Factors Promoting and Impeding Economic Globalisation

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Globalisation has become a profound concept in social sciences; it is hard to discuss the current developmental issues without making any comment on globalization. Globalisation has accelerated rapid changes and the progression towards the development. Furthermore, globalisation connected people to one another. For example, in the previous era the world is connecting to each other through traditional method which is via mail, now, people can connect to each other via internet. Indeed, understanding of globalisation need to be viewed from the four analytical dimensions. Namely, economic, political, cultural and technological globalization (Kiefee and Steve, 2005).

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This essay is more concern with the economic globalization. Economic globalization is been expressed in what is known as neo-liberal policy supported by Washington Consensus. In fact, neo-liberal policy advocates liberalization of economic, privatization, trade liberalization and deregulation of national economy, which are all part of the factors that promote economic globalisation. Economic globalisation has been a major drive of current era of globalisation. Michael (2000) has claimed that trade and financial institution has been the major drive of economic globalisation (Michael, 2000). However, economic globalisation has been experience critiques which have been led to impediment in its growth in some quarters of the world.
The development of economic globalisation cannot be doubted anymore. This development has increasingly growing throughout the years and increases the levels of economic interdependence, besides sharpens struggle between countries. Various actors play an important role in economic globalisation growth, namely; International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and World Trade Organisation. These organisations perform certain functions to keep economic globalisation works, for example they provides long term loans to developing countries. The WTO act as the body that manage to reduce tax in trade relations that exist among country in the global economy relations.
This essay will give answers to the following identified questions below;

What factors promote economic growth?
What has been the challenge to the growth of economic globalisation?
What factors impede it?
How can we make economic globalisation workable for all nations?

To discuss this, the next section of the essay would be devoted to literature review and theoretical framework.
1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Research has been made previously that has discussed the reasons that led to economic globalisation and the reasons impede it as well.
Toffler (1980), avert that globalisation is principal an outcome of innovation in technology and that this emergence of technology have bring changes in ones lives, it has led to the more investment in capital and capital mobility .for example the multinational moves their capital to where they hope to reap more profits.
Stiglitz (2002) was of the opinion that to understand globalisation, one has to study the three main institutions that govern it. He gave the name of these institutions as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), and World Trade Organizations (WTO). Thus, Stieglitz emphasized being playing by International Financial Institutions in the running of present economic globalisation process. Institutions, such as World Bank is acting as the independent body that provides loans to the developing countries for development process which in turn promote economic globalisation. Stiglitz (2002) said globalization is nor good neither bad thing either. He strongly considered it to be more of division of gains between North and South where global North gain, while South loses. However, the recent development of some newly industrialising countries, such as Taiwan and China is a critique to the above view.
One of the renounced pro –globalisation, and the professor of economics, in the person of Martin Wolf (2005) in his book; why globalisations works opined that globalisation is benefit for all. He cited the positive outcome of China, Brazil, India, and Singapore and now South Africa, in their openness to the world market (Wolf, 2005). He said those countries in global south that yet to reap the benefit of globalisation need to open their markets to the outside world and that they should invest in human capital skills.
Neo-liberalism theory
This theory emphasized the privatisation and liberalisation of the economy with reduction of trade barrier for the economy development which would benefit to all human kind. The states should only provide enabling environment for the business to thrive. That is the multinational enterprise should be given free access to the investment and production without any government policies restriction. Harvey(2005) provides full illustration and explanation of neo liberalism theory of economic globalisation, according to Harvey(2005):
Neoliberalism is in the first instance a theory of political economic practices that proposes that human well-being can be advanced by liberating individual entrepreneurial freedoms and skills within an institutional framework characterises by strong private property rights, free markets and free trade. The role of the state is to create and preserve an institutional framework appropriate to such practices …The state has to guarantee, for example the quality and integrity of money…The state interventions in markets once created must keep to a bare minimum…
Applying this theory to the economic globalisation means that, the unrestricted free movement of goods and services, and most importantly in the present era of globalisation, is the movement of capital, will lead to economic growth and development which is benefit to the whole world. However, this theory have been criticised by Marxist school of thought that those who own the means of production all control the state, according to Marx and Engel (1848) every society is divided into two antagonistic class; the bourgeoisies and the working class, the haves and the haves-not, where the bourgeoisie control the means of production, they also control the state policies to continues exploit and subjugate proletariat who have no access to the means of production. The lesson that we can learn from this school of thought (Marxist) is that the position of neoliberal that state have no business in business is a pure political fallacy. But we have witness those who are well known business men and women who do not have interest politics in this present world. For example, Bill Gate, Carlos Slim, and many others. This is not to say that they do not indirect participate in politics. Despite the criticism of neoliberal theory, it’s still stand as major theory to explain economic globalisation growth and development.
1.3 FACTORS THAT PROMOTE ECONOMIC GLOBALISATION
There are certain factors that promote economic globalisation growth. Such as regional integration, trade liberalisation, privatisation and deregulation and foreign direct investment, etc. Francis Fukuyama (1992) argues that the breakdown of national barriers through the creation of a single, integrated world market have facilitated mobility of capital, growth in foreign direct investment, and increases important of transnational business corporation (TNCs) (Fukuyama, 1992). Thus the central role of multinational enterprises in the economic globalisation process cannot be rejected. These factors shall be discussed below.
A. Regional Integration
Regional integration could promote economic globalisation. Given the fact that states within the specific geographical region come together to trade between themselves and establish free trade zone such as North-America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). John McCormick (1999) supported this view when he said that, regional integration is the practice that two or more countries sit together and had a meeting to discuss about the problem. They trying to overcome the economic crisis and promote the development of it. In most cases, this coming together of region may led to establishment of free trade zone between the states and promote economic of particular region the regional integration in Europe immediately after the second world war have a profound influence on trade liberalisation and economic globalisation . This implies that imply that there is link between regional integration and economic globalization.
B.Trade liberalisation
Trade liberalization is the free flow of trade between countries around the world. It emphasized the removal of the trade barriers such as tariffs and taxes on goods and services. Held and Mcgrew (2007) observed that the level of international trade have since increase significantly in relation to the national income. However they contend that this is more pronounced among the advanced industrialized country. Indeed the fallen of the trade barrier has led to the global nature of economics transaction (Held and Mcgrew 2007).
The activities of the transnational corporation owing to the trade liberalization has become more pronounced in the recent era of globalisation ,thus the power of the global finance has become central to economics globalisation(Held and Mcgrew 2007). This means that trade liberalization has been a positive development to the economic globalization. For example it is possible for multinationals to invest more in a country that have liberalised its economy. And thereby promote economic globalisation.

Foreign Direct Investment

Foreign direct investment has become one of the factors that promote economic globalisation. Multinational Corporation has taken economic globalization to a new level.
According to UNCTAD (2001,as quoted in Held and Mcgrew 2007): ‘Multinational corporation account for about 25 percent of the world production and about 70 per cent of the world trade ,while their sales are equivalent to almost half of the world GDP’
The result of this is that investment by the multinational corporations in the form of FDI has increase over the years and this must have led to a more interconnectedness of the world economy, which invariably promote economic globalisation.
D. Privatization and Deregulation
These are the products of the Washington consensus, the capitalism ideology have led to the ideas of private ownership of means of production with the sole aims of profit maximization and capital accumulation, it was the belief of the capitalist economist that the private ownership of the means of production will lead to unlimited happiness in the society. The collapse of the Soviet Union in Eastern part of the Europe saw to the more achievement of the capitalism, thereby led to the adoption of the privatization and deregulation of most of the world leading economies. These ideas of privatization and government deregulation of the economy do have positive impact on economic globalization.
These four factors and many other one that were not discuss fully here, such as ,resources and market ,research and development, technologies and the state political wills promotes the growth of economic globalization, however because of the growing number of sceptic of the globalization ,for example Joseph Stieglitz (2002) in his popular books ‘Globalization and its discontents ‘have exposed some of the injustices and ugly face of the globalisation, he was particularly of the opinion that the economic globalization was never aims to help the people of the developing world, that the three institutions that runs it (IMF,WORLD BANK and WTO) were all instrument of the exploitation in the hands of the elite states of the advanced developed countries. The result of this is the growing number of the impediments to the growth of the economic globalization. I shall discuss this in the next section of this essay.
1.4 FACTORS THAT IMPEDE ECONOMIC GLOBALISATION.
There are uncountable factors that may impede the growth of economic globalizations; the most critical aspect of it is the putting in place of the protectionism policies by state to protect her infant industries. Others include; tax, extremely regionalization, lack of technology, lack of political wills, lack of human and capital resources and many more. This essay shall discuses four of the above factors

High tax

The imposition of high tax by national governments has been described as one of the factors that can impede the growth and process of economic globalization. When a particular national government put in place a high corporate tax on investment ,in this present era of capital mobility ,the investors would in turn move their capital to where they considerate comparative advantage, so wise government should not put high tax on investment .
Discussing on the hyper-globalisation thesis, Hay (2013) seems to agree that government should cut tax in order to attract foreign investor, according to Hay (2013):
‘’ Any failure on the part of a state to render its corporate taxation levels competitive in comparative terms through tax cuts will result in a punitive depreciation in net revenue as a capital exercises its mobility to exit.’’
What this means is that high tax is an anti-economic globalisation, it is against trade liberalisation policy.

Extreme Regionalisation

Regionalisation and globalisation are two sides of the same coin, while regional integration could promote economic globalisation, it can as well impede it. Hirst and Thompson (1996, as quoted in Hay 2013) observed that there is tendency toward regionalisation in the present era than globalisation. They submitted that the process of tridization is currently going on between the North America, East Asia and Europe owing to the series of inter-regional integration that is going on between these three regions. The outcome of which have being excluding most part of the world from economic globalisation process. The lesson that we are learning from this is to check on the regional integration objectives so as not to hinder economic globalisation, indeed regionalisation could be formed as a defence to unequal and imbalance nature of economic globalisation.
C. Protectionism
Some states might device a means of protecting their local infants industries from been expose to the unfavourable competitions with foreign firms’ such states may consider certain goods and products that might want to come into her country as contra ban, or give a quota to such goods and products from the foreign firms. Although states might have their own reason for protecting their own national and local firms but it is generally belief that any strategy of protectionism employed by any states is anti-economic globalisation.
D. Lack of technological Sophistication
The importance of technological innovation is crucial to the development of economic globalisation , the internet make it easier to transact business on a global level within a second, so therefore lack of technology or lack improvement in technology would have severe impact on the economic globalisation. It is difficult to talk about economic globalisation without looking at the technology that have made global financial system more conveniently and reliable.
All these abovementioned key points may impede the growth and process of economic globalisation.
1.5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Haven explained what the globalisation is all about and especially haven been discussed those factors that may promote and impede economic globalisation. It is my opinion that those states whose action is being have been describe as a threat to economic globalisation have their own reasons for doing so. For instant, Stieglitz (2002) rightly observed that globalisation especially economic globalisation is characterised by unequal exchange in which the rich countries of global north gains at the expense of the global south. This could be reason why they are protecting their economy as a solution to the inhuman and exploitative nature of economic globalisation.
However I will go with the position of Martin Wolf (2005) that if the developing world could invest in human capital, technology and open up their economy to outside world, they stand a chance of reaping the benefit of globalisation. Therefore, they should invest in human capital and technology, while open their economy to the outside world. Also the developed countries should carry them (global south) along in the process of economic globalisation. Otherwise, they continue to exact influence on those factors that impede it, became they think they have nothing to gain from it; consequently therefore, stopping it would not have any real impact on them since they are not benefiting from it.
References
Fukuyama, F. (1992), The End of History and The Last Man. New York: Free Press
Harvey, D. (2014). Neoliberalism, politics and society. Retrieved Nov 13, 2014, from: http://www.slideshare.net/suehair/neoliberalism-politics-and-society
Harvey,D.(2005) A Brief History Of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hay, C. (2005) ‘Globalisation Impact on State’, in R, John.(ed) Global Political Economy, Oxford: University Press.
Held,D and Mcgrew,A. (2007) (eds) Globalization Theory: Approaches and Controversies . Cambridge: Polity Press
Kiefer,L.,and Steve, C.(2005) Global Marketing Management :Challenges and New Strategies.London:Oxford University Press
Marx, K. and Engel.(1848)The Communist Manifesto. London: Communist League
McCormick, J. (1999) The European Union: Politics and Policies. New York: Westview Press
Stiglitz, J. (2002) Globalisation and Its Discontents. New York: ww Norton and Company.
Toffler A. (1980) Future Shock. London: Pan Book Ltd.
Wolf, M. (2005) Why Globalisation works? Yale: Yale University Press.
 

Risk Factors for Depression in the Elderly

Introduction

Australian bureau of statistics (2016) data mentions that, 15% of the Australian population comprises of the people who are aged 65 years and above. Enabling these senior citizens to continue to live well as long as possible is the primary societal goal of ageing (Kendig, Browning, Thomas & Wells, 2014). However, healthy ageing is not always possible, as there are several physiological and psychosocial factors which impedes the normal healthy ageing process. Psychological factors such as depression is found to have a significant impact on the quality of life and well-being among the elderly population (Singh & Misra, 2009). In a study done in an Australian setting by Pirkis et al., (2009) found the community prevalence of depression to be 8.2% among people aged 60 years and according to the Australian institute of health and welfare (AIHW) (2012) the prevalence rate was as high as 52% among the aged care residents. 

Biopsychosocial framework of depression

Opposed to the narrow focus of the reductionist biomedical model; a need of more holistic biopsychosocial framework was emphasised by Georg Engel in his seminal article “The need for a new medical model” in 1977 (Havelka, Lucanin & Lucanin, 2009).

With regards to bio-medical model of depression there is not a single, unified pathophysiological mechanism which can satisfactorily explain its aetiology (Patten, 2015), The research in the biological aspect of the biopsychosocial framework of depression comprises several theories including altered serotonergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and glutamatergic systems, inflammation, HPA axis abnormalities, vascular changes, neuroplasticity and decreased neurogenesis (Dean & Keshavan, 2017). However, the most widely researched serotonin hypothesis, which is now almost 55 years old, is now not tenable as it was before (Albert, Benkelfat, & Descarries 2012; Cowen & Browning 2015). With an advent of new and emerging neuro imaging techniques and a broader understanding of the interplay between biopsychosocial variables in the causation of depression, a more holistic understanding has been developed; some neurological studies have found the involvement of brain areas of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to be associated with emotional regulation/ decision making, social cognition and self-reference and these areas have been implicated in development of  depression (Bzdok et al., 2013; Eickhoff, Laird, Fox, & Hensel 2016). Also, Booth et al., (2015); Conway, Raposa, Hammen & Brennan (2018) in their reviews found that high levels of adverse events in early-life impacted personality, attachment, core beliefs and coping tendencies, ultimately leading to changes in autonomic, endocrine, and immunological processes, which increased vulnerability to depression. Data stemming from community, epidemiological and clinical studies have shown several chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking and obesity to be a risk factor for the late on-set of depression and vice-versa (Naismith, Norrie, Mowszowski & Hickie, 2012).

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Regarding the psychosocial domains, there are different psychosocial predictors across the life span; Erikson (1985) in his seminal work ‘The Life cycle completed: A review’, divided human life span into 8 psychosocial developmental stages, in which the personality attributes of the old age (65+) is characterised by ‘Integrity versus despair’. In his model, he argues that the old aged adults in their later stages of life must come to an even term with their past and need to find a meaningful purpose to their life in face of an imminent demise. Dezutter, Wiesmann, Apers & Luyckx (2013) in their cross sectional study among 100 males put Erikson’s theory of ‘Integrity versus despair’ into test and found that, successful ageing was determined by ability to cope and accept the world as meaningful, manageable and comprehensible, while easily accepting their past life, including the limitations and failures, which would result in ‘ego integrity’. However, failure to achieve such amicable resolution often resulted in despair, regret and depression. There are several other psychosocial factors which are associated with depression in an old age; a research done in an Australian setting by Davison, McCabe, Knight & Mellor (2012) among 100 aged care residents found that psychosocial variables were more prominent in understanding depression rather than traditional risk factors such as disability and medical illnesses. In their study; they found three unique predictors among both male and female residents, which acted as a buffer or a protective factor against depression, those predictors were environmental mastery, purpose in life and autonomy. In their study, environmental mastery was an important predictor and had a negative correlation with depression (r=-7.00, p=
Spectrum of changes

Mood: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) (5th ed.; DSM–5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) requires the “presence of either sadness or anhedonia with a total of five or more symptoms over a 2-week period”. However, among older adults with depression, low mood might be less common when compared with younger cohort with depression, whereas anxiety, irritability and other somatic complaints could be more prominent (Taylor, 2014).

Cognition: Cognitive decline may be a result of Depression which could be both a manifestation of and/or the risk factor. Framingham heart study found that depression was associated with dementia (Saczynski, 2010). Deficit in cognitive patterns could be a sign of an accelerated brain ageing which perpetuates and confers a predisposition to depression, the biological explanation for  this is termed as ‘disconnection hypothesis’ where focal vascular damage and white matter lesion is considered a crucial factor which influences neural connectivity and contributes to clinical symptoms (Taylor, Aizenstein & Alexopoulos, 2013). This biological deficit can affect the psychosocial well-being of the individual.

Changes in physical functioning: An analysis of longitudinal cohort study by Van Milligen et al., (2011) found that women with late age onset of depressive or anxiety disorders had significantly poorer physical function in both weaker grip strength and pulmonary function when compared with healthy controls.

Psychosomatic complaints: In a study done by Chakraborty, Avasthi, Kumar & Grover (2012) among clients diagnosed with depression, they found that the most common functional somatic complaints reported as “a lack of energy (98%) and feeling tiredness when not-working (82%)”. Psychosomatic complaints have both physical and psychosocial implications.

Approach

Elderly clients are more prone to the side effects of the anti-depressant medications (Aroll et al., 2009; Kennedy, 2013). Hence, psychotherapies like Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can be used to provide the skills to the individuals to change their thought pattern without any physical side effect (Jayasekara et al., 2013). The use and efficacy of CBT is one of the most widely studied in the geriatric population (Bogner, Cahill, Frauenhoffer & Barg, 2009; Hofmann, Asnaani, Vonk, Sawyer & Fang, 2012). CBT refers to a type of psychotherapeutic interventions based on a premise that mental health issues and psychological/emotional distress are caused by maladaptive cognitive factors. The core foundation of this therapy was pioneered by Aron T. Beck in 1970 (Dobson, 2013; Eifert & Plaud, 1993). The core CBT techniques is taught over several sessions,  it includes cognitive restructuring, where an irrational thought is replaced by more rational and accurate thoughts, behavioural activation, where a daily goal is set, directly addressing the core mood symptoms (example, sadness and guilt) and improving the negative self‐views, (example, having positive attitudes about self) (Dobkin, Mann, Interian, Gara & Menza, 2019)

Effectiveness:

A prospective randomised controlled trial (RCT) done among elderly adults diagnosed with depression found that, after 12 weeks of intervention with CBT; there was a significant decrease in depression (p=0.009) than that of the control group (Huang, Liu, Tsai, Chin & Wong, 2015). In another RCT by Dobkin et al, 2019 done among patient with two co-morbid conditions, Parkinson’s disease and depression found that CBT improved symptoms of depression such as “negative attitudes toward self (P

While having several benefits, CBT also has some drawbacks. CBT is a structured method which can be delivered in an individual session or as a group therapy session, in a study done by Söchting, O’Neal, Third, Rogers, & Ogrodniczuk (2013) among elderly clients, they found that, some participants who are from the culture where expressing emotions are encouraged and where they are motivated to learn more about themselves and their condition, rather than following didactic instructions, might not find CBT to be much helpful as it contains didactic instructions and home-based exercises which they might not find convenient. Another study done on efficacy of CBT in a cross-cultural setting (among Aboriginal Australians) found that clinician’s cultural competence is very important while delivering CBT and the study emphasised on the necessity of longer-term therapeutic involvement while working with complex trauma cases (Bennett-Levy, 2014). Also, there is not enough scientific burden of proof of effectiveness of CBT in individuals with communication deficits as CBT delivery relies in the usage of language (Bhaumik, Gangadharan, Hiremath & Russell, 2011) As CBT was developed in the western cultural context; its efficacy could be questionable in culturally and linguistically diverse group (CALD), hence culturally adapted and validated version of the therapy should be used while working with the client from CALD group (Hinton & Patel, 2017).

Nursing Practice:

Nurses work very close to the patients and spend a lot of time with the patients while assessing, monitoring, caring and supporting them. The therapeutic relationship of Nurse-patient interaction is very important for good therapeutic outcome; especially in the mental health settings. Elderly patients (especially those residing in nursing home and diagnosed with depression) are in general vulnerable and the nurse–patient interaction and the nurse–patient relationship is integral to their experience of self-respect, dignity, sense of well-being and self‐worth (Harrefors, Savenstedt & Axelsson, 2009). Many people with lived experiences are deprived of their right to equal treatment in the society. This discrimination is not limited to the community, rather it is rampant in the mental health service, where they are the consumer of those services (Saxena & Hanna, 2015). Nurses practicing in the general and mental health setting have a responsibility and are in a position to put an end to any form or nature of discrimination. Also, nurses often are in contact with the family members of their clients; they can work towards enlisting the family’s support (with client’s permission), as family members are a crucial dimension for management of depression and doing this can also be very helpful in overcoming the stigma associated with depression within the family (Apesoa-Varano, 2010).

Conclusion:

Depression among elderly cohort is a comorbid risk factor for several other psychological conditions such as anxiety and other physical conditions such as cancer, stroke and acute coronary syndromes. Despite wide avenues in pharmacological treatment, the adverse effects of some of these drugs might outweigh its benefit for the elderly population. Thus, psychotherapies like CBT, which can be delivered by nurses after an adequate training should be promoted by the concerned authorities. Nurses have an integral role to play in facilitating patient comfort, putting an end to stigma in community/health care settings and providing psychoeducation to both the carers and the elderly clients.

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What Factors Impact the Educational Outcomes of Children in Foster Care?

Introduction

According to the Department for Education, as at 31March 2018, majority of looked after children that is, 55,200 in the UK were accommodated in foster placements. This represented 73% of all looked after children, with a marked increase in 2017 figures which was 53,010 children (DfE, 2018). With seventy-three per cent of these children and young people living in foster placements, children who have been in care or presently in care were reported as one of the lowest performing groups in terms of educational attainment (O’Higgins et al, 2015).

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Concerns relating to the educational outcomes of looked after children have been in public domain since the 1970s (Essen et al, 1976), but it was only via the Children Act 2004 that specific responsibility were given to local authorities pertaining to the promotion of educational achievement. Foster care is reported as the most far reaching interventions targeted at children who became looked after due to abuse or neglect by their parents or care givers or via their own presentation of anti -social behaviour (Pears et al, 2015). Whilst noting a massive differential between the attainment of looked after children and their peers. the Department for Education and Skills, (2010) reported educational deficiency as the root of most social problems in the society.

The research topic on the link between attendance of different schools and the educational outcomes of fostered children, was presented in Part A of this dissertation. This included an elaboration on the methodology employed in identifying relevant literature to address the research question: To what extent do fostered children going to different schools impact their educational outcomes? Following tutor feedback, the topic has been revised to: What factors impact the educational outcomes of children in foster care?  

As previously highlighted in Part A, the research topic was chosen as fostering/Looked after children (LAC) is the specific area of social work practice that I intend to pursue following my social work degree. I was equally drawn to the topic having attended a lecture in the University during which the underwhelming educational attainment of looked after children was elaborated with their outcomes compared with other children living with their birth parents. This dissertation will employ critical review of existing literature/research in exploring factors identified as impacting on the education of Looked After Children (LAC)/fostered children while also considering the implications of these findings for social work practice. Available research have identified that a range of factors, including deprivation, family breakdown, special educational need status and pre-care traumatic and other experiences, may independently rationalise the educational disadvantage of looked after children (Welbourne & Leeson, 2012; Sebba et al, 2015).

This dissertation/literature review will explore available relevant research to answer the following broad questions;

What does research say about the educational outcomes of LAC? What impact do pre-care experiences with birth families have on educational outcomes of looked after children? Is there any evidence available that links placement instability, frequent school/placement changes, low expectations and Statements of special educational needs (SEND), with poor educational attainment for LAC?

How does available research explain the gap in educational attainment for fostered or looked after children compared to other children and what factors have been identified as positive influences to educational attainment for fostered children?

To what extent is the voice of the looked-after child or young person represented in available research on their educational attainment?

Given the paucity of research specifically focused on children in foster care, the terms “foster care” and “looked after children” will be used interchangeably within this dissertation whilst reviewing selected literature.

There are currently various perspectives attempting to justify the level of educational attainment of Looked-after Children. One perspective historically situates pre-care experiences of children as the major influence on educational achievement (Heath et al, 1989). Another perspective posits through evidence, that the poor educational achievement of looked after children is more related to weaknesses within the care system (Jackson, 2013). This study by Jackson (2013) identified some factors as main precursors of the educational under achievement of looked after children. These include placement instability, poor school attendance, lack of adequate support and encouragement within placement and lack of adequate support with emotional, mental and physical health and well- being. These factors appear to place the responsibility for poor educational performance with the care system even as Honey et al, (2011) informs that “the foster care system must be fully accountable for what happens to young people in its custody”, while noting that it is important to hold the care system accountable for providing young people with the requisite opportunities to succeed.

Taking cognisance of identified research findings relating to factors impacting the education attainment of looked after children, this dissertation will examine relevant government guidance and policies with a view to ascertaining whether the identified factors have been addressed sufficiently while noting areas that are outstanding.

For instance, one government policy directed towards raising the profile of education and improving attainment in England, is the establishment of a ‘virtual school’ headteacher (VSH) to spearhead the education of looked after children as stipulated in the Children and Families Act 2014. With a clear directive to work with partners and other agencies to ensure that educational needs of looked after children are better met, virtual schools (VS) are expected to offer direct and strategic support that engenders positive educational outcomes for looked after children (Drew and Bannergee, 2018).

Methodology

Following searches conducted to answer the research question, twenty peer-reviewed articles were identified. As discussed in part A, these were compiled following a rigorous search (Carey, 2009) which involved gleaning the titles, then abstracts and sometimes, a quick perusal through the article to ensure relevancy. However, in part B, upon further in-depth perusal of the twenty articles, five were eliminated because they were literature reviews, and as mentioned in part A, it is not acceptable to use articles that one have not read in their original form as it would not be possible to analyse and critique as that also creates the risk of misrepresenting the material (Aveyard, 2014). Using literature reviews also increases the risk of answering the research question prior to a consideration of all available literature. In order to ensure a comprehensive ‘hierarchy of evidence’ (Aveyard, 2014 p. 65), the remaining articles were ranked according to the methodology used during their compilation and this led to a further elimination of three articles without a methodology section, which would have made it difficult to ascertain the legitimacy of their studies. In the process, two other articles were found not relevant to the research question which eventually resulted in ten articles being brought forward for review as part of this dissertation.

Given the exploratory nature of the research question, which seeks to unearth factors that impact on educational outcomes of fostered children, it was deemed best answered using qualitative research, a language-based approach of data collection, rather than quantitative research, which is mostly concerned with numbers (Aveyard, 2014), while triangulation, which entails using “more than one method or source of data” to study a social phenomenon was equally considered (Bryman, 2012 p.717). Of the ten research articles selected (Appendix ), eight were found to have employed a qualitative approach, one was qualitative while another one was based on mixed methods approach, where the researcher employed the qualitative approach to complement the findings of the quantitative study.

During the process of familiarising with the content of the literature, the research papers were meticulously studied to ascertain their relevance in answering the research question. This also entails noting down the main topic of the study and findings of the different articles. To enable an understanding of the data collection methods used, adequate time was devoted to studying different research approaches, especially the qualitative research method.

Various critical appraisal tools such as Locke et al., 2004; Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP), 2018; and Aveyard, 2014) (Appendix) were used to enable an assessment of the quality of each article for relevance, strength and limitation in addressing the research question. Following a critical analysis of each article, the findings were then presented as a narrative of characteristics and findings towards identifying any interconnection between the articles (Aveyard, 2014).

In order to understand the findings, different themes were identified to explore how different factors influence the educational outcomes of fostered children. The critical analysis enabled a comparison, contextualisation and integrated interpretation of findings which were “more substantive than the results of individual articles” Aveyard, 2014).

In order to identify the interconnection between different themes in the articles, similar ideas were marked out and highlighted, for example, impact of pre-care experience of LAC/fostered children was marked, later revealing a theme of trauma and maltreatment. The data was then further broken down into parts and given names by coding (Bryman, 2012), while ensuring that each fitted accurately in the right category. With more themes emerging, a table was created to tabulate the emerging themes and these were matched to the research articles (appendix). The table was used to visualise the pattern of the results, thereby assisting in the “continuous comparative analysis” of the texts as some themes were identified in some articles and not in others (Aveyard, 2014).

As the literature review focus became more refined, a snowball technique was used to identify other relevant articles. This involved following up references from the articles found through initial database searches; references were obtained while further relevant references were also identified from the text. Government legislation and guidance were perused using the Department for Education website. In total about 24 articles from a range of journals were identified and examined to determine their relevance to the research question. The initial searches were carried out in early July 2019, with additional database searches conducted up until the time of submission of this dissertation.

Analysis

Many research studies have identified factors that may cause looked after children to fall behind in their education: pre-care trauma/lived experiences, instability including changes of school, placement or support workers, emotional issues, poor attendance or exclusion from school as well as having statement of special educational needs and disability (SEND).

Theme 1 – Impact of pre-care trauma and lived experience

Sutcliffe, Gardiner & Melhuish (2017) in their study posited that the educational disadvantage of LAC can be attributed mainly to the difficulties that preceded the children being looked after rather than to the effects of government care. ‍The study also highlighted group trajectory analysis (GTA) as a flexible, effective method for analysing the educational progress of looked-after children, stating that GTA allows factors associated with a late decline or improvement in educational progress to be identified. The study however provides evidence that early entry into care can reduce the risk of poor educational outcomes concluding that being looked after at an early stage and for a longer time is generally beneficial to children’s educational progress.

Early research appear to infer that poor school performance is attributable to the extremely disadvantaged families from which most looked after children originate concluding that majority have experienced neglect or abuse, or both before coming into care (Heath et al, 1989).Bazalgette et al. (2015) and Berridge (2012) agree that pre-care experience certainly play a part in poor educational attainment; they however laid equal blame on failure to address the aftermath of such experiences amongst other issues like the impact of separation when children are removed from their families, etc.

Berry et al, (2016) also agree that chaotic home environments during the early years could lead to poorer cognitive and social outcomes for looked after children especially at age five. This, according to the study can partly be explained by the effects of parent’s abilities to respond to children’s needs within such an environment, with research revealing children growing up in chaotic environments as having the tendency to experience fewer and lower quality interactions with their carers within the home (Vernon-Feagans et al., 2012). Such families have been identified as having minimal involvement in their children’s education even as positive parenting is linked with higher social and academic competence (Byford, Kuh & Richards, 2012).

Whilst available evidence appears to indicate that being in care is detrimental to educational outcomes, some research studies however infer that children do not appear to benefit academically from being in care. That notwithstanding, at least two studies found that LAC were performing better than their peers, after several disadvantages had been considered (Berger et al.,2015; McClung & Gayle, 2010.). The studies examining the link between being looked after and educational outcomes concluded that pre-care experiences are crucial in the explanation of the educational difficulties of looked after children (O’Higgins, Sebba & Luke, 2015).An analysis of the studies however indicate that this impact is different for children becoming looked after at different ages. This is because children entering care at different ages are likely to have different experiences, for example while most infants enter care because of abuse or neglect, most teenagers go into care because they have behavioural problems or have experienced family breakdown.  Sebba et al. (2015) and McClung and Gayle (2010) found that children who entered care as teenagers had poorer educational outcomes and progress than those who entered when they were younger while it was identified that teenage entrants into care fared better as they stay longer. Data from the Department for Education in England also appear to identify a positive link between length of time in care and the number of qualifications obtained at age 16 (DfE, 2014). Whilst this appear to reflect a positive effect of being looked after in England, at least two other studies (Berger et al., 2015; Sebba et al., 2015) using longitudinal designs suggested that being looked after for a shorter period is not detrimental to educational outcomes, as postulated by the DfE data highlighted above.

Theme 2 – Placement/school instability

In addition to the aforementioned factors, the disruption of being removed from birth parents and instability of frequent placement moves have been identified another factor that may compound developmental risks for looked after children (O’Higgins et al, 2015). A study by Jackson and McParlin (2005) highlighted that government, for the first time through The Quality Protects programme (Department of Health, 1998) set targets for educational outcomes, placement stability and reducing time out of school in order to bridge the care/education divide. However, the impact of the government programme appears far-fetched as most reviewed literature that identified frequent placement transitions portend disruption to attachment relationships for LAC (Grigg, 2012). Moves between foster care placements was also linked to moves in-between schools, while school mobility is identified as another contributory factor to poorer outcomes (O’Higgins et al., 2015; Pears et al., 2015) both in terms of educational progress and difficulties forming positive and trusting relationships with teachers and peers (Pears et al., 2015). Wellbourne & Leeson (2012) suggested that school and placement changes are factors impeding looked after children’s educational attainment as placement changes most times induce school changes which links to poor educational outcomes. According to the study, the lower the frequency of changes, the better the outcomes for looked after children as frequent changes generally indicate a young person in distress. Sebba et al, (2015) reported that for each additional placement change after age 11, looked after children achieve one-third of a grade less at GCSE while looked after children who changed school in Years 10 or 11 scored over five grades less than their peers that didn’t experience any change. The same study identified that every 5% of possible school sessions missed as a result of unauthorised school absences, looked after children scored over two grades less at GCSE, while for every school day missed due to fixed-term exclusions, looked after children scored one-sixth of a grade less at GCSE. Sebba et al. (2015) conducted a review of attainment of looked after children in different placement settings concluding that LAC in non-mainstream schools (including special schools, but also young people in pupil referral units and alternative provision) present lower attainment at age 16 than their LAC counterparts in mainstream schools. Overall, these studies indicate that looked after children’s experiences in schools are complex and multifaceted. Altogether, there appear to be far fewer studies on the role of schools, teachers and children’s school life experiences, compared to those relating to the children’s care histories. There may be need for further research that will enable a clearer picture of the role and impact of schools on the educational attainment of looked after children.

Some of the studies however agree that additional educational input, tailored to the needs of each child, was crucial in compensating for the educational laxity experienced by many looked after children.

Theme 3 – Impact of “SEND” status of looked after children

According to the Education Act, 1996, a child has special educational needs (also known as SEN) if he/she requires special educational care based on his learning difficulty. The introduction of the Equality Act 2010 directs all schools in U.K to make suitable adjustments to enable students with disabilities to engage fully in educational activities in schools. The Act also places responsibility on schools instructing that students with disabilities should be treated at par with non-disabled children. In consonance with the Equality Act, Hills (2013) posits that “children with disabilities are to be enabled adequate adjustments in respect to admission facilities or in receipt of education and associated services, to stop them from being placed at a considerable disadvantage”. Available research indicates that a higher proportion of looked after children identified need special education (Berridge, 2012) even as Sebba et al (2015) affirmed that looked after children are 6 to 8 times more likely to have special educational needs. Berridge (2012) highlighted a higher proportion of children in care (28%) as having diagnoses of special needs compared to the wider school population (3%) (Berridge, 2012: 7). Figures from the Department of Education state that, “73 per cent of school age children looked after continuously for 12 months have some form of special educational needs” (DfE, 2010). Sebba et al. (2015) stated that diagnoses like autistic spectrum disorder, moderate learning difficulties and severe or multiple learning difficulties often predict lower outcomes for looked after children at age 16. This according to the study contrasts with other types of special educational needs, including physical disabilities and speech, language and communication difficulties with minimal adverse consequences for outcomes. It should be noted that some of the studies did not define special educational needs and whether children with special needs were subjected to similar tests and assessments as their peers. The findings however overwhelmingly indicate special educational needs as an impediment for looked after children’s outcomes while evidence abound that looked after children are more at risk from this than other children in the general population (Sebba et al., 2015).

Special educational needs and disability (SEND) also have a huge effect on attainment (DfE 2017) and are much more common for LAC (just over 57% are identified as having such needs) than for the total population with SEND (just over 14%) (DfE 2017). As emphasised by Berridge (2012), the behavioural difficulties and complex learning challenges experienced by LAC have been inadequately addressed, with many of the individuals assigned statements of Special Educational Needs (SEND) being misunderstood, which has routinely led to the insufficient provision of appropriate support and exacerbation of educational problems. Sebba et al, 2015 informs that young people who were in special schools (SEND) at age 16 scored over 14 grades lower in their GCSEs compared to those with the same characteristics who were in mainstream schools. A study by Driscoll, (2013) indicated social, emotional and mental health as crucial factors to educational attainment. The study stated that in primary schools up to age 11, about 41% of children having a ‘statement’ or Education and Health Care Plan (EHC) in England have these factors as their primary need compared to just over 13% with moderate learning disabilities and just under 20% with speech, language and communication needs (DfE 2016).

Theme 4 – Views of Looked after children and role of teachers/carers

An additional perspective was that looked after children did not want to be seen different to their peers and to avoid this, they may require additional support outside of the school, including during the evenings, weekends or and during school holidays (O’Higgins et al, 2015). This study posits that looked after children, wanted to ‘fit in” and not be different in any way. Accordingly, looked after children who are ascribed the label of ‘in care’ by the social and educational system remain at risk of being stigmatised and seen as a failure. There has also been a comprehensive documentation of LAC encountering unsupportive professional or carer practices that further accentuate the feeling of difference thereby highlighting their care status and compromising expectations for attainment (McLeod, 2010). To address this anxiety amongst looked after children, Berridge (2012) has called for a debate to be held “in the UK on the role and relative importance of carers’ educational histories, motivation and confidence” (p.1175).

According to the study, a lack of educational expectations from carers negatively affects looked after children’s attainment. Some children have also identified their carers as being relatively disinterested in their schooling. This disinterest extends to not caring whether they attend school or truant, indifference to their progress and school reports, not providing support with homework, and not attending school events.

A research by Bernedo et al. (2012) reported concerns about the level of relevant training available to teachers to address the needs of LAC. In same vein, Ferguson & Wolkow (2012) also reported concerns amongst LAC that teachers didn’t understand their circumstances and had minimal insight into the challenges associated with being looked after. As part of the ‘In Care, In School’ project, Parker & Gorman (2013) also highlighted the gulf in understanding between social care and schools, stating that this presents a major problem and that, accessing in-depth knowledge of the negative effects of rejection, abuse and neglect will be beneficial to the LAC. In order to support LAC, teachers may not require details of a child’s history of abuse, but rather need knowledge around the link between dysfunctional early relationships and educational achievement. It is however positive that looked after children have reported in other studies that teachers provide the most significant educational support for them while teachers also concurred that they require more training effectively provide this support (Sebba et al, 2015).

Jackson (2013) highlighted that a looked after children may present more behavioural difficulties than their peers, she however believes it is equally likely that they are being unfairly targeted by school systems unprepared for their circumstances. Jackson (2013) argues that for mainstream schools to be LAC focused, the education system must change, rather than the emphasis being on the ‘looked-after’ child. As such, Jackson urges the Government to greatly increase the quality of teacher training offered regarding LAC pupils, with this applicable to all teachers, and not just specialists. Research by Honey et al. (2011) also identified this gap whilst clamouring for educational psychologists to work with schools in delivering such training as according to the report, educational psychologists are better placed to explain how the pre-care and in-care experience potentially impact on LAC learning and behaviour. Two of the studies reviewed have identified the need for social workers, schools and carers to work together in partnership towards good educational outcomes for looked after children (Fostering Network, 2006; Berridge, 2012; Welbourne & Leeson, 2012). A recent government initiative to address this has been the introduction of personal education plans (PEP) for every child in care (DfE, 2014) with requirements for local authorities to prioritise looked after children for places in outstanding schools. A personal education plan is positioned to ensure: access to services and support; contributes to stability, minimises disruption and broken schooling; signals and special needs; establishes clear goals and acts as a record of progress and achievement (DfE, 2014). Research by Drew & Banerjee (2019) recognised a growing evidence base around education-based initiatives, like virtual school heads (VSHs), personal education plans (PEPs) and designated teachers as impacting positively on the experiences of looked after children.

The position of virtual school head (VSH) for LAC is typically held by a senior local authority employee and he/she is responsible for managing a coordinated system of support for looked after children with the aim of improving their educational attainment (Berridge, 2012). Questions have however arisen regarding the possibility of VSHs managing two roles effectively especially given the dwindling budgets of local authorities which may exert pressure on the VSHs (Welbourne & Leeson, 2012). The role of the VSH is to monitor looked after children’s “educational progress and access to educational provision as if they were attending a single school”. As Berridge (2012) puts it: “The Virtual School, is not envisaged as a teaching institution, but a model to oversee progress and support as well as to hold to account those who provide services”. (2012, p. 33). The pilot evaluation of the Virtual School initiative positively identified the role of VSH as a valuable one that should help improve children’s educational outcomes (p.36). Bazalgette et al, (2015) also concludes that the provision of a designated teacher via VSH can potentially provide looked after children with a reliable adult professional positioned to offer some continuity, stability and “advise and support them in their educational career” (Bazalgette et al, 2015). Such support according to Berridge (2012) include a dedicated phone line to support one-to-one tutoring and homework, which have been found to be effective in the pilot of virtual schools. Driscoll (2011) was however picked out one key element to the virtual schools’ work was the raising of awareness of the needs of CLA so that they could be better supported within educational settings.

Conclusion

This review has considered the main issues affecting low educational attainment of children in care. While a lot of research has been undertaken on this issue particularly so in recent years, there is still a need for solid and successful evidence-based recommendations. 

The key to improving educational outcomes for children in care overall is investment; in education, as an essential resource for improving the life outcomes of children who have had a less than perfect start in life; in social workers and carers, by educating them in the importance of education and ensuring that it informs their work with children; in improved systems that have the appropriate and necessary services and supports available: be it CAMHS, counselling, special education services, designated teachers and virtual school heads.

Local Authorities have a responsibility to secure a suitable care placement for looked after children in their area. This means that, where possible, the Local Authority is expected to arrange a care placement which enables the child to continue in their existing educational placement. This is contained in S.10 of the Care planning, placement and case review regulations.

It is clear from the evidence presented, that for LAC to stand any chance of succeeding in the mainstream school environment, the nurture and support of caring teaching staff is essential. Training can play an important role in helping staff to understand the needs of LAC and look beyond the presenting, sometimes difficult, behaviour. This intervention increases the chances of a long-term, stable, successful school experience.

Recommendations

It will be recommended that foster home placements should be selected based on their ability to support and promote educational achievement as well as emotional wellbeing of fostered children while placement moves during exam years should be avoided other than in exceptional circumstances.

All children who come into care should have a detailed educational and psychological assessment as soon as possible, in order to mitigate the effect of pre-care traumatic lived experiences, while negative labels and stigma should be avoided in the best interests of looked after children.

Appendix 1 – Reviewed Literatures

Educational Progress of Looked-After Children in England: A Study Using Group Trajectory Analysis Published online August 4, 2017; Pediatrics 2017;140; Alastair G. Sutcliffe, Julian Gardiner and Edward Melhuish.

Sebba, J., Berridge, D., Luke, N., Fletcher, J., Bell, K., Strand, S., O’Higgins A., (2015). The educational progress of looked after children in England: linking care and education data. Rees Centre for Research in Fostering and Education, University of Oxford and University of Bristol.

O’Higgins, A., Sebba, J., & Luke, N. (2015). What is the relationship between being in care and the educational outcomes of children? An international systematic review. Oxford: Rees Centre for Research in Fostering and Education, University of Oxford.

Bazalgette, L., Rahilly, T. and Trevelyan, G. (2015) Achieving emotional wellbeing for looked after children: a whole system approach. London: NSPCC.

Drew, Helen and Banerjee, Robin (2019) Supporting the education andwellbeing of children looked-after: what is the role of the virtual school? European Journal of Psychology of Education, 34 (1). pp. 101-121. ISSN 0256-2928

Driscoll, J. (2013). Supporting the educational transitions of looked after children at key stage 4: the role of virtual schools and designated teachers. Journal of Children’s Services, 8(2), 110–122.

Berger, L. M., Cancian, M., Han, E., Noyes, J. & Rios-Salas, V. (2015) Children’s academic attainment and foster care. Pediatrics, 35(1). Available online at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/135/1/e109 (accessed 23 July 2019).

Byford, M & Kuh, Diana & Richards, Marcus. (2012). Parenting practices and intergenerational associations in cognitive ability. International journal of epidemiology. 41. 263-72. 10.1093/ije/dyr188.

Gayle, V & McClung, M (2010). ‘Exploring the care effects of multiple factors on the educational achievement of children looked after at home and away from home: an investigation of two Scottish local authorities’ Child & Family Social Work, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 409-431.

Pears, K.C., Hyoun, K.K., and Buchanan, R. and Fisher, P.A. (2015). Adverse Consequences of School Mobility for Children in Foster Care: A Prospective Longitudinal Study. Child Development, Volume 86 (4), pp.1210 – 1226.

Sutcliffe, Alastair & Gardiner, Julian & Melhuish, Edward. (2017). Educational Progress of Looked-After Children in England: A Study Using Group Trajectory Analysis. Pediatrics. 140. e20170503. 10.1542/peds.2017-0503.

Welbourne, P. and Leeson, C. (2012), “The education of children in care: a research review”, Journal of Children’s Services, Vol. 7 No. 2, pp. 128-143. https://doi.org/10.1108/17466661211238682

//Educating young people in care: What have we learned? Berridge, David, Children and Youth Services Review, June 2012, Vol.34(6), pp.1171-1175.

 

Factors Affecting Velocity of a Sphere Rolling Down Incline

Factors affecting the velocity of a sphere rolling down an incline.
An experiment was performed investigating the factors affecting the velocity of a ball rolling down an incline. After investigating how mass, angle of incline, and center of mass affect the velocity of a ball rolling down an incline, it was determined that the hypotheses of “The greater the angle of the incline the ball is rolling down, the greater velocity the ball will reach.”, “The greater the mass of the ball, the greater velocity the ball will reach.”, and “The more centered the mass of the ball, the greater velocity the ball will reach.” were supported.
Lane Dederer
There are multiple factors affecting the velocity a ball gains while descending an inclined plane.
One simple factor that will affect the velocity of a ball rolling down an incline is the angle of the incline. This is due to the fact that when the angle of the incline is increased, the height of the incline also increases. Gravitational potential energy equals mass multiplied by gravity multiplied by height (), meaning height is one of the factors affecting the potential energy the ball possesses. The higher the angle of the incline, the faster the velocity
Another factor affecting the velocity of a ball rolling down an incline is the mass of the ball, which is also a factor in the gravitational potential energy equation.
The last factor that will be discussed is mass distribution within the ball. The velocity of a ball rolling down an inclined plane could be affected by the location of mass within the ball. For example, if the majority of the mass of a ball is located on one side, this would likely create different results compared to a ball in which mass is distributed evenly. (Hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu, 2017)
While potential energy is determined by the equation of , the actual energy produced (kinetic energy) is also dependent on rotational kinetic energy of the ball, which is represented by the equation . In this equation, and .    

Gravitational potential energy
Gravitational potential energy or GPE is a type of potential energy possessed by an object due to its position in a gravitational field. (Hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu, 2017) One way to demonstrate this concept is a ball rolling down an incline. When the ball is stationary at the top of a slope, it possesses 100% gravitational energy, meaning none of its potential energy has been converted into another form of energy. When a ball rolls down an incline, its gravitational potential energy is converted into motion, or kinetic energy (KE) which will be discussed next. When the ball has travelled half way down the incline, it possesses 50% GPE and 50% KE. When the ball has travelled 75% of the distance down the incline, it possesses 75% KE and 25% GPE. When the ball has travelled 100% of the distance of the incline, it possesses 100% KE and 0% GPE. This is due to the fact that all of the ball’s GPE has been “used” or converted into KE. At this point the ball no longer possesses any potential to be put into motion unless acted on by an external force.
Gravitational potential energy can be calculated using the following formula:

Which simplified looks like the following:

This equation shows that the higher the height of an incline, the more potential energy would be possessed by an object at the top of the incline. The equation also shows that the higher the mass of an object, the more GPE it will possess. While acceleration due to gravity (g) is also a variable in the equation, as the acceleration of an object due to gravity is the same everywhere on earth. (Physicsclassroom.com, 2017)

Kinetic energy
Kinetic energy is the energy of movement, or motion. It is defined as “an object in motion possesses kinetic energy.” (Hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu, 2017) Kinetic energy can be calculated using the following equation:

Simplified:

The equation for kinetic energy shows that it is dependent on mass and velocity. Therefore, the higher the mass of an object the more kinetic energy it possesses, and the higher the velocity of an object the more kinetic energy it possesses. (Physicsclassroom.com, 2017)
Friction
Friction is a form of resistance between two solid objects. The amount of resistance between these two solid objects is in most cases dependent on the force holding the surfaces of the two objects together, and the roughness of each surface. The formula for friction is as follows:
Where:

(Hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu, 2017), (School-for-champions.com, 2017)
The hypotheses for the experiment are as follows:
The greater the angle of the incline the ball is rolling down, the greater velocity the ball will reach.
The greater the mass of the ball, the greater velocity the ball will reach.
The more centered the mass of the ball, the greater velocity the ball will reach.
Equipment was gathered including a 1 meter long flat wooden board, 4 table tennis balls, a stopwatch, fine sand, water, a drill, adhesive tape, and a stack of textbooks. Firstly, the wooden board was placed one end touching the desk and one end supported by the textbooks, creating the incline that was used for the experiment. An opening was then drilled in 3 of the 4 table tennis balls to allow for insertion of water and sand, allowing balls of varying mass. Once the incline was at the desired angle, the ball being tested was held at the top of the incline. The first participant suspending the ball at the top of the incline gave a countdown, prompting the second participant to start a stopwatch as the ball was released. As soon as the ball reached the bottom of the incline, the stopwatch was stopped. The time provided from the stopwatch was then arranged in a table. This process was repeated three times for each angle in test one (how the angle of incline affects the velocity of a ball rolling down an incline), and five times for each angle in test two. (how mass affects the velocity of a ball rolling down an incline) As test one was not testing any variables to do with mass, it only required one ball to be used throughout the test. The sand filled ball was chosen for this as it was solid and consistent.
Angle of incline
The way the angle of the incline affected the ball’s velocity was tested by rolling the ball down an incline at angles of 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°, 30°, 35°, 40°, and 45°. Each of these increments were tested three times, ensuring accurate data. The angle of the incline was calculated using trigonometry, using the height of the incline and the length of the incline (the hypotenuse) to find the required angle. Textbooks were used to support the board at the correct height. Once the correct angle of incline was met, the ball was timed rolling down the incline 3 times for the sake of accurate data. This process was repeated for every angle being tested.
Mass of ball
The effect the mass of the ball had on velocity was investigated by testing three balls of different masses. One ball had a hole drilled in it and was filled with water (36.2 grams), one ball had a hole drilled in it and was filled with sand (52.4 grams), and one ball was left as it is (2.7 grams). Each of these balls were timed five times rolling down an incline of 20°.
All data from the experiment was recorded on paper and arranged in a table, so it could then be graphed, allowing the data to be analysed and observed in an organised fashion. As , the velocity the ball reached can be calculated using the time recorded from the experiment, and the distance, which is the length of the incline which was simply measured with a ruler to be 0.91 metres. An example of this for the ball rolling down the 0.91m incline in one second is as follows:

Independent, dependent, and controlled variables
The independent variables in this experiment include the angle of the incline, the mass of the ball, and the mass distribution of the ball. The dependent variable in this experiment is the velocity of the ball. Controlled variables are variables apart from independent and dependent variables that can still affect the results of an experiment. The controlled variables in this experiment are the surface the ball is rolling on, the material the ball is made of, the size of the ball, the measuring devices being used, the distance the ball travels, and the method being used to release the ball each time, for example the position of the hand.
Safety
In this experiment safety glasses were worn by participants to prevent any possible damage to the eye. The “landing zone” where the ball reached the bottom of the ramp was blocked with a stack of textbooks. This choice was made as the ball possessed a reasonable amount of kinetic energy as it came off the incline, meaning it could interfere with other classmates’ experiments and even become a hazard. (for example knocking a glass beaker off a bench) While these situations are quite unlikely it is good practice to evaluate any possible errors that could occur in an experiment and prevent them from occurring in the first place through proper safety practices.
Test 1: How the angle of incline affects the velocity of a ball rolling down an incline.

Angle of incline (degrees)

Time taken to roll down incline (seconds)

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

Average

5

1.82

1.59

1.68

1.70

10

1.12

1.15

1.04

1.10

15

0.82

0.63

0.81

0.75

20

0.75

0.69

0.63

0.69

25

0.66

0.44

0.59

0.56

30

0.66

0.69

0.47

0.61

35

0.59

0.53

0.63

0.58

40

0.41

0.53

0.47

0.47

45

0.50

0.54

0.47

0.50

By using the equation for velocity ( simplified as ), the above timed results can be converted into velocity. For example, finding the velocity of the ball from test one rolling down an incline of five degrees.

This process is then repeated for every single result and put into a table.

Angle of incline (degrees)

Velocity reached (metres per second)

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

Projected average

Average

5

0.50

0.57

0.54

1.06

0.54

10

0.81

0.79

0.88

1.50

0.83

15

1.11

1.44

1.12

1.83

1.21

20

1.21

1.32

1.44

2.08

1.32

25

1.38

2.07

1.54

2.31

1.63

30

1.38

1.32

1.94

2.51

1.49

35

1.54

1.72

1.44

2.70

1.57

40

2.22

1.72

1.94

2.85

1.94

45

1.82

1.69

1.94

2.99

1.82

Test 2: How mass affects the velocity of a ball rolling down an incline.

Mass of ball (grams)

Time taken to roll down incline (seconds)

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

Test 4

Test 5

Average

2.7
(Regular ball)

0.71

0.85

0.78

0.78

0.71

0.77

36.2
(Ball filled with water)

0.62

0.66

0.63

0.68

0.62

0.64

52.4
(Ball filled with sand)

0.66

0.69

0.66

0.71

0.72

0.69

(Ball half filled with sand)

0.94

0.87

0.88

1.10

0.94

0.95

These times were then converted into velocity using the same method as the previous results in test one.

Mass of ball (grams)

Velocity reached (metres per second)

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

Test 4

Test 5

Average

2.7
(Regular ball)

1.28

1.07

1.17

1.17

1.28

1.18

36.2
(Ball filled with water)

1.38

1.32

1.38

1.28

1.26

1.32

52.4
(Ball filled with sand)

1.47

1.38

1.44

1.34

1.47

1.42

(Ball half filled with sand)

0.97

1.05

1.03

0.83

0.97

0.96

Theoretical calculations

When a ball is rolling down an incline it’s gravitational potential energy is being converted into kinetic energy, however the potential energy is also being converted into rotational kinetic energy as the object is a ball.

With all values substituted in, the equation for energy transformation is as follows:

Which provides the velocity of the ball at the bottom of the incline:

(Hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu, 2017)
To find the velocity of the ball from this point, the values for g and h are simply substituted into the equation. For example, to find the theoretical velocity for a ball rolling down a ramp that is 10 centimetres high the equation will look like the following:

This equation will be used to work out the theoretical velocity for each ramp height.

All results can then be put input into a table or graph to observe and compare real results to theoretical results.

Angle of incline (degrees)

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

Average velocity (metres per second)

Theoretical velocity (metres per second)

5

0.50

0.57

0.54

0.54

1.06

10

0.81

0.79

0.88

0.83

1.50

15

1.11

1.44

1.12

1.21

1.83

20

1.21

1.32

1.44

1.32

2.08

25

1.38

2.07

1.54

1.63

2.31

30

1.38

1.32

1.94

1.49

2.51

35

1.54

1.72

1.44

1.57

2.70

40

2.22

1.72

1.94

1.94

2.85

45

1.82

1.69

1.94

1.82

2.99

The results gathered from this experiment while not following theoretical results, prove to follow projected results relatively closely in the above graph. The comparison between the two sets of data shows that both quite closely follow the same path, however the real data is just lower than the theoretical data. Some possible reasons for this difference include the fact that the equation doesn’t account for friction, and the quantity of angular momentum. While the energy lost due to unaccounted for friction in the experiment would be negligible, as acceleration is an exponential value, a small change in the amount of energy in the experiment could noticeably change results quite quickly. The equation used for theoretical data also wasn’t accounting for the angular momentum of the ball. Angular momentum is a is a form of stored energy observed in things such as a rolling ball. This means while the ball in the experiment was rolling down the incline, it was storing part of its energy as angular momentum, taking away from the actual kinetic energy of the ball. Both factors combined can create quite a difference in real data compared to theoretical data, which is one explanation for the difference between real and theoretical data.

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While the results are not perfect, in the angle to velocity graph the real data gets closer to the predicted theoretical value as the experiment goes on. The real results get proportionally closer to projected results even though looking at the real results there appear to be outlying data points bringing down the value for the average velocity of the ball in the second half of the graph. This is proven below. This proportional gap being closed more the further the experiment progresses is thought to be due to the exponential nature of acceleration.
First four points of graph:

Second four points of graph:

By evaluating the results from test 1, it is made clear that the higher the angle of incline, the higher velocity the ball will reach. In case the increase in velocity compared to increase in incline angle is not completely uniform. However the addition of a trend line shows that while there are outlying points lower than expected, the data shows that the velocity of the ball is still increasing as the angle of the incline increases, which supports the hypothesis of “The greater the angle of the incline the ball is rolling down, the greater velocity the ball will reach.”
The second test involves four different ping pong balls. One is a regular ball, one filled with water, one filled with sand, and one half filled with sand. The ball half filled with sand will be ignored for now. By evaluating the results from test 2, it is shown that the regular ping pong ball (2.7g) is the slowest of the 3 balls being analysed, with an average velocity of 1.18. The ball filled with water (36.2g) comes in with the next highest velocity with an average of 1.32. Lastly, the ball filled with fine sand (52.4g) reaches the highest average velocity of the three, coming in at 1.42. This data is seen displayed in the mass to velocity graph from test 2 on page 9. By analysing this graph it is made clear that the hypothesis of “The greater the mass of the ball, the greater velocity the ball will reach.” is supported, as the velocity is clearly seen going up as mass of the ball goes up.
The last hypothesis is related to the ping pong ball that was only half filled with sand that was mentioned previously. This ball was made with the intention of analysing the effects the center of mass has on a ball. This ball came in with an average velocity of 0.96, which is by far the lowest average velocity of the four balls. By observing the mass to velocity graph from test 2 it is clearly seen that the ball half filled with sand has a significantly lower velocity than the rest of the balls tested. Therefore, the hypothesis of “The more centered the mass of the ball, the greater velocity the ball will reach.” Is supported.
Using the square root function the results from each set of data can be compared. The equation used to calculate theoretical data can be simplified to the square root function, meaning both equations can represent the same line. This will be demonstrated below.

Looking at the graphed results and placing a power trendline on each set of points shows that the above equation relates directly to the equation of the lines in the graph. This comparison is shown below.

Looking at the equations for each trendline it can be deduced that they can be represented by the square root function.

Throughout the experiment in this investigation there are many aspects that could lead to flawed or inaccurate data. While the data didn’t exactly match theoretical data, it quite closely followed the predictable nature of a power trendline. The results that stray the most from the trendline are the results from the second half of the angle of incline test, between 30 and 45 degrees. These seemingly anomalous results are most likely due to the measurements for the experiment being recorded by humans. The times for the experiment were recorded by a participant using a stopwatch, meaning there are multiple points throughout a single run of the experiment that could lead to inaccurate results. The first is the ball being released. One participant held the ball at the top of the incline, and with a countdown would release the ball, prompting the second participant to start the stopwatch. This part of the experiment alone can create slightly inaccurate data, as the participant starting the stopwatch is reacting to the visual que of the ball being released and the audio que of a countdown. According to backyardbrains.com, the average human reaction time to a visual stimulus is 0.25 seconds, and 0.17 seconds for audio stimulus. As both of these are involve
 

Ergonomic Factors in Workplace Accidents

Critically evaluate the ergonomic factors that may lead to incidents or accidents in the workplace environment. You should make reference to relevant examples where appropriate. It is essential that you research the current scientific literature on this subject and that you use this literature to support your critical discussion throughout.

Introduction

Ergonomics (Ahonen, M., Launis, M., & Kuorinka, T.,1989) is a branch of engineering science, it accords the factors such as people’s psychology, people’s physiology, and body structure to design the hand tools, machines, households accessories, etc., in order to guarantee people’s security, work healthily, comfortably, and satisfied working results. Ergonomics has absorbed the extensive knowledge contents of natural science and social science;
During World War II, because of the production of various modern weapons, designers must consider the user’s physiology and psychological characteristic conscientiously, and study how to make the machine in conformity with people’s ability limit and characteristic, thus the “ergonomics” has produced. Today, the ergonomics designs are widely used in the world (Alexander, D., & Rabourn, R., 2001).
In the study of “ergonomics”, the size of every part of human body, the person’s vision and normal physiological value of the sense of hearing, the posture when people are working, human scope of activities, movement rhythm and speed, the muscle intensity, all are recorded (Bailey, R. W., 1989). Since those labor condition would causes the tire, fatigue, small amount damage to human body. Furthermore, the workplace environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, sound, vibration, illumination, color, smell of the environment are also a study area in ergonomics. Because those environmental conditions also causes the tire, fatigue, small amount damage to human body (Chengalur, S.N., Rodgers, S.H., & Bernard, T.E., 2003).

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The study on people’s working behavior and produce various factors of the behavioral difference in ergonomic; these factors can be drawn together. It includes subjective factors such as age, gender, personal intelligence, culture engineering level, working interest and working motive, personality characteristic, working mood, etc. At the same time, the Ergonomics expert/researcher also study the social factor of living in objective factors such as the environment, equipment performance, condition of work, etc. These factors make people’s has a difference to the intensity of adaptation to various hand tools, fixture, machine, or equipment (Eastman Kodak Company, 2003). .

Ergonomic Related Injury

Ergonomic injuries include Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMIs), Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSIs), Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs), Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs), or Cumulative Trauma Injuries (CTIs) (Armstrong, T. J., Kilbom, A., & Violante, F. , 2000) (Arndt, R., & Putz-Anderson, V. , 2002).
The Ergonomic injuries (Hancock, P. A., & Desmond, P. A., 2000). normally caused by the presence of ergonomic related risk factors (Aghazadeh, F.,1994), they are:

Vibration: People uses impact tools or vibrating equipment.
Awkward Body Postures: maintaining awkward or fixed or posture without any support such as twisting, reaching, or bending.
Repetition: the people doing the same and repetitive motions for a long time.
Force: The pressure applied to any part of human body while working such as gripping a hand tool, pulling, lifting, or pushing, pulling.
Contact Stress: pressure applied to any soft tissues of human body while working such as the as the wrist pressed by sharp edges or hand tools.
Exposure to heat or cold

It is often these risk factors over time can lead to combinations of pain, injury and disability when people may cause injury, sustained exposure to ergonomic risk factors (Alston, G. (2003).
Single event may place a stressed body tissues, but the exposure is too low bruises. Over time, the soft tissue or human body has the ability to recover. Repeated exposure to these risk factors, it may interfere with the body’s normal healing process, resulting in a disproportionate response, and lead to cause harm to humans (Alli, B. O., 2001).
Ergonomic injury or MSD can affect the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage and intervertebral discs. They can be directly or indirectly related to job duties or work environment. Non- work activities and the environment will also affect the MSD. For example, the general staff may spend 6-8 hours a day’s computer work. With features such as online shopping, paying bills online, and sends the emails. The employee may spend 2-4 hours daily supplement his or her personal computer for sending and receiving e-mail. When the steps we spend more and more time each day on the computer , we have taken to ensure that our computers ( both in work and at home ) is set up to prevent these musculoskeletal disorders is imperative (Ayoub, M. M., & Mital, A.,1989).
Ergonomics is in already using various products, facility and production system extensively in the mechanical industry (Auburn Engineers, 1993). For example, driving car is an integration of people – machine – environmental system, driver should first find out about environment (rate of traffic flow, stream of people, traffic light, and sign) and status of car such as speed, engine temperature, pressure, oil level, etc. The driver has interaction with car control system for perfect driving.
In addition to make the driver drive car with safe and comfortable, driver should adjust driver’s seat. Furthermore, the vehicle designer should follow the human measurements, physiology, psychological characteristics while designing the car.
3. Example of Improvement of Screw Driver Design in Accordance with Ergonomics Rule
Screwdriver is one of the most frequently used hand tools now, no matter is nearly indispensable tool in the factory or family, but when a person use screwdrivers, its main purpose may be to fasten into and back-out the screw, the homework involves the repetitiveness work of the hand, it crook back of especially wrist (Backs, R. W., & Boucsein, W., 2000), palm crooking etc. The People/workers frequently use of screwdriver is easily to cause the accumulating muscle skeleton injuring or hand injury such as Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).
For general screwdriver, it is a combination of a handle, a shaft, and a tip. The tip can be inserted into the head of the screw to fasten it into or back-out from a board, or wall.

Figure 1. Screwdriver Design Before Improvement

Figure 2. Screwdriver Design After improvement
According to ergonomics, the new screwdriver design make the shaft with more greatly spraining strength, and then let user feel comfortable to hold the screwdriver and efficiency in use (Bahr, N. J., 1997) (Campbell, A., 2000).
The ergonomics design includes the change of materials of handle. Use rubbery material to replace hard plastic or metal. The soft rubbery material provides strong friction between the handle of screwdriver and hand to prevent the slip whiles the use.
The size and shape of handle should also be changed. In accordance with ergonomics, the size and shape of handle should fit the human wrist. It makes the people easily to hold the screwdriver with more comfortable and less fatigue (Green, J., 1997).
The result of modification of screwdriver designs (based on ergonomic rules) is:
(1)Increase the comfortableness when screwdrivers are held.
(2)Flexibility degree, efficiency and torsion increasing while the use of screwdriver.
(3)Reduce the probability of accumulating injury of the hand.
4. Example of Improvement of Computer Desk in Accordance with Ergonomics Rule
According to the literature, there are a considerable number of computer operators complain about the long-term use of computer generated body discomfort,
Including eye irritation affected eye feel pressure, keyboard or desk height not suitable for the operator and cause limbs stiff, these can lead to injury or damage to persons of the body, not only affect their health, but also reduce the work efficiency (Hanna, S. R., & Konz, S., 2004).
In accordance with ergonomics rules (Barling, J., & Frone, M. R., 2004), computer desk should be designed to have a tilt angle, it allowing users to use the computer in the long term (Haas, E., & Edworthy, J., 2003), and feel more comfortable in sitting job. The improved design also increases the work efficiency, but user doesn’t feel more burden or fatigue.
In addition, the height and angle of desktop computer desk, with height and angle of display platform can also be adjustable to fit the body size of user (Anshel, J., 2005). Easy adjustable desktop computer desk, it allows users to feel more comfortable with less fatigue while the use of desk top computer (Grandjean, E., 1992).

Source: http://www.cbs.state.or.us/osha/pdf/ergo/ergoadvantages.pdf
Figure 3. Comfortable Setting of Computer Desk
The improvement of desk top computer desk design in accordance with ergonomics rules can benefits users as follows:
(1) The user can easily adjust the height and angle of desktop computer desk, it make user more comfortable while use of desktop computer.
(2) The improvement of desktop computer desk design can reduce the burden/fatigue on the user shoulders, neck, and other parts of the elbow while long-term use of desktop computer.
(3) The improvement of desktop computer desk design can reduce the eye fatigue while user long-term faced the monitor.
5. Example of Improvement of the Use of Portable Computer/Note Book Computer in Accordance with Ergonomics Rule
Portable application of computer (Note Book Computer) is already quite popular as desk top computer, especially note book computer is easy to carry and place on the office table and play as desk top computer. More companies encourage the employee to use of note book computer instead of traditional desk top computer. But, based on the characteristic of the portable computer/note book computer in the design, for example, the keyboard and screen cannot separated from the computer, the user is often difficult to keep the good working posture while working. In long-term cases, it may cause muscle and bones straining or other relevant health problems. The improvement for the use of note book computer is needed.
User or employee should follow the principles as much as possible while using the portable computer to work:

Place the screen in front of the user
Keeping the height of screen is the same as user’s sight height as much as possible (Anshel, J., 1998), or the screen is only lower than user sight height slightly (portable computer/note book computer normally placed on desk and then the screen being higher than the level of the tabletop)
User should takes distance of 350-600 millimeters to the screen of portable computer/note book computer (display screen of 14 inches relatively takes distance of 400 millimeters)
User can easily change the slope of screen and then cater to the user’s need
User should avoid viewing the screen near window or other light sources
The text size should be large, word distance and row spacing should be enough.
Use the wrist or mouse cushion

Platform for Portable Computer/Note Book Computer shelf /platform
The employer should provide platform or screen support frame for note book computer user. This can help user to adjust the height of screen at user’s sight level.
External keyboard and mouse
The employer should provide ergonomics compatible external keyboard and mouse to note book computer user. It makes user, more comfortable and less fatigue (Jacko, J. A., & Sears, A., 2003).
Under many circumstances, external keyboard and mouse are the important accessories for portable computers user in the office. The following are suggestions of the external keyboard:

The keyboard is thinner as much as possible, it is much better if the angle of keyboard can be adjusted in order to facilitate the user under different working conditions and postures (Vink, P., 2005);
Word and symbol on the keyboard should be known and easy to recognize;
There are enough spaces that offered support for hand in front of the keyboard.

 

Factors Affecting The Weight a Column Can Withstand

Matthew Keeley 
Physics EEI
This extended experimental investigation explores the weight a paper column can withstand before it buckles and how changing the diameter, length and thickness of a column affects its critical load. Multiple columns with varying diameters, lengths and thicknesses were constructed and each one had masses added to it until it buckled. The hypotheses “If the diameter of a paper column is increased, then the weight the paper column can withstand before buckling will also increase exponentially” and “If the length of a paper column is decreased, then the weight the paper column can withstand before buckling will increase exponentially” were not supported while the hypothesis “If the thickness of a paper column is increased, then the weight the paper column can withstand will also increase proportionally” was supported.

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Columns are used in architecture and structural engineering, in the walls of houses and buildings, to transmit weight through compression from the structure above the column to the structural elements beneath (Merriam-webster.com, 2017). Objects are only referred to as columns when the force is applied axially; they are referred to as beams otherwise (Waddell, 1925). Column buckling is likely the only area of structural mechanics where failure is not due to the strength of the material, but the stiffness of the material and the shape of the column instead (McGinty, 2017). Buckling occurs in a column when its critical load is reached and this value can be determined by the Euler column formula, which is as follows:

Where is the critical load (), is the modulus of elasticity (), is the area moment of inertia (, is the length of the column () and is the column effective length factor (Engineeringtoolbox.com, 2017). Engineers commonly use mm instead of regular SI unit, examples of the formula being used use mm (Critical Buckling Load (Example 1) – Mechanics of Materials, 2013).
This formula is used mainly to calculate the buckling load of steel and wooden columns so its application in the buckling of paper columns is questionable although it is the only method available.
There are some unknown values in the equation without researching them using other sources, the value, the value and the value.
The value, the modulus of elasticity (also known as young’s modulus, the elastic modulus or the tensile modulus) is a constant that is a measure of the stiffness of a material (Askeland et al., 1996). It is the slope of the stress-strain curve in the elastic region given by:

A relationship known as Hooke’s Law, Hooke’s law states that the strain in a solid is proportional to the applied stress within the elastic limit of that solid (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017). For example, if an object with a high modulus of elasticity had the same force applied to it as an object with a low modulus of elasticity there would be a greater change in dimension in the object with the smaller modulus of elasticity.
The modulus of elasticity is represented in pascals () but the value is usually very large so it is found in gigapascals instead (. When calculating theoretical data to keep the units the same the modulus of elasticity was represented in as. The modulus of elasticity for paper is 2 (www-materials.eng.cam.ac.uk, 2017).
The value represents area moment of inertia (also known as second moment of area). It is a geometrical property of an area representing how its points are distributed regarding an axis within the object (Beer and Johnston, 1990). It is calculated using multiple integral over the columns cross-section, but it’s easier to utilise an already existing formula for the second moment of area of the column in question. Since the column that will be used in the experiment is rolled up paper it will have a hollow cylindrical cross-section which will appear as:
The formula for second moment of area for a hollow cylindrical cross-section is as follows:

Where is the radius of the outside circle and is the radius of the inside circle (Efunda.com, 2017).
The second moment of area also determines the way a column is most likely to buckle (towards the plane or the plane). Usually there would be multiple formulae for the second moment of area, one for buckling towards the plane and one for buckling toward the plane, but since the cross section in question is hollow cylindrical and the axis (where the weight will be applied) is in the centre of the cross-section the formulae are identical. If the cross section was a filled rectangular area, for instance, and appeared as:
Then the formulae for second moment of area are as follows:

One would have to solve for both and and find out on which plane the column is most likely to buckle along and use that value as the second moment of area in the Euler column formula (What is second moment of area?, 2015). The units for second moment of area are metres to the fourth power (, but since the units need to be kept the same and the radius will be represented in millimetres when doing theoretical data, it will be in millimetres to the fourth power () instead.
The last unknown value is which is the column effective length factor (Wai-Fah and Duan, 1999). It is determined by the boundary conditions. The value changes depending on if the column is fixed on both ends, hinged on both ends, fixed on one end free on another, etc. The columns used in the experiment are free on both ends so the theoretical value is 1, but the actual value derived from various other experiments is 1.2, so that value will be used in theoretical data (Efunda.com, 2017).
For this experiment to be a success many variables must be remain the same that were quite difficult to control. To attempt to control these variables some precautions were taken. For example, to keep the distribution of weight the same a transparent board was used so the weight could be placed in the centre of the column and distributed evenly. Also, the paper columns need to be made carefully so that there are no weaknesses in the column because weaknesses in the column aren’t factored into Euler’s column formula. The dimensions for paper are 29.7mm x 21mm x 0.1mm (for 80gsm A4 paper).
Theoretical Data

Calculating second moment of area ().

Substituting into Euler’s column formula and solving to find critical load.

Calculating the mass the column could withstand using .

This value is very large and a paper column of the dimension used in the calculations would certainly crumble under this amount of force in real life applications, but this may be due to all the other variables that are difficult to control at play, such as weaknesses in the column geometrically and weight distribution rather than the formula being incorrect.
Theoretical data results tables and graphs
Changing Column’s diameter

Column’s diameter (mm)

Mass before column buckles (kg)

95

1063.45

90

904.06

85

761.45

80

634.69

75

522.84

70

424.96

65

340.14

60

267.42

55

205.89

50

154.60

Changing Column Length

Column thickness (mm)

Mass before column buckles (kg)

0.1

934.57

0.2

1862.98

0.3

2785.27

0.4

3701.46

0.5

4611.57

0.6

5515.63

0.7

6413.67

0.8

7305.72

0.9

8191.81

1.0

9071.95

Changing Column’s Thickness

Column’s Length (mm)

Mass before column buckles (kg)

210

934.56

200

1030.36

190

1141.68

180

1272.05

170

1426.11

160

1609.94

150

1831.76

140

2102.78

130

2438.73

120

2862.12

The following hypotheses that were prompted due to the background research are as follows:
Changing Column’s Diameter
If the diameter of a paper column is increased, then the weight the paper column can withstand before buckling will also increase exponentially.
Changing Column’s Length
If the length of a paper column is decreased, then the weight the paper column can withstand before buckling will increase exponentially.
Changing Column’s Thickness
If the thickness of a paper column is increased, then the weight the paper column can withstand will also increase proportionally.

Changing Column’s Diameter
Various paper columns were constructed carefully (as to reduce weak points in the column) with different diameters, starting at 9.5cm diameters reducing the diameter by 0.5cm for every column until 10 columns had been made, so that there was enough variation in the data to develop more accurate results. The column with the smallest diameter had a diameter of 5cm. The experiment was then set up like the diagram on the previous (without the weights). The board on the bottom of the column was set up to protect the bench from damage from the falling weights and a small transparent board was placed on top of the column so that the weights could be accurately placed in the centre of the column to keep the distribution of weight even.  50g masses were then added to the column until it buckled and the mass that is buckled at was graphed for later analysis. This process was completed for all the columns made beforehand and the experiment was repeated until 3 trials had been completed so the data discovered was more accurate.
Changing Column’s Length
Paper columns with various lengths were constructed carefully, starting at a length of 21cm and reducing by 1cm until 10 columns had been made, so there was enough variation in the data to provide more accurate results. The column with the smallest length had a length of 12cm. The experiment was then set up like the diagram (without the weights). The board on the bottom of the column was set up to protect the bench from damage from the falling weights and a small transparent board was placed on top of the column so that the weights could be accurately placed in the centre of the column to keep the distribution of weight even.  50g masses were then added to the column until it buckled and the mass that is buckled at was graphed for later analysis. This process was completed for all the columns made beforehand and the experiment was repeated until 3 trials had been completed so the data discovered was more accurate.
Changing Column’s Thickness
Paper columns with varying thicknesses were constructed by taping pieces of paper together (1 piece of paper has a thickness of 0.1mm, 2 taped together 0.2mm, etc.) until 10 columns had been made, so there was enough variation in the data to provide more accurate results. The experiment was then set up like the diagram (without the weights). The board on the bottom of the column was set up to protect the bench from damage from the falling weights and a small transparent board was placed on top of the column so that the weights could be accurately placed in the centre of the column to keep the distribution of weight even.  50g masses were then added to the column until it buckled and the mass that is buckled at was graphed for later analysis. This process was completed for all the columns made beforehand and the experiment was repeated until 3 trials had been completed so the data was more accurate.
Variables
Dependent Variable
The independent variable is the mass the column can withstand before it buckles, as this is what the experiment is testing and what changes when the independent variables are manipulated.
Independent Variables
The independent variables in this experiment are the ones that get changed, the diameter, the length and the thickness. Changing these will affect the dependent variable.
Controlled Variables
The controlled variables are everything that was kept the same during the experiment, although these may have changed regardless of efforts to keep them the same during the experiment. They include: the temperature and pressure, brand of paper, consistency of columns, distribution of weight, wind conditions, material of column, weights that were used, elevation and the material experiment was performed on.
Safety
When the column buckles, the weights will fall off the column and potentially an injury could occur. To deal with this the falling weights must be avoided and people entering the area of the experiment should be careful walking through. A mechanism to catch the board so the weights don’t fall could also be constructed.
Scissors could potentially be used to cut someone. To deal with this the scissors were treated with caution and used appropriately. Wearing goggles will also protect the eyes.
Changing Column’s Diameter

Diameter (mm)

Mass before column buckled (kg)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Average

95

2.0

1.4

1.7

1.7

90

1.7

1.6

2.0

1.8

85

1.7

1.1

1.5

1.4

80

1.2

1.8

2.0

1.7

75

1.3

2.4

1.5

1.7

70

1.5

1.4

2.0

1.6

65

1.5

1.5

1.6

1.5

60

1.2

1.6

1.7

1.5

55

0.9

1.3

1.0

1.1

50

0.8

1.0

0.6

0.8

Changing Column’s Length

Length (mm)

Mass before column buckled (kg)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Average

210

2.0

1.4

1.7

1.7

200

1.2

1.5

1.6

1.4

190

1.1

1.0

1.2

1.1

180

1.5

0.9

1.0

1.1

170

1.0

2.0

1.7

1.6

160

1.6

2.0

2.1

1.9

150

1.6

2.0

1.9

1.8

140

1.0

1.8

2.3

1.7

130

1.4

1.5

1.7

1.5

120

1.7

2.1

1.8

1.9

Changing Column’s Thickness

Thickness (mm)

Mass before column buckled (kg)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Average

0.1

2.0

1.4

1.7

1.7

0.2

2.1

1.8

2.3

2.1

0.3

2.8

3.0

1.7

2.5

0.4

3.3

4.2

2.6

3.4

0.5

4.2

3.4

4.8

4.1

0.6

5.1

5.4

4.5

5.0

0.7

5.9

6.3

5.7

6.0

0.8

7.6

6.6

7.8

7.3

0.9

8.0

8.5

9.0

8.5

1.0

10.0

9.0

8.9

9.3

The results for changing column diameter seem to have a pattern to them, the weight that the column can support increases with diameter, but while the mass the column could withstand changed with diameter the increments in which the value changed reduced every time the diameter increased (logarithmic relationship). The results for changing the length of the column provided results that were expected, the weight the column could withstand decreased as the length of the column was decreased though a proper relationship between the points was underivable. The results for the thickness of the column were as expected, the mass the column could withstand increased proportionally with the thickness of column.
As evident by the graphs above the theoretical data differs greatly to the empirical data. The theoretical data shows an exponential relationship between the mass withstood and the diameter of the paper column while the empirical data shows a more logarithmic relationship (if the experiment was continued further the mass withstood would have continued to increase with diameter). The mass the column can withstand is also much larger in the theoretical data than the empirical data. This is because the theoretical calculations don’t factor in the weaknesses in the column geometrically and its extremely unlikely that the distribution of mass was perfect, even if the mass was placed a millimetre off the axis the mass the column could withstand would decrease drastically. Therefore, it would be difficult to get empirical results the same as the theoretical data due to many variables that are nearly impossible to control when dealing with paper columns.

As shown in the graphs above the mass the column can withstand does decrease as length increases in the empirical data but is hard to decipher a relationship when looking at the empirical data due to anomalies. These anomalies would yet again be caused by variables that are too difficult to control within the experiment and for the same reasons the mass the column can withstand in the theoretical data is much greater than the mass the column could withstand in reality.
The relationship between these two sets of data is identical (both increasing proportionally) although the mass the column could withstand theoretically is much greater than the mass it could withstand empirically. A possible reason that the relationship was evident in the empirical data for changing the thickness of the column and not for changing the diameter and length could be that changing the thickness affects the mass the column can withstand much more than changing either the length of the column or its diameter (reducing anomalies), this is evident when comparing the theoretical data for the three variables.
Due to the varying relationships found in the empirical data and the complexity of the formula used it is difficult to relate Euler’s column formula to existing mathematical models when looking at changing the column’s diameter or length because the relationship is either exponential () or logarithmic (). Euler’s column formula can be related to the linear function that is found when changing the column’s thickness though.

because a column with 0 length, diameter or thickness
 

Factors in Inventoriable Costs

1) Definition of inventoriable costs
In accounting, inventoriable costs are those costs incurs when company obtain products or make to the end products before they sell them. So inventoriable costs are also involving to product costs which include costs of direct labour, direct material and manufactural overhead.
inventoriable costs are recorded in inventory account as assets in balance sheets before products are sold as costs of goods sold expenses which are recorded as expenses in income statements. (Wilkinson, 2013)
2) Examples of costs are included and not included in inventoriable costs

Costs are included in inventoriable cost such as raw material and direct labour. For example, raw materials such as cloth and zipper which are purchased by hang bag factories. Direct labour which are workers use those raw material to make hand bags. All finished hand bags cannot be recorded into expenses until they are sold and will record into costs of goods sold expenses in income statements.
Selling expenses and administrative expenses are not included in inventoriable costs .They are period costs which are recorded as expenses directly into income statements. Examples of costs are not included in inventoriable costs such as salaries paid to salesperson, advertisements expenses which are not related to production costs.

Activity based cost drives can be identified as volume-based cost driver and non-volume cost based drivers. Volume based cost drives include input and outputs.
Volume cost based drivers
Outputs are one of cost drivers such as the number of units produces. If a business has only one product, then if use outputs cost drives will be the simplest method. However, if businesses have more than one product, and each product need to allocate difference overhead resources, the outputs will not be cost drivers.
A noodle shop in the night market in Auckland can use outputs as cost drives because they only have product of noodle and the ingredient and labour costs in each bowl of noodle is same. However, there are different breads in bakery, so bakery cannot use outputs as cost drivers.
Inputs.

Direct labour hours or direct labour cost. Many businesses uses direct labour hour or cost as manufacturing overhead cost driver. For example, tax agency they charge their client by their time cost.
Machine hour. Some business their equipment is more automatic and they need fewer direct labour cost, so they use machine hour as overhead cost drivers. For example, Fuji Xerox they charge their client by printer’s meter reading.
Direct material quantities or costs. Some businesses require large numbers of material and they use direct materials as cost drivers. (Langfiled-Smith, 2012)

Example:
Management accountant he use input of volume cost based drivers to decide the price of custom furniture for their clients in ABC furniture design shop. The costs of custom a chair as following:
There are $50 direct material, $100 labour cost, $20 machine hour. Management accountant will set that chair’s price must be more than $170.

Examples: followings are electricity costs for producing cookie in a cookie company.

Month

Electricity cost for month

Numbers of batches produced for month

January

$7200

1210

February

6950

1050

March

6100

980

April

7300

1350

May

5990

810

June

6530

990

July

5700

790

August

5400

750

September

6800

990

October

7150

1190

November

5800

820

December

7400

1320

Variable cost of
Electricity per batch = ($7400-5400)/ (1320-750) =3.51 per batch produced
At the lowest activity of 750 batches, total variable cost is $2633 ($3.51×750), subtracting lowest cost in lowest activity was $5400, and difference was $2767.
Monthly cost of electricity = $2767+ ($3.51 x number of batches produced in a month)

Weakness of high low method: this method is not recommended in estimate cost behavior, because this method only use two data (highest and lowest) and ignore the rest data. So we have no assurance about this method to present cost behavior accurately.

a. Avoidable and unavoidable costs

Avoidable costs are those costs will not happen if some particular decision is made. (Langfiled-Smith, 2012)

Example: Bank of New Zealand they decided to close some braches and cutting opening hours because they use digital bank more. BNZ use this method to save the avoidable cost such as wages, rates, and rents in some branches by closing them. (Parker, 2017)

Unavoidable costs: are costs still incur even no matter what decisions or actions are made.

Example: residential property owner whatever the decision is made to rent or not rent the house, the council rate and insurance costs are not avoidable.

Sunk and Opportunity costs

Sunk costs are those costs already happened and cannot be changed now and in the future. Those costs are resources already acquired and they will not be affected by different decisions are made. So when make decision can ignore those costs. (Langfiled-Smith, 2012)

Example: accountant purchase a printer for $1000. The cost of $1000 is sunk costs.

Opportunity costs are potential benefits are arisen when alternative decision is made over another. (Langfiled-Smith, 2012)

Example: if accountant did not purchase that printer cost $1000, he/she will save $1000, and $1000 is opportunity cost.

Relevant and irrelevant costs

Relevant costs: costs are affected by the different managerial decision made. Normally, there are two or more alternative managerial decision, and manager will choose more profitable alternative. Relevant costs will be incur in one managerial decision but avoid in another.

Example: those costs in closed BNZ branches are relevant costs, because BNZ will save more expenses and to get more profit if they close those branches.

Irrelevant costs: costs are not affected by different decision making. In other words, irrelevant costs are costs will continually happen no matter what decision are made.

Example: CEO salary is irrelevant costs whether BNZ decide to close some branches
References
Langfiled-Smith, K. (2012). Management Accounting: information for creating and managing value. Sydney, NSW 2113, Australia: Rosemary Noble.
Parker, T. (2017, March 17). BNZ cuts branches and opening hours. Retrieved from nzherald.co.nz: http://www.nzherald.co.nz/personal-finance/news/article.cfm?c_id=12&objectid=11820201
Relevant VS Irrelevant costs. (n.d.). Retrieved from accountingexplained: http://accountingexplained.com/managerial/costs/relevant-irrelevant-costs
Wilkinson, J. (2013, July 24). The Strategic CFO. Retrieved from Inventoriable costs: https://strategiccfo.com/inventoriable-costs/

Factors for a Shared Economy

The world is not as large as we once thought, and advances in technology are narrowing the gaps between countries of mass production and countries of mass consumption. Open lines of trade and the ideals of a “global” economy are not new concepts to trade industries and can be seen referenced in texts dating back decades, even centuries as noticed by Marx, Engels and Beer (1955, p.13) when they described that the need for constantly expanding markets for products requires those involved to settle everywhere and establish worldwide connections. Recent leaps and bounds in the advancement of technology and an increased awareness of individuals and the impacts that society can have on the world has led to the modern phenomenon that is referred to as globalisation.  This ongoing process is a combination of economics, societies and cultures integrating and entwining with one another due to a worldwide network of trade and communication (Wu, 2012, p. 292). Although the need for expanding markets has been noted and referenced in past texts and has been seen from time to time through the rise of dominant trade markets such as the East Indian or Chinese markets (Marx, Engels and Beer, 1955, p. 10), this economic system did not reach it’s full potential until technological advances enabled the rapid, high volume flow of labour, goods and services as borders are broken down and new spaces are created (Herrmann, 2010, p.256). As globalisation sweeps across industries it gives rise to a new type of identity – the global citizen, defined by Reysen and Katzarska-Miller (2013) as an individual who promotes social justice and sustainability and possesses a sense of responsibility to act in the best interests of the world at large. This extends into a larger scale with the creation of the corporate citizen, a business driven by the same ethics as a global citizen, aware of their actions and the impact that they can have, both negative and positive.

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Political factors are hard to predict but can have significant impacts on business. Trade talks and changes to tariffs can determine what a company imports, exports, where they trade and, in some cases, what a company sells. Free trade agreements between member countries have significant impact on the way that business is done. It has been indicated that free trade negotiations favour countries with a stronger political weight (Facchini, 2004, p. 9) and when countries can come to an agreement that removes quotas, tariffs and general restrictions, it allows for businesses to access products of a higher quality for a lower level of expenditure.
Shared or collaborative marketplaces are one of the largest economic shifts of the 21st century and the competitive nature of this new economic trend define how retailers operate and develop their ongoing business plans.
The stability of the economy also has a significant impact on the retail sector who rely heavily upon the spending habits of the population in order to thrive. When the economy in the country of trade is in crisis, consumers are less likely to spend money on frivolous items and instead focus only on the necessities. Countries and nations experiencing an economic boom on the other hand favour the retail trade as consumers have more disposable income and the retail industry expands, creating further jobs and contributing to the continuation of the rising economy.
Technological advances have changed the way the retail industry operates. Physical stores and foot traffic are no longer the bread and butter of any retailer with the advances and increase in popularity for online shopping and trade. Online retailers have risen in the space that’s been created, offering similar or identical items as physical stores at a reduced price. The lack of overheads such as rent and power enabling online retailers to provide discounts without compromising their profit margin. Big box stores such as Target and Kmart have engaged as best they can, making a shift to an online marketplace and offering click and collect or “pick, pack and dispatch” home shipping – taking stock from a physical store in order to package and post it same day to the customers, giving them an edge over other online retailers such as Asos who rely on a large warehouse to fulfil any orders.
In order to remain compliant, businesses must abide by the laws of the country they are located in. For the retail trade this involves a complex array of legal issues and laws that range from labour to safety, however it is becoming apparent that following the laws of the country of one area of operations may still not be acceptable to other areas.
Industries across the globe are becoming more and more aware of their impact on the environment, a change led by those who identify as global citizens. The retail trade is no different and retailers and businesses must remain aware of their environmental impact and carbon footprint and the way this is viewed by the community. Packaging standards have come under scrutiny in recent times with supermarket giant Woolworths folding under increasing levels of pressure from society to reduce the amount of plastic packaging in their fresh food section (Heath, 2018).
Free trade can impact the economic growth of member nations. Although the access to quality imports at a reduced cost can appear beneficial to companies and businesses that are able to capitalise on the profit margin available on their products, it can be argued that free trade agreements have an insignificant to negative effect on the economy of one of more of the countries involved in the agreement. Free trade is just one of many factors that can impact the economy on a global scale.
It is interesting to note that countries defined as super powers of the world such as the United States of America are withdrawing into their own borders and presenting a more Nationalist front, whilst large exporters such as China who are predominantly anticapitalistic in their political system capitalising on a largely capitalist based economy (French, 2007, p. 38)
Major retailers such as Kmart, Target and even Coles have been caught out in the media for conditions of production factories, commonly called “sweatshops”, with issues such as low wages, unsafe working conditions and child slavery damaging the reputation of brands caught out (Four Corners, 2013).
Production and sourcing practices aren’t the only area that retailers can find themselves toeing the line of the law as labour and fair work requirements bring further legal issues to light. Big box companies such as Walmart in the United States have been caught in legal scandals and short-changing staff in regard to wages. Closer to home, conglomerate Wesfarmers have been caught out underpaying staff across brands such as Coles, Target and Bunnings, further damaging brands with a negative media presence and expensive payouts required (Derwin, 2020).
The concept of the shared economy is beginning to shape the future of business and significantly disrupting older business models.
References

Marx, K., Engels, F & Beer, S., 1955. The Communist manifesto, Harlan Davidson Inc., Illinois
French, J., 2007. Wal-Mart, retail supremacy, and the relevance of political economy: the intermestic challenge of contemporary research (academic, agitational and constructive), Labor: studies in working-class history of the Americas, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 33-40
Facchini, G., 2004. The political economy of international trade and factor mobility, Journal of Economic Surveys, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1-32.
Herrmann, P., 2010. Globalisation revisited. Society and Economy, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 255-275
Four Corners, 2013. Australian retailers Rivers, Coles, Target, Kmart linked to Bangladesh factory worker abuse, ABC News, 24th June, viewed 22/02/2020, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-06-24/australian-retailers-linked-to-sweatshop-abuse/4773738>
Derwin, J., 2020. Target employees were underpaid $9 million, as Wesfarmers reveals yet another wage scandal on its books, Business Insider Australia, 19th February, viewed 22/02/2020, https://www.businessinsider.com.au/target-australia-employees-wages-theft-wesfarmers-underpayment-2020-2>
Reyson, S., & Karzarska-Miller, I., 2013, A model of global citizenship: antecedents and outcomes, International Journal of Psychology, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 858-870.
Wu, F., 2012. Globalisation, International Encyclopedia of Housing and Home, Elsevier Ltd, pp. 292-297.
Heath, N., 2018. Plastic pollution: it’s not just bags at the checkout, what about plastic clogging supermarket aisles?, ABC News, 6th May, viewed 22/02/2020 https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-05-06/plastic-recycling-supermarket-plastic-bags/9723780>

 

Psychological Factors for Frank Timmons’ Behaviour

Profile

Demographic Summary

 Frank Timmons was born in 1964 in a large metropolitan city.  His parents Billy and Loretta both had jobs. Billy was a car lot attendant and mother was a maid. His parents ended up getting a divorce. His father Billy kept a strict household but even though it was strict it was still peaceful. His other siblings say that Billy was verbally abusive. His mother passed away when Frank was only 12 years old. Loretta didn’t play an active role in the younger children’s lives. She left it up to the older siblings. Mostly, Margaret Frank’s older sister. Questions were raised about her stability and they also believed that she can also commit acts of sexual abuse. She had a difficult time keeping up with relationships and employment and may have followed in her father’s footsteps with the verbal abuse. When Frank was in high school he played on the football team but he didn’t graduate because he didn’t have enough credits. Reports indicate that it was because he was trying to make money for his family. Most of the income was from DES and food stamps. Even though Frank was well liked he built a reputation for excessive roughness with other teams. It was when he was in his senior year that he and his brother were arrested for rape but no charges were brought against them. But a few years later he was charged with trespassing and a DUI the very next year. When he was in his late 20s he was charged with abducting, brutally raping and bludgeoning a woman. He claimed that the woman have oral sex with him of her own free will. That the rape and assault was committed by two other men. Frank was sentenced to a total of 36 years for the abduction and for a robbery. But he was released after 13 years because he was a model inmate. When he was paroled he moved into a house with a four-mile crime area with his wife Jenny Nelson.

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        Just after a year of being on parole, the serial murder crimes began. In his first crime he forced 3 teenage girls behind a church and molested two of them. Just a month later it is to be believed that he committed his first murder. In 11 months he committed several robberies, sexual assaults and 8 additional murders. His friends and family defended him and his wife has been running a website maintaining his innocence. Even though the police had evidence against him. Surviving witnesses described a “light skinned black man,” wearing different disguises and even attempting to impersonate a homeless man or a drug addict. Shell casings found all came from the same gun. With the murders the killer would often shoot the victim in the head. Even assaulting victims as young as 12. These all occurred within a 4-mile radius. Since he was on parole, parole officers were able to see a sketch and see that it looked like Frank Timmons. When the parole officers searched the house they found a ski mask and toy handgun. With this information the police were able to obtain a warrant for his house and when they searched his house they found other items linked to the Serial Murder. Even though the crimes appear to have no motive, his targets were all women. Timmons was also arrested in connection to an attack two sisters which was tied to the Serial Murder investigation. Police linked him to the attack with his DNA that was found at the crime scene.

Biological Factors

 There are some biological factors that may have influenced Frank Timmons violent/ criminal behavior. No self-regulation ability (C. Bartol & A. Bartol, 2017, p. 53) It is possible that his mother may have carried the gene that is associated with aggressive behavior. (Stevens, 1994). He also had many psychopathic tendencies. Take his poor behavior with other teams when he was playing sports in high school. Or even his way to charm people. He charmed everyone when he was prison and became a model prisoner. That also shows how he can be manipulative.

Developmental Factors

       One developmental factor that impacted Timmons was how his parents treated him. His father was so strict and verbally abusive towards him. His mother died when Timmons was only 12 but before she died she was barely there. She didn’t give him love and affection the way mothers usually give their children. The way his parents treated him was disgusting and almost neglect. Oh, and his sister Margaret treated him that their father but worse. She treated him like garbage and allegedly molested him. Which could be what pushed him over the edge. Growing up in that type of environment can cause anybody to develop problems. It also goes to show why he had lack of empathy in his crimes.

Environmental Factors

        There are so many different factors that come into play with Timmons case. There is the abuse that he received from his father and his sister. He lived in poverty and because of that he failed academically because he was trying to make money to help his family out. His addiction to alcohol and the fact that he raped a women in high school and got away with it. It showed him that he can get away with committing crime. He also didn’t have friends or someone to help him get through everything when he was younger. If he had somebody it could have changed everything.

Apply Theories

            Getting into the mind of a criminal comes with a lot of theories. Not all cases are the same and that is no different in Timmons case. The hypothesis is that Timmons learned his aggressive behavior from his father. Raping and murdering young girls, making them feel powerless, using them as an outlet for his sister molesting him. In Timmons case the first theory I thought of was Differential association which is criminal behavior that is learned points to the violent behavior acquired from his father and his sister Margaret (C. Bartol & A. Bartol, 2017, p. 5).  Another one is the callous-unemotional trait theory for his behavior as a juvenile and an adult. He had lack of concern with opposing teams with his roughness. When he first raped a young woman with his brother and having no consequences to his actions because the charges were dropped. That shows that he has no concern or empathy for others. Total disregard for human life. (C. Bartol & A. Bartol, 2017, p. 160). As for the criminal aspect I would say it would have to be the rapes that turned into murders. That was actually displaced aggression. (C. Bartol & A. Bartol, 2017, p. 366). Timmons didn’t just rape and murder these women. He stripped them of everything. He toke all the anger he had inside of him and toke it out on them. It was violent and full of emotion. Just based on that it shows just how much he wanted to get back at his parents and his sister for the way they treated him.

References

References

Bartol, C.R. & Bartol, A.M. (2017). Criminal behavior: A psychological approach (11th ed.). Pearson. ISBN: 978-0-13-416374-1

Durlauf, S., Fu, C., & Navarro, S. (2013). Capital punishment and Deterrence: Understanding disparate results. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 29(1), 103-121. Doi:10.1001/s10940-012-9171-0

FBI: 2016 Crime in the United States (2018, June 16). Retrieved from: https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2016/crime-in-the-u.s.-2016/topic-pages/murder

Southern New Hampshire University (2019, June 11). PSY 310. Case Study One. Gerald Stone. Retrieved from: http://snhu-media.snhu.edu/files/course_repository/undergraduate/psy/psy310/psy310_white_collar_crime.pdf

 

Factors Affecting Customer Purchase Decisions in Restaurants

Introduction

The concept of buyers’ decision has received much attention from consumers, representatives, and sellers in the recent past. Consumers have to make the right purchase decision depending on the nature of the goods and the needs they have to satisfy. Various factors such as personal attributes, economic, culture, psychological marketing mix, functional and economic factors. The nature of goods and services plays an essential role in determining the behavior and action of buyers throughout the purchase process. However, despite the difference like products, the steps of purchasing are standards and they apply in the buying process. Moreover, the phases include problem identification, searching information, evaluating alternatives, purchasing decisions and post-purchase behavior (Frasquet, Mollá, & Ruiz, 2015) However, the steps do not apply uniformly across all products and to enhance understanding the buying behavior involved in three items will be considered.

                                                Category One

Soft drinks are fast foods that are needed to serve a short term, and thus it does not require much information search or evaluation of alternatives. Many soft drink brands are routine commodities that are known to consumers. A buyer is aware of the various brands of soft drinks and is loyal to one depending on taste and preference. For example, consumers are particular when it comes to Coke and Pepsi and does not require any background search to determine which item to buy. Therefore, in purchasing the soft drink, I do not involve many pre-purchase activities since only a choice depending on personal taste and preference needs to be made in this category(Lay-Yee, Kok-Siew, & Yin-Fah, 2013). In making the purchase decision, I did not take much time comparing prices or in serving for other information regarding quality and meeting customer expectation. I am conversant with the type of soft drink I consume, and thus I just paid the correct amount in the vending machine. Subsequently, I am used to consuming favorite beverages, the taste has not changed and it has been working well for me in the past, hence, I did not carry out any post-purchase activities regarding expectation, quality and meeting specifications.

                                                  Category Two

Buying dinner in a nice restaurant requires preparation since it has to meet the expectation of friends. For example, it is essential to evaluate among alternative restaurants regarding interior décor, space, price of food and drinks, classification, review status, and location of the restaurant. The choice of a restaurant will depend on the purpose of dinner with a friend. Accordingly, if it is a business meeting we might need a quiet environment in which we can facilitate decisions, but in my case, it was a graduation preparation event and thus we chose Sweetgrass restaurant, great food, good background music, and fantastic atmosphere that could meet the mood of the people. Sweetgrass is located in Biloxi, Mississippi, and it is easily accessible and met the needs of all of the participants. In making the purchase decision, I compared the prices of various restaurants in the area and settled on the one that maximized the value of the team that was organizing the graduation ceremony. The motivations and belief of the consumers were core in making the purchase decisions (Mirabi, Akbariyeh, & Tahmasebifard, 2015). Subsequently, the satisfaction of my friends was core, I later asked them about their perception of the restaurant regarding the quality of food, and services offered. The aim was to establish whether they received the value for their money to guide in making future purchase decisions’ found that they were excited as the experience surpassed their expectations.

                                                  Category Three

A high-end fridge is a sensitive gadget since it has to meet the need of the users regarding durability, functionality, and longevity. As a result, I made a consultation with third parties regarding the favorable brand in the market. It is recommended to seek advice from third parties and thus read a lot of product review from affiliate marketers’ blogs. I used the marketing research information to compare different brands of the refrigerator before I settled on the best one that met my specifications to avoid purchasing a refrigerator that did not meet my required specifications or one that had bad reviews. Accordingly, when making the actual purchase, I scrutinized all the details to make sure that it matched the description I read on product reviews (Jang, Prasad, & Ratchford, 2012). Moreover, I also checked for warranties and guarantees to ensure that I was paying for the right commodity and that its quality and safety is assured. In the post-purchase activity, I closely monitored the functionality of the refrigerator to detect any deviation from descriptions and expectations. However, the refrigerator functioned properly, and I ended recommending the brand. The final decision and purchase was the KitchenAid KRMF706EBS, 36 Inch Wide 25.8 Cu. Ft. Multi-Door Refrigerator with In-Door-Ice System and Platinum Interior Design, priced at $ 3,394.30.

                                                      Conclusion

The factors affecting purchase decision differ depending on the nature of goods or services being consumed. Personal factors such as taste and preferences affect the purchase food such as soft drinks. On the other hand, psychological attributes and economic factors affect the decision to seek services in restaurants. Accordingly, people require a serene environment that aligns to the theme and atmosphere being discussed by the team members. Moreover, the buying of durable commodities requires extensive market research to ensure that the good has the right features to serve the intended purpose. It is important to consider the various phases of decision making to ensure that the correct item is selected and to guide future purchases.

References

Frasquet, M., Mollá, A., & Ruiz, E. (2015). Identifying patterns in channel usage across the search, purchase and post-sales stages of shopping. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 14(6), 654-665.

Jang, S., Prasad, A., & Ratchford, B. T. (2012). How consumers use product reviews in the purchase decision process. Marketing Letters, 23(3), 825-838.

Lay-Yee, K. L., Kok-Siew, H., & Yin-Fah, B. C. (2013). Factors affecting smartphone purchase decision among Malaysian generation Y. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 3(12), 2426-2440.

Mirabi, V., Akbariyeh, H., & Tahmasebifard, H. (2015). A study of factors affecting customers purchase intention — Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology (JMEST), 2(1).5