According to Latane (1981) the readiness of someone to take on another role is down to the social impact theory; strength (or importance) of the influencer, the number of influencers and the immediacy of the influencers. This study used scientifically objective methods to support its theory and therefore gave a good understanding of behaviour. It was largely field based and therefore imitated real life. However, Zimbardo’s subjects knew they were in a controlled experiment and could have ‘played up’ to their roles. They may also have been influenced by their own experiences of power stereotypes. The study could not account for these factors and like many field experiments lacked control, therefore its evidence is weakened.
Social Psychology considers the importance of conformity and obedience as a large factor in behaviour. From 1933 to 1945 soldiers followed orders blindly and millions of innocent people were slaughtered on command. This could have only been carried out by a large number of people obeying orders from one person. This shows obedience can overcome free will by the importance of the influencer and the coercive power which involves punishment for non-compliance. The social approach can give a good understanding of why such an atrocity can occur through the orders of one person and influence a whole nation. It can be argued, however, that it does not take into consideration past history and the ethos of conflicting beliefs. Despite its weaknesses, the social approach does provide many explanations for numerous phenomena and has many useful practical applications in the field of psychology.
There are a number of similarities across the 5 approaches; some are compared below:
Biological and Cognitive approaches share a common view of the brain; neuroanatomy looks at the structure of the brain and behaviour, whilst the cognitive approach thinks of the brain as a computer. These links are clearly shown in the case of Clive Wearing, where an infection caused his memory loss.
The Psychodynamic approach links to the Biological, Social and Cognitive approaches. Its theory of personality shares a belief in the evolutionary animal instinct appearing as the Id, whilst the unconscious mind theory links closely to the Cognitive idea that our unknown brain processes control our behaviour. Freud’s psychosexual development compares closely with the Social approach that believes our childhood social experiences shape our actions.
Finally, the Behavioural approach is very closely compared with the Social approach. Operant conditioning believes in learning by reinforcement, this is similarly shown through coercive control e.g. Hitler. Both these approaches also believe that behaviour can be affected by the environment and people, even the media through social learning and influence.
Despite these similarities, there are lots of contrasting views on how specific approaches deal with abnormalities and gather their evidence. The treatment of anorexia nervosa is a good example as it has been studied in nearly all approaches.
The Biological approach studied identical twins (A J Holland et al 1984) and through scientific evidence gathering of identical twin pairs was able to draw a link to the illness and genetics. Freud’s Psychodynamic approach on the other hand, gathers theoretical information by speaking to patients with the disease. Bruch (1991) applied his ideas to the theory of development arguing that the parents of anorexics tend to be domineering, and the disorder represents an attempt to gain a sense of control. The Behavioural approach associated the illness with the effects of social learning, especially by media. A scientific study by Nasser (1986) gathered evidence of Egyptian women who had moved to the west and since developed anorexia. Both theoretical and scientific studies are used by the Cognitive approach. This approach believes it is a cognitive disorder that causes dysfunctional thought processes, with patients having an over importance of body weight and shape (Beck et al 1979). Patients are talked to about their feelings and attitudes to gather information. Finally, the Social approach looks at anorexia in much the same way as the behavioural approach. Its Social Impact Theory would class the thin role models as strong influencers who demonstrate that being thin is the social norm. Evidence gathering could be via scientific field studies and questionnaires to gather attitudes.
Without knowing all the facts all we can do is surmise how the five approaches may be seen in Mike’s aggression.
The Biological Approach
Mike may have become increasingly aggressive from a conflict at work; this may also be the reason why he was late home. Mike’s anxiety levels maybe high, brought on by a possible chemical imbalance in the brain. For example, testosterone has been thought to be implicated in aggression (Simpson 2001) and it is more likely to have increased with anxiety. Mike may also have been having problems with sleeping due to any problems at work; Serotonin is produced from good sleep patterns and can be increased by exercise and eating a naturally carbohydrate rich diet (Mary Ann Copson 2007). If Mike’s Serotonin levels are low due to lack of sleep or poor diet, this could have affected his mood and even brought on depression. Serotonin is known to be a feel good factor for the brain and can help reduce aggression brought on by testosterone (P. Bennett 2003), so a rise in testosterone and a lack of Serotonin could double the problem. Sapolsky (1997) however, suggest that it may actually be the other way around and aggression may actually increase testosterone.
The Psychodynamic Approach
Mike’s aggression may possibly come from his unconscious mind. He may not be aware of his drives and instincts. Freud believed that the unconscious mind had two conflicting instincts; Eros (life) and Thanatos (death). Thanantos was self destructive while Eros has to fight for life. This conflict between the two has to be released outwards towards others, before they cause self destruction.
Mike came from a family that had not controlled their violence and he witnessed much of this as a child. This period of childhood could have been when the Ego took control of his personality and should have been taught to him by his parents. This may not have happened and as a result the Ego could not control the Thanatos, while Eros may not have had the strength to balance the Id and Superego. Consequently, Mike may have become neurotic or even psychotic with his Ego being suppressed. The Id may have taken charge and then the Ego has to perform a defence mechanism called displacement and have aggressive outbursts on Mandy, instead of sublimation and releasing the destructive force through something like sport.
The Behaviour Approach
Mike’s family are violent and aggressive; he witnessed this as a child and this may have shaped his thoughts of a family environment, believing violence was part of normal life. Mike may have learned this through a term called operant conditioning and believes that performing an aggressive act towards a person can be a way of avoiding negative consequences. There may be a likelihood of Mike’s parents reinforcing his outbursts with praise whilst growing up. Bandura, Ross and Ross (1963) showed through experiments that children who watched adults hit a Bobo doll thought it was acceptable to be aggressive. Mike may also have learned to imitate his father in the role of head of the house by being violent and when he had his own family with Mandy, took on this role that he had once imitated.
The Cognitive Approach
Mike’s aggression could be down to the way his brain is processing information. Mike may be suffering depression or anxiety problems, perhaps because of problems at work. This may be making him magnify his problems and over generalise his life, making him feel he should be angry with himself and thinking negatively about his future.
When Mandy confronts him over his failure to call her, this may have made him feel rejected and reinforced his views of life and negativity; this may have had an effect on his physiological condition which made him act inappropriately and hit Mandy.
The Social Approach
Mike may have met up with some friends to watch a football match. He may have been wearing his favourite team’s strip like his friends, which made him feel like part of a collective group with one identity. Mike may have been feeling after the game that he wasn’t an individual with responsibilities and this loosened his inhibitions.
This was shown by Hogg and Vaughan (1998), where they showed how an individual can lose their identity and engage in anti-social behaviour. When Mandy confronted him for his actions and showed him disregard, he became aggressive and hit her for undermining his thought processes of being a strong male in a group. Whilst wearing his team top with pride he felt that his behaviour would be acceptable by the group and did not think as an individual.
Psychology Assignment References
Barondes, S (1990): The Biological Approach to Psychiatry. The Journal of Neuroscience; volume 10; p1707 – 1710
Bennett, P (2003): Abnormal and Clinical Psychology. Oxford University Press; chapter 1; p 19 / chapter 2; p 31; p38; p39 / chapter 3; p 73 / p 271; p 342
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Explanation of Employee Motivation

Introduction
Employee motivation is a very integral part of everyday business and has been recognized by countless organizations. According to (Simon & Enz, 1995) it is the factor which encourages people to select a particular job, continue working there, while putting in one’s best effort. Another definition for employee motivation is the desire to make huge efforts in achieving goals for the respective organization, while recognizing efforts capability in fulfilling personal needs (as cited in Ramlall, 2004).

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This study aims to give a thorough explanation into the phenomenon of employee motivation and how its nature alters the overall commitment as well as work performance of its employees by making use of relevant theories and examples. To give a focused representation the researcher concludes by presenting practical implementations of one or more theories on a specific company in order to gauge what affect the theory initiates at that company.
These aims hold a lot of significance for the researcher as they provide valuable insights into the field of employee motivation and how the phenomenon of motivation affects the attitudes of the employees. In order to achieve this goal the researcher requires educating the audience by providing reliable and authentic literature which is constructed by respected scholars as well as experts of this field. In the course of the literature, the theories as well as examples of employee motivation and its aspects would be presented in order to act as propositions for gauging how motivation affects employee commitment and work performance levels. Following which a background of a case study would be provided which would present how a theory of employee motivation is implemented on that company and how does it affect the commitment as well as work performance of the employees of that particular company. This is the procedure through which the researcher would hope to achieve the aims outlined above for this study.
Theoretical background
What is employee motivation?
Employee motivation is the drive which makes workforce strives to achieve goals and objectives which would be beneficial for themselves as well as their entire entity. It is the input of the effort and what influences that effort in the first place.
It is highly emphasized by critics as well as analysts alike that the quality which distinguishes a successful organization from others is directly proportional to the satisfaction of their employees. Thus for this very reason the trend of investing heavily in injecting resources into the human resource department is commonly observed in organizations all over the world in order to increase and maintain high levels of motivation for their employees.
Some of the theories which explain how motivation can affect employee’s commitment and performance at work are presented below:
Maslow’s Theory
Maslow (1943) assumes that a hierarchical system could be used to best describe human needs where higher order needs can be fulfilled after the lower order needs. Champagne & McAfee (1989) as cited by Ramlall, 2004, explain Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs applied to employees as being divided into 5 Levels or needs of an employee.
These needs start from the lowest order need known as physiological needs such as food, shelter, rest, etc are basic needs of the employees.
Working up the ladder towards higher order needs such as safety & Security needs include all the factors which ensure a safe and secure environment to make the employee comfortable to work in.
Since all the needs are hierarchal and are fulfilled once the previous ones have been adopted, social needs which are further high up the ladder include all the factors which are related to social interaction and communication.
Catering to the ego as well as esteem comes when all the previous needs are met and includes praises and awards as well as grooming such as training.
Finally leading to the highest order need known as self- actualization needs is provided where one acknowledges their strengths and weaknesses and strives to deliver while making such points strong.
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
Herzberg (1959) developed a theory named, ‘two-factor theory’
According to (Steers, as cited by Ramlall, 2004) both motivators as well as the hygiene factors can be divided into the following aspects.
Motivators:

Achievement
Recognition
The work itself
Responsibility
Advancement
Growth

Hygiene Factors:

Company policies
Salaries
Co-worker Relations
Supervisory styles

According to Herzberg; Mausner and Snyderman (1999) in this theory there are two guiding factors which determine satisfaction as well as dissatisfaction levels of the public. While one is known as ‘Motivators’ the other is known as hygiene factors. Employee retention as well as turnover have commonly been predicted by the aspects of satisfaction as well as dissatisfaction in a job. The main purpose of this theory is to provide an explanation with regards to satisfaction and motivation in organizations by presenting that both the aspects of satisfaction and dissatisfaction are orchestrated through individualistic factors such as motivation and hygiene factors respectively. The best explanation of how motivators work is being those aspects within a job which cause people to carry out their functions and their intent to either remain or leave their company. It becomes apparent that the motivators are interrelated with the job content when the variables which fall under this category are considered as the level of achievement attained, amount of recognition, the nature of the workitself, nature and intensity of the responsibility, prospects of advancement as well as future growth.
At the same time hygiene factors are those factors which are necessary in every environment and the lack of which creates a severe level of dissatisfaction. These factors come from external aspects which are not directly related to one’s job. Examples of such factors could be the nature of the policies of the concerned company, the level of salary, relations with the colleagues as well as the role played by the supervisors.
According to Herzberg a state of satisfaction cannot just be achieved by getting rid of all of the reasons which cause dissatisfaction with the help of hygiene factors; rather only a neutral state could be achieved through this procedure. To achieve satisfaction through motivation would only be brought about through the use of the internal motivational factors.
Organizational commitment
Organizational commitment has been best defined by (Mowday, Steers and Porter, 1979) as ‘the relative strength of an individual’s identification with and involvement in a particular organization’. Three more factors which could prove helpful in distinguishing organizational commitment are presented by (Porter, Steers, Mowday, &Boulian, 1974) as;

Solid belief as well as acceptance in the goals and values of an organization.
Desire to put in the best effort for the sake of the organization.
Solid aim to remain a vital part of the organization.

Case study of a private medical laboratory company in Zimbabwe
To better explain the phenomenon of how employee motivation helps in increasing commitment as well as performance at work, a practical example of a case study of a major private sector medical laboratory based in Zimbabwe is presented which has adopted one of the theories related to employee motivation known as “Herzberg’s two- factor theory.” This case study is contained in the research paper named ‘An examination of employee retention strategy in a private organization in Zimbabwe’ and is co-authored by three scholars namely Malvern W. Chiboiwa, Michael O. Samuel and Crispen Chipunza. The aim of carrying out this case study was to gauge what are the factors which affect employee motivation and enable effective retention of the employees while reducing overall turnover. The nature of this study was however qualitative which is why this study carried out a well structured interview questionnaire. The instrument was distributed amongst quite a large sample amounting to 2240 respondents. The reason for studying this company is that it has adopted the mentioned theory and through observing the areas where the theory becomes applicable in the organization can add reliability as well as validity to this essay.
By studying the results of the research a few deductions about the organization finally became clear. The most common amongst them were that, firstly, non-managerial employees displayed a higher rate of labor turnover.Secondly a lot of employees would have left in the near future. Thirdly a weak reward based system is the cause of the high rate of employee turnover in the organization.
As has been mentioned before the need of creating the two factor theory by Frederick Herzberg arose when a need for understanding the motivating as well as de-motivating factors of an environment was felt. Thus two factors known as ‘hygiene’ and ‘motivators’ were presented which depicted their relevantly related points to be considered. Points such as how favorable or non favorable the various policies of the companies were, whether the salaries paid were according to the job description, skills required and paid on time, if coworkers relations were hospitable or not, the nature of the supervisory styles and if they were accommodating or not, were all parts of the hygiene category and contributed to the de-motivational influences on an individual or groups surrounding. While this was the list of hygiene factors, the motivator factors were more positive and were influenced by feelings of achievement on reaching personal or public milestones, the level of recognition within staff members and colleagues, the level or nature of responsibility assigned which includes the nature of the work itself, including the advancement as well as growth visible in that field (Bassett- Jones & Lloyd, 2005). Now the thing to be noted in this study ‘An Examination of employee retention strategy in a private organization in zimbabwe’ carried out by (Chiboiwaet.al 2010) is that neither the hygiene or the contrasting motivator factors are being done justice towards in order to achieve the positive results desired. While this study incorporates the use of the Herzberg theory it just goes on to show that if the motivation levels of employees is low then their commitment to their work as well as their performance in it would be greatly compromised if continued to be neglected.
This whole case study presents that when the organization fails to incorporate an attractive retention program for its employees it encourages employee turnover.
Identifying the reasons which cause employee turnover in the concerned organization is one of the objectives of this case study. Other equally important objectives include analyzing and working around the existing retention practices followed by the organization as well as make the practices as effective as possible while at the same time devising a potential retention program which would be successful in combating the high rate of turnover witnessed within the employee pool of the organization.
Going through the study it clearly becomes evident that the retention strategies used by the organization has visible flaws in its system which need to be addressed on an urgent basis in order to proceed further in terms of retaining their workforce. Amongst the numerous factors which need to be looked into and revised, some of the most basic aspects which demand attention are that the non- managerial staff is the most prone to leaving the company frequently. The reasons for this are that
After analyzing the results of the data received from the interview which took place regards the organization, the reason for the high turnover was eventually traced back to the poor remuneration packages offered to the non-managerial staff, as well as the dismal state of working conditions coupled with the increased job insecurity.
According to the Herzberg two- factor theory, salary is a hygiene factor which means that if it is not taken care of it could become a grave cause of concern by becoming a dissatisfying element. Hence this study reinforces that belief and the importance of money and remuneration package is gauged by the statement of Kinnear and Sutherland (2001:17) who state that money proves to be an important factor of attracting as well as motivating quality employees inorder to retain them within the organization
Locke (1980) as cited in Tietjen and Myers (1998: 227) has further gone ahead to explain that other than money, the need for goal setting, participation in the decision making process as well as the overhaul of the job design are further ways in which employees can be motivated to ensure better performance. However Locke (1968) came to conclude that by far one of the most important motivating drive was fulfilled by money.
Robbins (1983) as cited in Meudell and Rodham (1998: 128) seconds the Herzberg theory of motivation claims of money being a hygiene factor and a basic necessity by stating that it can pretend as both a gauge to assess the value placed on employees by their organization, as well as provide the employees with the buying power to purchase according to their personal needs. These benefits are included amongst one of the basic rights of employees, and the lack of fulfillment leads to a great degree of unhappiness amongst employees.
To provide proof for this statement, a survey carried out on a website states that after a comparative analysis was taken the results showed that many organizations which were facing turnover were loosing their employees on grounds of inadequate compensation. Since this could give an idea a high turnover for numerous organizations was due to their low level of compensation plans, however, attractive compensation was not the main retaining factor where employees were staying for a long time, instead the reason many employees remained was because of the internal factors of their job description such as the nature of relationship they shared with their supervisors and co- workers and the overall satisfaction they derived from their jobs (www.reliable surveys.com).
This surprising revelation suggests that factors which cause dissatisfaction are different from ones which stimulate satisfaction on the job and should be viewed as such both the theories used in our study, namely Herzberg’s two- factor theory as well as Maslow’s theories of motivation, are exemplified according to this statement. Both these theories propose that while the fulfillment of aspects such as compensation along other financial benefits only cater to lower needs, higher needs are secured when aspects such as overall motivation and satisfaction are ensured.
Another points by Herzberg that salary is just a hygiene factor so it does not have a direct motivating effect but the lack of fulfillment of which could cause unrest, this point is seconded by Hays (1999: 48) whose advice is that if money is the only way how the management can show appreciation for performance then it will results in more harm than good because it would not be enough to ensure retention of the employees. The reason for this is stated there are various other factors such as freedom and flexibility in the organization which are far stronger motivators for employees than just increasing the compensation. However these points are more justified in areas where the economy is strong and there exists a non inflationary environment. When referring to Zimbabwe, it should not be ignored that the current situation of the country is overcome by an extremely inflationary environment and increasing salaries could be viewed as a retention tool by organizations to keep their employees. The authors make some suggestions to bring about a positive development; market surveys of the Zimbabwean market could be used to regularly review salaries in such a situation to match with the inflation trend which would help Zimbabwean organizations to retain their employees. A bi-monthly basic salary payment method can be put in place in order to renew their reward system. According to the introduction of the bi-monthly payment, after 15 days a percentage of the companies previous month’s salary can be given out followed by the basic salary with the monthly increase at the normal payment day which includes taking out the advance paid at the middle of the month (IPMZ, 2OO7).
Annual bonuses such as the 13th cheque, as well as other performance bonuses for performance, funding for education, full medical security as well as allowance for housing, are some of the benefits which should be provided by organizations to their employees to show appreciation (IPMZ, 2007).
Another reason why the private medical laboratory company of Zimbabwe was witnessing such a high rise in turnover has been explained by Lambert and Hogan (2009: 98) as the flight of the country’s talent outside the country. This move was orchestrated by two motives mainly; while one was the matter of better compensation packages, the other was the interrelated concept of advancement in careers. Here Herzberg’s two factor theory comes into play when the matter of salary as well as advancement in careers comes to the surface. While salary is a hygiene factor which is considered a basic necessity according to this theory, advancement in the career is the motivator factor which becomes the driving force for the workforce to work hard. The scientific and industrial research and development centre (SIRDC) carried out a study where they stated that out of nearly around 479,348 skilled Zimbabweans in the diaspora, the majority were educated and held bachelor’s degrees. Furthermore around 20% of those held post graduate degrees, and 5 percent held doctorate degrees.
Conclusion
Finally it has been shown how the theories of employee motivation can be used to maintain the commitment as well as work performance of the employees in general terms as well as specifically by presenting the example of the private sector medical laboratory company in Zimbabwe. Through this case study we learnt how this theory is applied and what sort of input generates which sort of result therefore the masses are aware of which factors to take care of when ensuring employee motivation. According to this case study their employee retention program was shown to be weak which explains that the employees were not as motivated as they could be if better prospects were presented to them. Eventually the author suggests some changes which should be implemented and the weak areas looked into if things are to change for the better.
Concluding the study the researcher would like to make some recommendations to the managers as well as other authoritarian entities to keep employee motivation development in a high priority list in order to generate the desire benefits. The techniques as well as strategies and areas which have been shown to work in the case study should be applied in the human resource department in order to better manage the employees.
 

Explanation of the Gantt Chart

Its use a simple logic calculations to identify the critical path, it does include:
– A sequence of activities has a timing duration.
– Adding the timing durations from the start till the end (forward pass), it helps to determine the early and late start.
– Deduct the timing durations from the end to the start (backward pass), it help to determine the late and early finish.
– Deduct the early finish from the late finish, by that we found the total float.
– The early start for activity A is 0, while the late finish for activity R is equal to its late start.
The critical path is the longest serious of activities in the diagram with no flexibility, linked to each other without interruption. In other word it’s the path has activities with total float equal zero.While the duration of the project determine by the earliest and late finish of the last activity in the project.
Gantt chart is useful tool to project manager, in this chart there is a calendar time scale enable to determine the project duration including , not only the working days, but also holydays and weekend.
If the project starts on 11 January 2010 in 5 day working week, assuming there is no holidays the earliest day the project will completed is 2 April 2010. (See end of the document).
a. As activity P is a critical activity in a critical path a one day delay will create a delay in activities Q and R, which delay the project end for one day. Also it could generate an increase in project cost. The project manager should be able to predict this before it’s occurred, therefore he should analyses the network diagram and looking for maneuver margin.

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b. If activity N completed 1 day earlier, it could give other activities in the path such as O, P, Q, and R one day flexibility. However it doesn’t mean that the project will finish earlier because other activity recourses were schedule and it could be not available at that time, but still there is possibility to the project to finish 1 day before than schedule.
c. Activity I is not critical activity, that’s mean it has a float or slack which is in this activity is 6 days. There for a delay for 2 days in this activity will not create a delay in whole project, however there a possibility to generate increase in cost than the estimated before.
In the network diagram all the project activities are represented accordance with the relations that exist between them, the activities represented by nodes (boxes), these mentioned the beginning and the end of each activity
The benefits for the diagram are:

Obtain a schematic representation of the project.
predict the required time to complete the project.
distinguish between critical and non critical activity in the project, and thus determine the possible maneuver margin for each task, which can be by moving some resources from non-critical tasks and focus on critical activity, which contributes to reduce the time of the project with a fixed cost.

Implementing the network diagram is summarized in these steps:

know all the activities for the project their is a list of all tasks (activities) often included in the outset project based on Work Breakdown Structure
Identify the relations between these tasks there are tasks that can be implemented in parallel, or may depend on the end of the other tasks (sequence), in this step is a list of all the project tasks and its relations with other tasks.
Setting the network diagram after knowing the tasks, and the relations with other activities, the project activities are drawn as Node network diagram.
Estimate the required time an estimate of required time to complete each activity passed on past experiences, or by using intuition and logic, the estimate may not be free of error.
identifying the critical activity and critical path of the project critical activity is an activity which, if the delay occurred during the implementation, it could delay the whole project with the same amount, the critical path is the path that connects critical activities and it starts from the beginning of the project and finished at the end of the project, it is the longest path in terms of length in the network diagram. On this path there is no margin time to maneuver in the implementation of any task because of the lack of flexibility time in any task on this path.
Update the network diagram on a regular basis during the implementation of the project, real-time registration is taken for each activity, and in the meantime, critical path may appear to show new activities were not taken into account.

 
 

An Explanation of the Field of Software Engineering

When most people think of a software engineer, the first thing someone may imagine in their mind is a person in a dark and secluded room, sitting behind some computer screens with lines of code on them. This, however, is not the case. Most of the work done by software engineers is done opposite of this way. While programming is part of the field of software engineering, it also includes “numerous other things such as design, communication, problem-solving, project management, and testing” (Beaubouef and McDowell 47).
The field of computer science and software engineering is an expansive and gradually developing field that develops and creates new and interesting solutions and products by taking advantage of many different areas of skills and communication practices.
To prepare for a job in the career field of software engineering, in general, most employers tend to look for people who have a bachelor’s degree or higher in computer science, computer engineering, or related degrees in the technology or mathematical fields. Also, having the experience of being an intern at a workplace is beneficial. There are also some skills that are needed that go along with the knowledge that is acquired from a degree. These skills are the ability to communicate well, and the ability to demonstrate the topics that you have mastered while obtaining your degree. John R. Platt helped to determine this in his article by speaking with a hiring manager: ” ‘I’m looking for candidates to show me two things: that they are smart and can get things done,’ says Jensen Crawford, director of engineering for Fetch Technologies. ‘The former includes being able to communicate about, analyze, and solve problems. The latter is being able to deliver those solutions.'” (3). This shows that not only are the practical skills needed but also that there are excellent communications skills needed for a job in the field of software engineering.

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As for the typical working conditions for a software engineer, they are very similar to most office-type jobs. Dr. Erik Fredericks is a current professor at Oakland University. Before he began his journey in his teaching career, he used to work at an entry-level job as a software engineer. Like most other people, he worked in a small cubicle with just a laptop, working from nine to five on most days. Plus, according to Fredericks, there were a few positives and negatives about the career field. He stated that the positives were that “you can do what you love, from nearly any location (given telecommuting possibilities)” and that the negatives were that “I tend to overwork, so I put way more time into my job than I should” (Fredericks). According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2009 the average annual wage for systems software developers was around $95,000, whereas, in 2018, the median salary was $110,000 (“Software Engineers”; Platt). Given this information, we can conclude that the field of software engineering will continue to grow and develop in the future. Finally, participants in this field are trained by gaining experience and working their way up in the field, usually from entry-level to managerial. Beaubouef and McDowell relate this to the similar nature of car maintenance by stating:
Another common misconception is that most self-taught programmers can easily do the same jobs as skilled and trained professionals. This is like saying that people who are familiar with car maintenance (changing oil, washing and waxing and other minor tune-ups) can successfully rebuild engines and transmissions. These programmers often lack the insight and theoretical background of computer science graduates that allow them greater perspective when approaching new and difficult problems (Beaubouef and McDowell 46).
From the previous information, it can be shown that mainly all computer science and software engineering jobs are comparable to standard office jobs that work a standard workweek.
It is possible to advance your career in the field of software engineering in a couple of ways. First, there are professional organizations. An example of a commonly-known professional organization is the IEEE Computer Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). The IEEE Computer Society offers many tools and resources, which includes curriculum development, journal and magazine publishing, professional conferences, a digital library, and achievement awards (“5 Functions”). An example of publishing that members of the IEEE receive is their magazine, ​Computer. ​Frederick stated, “I’m a member of IEEE and ACM [Association for Computing Machinery], mainly because of discounts provided at conferences. I don’t use them to their potential, however.” Frederick also mentioned that he participated in professional development. He stated that “there were always workshops for improving one’s self, in terms of time management, communication, etc.” (Frederick). Finally, the technology that is used in this field is quite obvious, hence the name “software engineering”. Most software engineers generally work on modern and up-to-date computers which they perform their daily tasks on. Summing up, it is possible to further and develop your career within the field of software engineering by participating in professional development and/or professional organizations.
There are a couple of important communication practices that are necessary in the field of software engineering. The first is a communication practice commonly referred to as “pair programming.” As the name suggests, Begel and Nagappan describe this as “the practice whereby two programmers work together at one computer, collaborating on the same algorithm, code, or test” (1). Each person in each of these pairs has a role. The “driver” is the one who types out the code, while the “navigator” is the one who watches the navigator as he or she works, and points out errors or comes up with suggestions (Begel and Nagappan 1). The benefit of doing this is that it helps to produce code which has less bugs (errors), as well as helping to increase the general understanding of the code that is being worked on. However, this does not come without its quirks. Some of the problems that are associated with pair programming are the costs in doing so, as well as scheduling, and engineers not getting along with their partners. The people who are most affected by pair programming are the people who are involved with the software engineering process. In reality, pair programming gets somewhat mixed reactions about its usefulness and practicality. According to a survey that was conducted at Microsoft Corporation as part of their research, Begel and Nagappan found that about 64.4% of the subjects agreed that pair programming worked for them, while the other 35.6% were neutral about it, or disagreed (4). From this information, it is can be concluded that pair programming is overall beneficial to software engineers, despite its caveats.
A second communication practice in the field of software engineering is the importance of effective communication. This is necessary so that your project can easily continue to be iterated on and improved. According to Frederick, “You need to be able to effectively communicate what you have done, for instance, if you make an app, you need to be able to tell people how to use it, other developers how to improve it, etc.” This could be implemented into projects that may have communications in place that are not very effective. A potential benefit to this communication practice is that it will enable everyone who is involved with the software engineering process, whether it is the actual engineers, or the end-users of a project, to be able to get the most out of what the project’s topic is about. A potential problem with this communication practice would be overly-communicating to the point where it would be ineffective, or even confusing for the parties involved. An entry-level employee can use this most effectively by adequately documenting what their changes and/or contributions have been to a project so that others can be made aware of the changes and have a better understanding of the situation.
All in all, because of its gradually expanding and developing scope, the field of computer science and engineering involves several different skill sets and communication practices that make an overall desirable career. This is due to the increase in demand for software engineers in our ever-increasingly digital world. Also, its relatively low educational requirements make it an easy career field to begin in, as most entry-level jobs generally require a bachelor’s degree to get started in the field. In addition, most of the entry-level jobs also offer a more-than-desireable salary, usually around $110,000 in today’s world. Furthermore, it offers working conditions that are adequate from the start and only improve going forward, as well as several ways to advance your career in many ways. This can be accomplished by attending professional development activities that are conducted by your workplace. It can also be accomplished by taking advantage of professional networking and/or associations within the field. This will then give you the ability to improve upon and advance your career. Finally, there are communication practices available which only help to better your career experience and improve your skills not only for you but for the people around you that you may be working with.
Works Cited
Beaubouef, Theresa and Patrick McDowell. “Computer Science: Student Myths and Misconceptions.” ​Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers​, vol. 23, no. 6, 2008, pp. 43 – 48, www.researchgate.net/profile/Theresa_Beaubouef/publication/234832735_Computer_science_student_myths_and_misconceptions/links/0f31752fd07fcc4511000000/Computer-science-student-myths-and-misconceptions.pdf. Accessed 28 Oct 2019.
Begel, Andrew and Nachiappan Nagappan. “Pair Programming: What’s in it for Me?.” Association for Computing Machinery, ​2008, pp. 120 – 128, DOI: 10.1145/1414004.1414026.
“5 Functions of the IEEE Computer Society.” ​Best Computer Science Degrees, www.bestcomputersciencedegrees.com/lists/5-functions-of-the-ieee-computer-society/. Accessed 28 Oct 2019.
Frederick, Erik. Personal Interview. 27 Oct 2019.
Platt, John R. “Career Focus: Software Engineering.” ​IEEE-USA Today’s Engineer, ​March 2011, www.zlti.com/XKiWZ/wp-content/in%20the%20news/3.7.11_IEEE_Career%20Fo cus_%20Software%20Engineering.pdf.
“Software Engineers: Job Duties & Requirements.” ​Study.com, ​06 August 2019, www.study.com/articles/Software_Engineers_Job_Duties_and_Requirements_for_Beco ming_a_Software_Engineer.html.