Fitness And Recreational Sports Centers Physical Education Essay

Fitness and Recreational Sports Centers are comprised and defined as establishments primarily engaged in operating fitness and recreational sports facilities featuring exercise and other active physical fitness conditioning or recreational sports activities, such as swimming, skating, or racquet sports. Illustrative examples for this industry include: aerobic dance or exercise centers, gymnasiums, handball, racquetball, or tennis club facilities, ice or roller skating rinks, physical fitness centers, swimming or wave pools.

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There are two types of gym classification, which can be split as either government facilities or non-government facilities. Most of government facilities are local or county owned and operated pools, ice skating rinks, or tennis courts. Various local or county governments have also been known to offer fitness center and health class services on a public. Such facilities, however, must show evidence of performing measurable economic transactions in order to retain such licensing. Non-government establishments can be founded as for profit or non-profit. Because of this many government founded programs contract privately owned facilities rather than building their own (Schlosberg, Neporent 2005).
The main consumer output of this industry is the purpose of exercise or other active physical fitness conditioning or recreational sports activity. It is important to keep in mind that the facility must provide space and equipment for active physical activities. Instructional or educational classes, which are provided at the facility or at a secondary facility that is receiving rent from the primary establishment, are also included as primary output for the industry. Further revenue derived from the rental and leasing of goods and equipment, used in specific recreational or sport activities are also included as consumer output. For membership clubs, service is made available to people who have paid a membership fee. In addition, non-members are normally able to purchase use of the facility for a one-time fee (Sutton 2007).
Fitness and recreational sports centers provide a highly demanded service to the general population of the United States and most other developed nations. In general, they provide places to exercise using cardio equipment, free weights and weight machines, as well as offer classes geared towards healthy living and physical fitness. Within this industry, one can also find fitness centers and sports facilities, which provide space and equipment for recreational sporting activities, such as racquet ball, basketball, and swimming (Kopylovsky, 2010).
The number of Americans who exercise frequently in a health club has been steadily growing since 1987. This at the expense of total Americans who exercise at home. However, this report also explains that the movement to exercise, in general, has been gaining momentum over the past several years. This is due, in part, to the 1996 U.S. Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health and the widespread availability of fitness centers (IBISworld, 2010).
The ever-growing interest by Americans to get in shape and improve one’s health has not only caused a steady increase in fitness center membership, it has also brought about a steady escalation in the number of fitness centers in the United States. With steadily increasing annual membership totals for the fitness and recreational sport center industry and the fact that over 85% of Americans do not yet have fitness club memberships, one would anticipate continued growth potential. (Plummer, 1999)
Despite an ailing U.S. economy over the past two years, profitability has remained strong for the fitness and recreational sports industry. Although Americans on average have been allotted with less disposable income over the past decade, they appear to still be using what disposable income they have to pay for membership and class fees at health clubs. This is not to say that revenues would not be higher if the economy were healthier. According to to recent statistical data, though with an ailing economy net revenue and memberships are still rising but at a much lower level. Still, views of the U.S. public on health and fitness, as well as the industries ability to adapt and improve its services over the years, seem to have made the fitness and recreational sports club industry somewhat more immune to overall dips in the U.S. economy than most other industries. (IBISworld, 2010)
Seasonality within the fitness center market plays a very minor role in services offered. Though this depends upon the region where specific facilities are located and whether or not the facility is indoors or outdoors. As an example an outdoor ice skating rink under normal circumstances would not be open during the summer months. An outdoor basketball court would not be open during the winter in an area where it is very cold. However, most fitness and recreational sports facilities are open year round.
Almost all various demographic groups of the United States population take advantage of the services offered by the fitness and recreational sport center industry. Male and Female, young and old, representatives of all backgrounds and regions of the country, make up the total population of fitness center members. As the number of total fitness club members increases, reports show that younger individuals around the ages of 24 and younger out weigh the older members age 45 and older.
Defined memberships include individual memberships for various age groups, such as adult, youth, and senior, as well as group memberships, such as family and corporate memberships. Family memberships will normally offer access to a facility/facilities by a predetermined number of family members for one specific fee. Corporate memberships will offer reduced rates to individuals, who work for a specific company which many times has an agreement with a specific club. Seasonal passes for public recreation and fitness facilities are also included in this grouping. Seasonal passes function the same way as memberships, though many seasonal passes may include more restrictive privileges.
Instructional classes offer lessons or instruction in the areas of physical fitness and health. Examples of such classes include kickboxing, yoga, and step aerobics. Instructional classes normally have a predetermined length many times ranging from thirty minutes to an hour. Traditionally classes are bought as a package and therefore given a predetermined number of lessons offered for a specific fee.
The Elderly And Exercise
The benefits for elderly individuals of regular participation in both cardiovascular and resistance-training programmes are great. Health benefits include a significant reduction in risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, hypertension and obesity as well as improvements in bone density, muscle mass, arterial compliance and energy metabolism. Additionally, increases in cardiovascular fitness (maximal oxygen consumption and endurance), muscle strength and overall functional capacity are forthcoming allowing elderly individuals to maintain their independence, increase levels of spontaneous physical activity and freely participate in activities associated with daily living. Taken together, these benefits associated with involvement in regular exercise can significantly improve the quality of life in elderly populations. It is noteworthy that the quality and quantity of exercise necessary to elicit important health benefits will differ from that needed to produce significant gains in fitness.
However, it must be noted that the benefits described are of little value if elderly individuals do not become involved in regular exercise regimens. Consequently, the major challenges facing healthcare professionals today concern: (i) the implementation of educational programmes designed to inform elderly individuals of the health and
functional benefits associated with regular physical activity as well as how safe and effective such programmes can be; and (ii) design interventions that will both increase involvement in regular exercise as well as improve adherence and compliance to such programmes.
Industry Life Cycle
The Gym, Health and Fitness Clubs industry is in the growth stage of its life cycle due to an increased awareness and interest in fitness and health, and the need for exercise. Membership numbers are expected to grow an average of 1.2% over the ten years to 2015. In the ten years to 2015, industry revenue is expected to grow by 2.5% per year, in comparison with forecast GDP growth of 1.8% over the same period.
In addition to demand, the industry has also benefited from an increase in premium services. For example, more and more people are now enlisting personal trainers to help them achieve their fitness goals. Additionally, gyms and health clubs are increasingly offering amenities such as swimming pools, saunas, jacuzzis, basketball courts, massage services and yoga classes to boost sales and retention.
There is also evidence that spending on gym and fitness club memberships is becoming less discretionary, as perceptions change. Government and private support for participation in fitness activities is increasing as organizations recognize the benefits of exercise for productivity, health and cost reasons. This has resulted in more employers and insurers establishing programs and incentives for people to go to the gym. This boosts the claim that, while the industry may currently be in its growth phase, maturity may be around the corner.
Future growth areas will likely be in participative sports for women and the older sections of the community; and in individual sports rather than team sports. These factors will support continued growth for gyms and health clubs over the coming five years.
 

Health Related Physical Fitness Physical Education Essay

Physical fitness is the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness without undue fatigue and ample energy to enjoy leisure time pursuits and meet unforeseen emergencies. (Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sport)
¿½Physical fitness is the ability of the heart, blood vessels, lungs and muscles to perform at optimal efficiency.¿½ (Bud Getchell, PhD)
¿½Physical fitness is the ability to perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without undue fatigue and the capability of maintaining such ability throughout life.¿½ (American College of Sport Medicine)
¿½Physical fitness is a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity.¿½ (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Definitions with vague, subjective wordings and definitions made up of terms that also need defining led to confusion and lack of ability for objective measurement of physical fitness. There are other numerous definitions of physical fitness which are vague and subjective as pointed by the below statement;
¿½Physical fitness is one of the most poor defined and most frequently misused terms in the English Language.¿½ (Brian Sharkey, PhD, professor emeritus of Montana State University)
To enable objective measurement of physical fitness, it is divided into two components; health-related components of physical fitness and athletic ability components of physical fitness. The later components are related to performance or skill.
Figure X: Components of physical fitness (ACSM, 2008).
From the public health perspective, health related physical fitness are more important than those related to athletic ability or are skill-related or performance related components. The assessment of health related physical fitness is commonly done by fitness professionals, however, despite the recognized importance of health related physical fitness, it is not commonly assessed by clinicians(ACSM, 2008).
As illustrated in figure X below, all health-related components of physical fitness contribute equally and in balance to the whole construct of health related physical fitness.
Figure X: A balance between all five components to the construct of health related physical fitness (ACSM, 2008).
a. Cardiorespiratory fitness
Cardiorespiratory fitness is related to the ability of a person to perform large muscle, dynamic, moderate to high intensity exercise for prolong periods and can be assessed by various techniques. Cardiorespiratory fitness of a person reflects the functional capability of the heart, blood vessels, blood, lungs and relevant muscles during various types of exercise demands. It is related to the ability to perform large muscle, dynamic, moderate-to-high intensity exercise for prolonged periods.
There are many methods available to measure or predict cardiorespiratory fitness. Those methods fall into three general types of assessment which are;
i. Field test.
These tests generally demand maximal effort for the best score. For this type of test, the subjects have to perform a timed completion of a certain distance, complete a measured distance, or perform for a set time to predict cardiorespiratory fitness. Examples of field tests modes include walk, walk-run, cycle, swim and others.
ii. Submaximal exertion test.
This type of test require using either step test or a single-stage or a multi-stage submaximal exercise protocol to predict maximal aerobic capacity or cardiorespiratory fitness from submaximal measures of efficiency of certain measured variables (usually heart rate response). Some modes of submaximal exertion tests include steps, treadmill, cycle and others. Many of these tests required to be performed in a laboratory setting.
iii. Maximal exertion test
Maximal exertion test use a graded or progressive exercise test to measure an individual¿½s volitional fatigue or exhaustion which involves a measure of cardiorespiratory fitness rather than prediction and is likely performed in a laboratory setting.
Maximal exertion test along with collection of expired gases is considered as a true measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness however it is desirable in many setting. Decision of which test to be use depends on;
* Time demands
* Expenses or costs
* Personnel needed (qualification)
* Equipment or facilities needed
* Physician supervision needed
* Population tested (safety concern)
* Need for accuracy of data
b. Flexibility
Flexibility in health related physical fitness is defined as the ability of a person to move a joint through its complete range of movement. Flexibility is not joint specific as it is dependent upon which muscle and joint being evaluated. Other factors effecting flexibility includes distensibility of the joint capsule, adequate warm up, muscle viscocity and compliance of ligaments and tendons. Flexibility assessment is necessary because of the recognized association between decreased performances of activities of daily living with inadequate flexibility. Development of muscular lower back pain may be contributed by poor lower back hip flexibility. In reality, there¿½s no single test that can used to truly characterize a person¿½s flexibility. The most widely used test for the assessment of flexibility is the sit and reach test. Even though it does not represent the whole body flexibility, it does represent hamstring, hip and lower back flexibility.
c. Muscular strength
Muscular strength in health related physical fitness refers to the maximal force that can be generated by a specific muscle or muscle group.
d. Muscular endurance
Muscular endurance refers to the ability of a muscle group to execute repeated contractions over a period of time sufficient to cause muscular fatigue, or to maintain a specific percentage of the maximum voluntary contraction for a prolong period of time.
CENCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Cardiovascular diseases risk (National Vascular Disease Prevention Alliance, 2009);
1. Modifiable risk
a. Lifestyle related
i. Nutrition
ii. Physical activity level
iii. Smoking status
iv. Alcohol intake
b. Metabolic risk
i. Blood pressure
ii. Waist circumference and body mass index
iii. Serum lipid
iv. Blood sugar
2. Non modifiable risk
a. Age
b. Sex
c. Family history of premature CVD
d. Social history (cultural identity, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, mental health)
Physical Fitness
a. Health related physical fitness
a. Cardiovascular endurance
b. muscle endurance
c. muscle strength
d. flexibility
JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
OBJECTIVES
1. General objectives
To compare the effect of light resistance training using light dumbbells and ankle-wrist weights on body composition, metabolic risk and health related physical fitness level.
2. Specific objectives
i. To determine and compare the effect of light resistance training between using dumbbells and using ankle-wrist weights in term of changes in body composition;
a. Body mass index
b. Waist circumference
c. Waist to hip ratio
d. Percentage in body fat
e. Fat free mass
ii. To determine and compare the effect of light resistance training between using dumbbells and using ankle-wrist weights in term of metabolic risks;
a. Blood pressure
b. Lipids
i. Total cholesterol
ii. LDL-C
iii. HDL-C
iv. Non-HDL
v. Total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio
vi. TG
c. Fasting blood sugar
iii. To determine and compare the effect of light resistance training between using dumbbells and using ankle-wrist weights in term of other components of health related physical fitness;
a. Cardiorespiratory fitness
b. Flexibility
c. Muscular endurance
d. Muscular strength
3. Research questions
Does light resistance training using dumbbells have a similar significant beneficial effects compared to light resistance training using ankle-wrist weights.
4. Study hypothesis
Both types of light resistance training; using dumbbells or using ankle-wrist weights does have beneficial effects in term of improvement in body composition, reducing metabolic risk and improving health related physical fitness level.
METHODOLOGY
Tumpat is a district (jajahan) in Kelantan, situated at the East Coast of peninsular Malaysia. The town of Tumpat is approximately 15km from the state capital, Kota Bharu. Tumpat district has an area of 169.5 square kilometres is one of the smallest district in Kelantan (Tumpat District Council, 2012). Total population of Tumpat district in 2010 was 143,793 with the majority being the Malays (130,922 or 91.0%). Other ethnic groups include Chinese (6,227 or 4.8%), Siamese (4,784 or 3.7%) and Indians (121 or less than 1.0%). Tumpat district is divided into seven subdistrict (mukim) which is Jal Besar, Kebakat, Pengkalan Kubor, Sungai Pinang, Terbok, Tumpat and Wakaf Bharu (Department of Statistics Malaysia, 2010b, Department of Statistics Malaysia, 2010a).
1. Study design
This is a single-centred, randomized parallel group trial.
2. Reference population
The inference population for this study were Malaysian adults
3. Target population
The target population were Malaysian overweight and obese adults
4. Source population
The source population for this study were all adults living in Tumpat Districts.
5. Sampling frame
Overweight and obese adults living in Tumpat District were recruited for this study.
6. Subjects
i. Inclusion criteria
a. Aged equal or more than 18 years old at the time of recruitment.
b. Body mass index of equal or more than 23 kg/m2.
ii. Exclusion criteria
a. Pregnancy
b. On any weight management treatment/program
i. Taking any medication which the primary intention is to reduce weight
ii. Taking any traditional medication which the primary intention os to reduce weight
iii. On any dietary modification for weight management
c. Existing joint pain which restrict physical movement
d. Existing cardiac condition which restricted physical activity i.e.: a person with NYHA Functional capacity class II, III and IV (American Heart Association, 2011)
7. Sample Size determination
Number of subjects required for this study were calculated using sample size calculation for test of means with repeated measures in STATA software (StataCorp., 2011). With power of study (1-?) set at 80% and ? set at 0.05, summary of sample size calculated were as table X below;
Table X: summary of sample size calculation
variable
8. Sampling techniques
All eligible and consented subjects were included in this study.
9. Randomization techniques
Subjects were randomized into 2 treatment groups; light resistance training using dumbbell and light resistance training using ankle-wrist weights using RandomAllocation Software version 1.0 (Saghaei, 2004).
10. Blinding
No blinding methods were applied in this study. Both participants and observer know group allocation.
11. Study time and duration
This study was conducted for 6 months beginning from March 2012 until August 2012.
12. Methods
* Both groups will receive health education of promotion of healthy lifestyle which includes promotion of healthy diet, encouraging physical activity and benefits of not smoking.
* Resistance training:
i. Dumbbell exercise.
In this group, participants performed dumbbell exercise with a pair of light weight (1kg) soft dumbbells for at least 15 minutes per day, three non consecutive days per week using dumbbell exercise method invented by Professor Suzuki Masashige, Bull Inst. Health & Sport Science, University of Tsukuba (Suzuki, 2000). Supervised group exercises were conducted for 3 months and after that, the subjects will be required to do the exercise on their own. Subjects were given a diary to write the date and duration of training they perform. During weekly follow up, adherence to exercise was assessed. Subjects who did not adhere to minimal requirement of training will be excluded from the study. Non adherence was defined as a participant who performs the training less than 80% of required frequency and duration (less than 9 times per month). Figure X below illustrates the resistance training using soft dumbbells with sets of movement as below. This dumbbell exercise consists of 12 steps with 12 repetitions using a pair of soft light weight dumbbell.
Step 1: push up motion
Step 2: pull down motion
Step 3: the leg bends
Step 4: Upper body twists left and right movement
Step 5: double doors closing movement
Step 6: opening and closing movement forward tilt swing
Step 7: winding down motion with both hands
Step 8: winding down with one hand movement
Step 9: pulling down with one hand movement
Step 10: hand down the back swing movement
Step 11: arms swing down forward movement
Step 12: bending arms stretched behind the head movement
Figure X: 12 steps of dumbbell exercise using sandbags.
ii. Resistance training using ankle and wrist weights.
This group of subjects was not given any specific exercise regime. They were given a pair of 0.5 kg ankle and pair of 0.5kg wrist weights and they were instructed to wear them for at least 15 minutes 3 non consecutive days per week during activities of daily living which involves movements of upper and lower limbs such as walking, doing house chores or gardening. Subjects will be given a diary to write the date and duration of training they perform. Adherence to the training was assessed every week. Non adherence was define as a participant who perform the training less than 80% of required frequency and duration (less than 9 times per month) and those who did not meet minimal requirement of the training were excluded from the study.
13. Tools and materials
a. Data collection sheet
A data collection sheet was used to obtain demography data of the subjects;
i. Age
ii. Sex
iii. Race
b. Anthropometry measurements
Anthropometric measurement was assessed by a team of trained personnel. Measurements as below were obtained.
i. Height
Measurement of height was done using a stadiometer. With shoes removed, standing straight up and looking straight ahead, the subject take a deep breath and hold. The height was recorded in centimetres to the nearest 0.5cm (ACSM, 2008).
ii. Waist circumference
The waist circumference was measured using a non elastic measuring tape with the subject stand straight and relaxed. Measurement was taken 2.5 cm (1 inch) above the umbilicus and below the xiphoid process. The measuring tape was applied tautly but not tightly avoiding compression or pinching of the skin. The smallest circumference at the measurement area was taken as waist circumference, recorded to the nearest 0.5cm (ACSM, 2008).
iii. Hip circumference
Similarly, hip circumference was measured to the nearest 0.5 cm using a non elastic plastic tape at the largest circumference around the buttocks, above the gluteal fold (posterior extension) (ACSM, 2008) .
iv. Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR)
As it name indicate, WHR is a comparison between circumferences of the waist to the circumference of the hip and it represents the distribution of body weight and perhaps body fat of an individual; an important predictor of health risks of obesity. The WHR or also known as the abdominal to gluteal ratio (A:G ratio) were expressed as a ratio hence there are no units. Calculation as below was used to calculate WHR (ACSM, 2008);
v. Resting blood pressure
Electronic blood pressure monitoring device; Medisana¿½ Upper Arm Blood Pressure Monitor MTD (Medisana AG.) were used to measure resting blood pressure. Subjects are requested to be free of stimulants which include nicotine products, caffeine products, alcohol or other cardiovascular stimulants for at least 30 minutes before the resting measurement. The subjects also did not involve in any strenuous exercise for at least 60 minutes before resting blood pressure measurement. For measurement of blood pressure, the subjects were asked to sit comfortably on a chair with back well supported, feet flat, leg uncrossed and relaxed. The right arm which was used for blood pressure measurement in this study was free from any clothing, rested on a table and slightly flexed at the elbow. An appropriate size cuff (a normal adult cuff for those with arm sizes between 24 and 32 cm, and a large adult cuff for those with arm sizes between 32 and 42 cm) was used. The BP cuff with bladder width between 40 to 50% of arm circumference and the length of bladder encircled at least 80% of the subject¿½s arm circumference was applied tightly at the level of subject¿½s heart. Second resting blood pressure measurement was done at least one full minute after the first measurement and if the first and second measurement differ by more than 5 mmHg, third measurement was taken after one full minute (ACSM, 2008).
vi. Resting heart rate
Resting heart rate measurement was taken together with resting blood pressure using similar device used for blood pressure measurement as above.
c. Assessment of body composition
Body composition was determined using the bioelectrical impedance method; Omron Karada Scan HBF-362¿½ Body Composition Monitor which gives information on;
i. Weight
ii. Body mass index
iii. Total body fat
iv. Subcutaneous fat percentage
v. Visceral fat level
vi. Skeletal muscle percentage
vii. Fat free mass were calculated by extracting total body fat from the body weight. Calculations as below were used.
Bioelectric impedance analysis is based on the principle that the resistance to an applied electric current is inversely related to the amount of fat-free mass within the body. This method does not take into account the location of body fat. This method of body composition analysis is very simple and quick to perform. The impedance measure is affected by body hydration status, body temperature, time of day, and therefore requires well controlled conditions to get accurate and reliable measurements. If a person is dehydrated, the amount of fat will likely be overestimated. Bioelectrical impedance measures the resistance of body tissues to the flow of a small, harmless electrical signal. The proportion of body fat can be calculated as the current flows more easily through the parts of the body that are composed mostly of water (such as blood, urine & muscle) than it does through bone, fat or air. It is possible to predict how much body fat a person has by combining the bioelectric impendence measure with other factors such as height, weight, gender, fitness level and age.
To ensure validity of the BIA measurement, several measures was taken to ensure that the subjects has normal hydration level.
* No eating or drinking within 4 hours of the test.
* No exercise within 12 hours of the test
* Urinate completely within 30 minutes prior to test
Omron Karada Scan HBF-362¿½ Body Composition Monitor was used for this test. Researcher inputs the subject¿½s age, gender and height and then the subject which wear light clothing steps onto the platform barefoot and holding the hand electrodes at 90 degrees. Electrodes in the foot and hand sensor pads send a low, safe signal through the body. Weight, body mass index, total body fat percentage, subcutaneous fat percentage, visceral fat level, and skeletal muscle percentage is calculated automatically in less than a minute.
d. Health related physical fitness
The remaining components of health related physical fitness level besides body composition were then assessed in all participants. Before starting these assessment, subjects were explained regarding the tests procedures and demonstration were done by researchers to ensure subjects clearly understand and able to perform the tests with correct techniques.
i. Cardiorespiratory fitness
Assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness to predict aerobic capacity of participants were done using Kasch Step test or also known as YMCA 3-Minutes Step test which relies on having the subject step up and down on a 30.48 cm (12 inch) step box. Before commencing test to the participants, the techniques were explained to the participants and demonstration of the alternating stepping cadence was done. A metronome was set at cadence of 96 beat per minute which gives a stepping rate of 24 steps per minute (4 clicks = one step cycle). With the first beat, one foot is stepped up on the bench, stepped up with the second foot on the second beat, stepped down with one foot on the 3rd beat, and stepped down with the other foot on the fourth beat. The subjects were also allowed to practice the stepping to the metronome cadence. After the three minutes are up, the subjects stop and palpate the pulse at the radial site while standing within the first 5 seconds. A 60 seconds pulse count is taken as the test score (toptrendsports.com, 2012, ACSM, 2008).
ii. Muscular endurance
To assess muscle endurance of the subjects, two test was administered; the push-up test and the curl-up test.
Push-up test: The test was administered with the male subjects starting in the standard ¿½down¿½ position (hand pointing forward and under the shoulder, back straight, head up, using the toes as the pivotal point) and the female subjects in the modified ¿½knee push-up¿½ position (legs together, lower leg in contact with mat with ankles plantar flexed, back straight, hands shoulder width apart, head up, using knees as the pivotal point). The subjects then raise the body by straightening the elbows (up position) and then return to the ¿½down¿½ position until the chin touches the mat. The stomach is maintained elevated and not touching the mat. The subjects position is ensure to be straight at all times and the subjects must push up to a straight arm position. the test was stopped when the subjects strains forcibly or is unable to maintain the appropriate technique within two repetition. The maximal number of push-ups performed consecutively without rest was counted as the score (ACSM, 2008).
Figure X: Push-ups performed by male subjects.
Figure X: Push-ups performed by female subjects.
One minute sit-up test (Crunch test): With the shoes remained on, the test was performed with the subjects assume a supine position on a mat, the knees at 90 degrees and the hands held across the chest. The trunk was then elevated to 30 degrees, lifting the shoulder blades off the mat; hands placed on the thighs and then subjects then do a slow, controlled curl-up until the hands reach the knee caps. The subjects were required to do as many curl-ups as possible in one minute and the number of curl-ups performed without pausing were recorded as the score (ACSM, 2008).
iii. Muscular strength
Handgrip test using a Lafayette¿½ 100kg Handgrip Dynamometer model LA-78010 was conducted to determine muscular strength of the subjects. The test was performed with the subject standing and using the dominant hand only. The grip bar of the dynamometer was adjusted for each subject, ensuring that the grip bar fit comfortably within the subject¿½s hand and the second joint of the finger fit under the handle of the handgrip dynamometer. Before starting test, the handgrip dynamometer is set to zero. The subject holds the handgrip dynamometer parallel to the side of the body at about waist level with the forearm levelled with the thigh and the arm is slightly flexed.
The subject then squeezes the handgrip dynamometer as hard as possible without holding their breath (Valsalva maneuver) and the results was recorded in kilograms. For each subject, the test was repeated two more times and the highest reading was taken as the measure of handgrip strength (ACSM, 2008).
Figure X: Use of hand-grip dynamometer to test
iv. Flexibility
For assessment of flexibility, the Sit and Reach test (Trunk Flexion) using a sit-and-reach box was administered. Before starting the test, subjects were offered the opportunity to do some stretching exercises and light to moderate aerobic exercise for 5- 10 minutes to warm up their muscles. Subjects were allowed to take a few practice tries before the actual measurement and if the subject has any back problem or the test bothers them, the subject was excluded for the assessment. To assist with the best attempt, the subjects were advised to exhale and drop the head between the arms when reaching. The knees of the participants were kept extended (but not pressed down). Subjects were also advised to breathe normally and that they should not hold their breath during the test.

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The subject sits without shoes and the sole soles of the feet flat against the sit-and-reach box at the 26cm mark. Inner edges of the soles were placed within 2cm of the measuring scale. With hands kept parallel, the participant then slowly reaches forward with both hands as far as possible and the fingertips were in contact with the measuring portion of the sit-and-reach box. This position was hold for approximately 2 seconds. The test were repeated three times and the score taken was the most distant point (in nearest cm) reached with the fingertips (ACSM, 2008).
Figure X: Sit and reach test using a sit-and-reach box.
e. Biochemical analysis
Five millilitres of blood from antecubital vein was taken from each subject after at least 12 hours overnight fasting for biochemical analysis of metabolic abnormalities. The blood was collected in two tubes, the first tube was plain tube without anticoagulant and the second tube was with oxalate/fluoride. The samples were send to a private independent laboratory (BP laboratory) for biochemical analysis below;
a. Fasting blood sugar
b. Fasting lipid profiles
14. Data collection
* At baseline, all participants were given advice on healthy lifestyle: promotion of healthy diet and physical activity.
* The study participants then completed questionnaires and assessments for;
a. Sociodemography.
b. Measurement of anthropometry.
c. Body composition measurement.
d. Health related components of physical fitness assessment.
e. Biochemical analysis for blood sugar and lipid profiles.
* The study participants were then randomized into two equal size groups. The first group undergo light resistance training using dumbbells and the second group undergo light resistance training using ankle-wrist weights for at least 15 minutes, three times per week. Group training was conducted for the first 3rd months in the dumbbell group with weekly adherence monitoring for both groups.
* At the end of first sixth and 12th week, patient were assessed for;
a. Anthropometry measurement
b. Body composition measurement
c. Physical fitness assessment
d. Biochemical analysis
* After the third months, participants in both groups were required to do the light resistance training on their own and at the end of 6th month, all the above parameters were assessed again to look at the sustainability of the training program and its effects.
Statistical analysis
Data entry and statistical analysis were done using SPSS software version 18.0 (SPSS Inc.).
As the same subjects were observed on multiple occasions (at baseline, 6th, 12th and 24th week), repeated measures analysis of variances were selected as the statistical test. As data were obtained repeatedly from the same subjects, RM ANOVA enables us to obtain information regarding individual¿½s patterns of change, were more economical as fewer subjects were required and enable us to reduce error of variance. Carry-over effects and latency effect were not involved in this study as there¿½s no cross-over of intervention in the study design. However, learning effect might be involved in this study especially in assessing health-related components of physical fitness as the subjects might improve with repetition of the assessment.
For all objectives, all the three different designs used in repeated measures were assessed in this study;
* Within group factors with regard to time (time effect)
o 6th week compared to baseline
o 12th week compared to baseline
o 24th week compared to baseline
o 12th week compared to 6th week
o 24th wee compared to 6th week
o 24th week compared to 12th week
* Between group factors regardless of time (treatment effect)
o Ankle-wrist weight group compared to dumbbell group
* Within-between group factors with regard to time (Time-treatment interaction).
o Ankle-wrist weight group compared to dumbbell group at baseline
o Ankle-wrist weight group compared to dumbbell group at 6th week
o Ankle-wrist weight group compared to dumbbell group at 12th week
o Ankle-wrist weight group compared to dumbbell group at 24th week
All the four steps involved in RM ANOVA were executed as below;
i. Data exploration and cleaning
ii. Fit the RM ANOVA model
iii. Checking assumption of;
a. Normality of residuals
b. Homogeneity of variance
c. Assumption of compound symmetry
iv. Interpretation, presentation and conclusion
Step 1: Data exploration and cleaning
Descriptive statistics for all the variables were obtained with data exploration. Any missing values and error in data entry were assessed before analysis with data cleaning. Subjects with missing data were excluded from analysis.
For numerical variables, descriptive statistics using syntax below were used to central point of numerical data, dispersion and graphical visualization of data normality (histogram with normality plot).
FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=
VariableName
/FORMAT=NOTABLE
/NTILES=4
/STATISTICS=MEAN STDDEV MEDIAN
/HISTOGRAM NORMAL
/ORDER=ANALYSIS.
For categorical variables, syntax below was used to obtain frequency and percentage of those variables.
FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=
VariableName
/PIECHART PERCENT
/BARCHART FREQ
/ORDER=ANALYSIS.
Step 2: Fit the repeated measure ANOVA model
Repeated measures ANOVA were executed using syntax below;
GLM
Var_baseline
Var_sixwk
Var_twelvewk
Var_twentyfourwk
BY Intervention
/WSFACTOR=time 4 Polynomial
/METHOD=SSTYPE(4)
/POSTHOC=Intervention(BONFERRONI)
/PLOT=PROFILE(time*intervention)
/EMMEANS=TABLES(OVERALL)
/EMMEANS=TABLES(intervention)
 

Health Related Physical Fitness Evaluation In Adolescents Physical Education Essay

Physical fitness is not a single trait but a combination of aerobic capacity, strength, speed, agility, coordination and flexibility, which together determine a person’s ability to perform physical activity, including those activities related to daily living (Hallal et al, 2006). On a practical, everyday level, physical fitness allows a person to work efficiently, reduce the risk of injury, cope with unforeseen circumstances, and enjoy being active whether for sport, exercise or leisure. Physical fitness has also been revealed as an important health and wellbeing marker and recent results from the several studies such as the HELENA study (2008) have clearly demonstrated that this is also the case in European adolescents (Ortega et al, 2007). Evaluating health status with a whole-person perspective that assesses all spectrums of health from pathology to impairments and limitations in activity and participation is important for proper patient management (Hills et al 2007). Evaluations that emphasize impairments such as limitations in range of motion and strength fail to address the larger psychosocial issues that potentially affect the individual and may result in barriers to future athletic participation. To assess the whole person, a broadly defined construct such as health-related quality of life is valuable (Snyder, 2010). There are several tests which have been developed and are used in the assessment of the fitness of school age children and adolescences. These tests have been carefully selected to be appropriate to their level. Some tests been adapted using lower weights, distances and times, and using simple instructions and modified equipment, while there are others are the same test procedures as used for adults (Topend sports, 2010). Some of these tests include:
FitnessGram – designed to assess the fitness levels of children in grades K-12 (Figure 1).
Presidents Challenge – fitness award program for school age children in the United States Connecticut Physical Fitness Test – a fitness assessment given annually to all students in grades 4, 6, 8, and 10 in the US state of Connecticut.
International Physical Fitness Test – a battery of tests developed to test Arab youth aged 9 to 19 years.
National Physical Fitness Awards – a series of tests of physical fitness for the children of Singapore.
Eurofit – a testing program devised by the Council of Europe for children of school age.
Health-related physical fitness includes the characteristics of functional capacity and is affected by the physical activity level and other lifestyle factors. These battery tests include a variety of health-related physical fitness tests that assess aerobic capacity; muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility; and body composition. Testing and evaluation with children and adolescence is becoming increasingly popular as it is widely reported that childhood and adolescence are crucial periods of life, since dramatic physiological and psychological changes take place at these ages (Ortega et al, 2008). This as it is being reported that lifestyle and healthy/unhealthy behaviours are established during these years, which may influence adult behaviour and health status. (Jackson et al, 2007)

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Section 2 – Validity and Reliability of Tests
Children (or their families) involved in lifestyle modification-intervention studies have a tendency to over-report their physical activity, with the result that interventions may favour the intervention group; objective measures of physical activity made on the same children have suggested that such differences can be spurious (Reilly et al 2007). Assessment of interventions aimed at physical activity and sedentary behaviour change should use objective methods, both to confirm that apparent changes in physical activity are real and to quantify the magnitude of any change with confidence. The problem of biased self-reporting of amount and intensity of physical activity using subjective methods – such as questionnaires – almost certainly extends to observational studies and surveys of physical activity in children carried out for surveillance purposes. In the United Kingdom, national surveillance of paediatric physical activity in health surveys still involves subjective (parental) reporting of physical activity and is associated with relatively high apparent levels of physical activity( Reilly et al 2007). In the Scottish Health Survey 2003 75% of 6-10 year olds were reported to exceed the public health target of an accumulated 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day every day, but recent UK studies that have measured MVPA by accelerometry suggest that ,5% of children and adolescents meet this target Reilly et al, 2007) Subjective measures appear to quantify the perception of physical activity, rather than physical activity, and current methods for national surveillance of the amount and intensity of habitual physical activity in the United Kingdom may provide a false sense of reassurance concerning population levels of physical activity (Ruiz et al, 2006).
A major issue in the testing of adolescents with these test or indeed any tests carried out, is determining the reliability and validity of such tests. Reliability can be defined as the consistency of measurements (Ortega et al, 2007) . When the tests are carried out they should follow a set procedure which is carried out by all administers of these tests as the measures can then be comparable. Another related but different concept is validity. Validity is the ability of the measurement tool to measure what it is designed to measure. The validity of a tool is judged by comparison with a ‘gold standard’ method. Realistically, some amount of error is always present when collecting data. The main components of measurement error are systematic bias (for example, general learning on the tests) and random error due to biological or mechanical variation(Ortega et al, 2006). When testing mass groups of adolescents it is not practical to carry out the gold standard method of testing due to factors such as both financial and time constraints. When researching the methods behind the evaluation of physical fitness testing in adolescents, ensuring the tests were practical was a very common theme across the globe. Several of the fitness battery tests were designed to be carried out within 50 minutes using very simple equipment.
Section 3 – Common Fitness Battery testing tests – (Table 1 & 2)
3.1 – Back-saver sit and reach test (flexibility assessment): A standard box with a small bar, which has to be pushed by the participant, is used to perform the test. The adolescent bends his/her trunk and reaches forward as far as possible from a seated position, with one leg straight and the other bent at the knee. The test is performed once again with the opposite leg. The farthest position of the bar reached by each leg was scored in centimetres and the average of the distances reached by both legs is used in the analysis of the results (Fitnessgram, 2010).
3.2 – Handgrip test (maximum handgrip strength assessment): The handgrip strength test is a simple and economical test that gives practical information on muscle, nerve, bone or joint disorders. A hand dynamometer with adjustable grip is used. The participant squeezes gradually and continuously for at least 2 seconds, performing the test with the right and left hands in turn, using the optimal grip span.11. The average of the scores achieved in both handgrip tests was used in the analysis of the results (Fitnessgram, 2010).
3.3 – Standing broad jump test (lower limb explosive strength assessment): The standing broad jump assesses lower-limb explosive strength. Explosive strength is the ability to carry out a maximal, dynamic contraction of a muscle or muscle group. From a starting position immediately behind a line, standing with feet approximately shoulder’s width apart, the adolescent jumps as far as possible with feet together. The result is recorded in centimetres. A non-slip hard surface, chalk and a tape measure is used to perform the test (Fitnessgram, 2010).
3.4 – The Bosco protocol is composed of three different jumps: (4.1) The Bosco jump protocol includes, among other things, the following type of jumps: squat jump, countermovement jump and Abalakov jump. Performance in squat jump indicates explosive strength of the lower limbs; the countermovement jump assesses explosive strength plus the use of elastic energy; the Abalakov jump assesses explosive strength, plus the use of elastic energy, plus the coordinative capacity using trunk and upper limbs
Squat jump (lower limb explosive strength assessment): the adolescent performs a vertical jump without rebound movements starting from a half-squat position, keeping both knees bent at 90°, the trunk straight and both hands on hips. Previous counter movements are not allowed. (4.2)
Counter movement jump (lower limb explosive strength and elastic component assessment): in a standing position, with legs straight and both hands on hips, the adolescent performs a vertical jump with an earlier fast counter movement. (4.3)
Abalakov jump (lower limb explosive strength, elastic component and intermuscular coordination capacity assessment): the Abalakov jump is similar to the counter movement jump, but now the adolescent is allowed to freely coordinate the arms and trunk movements to reach the maximum height. The jump height is recorded in centimetres.
3.5 – Bent arm hang test (upper limb endurance strength assessment): The bent-arm hang test (also called flexed arm hang) is one of the recommended tests for upper-limb endurance strength. The adolescent hangs from a bar for as long as possible, with the arms bent at 90 degrees. The palms face forward and the chin must be over the bar’s plane. The time spent in this position, to the nearest tenth of a second, is recorded. A cylindrical horizontal bar and a stopwatch are used to perform the test (Eurofit, 2010).
3.6 – 4_10m shuttle run test (speed of movement, agility and coordination assessment): two parallel lines are drawn on the floor 10m apart. The adolescent runs as fast as possible from the starting line to the other line and returns to the starting line, crossing each line with both feet every time. This is performed twice, covering a distance of 40m (4_10 m). Every time the adolescent crosses any of the lines, he/she should pick up (the first time) or exchange (second and third time) a sponge that has earlier been placed behind the lines. The stopwatch is stopped when the adolescent crosses the end line with one foot. The time taken to complete the test is recorded to the nearest tenth of a second. A slip-proof floor, four cones, a stopwatch and three sponges are used to perform the test (Eurofit, 2010).
3.7 – 20-m shuttle run test (cardiorespiratory fitness assessment): Participants are required to run between two lines 20m apart, while keeping pace with audio signals emitted from a pre-recorded CD. The initial speed is 8.5kmh_1, which is increased by 0.5kmh_1 min_1 (1 min equals one stage). Participants are instructed to run in a straight line, to pivot on completing a shuttle, and to pace themselves in accordance with the audio signals. The test is finished when the participant fails to reach the end lines concurrent with the audio signals on two consecutive occasions. Otherwise, the test ends when the participant stops because of fatigue. All measurements are commonly carried out under standardized conditions on an indoor rubber floored gymnasium. The participants are encouraged to keep running as long as possible throughout the course of the test. The last completed stage or half-stage at which the participant drops out is scored. A gymnasium or space large enough to mark out a 20m track, a 20m tape measure, a CD player and a CD with the audio signals recorded are used to perform the test (Eurofit, 2010).
Section 4 – Specific Components of Tests
4.1 – Cardio vascular Fitness:
Cardiovascular fitness is a special form of muscular endurance. It is the efficiency of the heart lungs and vascular system in delivering O2 to the working muscle tissue so physical work can be maintained. Strong and consistent evidence from observational studies found that physical inactivity and poor cardiovascular fitness are associated with higher morbidity and mortality from all causes including cardiovascular diseases and cancer (Mercedes, R. et al 2005). Cardiovascular fitness in childhood and adolescents is a strong indicator for present and future CV, metabolic, skeletal and mental health problems. The metabolic syndrome which is considered a group of risk factors that collectively promote the development of cardiovascular disease and increases the risk of diabetes can be a result of cardiovascular fitness (Gutin et al, 2007). These risk factors include:
High fasting glucose,
High waist circumference,
High triglycerides,
Low high density lipoprotein cholesterol
High blood pressure.
Aerobic capacity (VO2max) indicates the maximum rate that the respiratory, cardiovascular, and muscular systems can take in, transport, and use oxygen during exercise. This reflects the body’s ability to provide energy in the muscles using oxygen. It is generally expressed relative to body weight (mL.kg.min-1) to account for differences in body size among individuals and to reflect each individual’s ability to carry out weight-bearing tasks(Mercedes, R. et al 2005). Good aerobic capacity (cardio-respiratory fitness) has been shown to reduce the risk of high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and some forms of cancer (Gutin et al, 2001). Obesity and heart disease risk factors are known to track through the life span.  
Helena study (2002-2006) – 1000 participants were analysed for; dietary intake, Body comp, Physical activity and fitness and plasma lipid and metabolic profile. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease were found to be more favourable in those with higher cardiovascular fitness. Similar study ANEVA in Spain indicates that high levels of cardiovascular fitness are associated with a positive metabolic profile in both overweight and non overweight Spanish adolescents (Table 2) (Gonzalez et al, 2003).
4.2 – Flexibility:
Flexibility which is the range of motion available to a joint or group of joints and stretching are promoted as possible means to offset age related stiffness, reduce the risk of injury to the lower back, improve body posture and symmetry, enhance relaxation, relieve pain, augment physical fitness and optimise functional movement in daily life (Atler 2004). Also in a 25 year longitudinal study, Mikkelsson et al (2006) found that high adolescent flexibility predicted low occurrence of tension neck in men. Due to an increasing number of studies reporting the benefits from increased flexibility both long term and short term flexibility tests such as the sit and reach test (explained above). The sit and reach test as previously mentioned analyses the flexibility of the hamstrings which has been identified by several studies as a potential source of injury. In Feldman (2000) it was found firstly that decreased muscle flexibility and trunk strength have been postulated as risk factors for low back pain but more importantly that poor hamstring flexibility can be associated with low back pain in both adolescents and adults.
4.3 – Body Composition:
Anthropometry is one of the most basic tools for assessing nutritional status, whether over-nutrition or under-nutrition. A variety of methods are available to measure body fatness and body thinness (WHO, 1995). Commonly used techniques for the accurate estimation of body fatness include underwater weighing, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), total body water, total body electrical conductivity, total body potassium, and computed tomography. However, the use of most of these methods is limited to research settings because of their complexity and cost (Mei et al, 2002). The most frequently used tools in fitness battery tests used on children and adolescents are anthropometric-based measurements such as skinfold-thickness or circumference measurements or various height- and weight-based indexes such as weight-for-height, body mass index [BMI; wt (kg)/ht2 (m)] (Mei et al, 2002). Body mass index does not indicate the composition of the body weight. It is an index that provides an estimate of the appropriateness of the weight for the height. Boot et al (1997) compared the validity of a DXA scan to the practical measurements BMI and bioelectrical impedence analysis (BIA). The study found firstly that BMI correlated significantly with % body fat, fat mass, lean tissue mass and bone mineral content measured by DXA. The correlation between BMI and fat mass was stronger in girls than in boys (r = 0.93 in girls and r = 0.85 in boys). The study also found a very strong relationship between lean tissue mass measured by DXA and lean body mass measured by BIA (r = 0.99) (Graph 1). From this study the practical body composition tests commonly carried out in fitness battery tests for adolescents can be considered both valid and reliable.
Body composition tests such as those just discussed may provide a useful indicator for future health risks as high levels of body fatness are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, some cancers, and joint problems. Obesity and heart disease risk factors are known to track through the life span (Ruiz, 2006).
4.4 – Muscular endurance & Strength.
Balanced, healthy functioning of the musculoskeletal system requires that a specific muscle or muscle group be able to generate force or torque (measured as strength), resist repeated contractions over time or maintain a maximal voluntary contraction for a prolonged period of time (measured as muscular endurance) and to carry out a maximal, dynamic contraction of a muscle or muscle group (measured as explosive strength) (Ruiz, 2006). Common tests which evaluate an adolescents strength and muscular endurance include the standing broad jump, hand grip test and bent arm hang (explained above). Several studies report the future health benefits of increased strength and muscular endurance in adolescents. Barnekow-Bergkvist (2006) reported in a 16 year follow up that high performance in bench press at the age of 16 was associated with a significant decrease in risk of neck/shoulder symptoms at the age of 34 in men, but not women. Women attain 50- 80% of the neck strength of men.34-36. Another study Mikkelsson (2006) found that higher endurance strength in boys predicted lower occurrence of neck/shoulder pain in adulthood, and higher strength in adolescent girls predicted lower occurrence of low back pain.3 In women, high endurance strength predicted low occurrence of tension neck, whereas in men it was a predictor of knee injury.
Section 5 – Importance of testing
The most common causes of morbidity and mortality are coronary heart disease, stroke, obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, allergies and several cancers. A sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for these diseases and is close to overtaking tobacco as the leading cause of preventable death (Ruiz et al, 2006). The protective effect of intentional physical activity on the above mentioned non-communicable diseases has been widely reported in people of all ages (Strong et al. 2005). Regular participation in moderate and vigorous levels of exercise increases physical fitness, which can lead to many health benefits (Figure 2) (Ruiz et al, 2006). Physical fitness testing therefore can play an important role in firstly identifying potential health risk in individual adolescents and secondly promoting physical activity and educate adolescents in the importance of keeping fit and active. Sport scientists can potentially help in the area of health promotion. The promotion of physical activity is a key area which needs to be examined. Sport scientists could take up this role and potentially provide education to adolescents on both the benefits associated with remaining physically active and the risk factors previously mentioned with sedentary behaviour.
Section 6 – Conclusion
A common theme and one conclusion which several papers resulted in stating results and experiences obtained from research suggest that physical fitness is a key health marker in children and adolescents. The fitness tests to be included in the assessment of health-related fitness in the fitness battery tests seem to give relevant information regarding the health status of the young people and rightly focus on the various specific components of health e.g. cardiovascular fitness. The specific fitness tests are chosen due to their practicality and low cost. Validation studies of most of these tests have already done (Ruiz et al, 2006) and results have found them to be quite valid and reliable. Future health information systems should include monitoring of health-related fitness among adults as well as among young individuals, and results and experiences from recent and ongoing research projects on young people across the globe should be taken advantage of. Development of efficient systems for large-scale collection of health-related fitness data and transfer of data to centrally located databases will be the next major step in the area of mass physical fitness testing (Ortega, 2007).
Section 7 – Appendix
Graph 1 – Relation between lean tissue mass (LTM) measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and lean body mass (LBW) by Bioelectrical impedence analysis (BIA). The line represents the regression line B: Difference between LTM by DXA & LBM by BIA (Boot et al, 1997)
Graph 2 – Association between cardiovasvular profile (calculated from age & gender specific standardised values of triglycerides, LDLs, HDLs & fasting glycemia) And CRF values in non-overweight adolescents (Gonzalez et al, 2003).
Table 1 -Additions & Deletions to the FitnessGram tests
Table 2 – Summary of fitness tests in Europe by the HELENA study (2008)
Figure 1 – FitnessGram Results Sheet
Figure 2 – The association between adolescent physical activity and heath possible pathways
Section 8 – References
Atler, M.J (2004). Science of Flexibility. 3rd ed. UK: Human Kinetics. p55-56.
Barnekow-Bergkvist M, Hedberg G, Pettersson U, Lorentzon R. Relationships between physical activity and physical capacity in adolescent females and bone mass in adulthood. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2006; 16: 447-455.
Boot, A. M., Bouquet, J., De Ridder, M.A., Krenning, E.P., Keizer-Schrama, S. (1997). Determinants of body composition measured by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry in Dutch children and adolescents. Am J C/in Nuir 1997;66:232-8. . 66 (3), 232-238.
Eurofit Fitness Test battery available at: http://www.topendsports.com/testing/eurofit
Feldman, D.E., Shrier, I., Rossignol, M., Abenhaim, L. (2000). Risk Factors for the Development of Low Back Pain in Adolescence. American Journal of Epidemiology. 154 (1), 30-37.
Fitnessgram test battery available at http://www.fitnessgram.net
Gonzalez, J.M., Tresaco B, Ruiz JR, Moreno LA, Martin-Matillas M, Mesa JL et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary activities are associated with adiposity in adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007; 15: 1589-1599
Gutin B, Yin Z, Humphries MC, Barbeau P. Relations of moderate and vigorous physical activity to fitness and fatness in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81: 746-750.
Hallal PC, Victora CG, Azevedo MR,Wells JC. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review. Sports Med 2006; 36: 1019-1030.
HELENA Study Group. (2008). Reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in European adolescents. International Journal of Obesity. 32 (32), p49-57
Hills AP, King NA, Armstrong TP. The contribution of physical activity and sedentary behaviours to the growth and development of children and adolescents: implications for overweight and obesity. Sports Med 2007; 37: 533-545.
Jackson. A.W. & Morrow. J.R. (2007). Measurement of Physical Fitness and Physical Activity: Fifty Years of Change. Measurement in Physical Education And Exercise Science.
Mei, Z., Grummer-Strawn, L.M., Pietrobelli, A., Goulding, A., Goran, M.I., Dietz, W.H. (2002). Validity of body mass index compared with other body-composition screening indexes for the assessment of body fatness in children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:978-85. 75 (3), 978-985
Mercedes, S.J., Arslanian SA. Cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal adiposity in youth. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005; 61: 561-565.
Mikkelsson L, Kaprio J, Kautiainen H, Kujala U, Mikkelsson M, Nupponen H (2006) School fitness tests as predictors of adult health-related fitness. Am J Hum Biol 18:342-349
Ortega,F.B.,Ruiz, J.R.,Castillo,M.J.,Sjostrom,M. (2008). Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health. International Journal of Obesity. 32 (32), p1-11.
Ruiz, J.R., Ortega, F.B., Gutierrez, A., Meusel, D., Sjöström, M., Castillo, M.J. (2006). Health-related fitness assessment in childhood and adolescence: a European approach based on the AVENA, EYHS and HELENA studies. J Public Health. 10 (3), 1-9.
Scottish health survey 2003: Summary of key findings. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive The Stationery Office, 2005.
Snyder, A.R., Martinez, J.C., Bay, R.C., Parsons, J.T., Sauers, E.L., Valovich McLeod, T.C. (2010). Health-Related Quality of Life Differs Between Adolescent Athletes and Adolescent Nonathletes. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 2010, 19, 237-248. 19 (3), 237-248.
Strong WB, Malina RM, Blimkie CJ, Daniels SR, Dishman RK, Gutin B, Hergenroeder AC, Must A, Nixon PA, Pivarnik JM, Rowland T, Trost S, Trudeau F (2005) Evidence based physical activity for
school-age youth. J Pediatr 146:732-737
Reilly, J.J., Penpraze, V., Hislop, J. (2008). Objective measurement of physical activity andsedentary behaviour: review with new data. Arch Dis Child. 93 (3), 614-619.
WHO. Health & Developmt through PA and Sport (2003)
 

Youth Fitness And Obesity Levels Physical Education Essay

The figure of obesity children is rapidly increasing due to their unhealthy lifestyle and eating habit such as addicted to fast food, video games, and online games which occur in most of the children community nowadays. Unhealthy lifestyle caused most of the children dislike physical bodily movement and lack of physical fitness. A number of researchers involved in teaching physical classes always emphasize the relationship between decreasing of participation in physical activity towards increasing of health-related risks such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease (Domangue, 2009). We as physical teachers have to understand factors leading to children physical inactivity. It is very important to understand why youngsters withdraw themselves from physical activity as they get matured. In physical education classes, fitness testing act as a very crucial component which help to create awareness of health concerns on physical inactivity cases especially among children (Domangue, 2009). Physical activity is defined as any type (mild, moderate, vigorous) of bodily movement for instance jumping rope, soccer, weight lifting, running, walking, taking stairs and others which can be our daily routine activities, recreational activities, as well as sport activities. Literally, health-related physical fitness means physical activity that involved mild or adverse physical body movement that contribute to their general body health (Karinharju, 2005). School-based physical class explains when participant is physically active, heart pumping rate increases and produces heavier breathing than normal breathing. Unfortunately, a lot of schools neglected physical education class and only focus on physical class. In fact, physical education and physical activity are equally important elements that contribute towards children health development.

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In Silverman et.al. (2008) paper stated youth fitness testing was designed to embarrass those children who are less capable in physical activity. Those children who cannot perform well especially those obese children will be insulted by their peers and eventually they will withdraw themselves from involving in physical activity. We should not turn children down in physical activity by right as a school teacher we should help children to cultivate interest in physical activity. For instance, a plump children will feel embarrass while doing stretching. They might unable to reach the desired point and will be laughed by their peers. Girls might not like to play soccer, running around the field fighting for a ball. They might prefer jumping rope. So while designing fitness testing, more consideration should be taken such as gender, body size and fitness. As a physical teacher, we should help students to learn more about fitness and physical activity in order to promote positive attitudes on physical activity.
I further belief if fitness testing was used in positive and appropriate ways it will enhance students’ physical educational experience as well as promote good attitudes and interest. There is few discussion on fitness testing has been done in recent years and the discussions were basically taken in three forms. First, some researchers suggest discontinuing school-based youth fitness testing in physical education program. Because school teachers are more focus on students’ activity performance instead of health-related fitness (Silverman, 2008; Rowland, 1995; Corbin et al., 1995). Second, researchers suggested that school-based physical classes should emphasize on educational aspects. Tests and teaching should carried out together to help to improve students’ fitness and knowledge (Silverman, 2008; Cale & Harris, 2002; Corbin & Pangrazi, 1993). Lastly, thorough examination of student fitness achievement testing is needed before designing and making decision on the future of physical class context and tests. (Silverman, 2008; Cale et al., 2007; Corbin et al., 1995; Keating & Silverman, 2004).
To be physically fit, one has to be physically active. Definition for physical fitness is an “adaptive state that varies with the individual’s growth and maturity status and with habitual activity and lifestyle” (Domangue, 2009; Malina, Bouchard & Bar-Or, 2004). Furthermore, physical fitness can be categorized into two categories which is health-related fitness and performance-related fitness. Health-related fitness is fitness that everyone needs which contributes to maintain and improve health status of our body. Performance-related fitness refers to skilled athletes or performers who need to be success or excel in their performance in sports activities. Basically, health-related fitness is assessed by measuring cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, muscular endurance, strength, and body fat content or body mass index (BMI) (Hale, 2005; Corbin, 2005).
Rowland, 1995 drew a conclusion that physical teachers should not stop fitness testing, but should implement fitness tests in the physical education curriculum. Children and adults have different used of fitness test. So, while planning physical activities, this should be taken in concern. Children cannot decide whether to participate in fitness testing or how to use the results of those physical assessments. Whereas, adults are able to decide and choose whether to use fitness testing as a summative assessment to check their current health-related fitness levels of how fit they are at the period of time or as formative assessment to continuously assess health-related fitness level in order to modify fitness program as part of program planning. Adults who decided to go for either formal (with trainers) or informal training (self-training) already ready and have some commitment to do physical activity. But children do not have such commitment and do not know how to make decision. Therefore, youth fitness testing can have opposite result if it is not perform appropriately, and will have consequences to develop negative attitude and patterns of physical activity among children. But, youth fitness testing should play an important role in school physical education setting in order to enhance students fitness (Silverman, 2008; Bar-Or, 1993; Cale & Harris, 2002; Whitehead, Pemberton & Corbin, 1990), and implementation of fitness testing should be examined often to prevent any deviation that will result in the misuse of fitness tests (Silverman, 2008).
In order to have positive impact of physical testing in school, silverman has suggested some guidelines to implement a positive impact fitness test. First, youth fitness testing should be integrated as a part of fitness instruction in curriculum. Although assessment is important goal of teaching but without a solid curriculum it is merely testing (Stewart, Elliot, Boyce & Block, 2005). Second, fitness testing result should be used by teachers to assess their fitness instruction and enhance students’ learning (Corbin, 1981) while physical classes. Long-term and short-term outcomes of fitness testing of children should be taken into concern by teachers and curriculum planners planning for future activities. Third, the point of having physical class is for students to improve their body fitness and towards meeting their healthy zone standard. We should teach students not to assume that fitness testing will automatically increase their physical activity levels but it is just to test their body fitness. It is important to understand their body fitness and help to design future activities. If fitness testing was used appropriately and used as an educational tool, it has the potential to promote physical activity and also help to improve health-related fitness. In many schools in Malaysia, students are only required to be tested on fitness test once in a year. Compare to academic tests physical test is far lesser. During fitness tests, Instructional time spent on fitness testing should not be ignored. Without positively increasing youngsters’ physical activity levels and health-related fitness does not make sound use of fitness tests.
Health-related fitness testing should be carried out in school, and it is important to include both physical activity and also health-related fitness in physical education class so that student will able to understand the difference and complementary nature of the concepts (Silverman, 2008). Health-related fitness has to be taught as part of curriculum so that student able to understand the concept and the purpose of the test. Health-related fitness testing also can be used as a tool to examine concepts and components of health-related fitness and physical activity. For example, while teacher introducing the sit-up test, teacher can discuss on the anatomy of the body and the function of the muscles involved and how the body perform the activity and how to improve their strength and endurance. Provide important information and knowledge while doing the activity, student can understand better the purpose of having each test and also prevent to get injured. Without proper knowledge, students are more tend to get injured, due to lack of knowledge of proper posture undergoing particular activity. Teacher has to educate students the correct posture and way to perform those activity to protect our body muscle and anatomy. Lacking important knowledge might influence students’ performance, motivation and interest as well. Eventually, they will cultivate negative attitude and their bad experiences in physical education will influence their attitudes towards future assessment and physical activity and eventually cause them to withdraw from physical activity.
Another reason why teaching both health-related fitness and physical activity is important, because the current examination of physical activity assessment program may mislead students into thinking that regular participation in any mild to moderate physical activity for 30-60 minutes is sufficient to maintain their health. NASPE recommends those children aged 5 to 12 years should be physically active for at least 60 minutes to several hours of per day (Domangue, 2009). As children get matured, the recommended duration for physical activity varies. Adolescents need lesser hour to be physically active compare to children. They need only 30-60 minutes daily (Yesalonia, 2009). Unfortunately, many school-aged students have too little opportunity to participate in these recommended physical activities during school hour. In this situation, students are required to balance their physical activity levels outside the school as extra-curriculum.
Outside the regular school hours, many children could be physically active in sedentary activities such as homework, computers and video-games which children only required to sit on chair. This can affect activity levels of school-aged children. Perhaps the most important time for children to be active is after school is between three and six p.m. But often children nowadays are not, they will rather spend time on sedentary activities or their academic curriculum. Parents have press more on their academic rather than their physical achievements and also safety issues parents stop letting children to involve in physical activities. . As a school teacher, we should encourage parents to allow their children to be physically active instead of filling all those active hours with tuitions, piano classes and homework. Children can have opportunity to be active after school hours by participating in extra-curricular activity programs, such as basket ball, soccer, as well as community-based activity programs. Remember, physical activity and health-related fitness is both equally important. We should not too emphasize on physical achievement and ignore the basic understanding on health-related fitness.
Through the health-related fitness testing, teacher is responsible to educate students the purpose of participating in a variety of physical activity form and methods to improve corresponding health-related fitness components as well as the recommended duration in performing physical activity. Health-related fitness testing is an excellent context to teach students to examine on both health-related fitness and physical activity concept. Students can understand health-related fitness not only improve their health level (Silverman, 2008; Simons-Morton et al., 1988) but also their cognitive skills (Hillman, Castelli, & Buck 2005). School-based physical classes may not done an adequate job in teaching students on the importance of health-related fitness or have taught separately with physical activity. If health-related fitness testing is done separately, there is no way that student will develop the knowledge that can be developed from an understanding of both health-related fitness and physical activity assessment.
Teacher should teach assessment skills to students. If student able to use fitness test for self-assessment, they are able to use the understanding of health-related fitness learned during physical class and able to plan their own physical activity programs according to their desired target. Students were taught that fitness testing can be used as formative assessment to develop and modify their physical activity routines to help them have the knowledge to start an appropriate level. Assessment skills also able to help students keep participating in physical activity if they know what their expected goal is. The formative testing experience will reinforce fitness gains and also enhance additional motivation for students to continue involved in physical activity (Silverman, 2008). Students learn to compare the scores with their previous performance and to design a suitable goals and activity according to their body level. Applications of appropriate use of fitness tests taught in class equip students with the knowledge and skills to participate and to select appropriate physical activity and help them to perform self-assessment.
To incorporating health-related fitness assessment into fitness education, teacher should teach students the purpose of doing the fitness test or other fitness-based activity. Student should understand the instructional content before performing the test. Then, fitness testing should be formative. Teacher should plan the educational experience to use fitness testing results to design future activity for students while also teaching students that health-related fitness can be improved and assessment is integral to that process. Another way is to conduct fitness education by infusing fitness lessons into curriculum. This can be done by relating each activity done to fitness. So, student will have better understanding on how those activities related and improve their body fitness, why that aspect of fitness is important. With that knowledge, students are able to understand and eventually improve their performance on that activity. For example, students participate in school gymnasium should know that gymnasium activity are exercising their heart and will help make them healthy and good for their heart. They should know the health-related fitness component is called aerobic fitness and helps to prevent heart disease. With this understanding, students were being more motivated on physical activity. The use of fitness test helps students to understand health-related fitness and how testing can be used to improve and enhance fitness.
Infusing health-related fitness test in physical education can increase student knowledge, attitudes and fitness. In primary schools students, teacher will help students in assessment and plan their future physical activity, but in secondary school, after fitness testing, students could provide an analysis of their strengths and weaknesses and develop a fitness program suitable to them. Teacher could use variety of teaching strategies such as reciprocal teaching, self-check against predetermined rubrics and assessments such as using the analysis and plan for providing feedback to the students (Silverman, 2008) to help students to improve and also to monitor their program.
Planning and assessment of physical activity is necessary in order to improve students’ learning experience and to meet the goals of instructions (Silverman, 2008). Without assessment, we are unable to know our standard and level. Teachers act as a reflection as a form of assessment to assess fitness education the result of the assessment is for the teacher to do self-assessment and reflect on the lesson. Teacher means act as a problem solvers (i.e., design the content or lesson to achieve goal and to assess achievement of the goal, and whether there are other better ways to enhance instruction). Second step is student learning. Fitness testing result is to examine student learning from multiple perspectives (increase various component of health-related fitness, increases in physical activity, attitude toward fitness and physical activity). This health-related fitness test may tell how fit students are, ignoring the fitness improvement, physical activity and attitude development. Next is the appropriate use of accountability for assessing fitness education. Principals should be aware that fitness testing may lead negative consequences. Always ensure that the test is use appropriately and must be used within the context and perform a complete fitness education program if we want students to live in physically active lives. Assessment and accountability program should design appropriately and examine from time to time being as one aspect of student assessment and physical grading.
As a school physical education teacher, I strongly believe that health-related fitness tests that are used in an appropriate educational manner can be a useful tool to enhance student learning and also health level. Although there is wide variation in the capabilities of students, the main purpose of fitness instruction should be that every student can work towards being fit and reach healthy level. While designing the test, physical class teachers should consider those less capability students and help them to improve by educating health-related fitness. The main focus on physical education should be on evolving fitness process, students’ participation regardless on performance and result achieved. A well-planned physical fitness program with a positive classroom environment is very crucial to yield positive attitude, interest and motivation of students on physical activity especially for those less capability. Teachers should put more efforts on those students who may feel fitness testing is an embarrassment. Silverman (2008) suggested that assessment methods can move from group administration of test to pairs testing or self-assess. It can help to utilize time better, develop self-assessment skills and less embarrassing for most students.
In a nutshell, I agree to infuse health-related fitness in physical class. Both physical activity and health-related fitness is equaled important to enhance body fitness and health. In order to have positive outcome, physical educator should designed an appropriate program for students in order to improve their fitness and encourage them to participate in physical activity and not to emphasize on performance achieved. Educators have to alert those students who are less capable in physical activities and encourage them, support them to involve in physical activity and educate them on health-related fitness. So that they can understand why they need to do that particular activity and what is the benefits of doing that. Educators should stress more on health-related fitness rather than performance-related fitness.
Cale, L., Harris, J. (2002). National testing for children: Issues, concerns, and alternatives. British Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 33 (1), 32-34.
Cale, L., Harris, J., Chen, M.H. (2007). More than 10 years after “The horse is dead…”: Surely it must be time to “dismount”?! Pediatric Exercise Sciences, 19, 115-131.
Corbin, C.B. (1981). First things first but don’t stop there. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 52(1), 36-38.
Corbin, C.B. (2005). Keynote address: Promoting active living: The key to shaping up for a lifetime. Vermont Association of Health, Physical Education, Dance, and Recreation Fall Conference. November, 2005. Killington, Vermont.
Corbin, C.B., Pangrazi, R.P. (1993). Physical fitness: Questions teachers ask. Journal of Physical Education, Research and Dance, 64 (7), 14-19.
Corbin, C.B., Pangrazi, R.P., Welk, G.L. (1995). A response to “The horse is dead: Let’s dismount.” Pediatric Exercise Science, 7, 347-351.
Domangue, E.A. (2009). A critical examination into motivation and gender in youth physical fitness testing (Doctoral dissertation), Louisiana State University, LA.
Hale, D. (2005). An invitation to health. (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Learning, Inc.
Hillman, C.H., Castelli, D.M., Buck, S.M. (2005). Aerobic fitness and neurocognitive function in healthy preadolescent children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 37, 1967-1974.
Karinharju, K (2005). Physical fitness and its testing in adults with intellectual disability. (Master dissertation), University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
Keating, X.D., Silverman, S. (2004). Teachers’ use of fitness tests in school-based physical education programs. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 8, 145-165.
Malina, R.M., Bouchard, C., Bar-Or, O. (2004). Growth, maturation, and physical activity. (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Rowland, T.W. (1995). The horse is dead; Let’s dismount. Pediatric Exercise Science, 7, 117-120.
Silverman, S., Keating, X.D., Phillips, S.R. (2008). A lasting impression: A pedagogical perspective on youth fitness testing. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 12: 146-166
Simons-Morton, B.G., Parcel, G.S., O’Hara, N.M., Blair, S.N., Pate, R.R. (1988). Health-related physical fitness in childhood: status and recommendations. Annual Review of Public Health, 9, 403-425.
Yesalonia, S. (2009). Understanding school students’ perspectives regarding physical activity and fitness (Doctoral dissertation), Available from Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3352936)
 

Similarities And Differences Between Sport And Fitness Physical Education Essay

Throughout this essay I will identify the definition for both sport and physical education, implementing my own interpretation. I will also explain the differences and similarities between them. My research will be based largely on the affect physical activity has on school children. I aim to concentrate my research on the method of teaching PE and sports, introducing both linear and non-linear pedagogy. Finally, I will conclude with my own understanding of my findings and where I feel research should be continued in order to ensure both PE and sports is an active part of every child’s life, especially after leaving school.

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Sport v PE
Classifying the definition of ‘sport’ is not as simple as it seems. Research states, “an athletic activity requiring skill or physical prowess and often of a competitive nature, as racing, baseball, tennis, golf, bowling, wrestling, boxing, hunting, fishing, etc.” (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/sport). This is true, however, there is a lot more to it that just skill and competition. Although rules are a major part of sport, making it sound more serious, it can also be fun and entertaining. Physical skill is a key advantage in playing sport, however lets not forget that most sports also require mental skill for strategic planning. The most important aspect of sport is having fun with the added bonus of maintaining a good fitness level. The term ‘sport’ comes from the old French desport which means ‘leisure’. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport.
Physical Education is “Training in the development of and care for the human body; stresses athletics; includes hygiene.” http://www.wordwebonline.com/en/PHYSICALEDUCATION. “It is a taught course taken during primary and secondary education that encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_education. In the UK, Physical Education classes are compulsory in school until approximately age 16. As well as learning basic sporting skills, the curriculum also pays attention to health and fitness. My first recollection of PE at School was playing pirates in the school gym which involved running around on sporting apparatus being chased. PE is not always being taught the obvious sporting game such as football, hockey, etc. Its aim is to enhance an individual’s progress through a variety of activities, which will boost their confidence level; hence my pirate game vastly improved my agility skills. As the student progresses, leadership skills are incorporated into the programme as well as being encouraged to be player independent in their decision-making.
The most obvious similarity between sport and PE is that they both involve physical activity. Physical health benefits are gained by taking part in regular physical activity, whether that is during school hours (PE lessons), an extra-curriculum activity, or playing for a local club. Research shows that children who participate frequently in physical activity will reduce their chances of acquiring certain ailments such as diabetes and obesity, therefore improving their quality of life. However, other benefits such as affective and social are also gained. Research suggests that affective development is now evident with children. One of the main signs of this is a child’s self-esteem that grows stronger when partaking in physical activity. Research show that stress, anxiety and depression, can also be significantly reduced with regular exercise. Probably the most important aspect of both sport and PE is social benefit. Whether you are playing football with a few friends or in a controlled PE lesson, it is evident that this is a major part of a child’s social learning skills. Anti-social behaviour is frowned upon and, to fit in, children tend to conform to the norm. Also, for an introvert child, communication though activity can help dramatically improve their interaction with other children outside of sports and PE and this has a knock-on affect with their affective skills also (Bailey, 2006). However, there may be implications. For example, we are assuming that pupils are enjoying the physical activity and are good at it. What if a child suffers with ability and/or may be teased by other school children for their lack of coordination? This may cause the child to become introvert and depression and anxiety could occur. Although PE has a positive effect for most, this concern needs to be considered carefully when planning PE lessons at school.
However, sport is more about being competitive and winning medals and trophies. Although PE can be competitive, teachers introduce fair play; ensuring teams are equally balanced, whether that is by age, sex, and/or ability. However, in sports, the best players are selected for the club’s first team and those with less skill will be placed in a lower performing side. Sport is voluntary and the number of participants can vary from club to club, but the size of group/team can be adapted to suit the requirements of a match. However, PE is compulsory in schools and classes can be vast, this can cause problems for the teacher when applying rules and instructions, especially given that a proportion of children do not want to partake and may be unruly.
Within sports there are leagues and competitions, involving officials and a fixture secretary and each club concentrates on one particular sport. However, the chosen activity for a particular PE lesson is usually decided by the teacher and can vary from lesson to lesson. This decision can also depend on the environmental conditions and equipment available to that school. For example, it is difficult for a school in the centre of London to partake in an outdoor adventure activity, as there are no local amenities to support this and some inner city schools don’t have the funds to purchase expensive equipment.
Linear and non-linear pedagogy
The basic skills of PE are learned during a child’s school years. This is normally taught using linear pedagogy, a more traditional method. Once the basics are learnt, a pupil may wish to expand on this skill and join a particular sport they excel in. This is where further, more advanced coaching, takes place and in my experience, a more non-linear pedagogy approach is implemented.
Linear pedagogy is teacher centred, instructional, technique-based and practiced method. This style is more advantageous in schools than clubs, where, due to enormous class sizes, it is easier for the teacher to maintain control of the class. However, there are problems with this approach. For example, in my school-day experience, in order for skills to be learned, the teacher would use drills to demonstrate a technique and it was a luxury to play a game. This was a disappointment to my peers and me. Tactics were rarely mentioned therefore my decision-making was poor.
Non-linear pedagogy leans more towards the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) way of teaching where it is player centred, involving engaging an individual in being encouraged to think for themselves in both tactical and technical aspects (Thorpe and Bunker 1989). Its major advantage it that it is designed to guide players to become independent in their decision-making. For example, a typical training session may involve a short modified game to identify the team’s failings. Drill sessions would then take place to strengthen these weaknesses. After the drills, another game would be played to implement the new skill, using their own thoughts. The coach encourages player independence by applying strategies to match an individual player’s game, therefore improving their decision-making throughout a game (Light, 2006).
The main problem with linear pedagogy is that it can be strict and disciplined, almost military style, therefore enjoyment, which should be a major factor, is low on the list of achievements and participating in both PE and sport should definitely achieve this. Lessons become predictable and children tend to pay less attention due to boredom, therefore not much ‘learning’ will take place. Also, too much structure won’t allow those with less ability to achieve the aimed outcome and, instead, may become stressed at their inability to master the skill. This could also damage their confidence. By not allowing children to think for themselves, it reduces their scope of learning and their tactical skills will be limited.
Non-linear pedagogy is not without its faults. At school level, it may lack adequate theoretical teaching from a motors learning perspective. Receiving little instruction from the teacher can result in the child not being able to make the correct decision. It is very difficult to measure whether or not the children are learning anything and it can look a lot like “chaos” (Mack, et al, 2000).
Conclusion
Taking into consideration the research and my own interpretation, it is encouraging to see that both PE and sports has a positive affect on majority of children. However, my findings highlight the need for school’s to reconsider their method of teaching PE. Other less traditional styles should be implemented to enhance the enjoyment of the lesson, which may encourage children to continue their interest in extra-curriculum sporting activities and perhaps join sporting clubs upon leaving school. This will then increase the number of potential elite athletes.
Further research needs to be undertaken to investigate the effects of social behaviour in children. For example, how does participating in PE and sports help reduce crime rate? What can the government do to ensure people from deprived areas are given more opportunities to partake in sport?
Overall, any type of physical activity should be a part of everyone’s lifestyle. Although playing sport is more of an individual choice, it is vital that PE remains a compulsory part of the curriculum at schools as this is the grass roots encouragement they require to continue in their enjoyment and progress to playing sport after leaving school.
Reference list:
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/sport
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Physical+education
Ones I have not used yet:
http://www.tgfu.org/taskforce/index.htm
http://www.citejournal.org/vol1/iss1/currentissues/english/article1.htm
http://www.suite101.com/content/teaching-breathing-exercises-for-singing-a146136
http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5002249790
http://www.bmj.com/content/327/7415/592.full
 

New Fitness Trends And Crazes Physical Education Essay

The fitness industry is constantly diversifying with new fitness trends and crazes. The most recent trend is Zumba. Zumba is being marketed as a new exciting way to stay active and healthy. It boasts of its fun aspect and its ability to bring people together to get fit and have fun at the same time. Founder, Alberto Perez a Miami based dancer once forgot his traditional music to a fitness class he was leading and instead used some Latin music tapes. He delivered the session letting the music lead and guide him like in a club. The participants loved it and so Zumba was born.

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Now, more than 3 million DVDs have been sold in over 30 countries. In a recent poll, Zumba ranked 9th for international fitness trends in the year 2012 (Thompson, 2012). Zumba currently has well over 9,000 instructors worldwide and on October 15, 2007 Zumba was showcased on the Today Show. In October 2008, worldwide Virgin Active sport centres started proposing Zumba classes in their programs (Zumba Fitness, 2012). Today, Virgin Active in Norwich offers an exclusive range of fitness classes including; body pump, body combat and step classes. Zumba features in their aerobic classes, and is fast growing in popularity says the Norwich Virgin Active Fitness Manager in an interview (see appendices).
However despite the ever-growing popularity and widespread of Zumba, there is still very little documented research highlighting the potential fitness and health benefits of the dancing phenomenon. The author, a volunteer at Virgin Active agreed with fitness managers that determining the average exercise intensity and energy expenditure during a Zumba class could provide valuable information about the classes Virgin has to offer and a unique selling point. This project set out to determine the average exercise intensity and energy expenditure during a Zumba fitness class at Virgin Active.
Literature review
Melissa Napier conducted a case study, investigating if and how, Zumba fitness has impacted women’s participation in Doon Valley Leisure Centre. The objectives were to source out the reasons and factors that were impacting female participation levels within physical activity.
The research found that for a fitness centre in Dalmellington, the majority of Zumba participants were aged between 40-59 years. However these results were obtained from both Zumba and Aqua Zumba participants which supports evidence in the secondary research that Aqua fitness is popular and recommended to the elderly population. Zumba participants said they attend classes because they think Zumba is an enjoyable exercise and allows them to socialize whilst increasing their fitness. Section 2 of the questionnaire asked the Zumba participants what they think makes Zumba different and more appealing than other forms of exercise, 44% answered ‘Fun’. Other activities that the Zumba participants said they enjoy include: Aqua Zumba and swimming. For the non Zumba participants they said they preferred gym, swim and fitness classes other than Zumba. This is not surprising as 80% of non Zumba participants are members and all these services are accessible to them as they are included in the membership prices.
Evidence in Secondary research shows that interest in sport declines with age however the investigators primary research shows that 53% of Zumba/Aqua Zumba participants are 40-59 years old with only 7% aged 16-24 years old. Although Zumba may not appeal to all, it is 16-24yrs with latent demand for more physical activity options according to the Active People Survey carried out by the Women’s Sport and Fitness Foundation.
The only other literature which examined the exercise intensity of Zumba was conducted at Adelphi University (Otto et al., 2011). It reported caloric expenditure during Zumba to be between 6.6 and 7.4 Kcal·min-1 depending on the particular dance style being performed. However there appears to be a wide range in the intensity of Zumba and other group fitness classes, depending upon the choreography and enthusiasm of the instructor. The enthusiasm of the instructor, as well as the experience of being in a group setting, often spills over to the participants, who then work harder. This cannot be captured when following video-taped workouts and the growing popularity of Zumba warrants additional research into this growing fitness trend.
Methodology
Twelve healthy female volunteers (20 ± 1.5 years, 1.57 ± 0.08 m, 61.9 ± 22.6 kg) were selected from the Virgin Active fitness club in Norwich. All participants were regular exercisers and were relatively experienced at participating in Zumba fitness classes. Prior to participating in the research project, all subjects were asked to complete a PAR-Q and provide written informed consent. Participants completed a health history questionnaire to check for any contra-indications which would prevent them from participating, and were informed that they could withdraw from the study at any time, even after giving their written consent. The data produced from the study was kept confidential and the participants were able to access their particular data if requested.
Prior to the Zumba class, each participant had to perform an incremental, maximal treadmill test in the Norwich City College sports laboratory. This test measured the participant’s heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2). Test procedures can be found in appendices. From this test, an individual linear regression equation was developed for each subject to predict VO2 from HR. This equation was subsequently used to predict VO2 (ml·kg-1·min-1) during the Zumba session for that subject. Measurements of steady state oxygen uptake by the participants were used as an indirect method to measure energy expenditure (calorimetry). Energy expenditure was calculated from the predicted VO2 data assuming a constant of 5 Kcal·L-1 of O2 consumed. Similar studies had demonstrated that the HR-VO2 relationship during treadmill exercise accurately reflected the HR-VO2 relationship during Zumba.
After treadmill testing, subjects were given a Zumba DVD and told to practice the routine at least three times prior to the class. Following the treadmill test, all participants took part in a Zumba session. The Zumba class was delivered by a fully qualified zumba instructor in a sports hall at Virgin Active. During the class, all participants wore a heart rate monitor which recorded all the data throughout the session. After the session, the data was inserted into the individuals HR-VO2 regression equation to estimate the VO2 and energy expenditure of the participant during the class.
Sampling
Participants were recruited from Virgin Active. Participants were found using a simple snowball sampling technique because of the social networks that existed between class members. Zumba enthusiasts were asked to recommend other appropriate people for the project.
Data collection
The research design relied heavily on numerical data, therefore the research project adopted a quantitative approach. Numerical data included heart rates, vO2 max data and Kcal data. The project used regression analysis to identify the relationship between exercise intensity and calorie expenditure. Data were analysed using the statistical package IBM SPSS, PC program, version 7.5
Data Analysis
Physiological responses to the Zumba session can be found in Table 1. The average HR was 154 ± 14 bpm, which corresponded to 79 ± 7.0% of HRmax. The average estimated VO2 was 66 ± 10.5% of VO2 max. The average estimated energy expenditure of participating in a Zumba session was 9.5 ± 2.69 Kcal·min-1, which corresponded to an average of 369 ± 108 Kcal per class.
To improve cardiovascular fitness, ACSM recommends that apparently healthy adults should exercise between 64-94% of HRmax and 40-85% of VO2max (ACSM, 2010). In order to control body weight, it is recommended individuals expend an average of 1500 or more kcal per week, which is 300 kcal per exercise session when exercising five times a week (ACSM,2010). Based upon the above recommendations, the Zumba class met ACSM guidelines for both parameters. Exercise intensity averaged 79% of HRmax and 66% of VO2max, respectively, and every subject fell within the recommended guidelines.
Conclusions and recommendations
Zumba is likely best suited for those who are already comfortable with fitness routines and with dance, as it could offer a pleasant change and participants would already know that they could keep up with dance fitness routine. However Zumba is also suitable for participants of all age and fitness levels. The intensity of the workout is relatively subjective so this means the participants can make the workout however hard or easy they would like depending on their enthusiasm and inhibitions. ACSM recommends that individuals should burn atleast 300 Kcals per workout in order to promote weight loss and maintain a healthy body composition (ACSM, 2010). This study concluded that participating in a Zumba dance class used an average of 369 Kcal for an average length class. It should be pointed out that average class length in the current study was approximately 39 minutes in length. Longer classes would obviously result in greater energy expenditure. Thus, regular participation in Zumba should positively affect body composition. Future studies may want to focus on the physiological benefits following an 8-12 week Zumba training period.
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General Fitness And Training Physical Education Essay

My chosen pursued activity is general fitness which is health-related;specifically circuit training. In pursuing such activity I may improve both my strength and cardiovascular fitness.Circuit training is essentially structured exercise.Aerobic fitness,strength and flexibility are all improved pursuing circuit training.Incorporated into such an exercise structure are fixed weights/machine ‘stations’ which isolate specific muscle groups.A complete exercise set is achieved within a given period of time,usually 20 minutes.An uninterrupted flow of activity from machine to machine may enable proper gain of aerobic benefit.The heart is pumping at a steady high level.

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Every gym session will consist of a warm-up with mobility exercises;ending with the cool-down.Each exercise ‘station’ exercises a different muscle group from the last.The whole session should last one hour.(Pollock et al.,1998) Circuit training should not occur on consecutive days,two or three visits to the gym per week being sufficient.Selection of correct weights,repetitions and positions is necessary to minimise occurrence of injury and to achieve desired fitness objectives.
Aerobic endurance is exercised by completing a circuit as quickly as possible.Significant gains may occur for strength,muscular endurance and flexibility.Physical fitness consists of ‘components’.These are aerobic endurance,strength,speed,flexibility,muscular endurance,power and agility.Training programmes may be customized to improve on a
selection of these.The most important aspects applicable to circuit training are aerobic endurance;muscular endurance,and flexibility.
When the body performs for a prolonged period of time with a low work rate aerobic endurance comes to the fore;such a training will condition the heart and lungs to function more efficiently.Choosing a work-out on the rowing machine for some 20 minutes as an example;this cardiovascular ergometer is very effective in establishing a proper base of muscular endurance that initiates improvement in other components of fitness.
Muscular endurance is a function of aerobic endurance without whose supply of oxygen it could not rapidly perform.It is defined as a single muscle or group performing recurrently against variable resistance.For example dumbbell(DB) lunges or shoulder press with a barbell(BB).Body
resistance circuit training that includes both free and fixed weights is well suited to improve muscular endurance.
Usually overlooked is flexibility,the range of motion(ROM) at a joint or series of joints.This component however is vital in the prevention of inadvertent injury.It is sufficient to perform the warm up including mobility exercises(developing a full range of movement[ROM]) and cool down stretches;all being required for a main session of gym activity.
My gym circuit therefore is comprised of a warm-up lasting 5 minutes on a suitable cardiovascular machine eg the treadmill, that simulates a
walking gait exercise aerobically.This is followed by the set of mobility exercises(not stretches) to loosen my joints and produce more synovial fluid;gently and rhythmically exercising.This is still aerobic.There follows a set of stretches to prepare the main muscle groups of the body for an imminent main activity session.These too are aerobic;not as intense yet steady,controlled,positioned for some ten seconds.
The main cardiovascular machine chosen for a full work-out of at least twenty minutes is the rowing machine,which exercises all main muscle groups with the heart as target muscle. A customized programme working the rower will produce an aerobic curve with a rising and falling RPE[rate of perceived exertion 0-10 on the Borg Scale](Gunnar Borg(1973) validated by(Kang et al.2003)also (Steed,Gaesser,and Weltman 1994) Aerobic contribution is present in the Cool down using a different cardiovascular machine followed by stretches including some that are developmental;included to improve flexibility in the bigger muscles eg the hamstrings(ACSM,2006)
As I want to improve my strength and endurance it is important that I obtain profile data from the apparatus and exercises outlined above so that I can clearly see whether I am making any improvements from when I began.
The Principles of Training should be applicable to every exercise and sporting category.Individuals and teams then have specific objectives and goals to aim for in their training schedules.Else, all would be
blindfolded resulting in overtraining,burn out and poor performance results.
Demands on the body higher than the norm comprise what is known as Overload that in turn has related factors of intensity(how hard);duration(how long);type(sport/activity);frequency(how often).
Frequency is self-explanatory,often resulting in a higher level of performance. As workload steps up so does intensity.Heavier weights,longer stretches.Such results take time.Overload may be achieved with a higher number of repetitions or performing the same with reduced time-spans.
The body is a natural adapter to overloading,so training should be progressive to prompt a response.When this occurs improvement is tangible especially at the beginning.As sets increase muscle strength and endurance increase. It is important not to be too slow in progression. Biceps curls for example.If working with 10 lb weights taking it to 3-4 sets at 15 reps before muscle fatigue is experienced then it is better to do 2 sets of 15 lb weights.
Specificity of a chosen,pursued activity needs to be understood.What am I training for? This is very important and relevant for strength training.Exercise has to be specific for each muscle group and strength type required.Balance has also to be included and therefore other exercises of a general nature such as the squat provide an excellent base for development of specific exercise.Training must be specific
which means that it should concentrate on the particular needs of the individual within the training programme.(Sharkey and Greatzer 1993)For example,lifting weights will increase muscular strength but will have little effect on the aerobic capacity of the individual. Although training should be specific to a sport this does not mean that training for sport will have little effect on another.Transfer of training can take place where the sport or parts of a sport have a great deal of similar elements of fitness are common to many sports.
The opposite of Progression is Reversibility.Training and performance when falling off will signal to the body for an appropriate response.Aerobic capacity diminishes rapidly with no exercise(Coyle,Hemmert,and Coggan 1986) also (Saltin et al.,1968) Muscular endurance with muscles no longer used falls away three times more rapidly than when gained.Performance of skills may be affected through physical deterioration(Greenleaf et al.1976)
A number of training methods exist designed for the different fitness components.Circuit training may be viewed as interval training containing high-intensity anaerobic periods with weights and low-intensity aerobic periods of recovery.This training method is able to improve specific areas of the body for muscular endurance.A circuit improves both aerobic fitness and strength thereby providing for much needed conditioning.Aerobic training also involves continuous/steady state training(McArdle et al.,2006)Other methods consist of interval(McArdie et al.,2006) and fartlek training.Flexibility training
incorporates both passive and active,static stretching;dynamic and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation(PNF) stretching.
Suitable to my requirements is a muscular endurance circuit.This will enable me to withstand fatigue,hold to a given position,and to perform repeated muscular contractions for a given period of time.Selection of appropriate exercises needs a central focus of balanced muscle groups.Improvement of cardiovascular exercise and muscular endurance exercise may be achieved by alternating them within a circuit programme.The back squat for instance utilises many muscle groups,that work simultaneously.A main cardiovascular work-out,for example, requires at least 20 minutes on the rower, being correctly positioned within the circuit.The remaining floor-based stretches are performed at the end of the gym session.This saves the heart rate from decreasing too much.
Progression and overload are important to consider when a circuit training programme is being planned. The principle of overload indicates “your body systems must be stressed beyond their normal levels of activity if they are to improve.”(Williams 1993:18).Progression can be maintained simply by increasing the number of repetitions per exercise; reducing the recovery period(secs) between each set of exercises;increasing the resistance of the exercises by weight .
Stimulation is applied using the principles of overload and progression during circuit training so that adaptation may occur. Overload is delivered by adjusting one or more of the FITT principles.Frequency(how often);Intensity(how hard);Time(how long);Type(suiting sport/activity).
Principles are usually installed in most matters and physical activity is no exception. The principles of training are the rules to follow when using physical activity programmes.Sound and useful training takes into consideration all of the principles and their effects on the body;being essential to the planning of the training programme so that the participant is able to improve their fitness level. Fitness levels vary from person to person so the training needs be systematic taking into account individual needs ; variables of difficulty or intensity are set at the personal level.
An example from the free weights exercises for progression/adaptation is the Biceps Curl with barbell(BB).Apart from applying a progressively greater weight performance may be effected through different ranges of motion i.e. halfway up and down.All the way up and halfway down;up again and all the way down;all the way up and down.An example of an adaptation for a fixed weight machine is substituting the seated row for the lateral pull down.Again the seated cable row may be substituted by the single arm row with a dumbbell(DB).Or the Triceps pull down (cable) by selection of a Triceps extension with butterfly grip(DB).
It may be necessary to increase aerobic fitness and if so, use of one of the cardio-vascular machines is ideal. The rowing machine for example,is an excellent piece of equipment for a good all over
workout,impact- free; protecting joints while improving flexibility Using this machine you will work out your heart,lungs,circulatory system and at the same time shape and tone your legs,back,shoulders,buttocks,arms and stomach.
If aerobic fitness needs to be increased interval training is very effective when inserted into circuit training.Interval training is a type of physical training that involves bursts of high intensity work.This high intensity work is alternated with periods of rest or low activity,intervals.[ see Appendix] The term can refer to any cardiovascular workout,for example,rowing,that involves brief bouts at near-maximum exertion interspersed with periods of lower-intensity activity.Interval training improves the exerciser’s aerobic capacity to exercise longer at varying intensities.This method of training may be more effective at inducing fat loss than simply training at a moderate intensity level for the same duration.
With no correction or improvement reversibility occurs.Having ceased training the body loses its conditioning and strength and also endurance.This is relevant to myself as I am pursuing a cardiovascular, strength and endurance programme.A study has been made of cessation of physical activity;in this case an Olympic rower.It was 20 weeks before he was able to resume his activity following an eight week convalescence. ‘The detraining and retraining of an elite rower:a case study’.J Sci Med Sport 2005;8;3:314-320. It is recommended there should be no more than three weeks interval since last specific activity.
A state of complete fitness involvesthemental,emotional,nutritional,social and medical,not only the physical. How we enjoy life;attention towards any diet at all;how we deal with stress;our emotional world;communicative ability;requirements for relaxation and also of course physical fitness.Circuit training is one of a number of ways to improve components towards a state of complete fitness.
Word count 1,783
References:
Pollock,M.L.,Gaesser,G.A.,Butcher,J.D.,Despres,J.P.,Dishman,R.K.,Franklin,B.A.and Ewing Garber,C.(1998) ‘ACSM position stand:The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness,and flexibility in healthy adults’,Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise,vol.30,pp.975-91
Borg,G. 1973.Perceived exertion:A note on history and methods.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 5:90-93
Kang,J.,J.Hoffman,H.Walker,E.Chaloupka,and A.Utter.2003.Regulating intensity using perceived exertion during extended exercise periods.European Journal of Applied Physiology 89:475-482
Steed,J.,G.Gaesser,and A.Weltman.1994.Rating of perceived exertion and blood lactate concentration during submaximal running.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 26:797-803
American College of Sports Medicine(2006) ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription(7th edn0,London,Lippincott,Williams & Wilkins
Sharkey,B.J.,and D.Greatzer.1993.Specificity of exercise,training and testing.In ACSM’s resource manual for guidelines for exercise testing and prescription,ed.L.Durstine,A.King,P.Painter,and J.Roitman,82-92.Philadelphia:Lea & Febiger
Coyle,E.,M.Hemmert,and A.Coggan.1986.Effects of detraining on cardiovascular responses to exercise:Role of blood volume.Journal of Applied Physiology 60:95-99
Saltin,B.,G.Blomqvist,J.H.Mitchell,R.L.Johnson Jr.,K.Wildenthal,and C.B.Chapman.1968.Response to exercise after bed rest and after training.Circulation 38(Suppl.7):1-78
Greenleaf,J.E.,C.J.Greenleaf,D.VanDerveer,and K.J.Dorchak.1976.Adaptation to prolonged bedrest in man:A compendium of research.Washington,DC:National Aeronautics and Space Administration
McArdle,W.D.,Katch,F.I. and Katch,V.L.(2006) Essentials of Exercise Physiology (3rd edn),London,McGraw-Hill
Williams Melvin H.(1993) Lifetime Fitness & Wellness(3rd edn) Brown & Benchmartin: Iona
‘The detraining and retraining of an elite rower:a case study’, J Sci Med Sport 2005;8;3:314-320
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BIBLIOGRAPHY:
The Open University(2008) E112 Introduction to sport,fitness and management Study Guide Study Topic 4 Training for health,fitness and sport Caroline Heaney
Sharkey,B.J.and Gaskill,S.E. (2007) Fitness & Health (6th edn),Leeds,Human Kinetics(Course Book)
 

Fitness Testing For Sport And Exercise Physical Education Essay

Dip your fingers in chalk with the hand on your strongest arm, then stand with you back flat against the wall with your arms extended as high as they can reach with them flat against the wall then mark out where your arms reach to/push the wall mounted reach board up to the height your arms will extend to, stand side on stronger arm closest to the wall/board, then crouch low then push straight of the floor and touch the wall/board, measure with the ruler how many cm from where the marking where there arm extended max to the chalk marking how many cm’s is between the 2 markings, on the board there are already cm measurements on there so you just see which number the finger markings are on.
Method of assessment:
To measure the amount of explosive power in the lower limbs in cm by measuring how high a person’s vertical jump is.
How analysed:
Measured in cm and mm to make it more accurate and marked on a sheet.
Target group:
Sprinters and basketballers.
Reliability of test:
The test is reliable because the same action is made each time so fur, if using the board the measurements are accurate
Validity of test:
This test is very good for validity being the test most people will do for lower limb power and all four factors are shown too.
Advantages/Disadvantages
Cost
Advantages: Cheap and affordable using simple equipment.
Disadvantages: Wall mounted board is really expensive.
Time
Advantages: The test doesn’t take long so it doesn’t become tedious.
Disadvantages: The short amount of time can be considered as quite a rubbish test.
Equipment
Advantages: Less equipment is required and wall mounted board is very accurate.
Disadvantages: Measurements could be inaccurate if using the cheaper equipment.
Level of skill required by the person conducting test
Advantages: Low level of skill is required so a lot of people are capable to take this test.
Disadvantages: Low level skill could lead to the test to be tedium.
Cardiovascular endurance
Bleep test, beep test, pacer test, leger-test, 20m shuttle run test.
Objective
To test the amount of cardiovascular endurance someone has by seeing how long someone can last during the bleep test.
Resources needed:
Metre clicker to mark out 20m, cones, beep test CD and CD player and marking sheets. (This will take place in a no slip surface)
How conducted:
The beep test CD will be played and you have to stand behind one line facing the other and there will be beeps in between each beep you have to run from one line to the other e.g. “beep” run 20m to the line “beep”. The test starts with the first level where the beeps are quite slow but then after approximately 1 minute or 7 runs the level gets higher and the closer the beeps are together so the test gets faster, this test stops on level 20 and for someone to be out is when they miss the beep before they reach the 20m line.
Method of assessment:
To measure the cardiovascular endurance or vo2 max in shuttle runs the predicted vo2 max is at each level and the shuttle number i.e. level 4 shuttle 2 predicted vo2 max is 26.8.
How analysed:
Writing down on recording sheets each level and shuttle they reached or dropped out of and the Vo2 max national average for males is 9/3 and for females 6/6.
Target group:
Long distance runners
Reliability of test:
The test is accurate is because the CD plays the same thing over and over again so there’s no worries on inaccuracy of the test and also motivation could effect the reliability.
Validity of test:
This test has good validity because the bleep test is the most valid test used for people to measure
Advantages/Disadvantages
Cost
Advantages: cheap for CD because the copy is downloadable.
Disadvantages: could be costly if you don’t have a CD player, metre clicker and cones and also expensive if having to rent out a facility.
Time
Advantages: the test has enough time to record the level they reach.
Disadvantages: test lasts quite long and becomes quite tedious.
Equipment
Advantages: less equipment required and also the equipment is straight forward not complex.
Disadvantages: faulty equipment like scratched CD.
Level of skill required by the person conducting test
Advantages: straight forward because it’s only running and this is an easy or simple skill to conduct.
Disadvantages: cardiovascular endurance a lot of people really struggle with.
Strength
1 rep max
Objective:
To test the amount of strength someone has by seeing the max weight someone lifts.
Resources needed:
Weight machines e.g. bench press, fly machine, leg press, free weights or lat pull down. (Gym)
How conducted:
You go to the weight machine you are comfortable with the lifting technique if not get someone to learn you the technique or read how the technique is done on the machine. Which ever weight machine you use you start on the smallest weight by warming up with a few reps 5-15 reps then you work your way by increasing the weight each time you do 1 rep, you work your way increasing the weight until you get the weight you cant do 1 rep of.
Method of assessment:
To test the amount of strength someone has in the pectoral, deltoid, trapezius, lateral, triceps and biceps by seeing the max amount of kg’s someone can do 1 rep of.
How analysed:
How many kg you lifted and marked on recording sheets.
Target group:
Rugby players, weight lifters.
Reliability of test:
The test is reliable because weights stay the same weight unless you increase the weight.
Validity of test:
This test is valid because it tests the strength in the specific muscle that is working or contracting.
Advantages/Disadvantages
Cost
Advantages: some gyms are quite cheep and its also cheep for a day trial.
Disadvantages: some gyms cost loads and also buying your own weights costs quite a lot.
Time
Advantages: test doesn’t take long so it doesn’t become boring.
Disadvantages: people could consider it being rubbish because it’s a short test.
Equipment
Advantages: weight machines are safe to use
Disadvantages: free weights can be quite dangerous if using a free weight bench weight could collapse on you if too heavy.
Level of skill required by the person conducting test
Advantages: the skill is quite simple to do.
Disadvantages: its common that people tend to arch there backs when lifting weights so this skill people might not be able to do properly and injure themselves.
Suppleness/Flexibility
Sit and reach
Objective:
To test the amount of suppleness someone has in the lower back and calf’s by seeing how far someone can sit and reach forwards.
Resources needed:
A bench, a metre ruler/tape measure or a flex tester.
How conducted:
Sit with you stomach against the bench lengthways with your both legs either side of the bench and you reach out as far as you can with both hands and hold the position and measure from the start of the bench is to where your hands are held furthest. On the flex tester you sit with you stomach against the flex tester lengthways the with your both legs either side of the flex tester on this piece of equipment there is a handle you push forwards as far as you can and where you push it you see how many cm you have pushed it next to the handle you push.
Method of assessment:
To test the amount of suppleness someone has in there lower back and the amount of cm the person can reach with the extension of the lower back.
How analysed:
How many cm the person has reached and put down results on recording sheets.
Target group:
Gymnasts
Reliability of test:
This test is reliable because the same action is made and accurate measurements are recorded on flex tester.
Validity of test:
This test is valid because the only flexibility it will test is in the lower back and hamstrings.
Advantages/Disadvantages
Cost
Advantages: using the bench, tape measure and chalk is quite cheap.
Disadvantages: Flex tester is really expensive.
Time
Advantages: The test doesn’t take long so it don’t become tedious.
Disadvantages: because of the test being short could be considered a pointless test to do and boring.
Equipment
Advantages: Flex tester has accurate measurements
Disadvantages: using the bench, tape measure and chalk could come out with inaccurate measurements.
Level of skill required by the person conducting test
Advantages: Low level skill is needed because it’s a simple skill being used.
Disadvantages: because of the skill being low level this could lead to the test being tedious.
Muscular Endurance
Maximum amount of push ups
Objective:
To test how much muscular endurance in the upper body someone has by seeing the max amount of push ups someone can do.
Resources needed:
Press up mat and press up handles or non-needed in a flat facility.
How conducted:
You get into press up position which you place both hands on the press up matt if you get bad wrists you grab onto the press up handles shoulder width apart and extend your legs straight and you lower down and push up and you do as many press ups as you can until you cant physically do more.
Method of assessment:
To test the amount of upper body muscular endurance someone has by seeing how many push ups maximum someone can do.
How analysed:
Recording sheets of how many press ups someone has done.
Target group:
Sprinters, long distance runners
Reliability of test:
This test is reliable because the same action is repeated so results are easily recorded.
Validity of test:
This test is valid because it measures what it claims to measure which is the muscular endurance in the upper body and monitors the effect in the athletes physical development.
Advantages/Disadvantages
Cost
Advantages: It doesn’t cost much to do and also can be self-monitored.
Disadvantages: press up mat and handles can be quite expensive.
Time
Advantages: Doesn’t really waste a lot of time.
Disadvantages: doing push ups for too long can become tedious.
Equipment
Advantages: Not much equipment is required and the handles reduce the risk of wrist injuries.
Disadvantages: not using handles can cause wrist injuries.
Level of skill required by the person conducting test
Advantages: it’s a straight forward skill so its easy to execute the skill.
Disadvantages: quite a number of unfit people cant hold them in a press up position so it becomes quite hard for them.
Speed
60m sprint
Objective:
To test the amount of speed someone has by timing how quick someone runs 60m in. you could use an
Resources needed:
Stop watches, whistle and a metre clicker to mark out 60m
How conducted:
A person stands at the 60m mark while you stand at the other end, the person says set for you to get ready and then blows the whistle for you to go when the whistle gets blown they start timing, then you sprint as fast as you can through the 60m mark then they stop timing and the time s set how quick you run 60m in.
Method of assessment:
To test the amount of speed someone has in running in seconds.
How analysed:
Stopwatch timed and recording sheets in seconds.
Target group:
Sprinters
Reliability of test:
The test is quite reliable because its sprinting over a short distance so similar/consistent times are ran but any timing mistakes can make it inaccurate.
Validity of test:
This test is valid because it measures what it claims to measure which is how quick someone can move there body over 60m.
Advantages/Disadvantages
Cost
Advantages: equipment’s quite cheep.
Disadvantages: could be costly to use a track depending on the sports centres price.
Time
Advantages: short sprints don’t waste time.
Disadvantages: doing short sprints can become tedious.
Equipment
Advantages: metre clicker is accurate to measure 60m.
Disadvantages: stop watches could be faulty.
Level of skill required by the person conducting test
Advantages: Sprinting is quite a straight forward skill so it’s easy to do.
Disadvantages: sprinting is high intensity so some people might get stitches doing the test if there unfit.
Body Composition/ Somatotype
Body weighing and skinfold measurement
Objective:
To see the amount of muscle fat and bone someone has by measuring there weight and there skinfolds. Mesomorph, Ectomorph and Endomorph.
Resources needed:
Scales and skinfold calipers.
How conducted:
For the weight test the person needs to step on the scales in just shorts so the weight is more accurate and whatever it comes up on the dial in either KGs or stone is the person’s weight. Skinfold measurement you stretch out skin around the torso area and the skinfold calipers work like a pincer and you pinch the skin and on the dial of the calipers it comes up with how many mms there is in the skinfold.
Method of assessment:
To find out the somatotype someone has.
How analysed:
Body weighing: kg or stone, skinfold measurement: mm average for a male is 91mm and for a woman its 100mm.
Target group:
Suitable for all.
Reliability of test:
Body weighing is reliable because scales are accurate and if you weigh routinely every 12 hours, but the weight results can be affected by the amount of fluid in the body. The skinfold test is reliable because the skinfold calipers have accurate measurement but the measurements can vary through skill and experience.
Validity of test:
The body weighing test is valid because your weight is the first signs of what body composition you are. The skin fold measurement is not really valid to measure the percentage of body fat but it does indicate the body changes.
Advantages/Disadvantages
Cost
Advantages: Weighing regular is cheap because it don’t cost. Measuring skin folds regular doesn’t cost.
Disadvantages: The scales and the skin fold calipers together are quite expensive.
Time
Advantages: The test is short so it doesn’t waste any time.
Disadvantages: Being short considered as boring.
Equipment
Advantages: Both pieces of equipment have really accurate measurements.
Disadvantages: Scales can become faulty after a while.
Level of skill required by the person conducting test
Advantages: Low level skill and no physical activity so its an easy test.
Disadvantages: Because no physical activity and low level skill people a number of people will not want to do the test.
 

Definition Of Physical Fitness Physical Education Essay

Health related physical fitness can be defines a set of measurement of physiological characteristic and physical level that associate with premature of non-communicable disease that is associates with sedentary life behavior (Vanhees et al. 2005). There are two component of physical fitness which is, health related fitness and skill related fitness. Health related fitness is composed by aerobic fitness, muscle strength and endurance, flexibility and body composition (Huang, 2002), while skill related fitness associate with agility, balance, power, static strength and coordination (Miller et al. 2008).Even thought skill related fitness is not importance as health related fitness but skill related fitness is importance to athlete and military. Physical fitness are influence by many factor such as, age, gender, body mass index or body type and as well as level of physical activity, therefore each individual need to maintained physical fitness level in order to cope with daily activity and stay healthy.

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According to Chung (2008), physical fitness level of school children are being influence by physical education and physical activity. Each individual need to retain at least basic physical fitness prior to sense the benefit of adequate fitness. Recently research has showed that more children are getting fat and less fit and more prone to expose to chronic diseases. It is importance to keep in mind that maintaining physical fit in early age can contribute to decreases risk mortality and morbidity from chronic diseases (Malton, 2006).
Non communicable diseases (NCDs) such as, overweight, obese, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and related condition are the major health burden to this country (Zainal Ariffn, 2012). Alarmingly, a non-communicable disease in Malaysia, prevalent among children has increase rapidly past few decades (NMM, 2012) and it will continue to be rising (Tee, 2012). One of the major causes lead to this rising is, sedentary life behavior that lead to low physical fitness (Mokdad et al. 2004). The studies on health related fitness on non-communicable diseases has been reported widely in all age (Jonker et al. 2006). Numerous healthy benefit can be achieve through engagement of regular and vigorous level exercise that lead to increase physical fitness (Ruiz et al. 2006).
There are a lot of studies that has been done, mainly focusing in growing concern on physical fitness component among children in determining harmful effect of unfitness that can lead to adulthood (Dumith et al. 2008). Most of physical fitness that has been diagnosed showed that poor physical fitness level lead to potential strategy in early detecting metabolic disorder (Anderson et al. 2009). Despite of growing concern and its importance to physical health in life, in Malaysia physical fitness study on children is still no well established. According to (Shabeshan, 2006) the prevalence of level physical fitness among school children is not very satisfactory.
Furthermore, there a lot of variable associates with physical fitness level, such as cardiovascular, muscular strength/resistance and flexibility. Other association variable, that may contribute in identify factor predicted for fitness level are such anthropometric measurements, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) that associate with muscular strength or resistance (Brunet et al. 2007), and cardiorespiratory fitness (Eisenmann, et al. 2005).
1.2 Problem Statement
Low physical fitness among school-going children may decline physiological capability. According to Rowland (1999) deterioration of physiological capability is due to low physical fitness that will lead to decreases in physical function and muscle strength. Furthermore, there was a lack data have been reported on physical fitness level among school-going children, taken into consideration that physical fitness testing, anthropometric and body composition measurement assessment are foundation steps for changing intervention life style or sedentary behavior, this present study is carried out to investigate the association between health related physical fitness with anthropometric indicator and body composition in primary school children in Beruas, Perak.
1.3 Significance of Study
It is a well know that there are association between health related fitness with cardiovascular disease, overweight and obese among primary school children. This study will determined to what extend current growth of school growing children respected to their physical fitness. The data being obtained in this study will work as a platform for intervention on healthy life style and increase awareness among parent and teacher. This study is expected to provide a baseline data on physical fitness and other health parameters among school children. Furthermore, teacher, health department, and relevant agencies could develop program and help them making decision for obesity prevention among school children.
Objective
To determine the anthropometry of the primary school children.
To determine body composition of the primary school children.
To determine physical fitness level of the primary school children.
To determine relationship between anthropometric measurement, body composition with health related physical fitness among school children.
1.5 Hypotheses
Ho: there are no significant relationships between anthropometric measurements, body composition to health related physical fitness.
Assumption
Fitness test instruction were presented in this study to primary school children, therefore each participant understood the instruction.
Each participant five full commitment to the fitness measurement.
Each participant was involved are free from any injury
Each participant’s guardian understood the research study and give permission to their children in taking part in this research by fill up the inform consent.
Limitations
The limitations of the study are stated below:
Study population
Participants were involved in this study came from rural area located in Beruas, Perak. This study not take participant from other area, thus limited geographical presented of the population.
Limited time
Participant has limited time because they need to participant in education class, thus the test has to be done in one day only.
Instrument
The skinfold measurement (harpenden) may not accurate as Dual Energy X-ray Absortiometry (DEXA), thus limited study finding.
Operational Definition
The study’s operational definitions are as below:
1.8.4 Flexibility
According to William et al. (2003) flexibility is ability of joint to move in full range of motion and allows freedom of movement around the joint.
1.8.5 Muscle strength
Muscle strength refer as external forced (work express in newtons, kilograms or pounds) that can be generated by specific muscle or muscle size also been called resistance lift (William et al. 2003).
1.8.6 Body composition
Body composition is a distribution of body fat to lean body mass (Pangrazi, 1991).
1.8.7 Obesity
Obesity is known as a condition of excess body fat and it is associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders, such as major increase in associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other no communicable diseases (Must et al., 1999).
1.8.8 Waist circumferences
A waist circumference is measured using nan- elastic tape by placing on the trunk between iliac crest and lower costal margin (NCCFN, 2005).
CHAPTER 2
Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
“Health” can be described in variety approach the term itself can be used to describe how a person’s feeling, shape or appearance and people’s fitness. However according WHO, (2003), the term health, is not simply the lack of disease or medical condition but it is a state of complete mental, physical, and social well-being or medical condition.
Health related fitness is a sub scale of healthy well being the health related fitness major focusing in maintaining human body’s system to endure or to sustain human daily life activity, does not affect surplus fatigue, stress or illness by maintaining basic functioning of body’s system (Brunetto et al. 2009). Furthermore, as human’s body can maintaining basic function of body’s system that focusing in health related fitness it can cause or reduce chronic disease such as non-communicable disease and help faster in recovery on what they should occur. According to Jonatan et al. (2006), in order to persuade the healthy development of body’s system, human need to create regular workload demand on their body such as regular exercise, so that human’s body can adjusts to the demand workload to perform, and living an active lifestyle.
However, if human live as sedentary behavior lifestyles their physical workload may reduce and doing beyond sitting or walking about may become a struggle, moreover body also not functioning effectively as a result may contribute to health conditions.
2.2 Definition of Physical fitness
Physical fitness can be defines in many ways, according to Kamil et al. (2012), physical fitness being defines as competence to adjust and recovery from extraneous exercise. Furthermore, physical fitness being defined as a condition that granted human to carry their daily activity without fatigue and have enough energy to enjoy leisure activity (Malina et al. 2004). According to Miller (2006) physical fitness can ne defined in various point view such as, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength or muscular endurance.
Other definition for physical fitness is when body function at optimum efficiency thought capacity of the heart, blood vessels, lungs and the muscle (Pate, 1993). All definition above has cover performance related fitness, but according to McGlynn, (1993) health relate fitness is focusing on protection against cardio disease, illness that associate with overweight, a diversity of joint and muscle problem and physiological complication that lead to further stress. Example of components of health related fitness is cardio respiratory endurance, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance and body composition.
2.3 Health related fitness
2.3.1 Cardiovascular fitness
Cardiovascular fitness is closely related to ability exercise in prolonged period with involve large and dynamic muscle size and intensity of exercise from moderate to high capacity (ACSM, 2010). Performance of exercise is depending to efficiency of skeletal muscle system, cardiovascular and respiratory state. In order to improve cardiovascular fitness, body must receive sufficient oxygen supply to the working muscle and these will increase necessary enzymes activity for production energy in the working muscle. The general method in increasing or develop cardiorespiratory fitness is by increase intensity, duration and frequency of exercise (William et al. 2003). Example of general exercise for young children to achieve the fitness level is at least 130-150 beats per minutes maintain it for 20 to 30 minutes for optimal benefit.
According to ACSM (2010), cardiovascular fitness is health related fitness because decreased in cardiovascular it has been connected with premature death associated to cardio disease. Second reduction of death from various causes has been associated with increased cardio fitness and lastly high physical activity level associated with high cardiovascular fitness in turn has many associations with health benefit. The cardiovascular fitness test is an importance assessment in preventive program
2.3.2 Flexibility
According to William et al. (2003) flexibility is ability of joint to move in full range of motion and allows freedom of movement around the joint. In order to have a good health lifestyle, individual need some definite amount of flexibility to cope with their daily life routine.
Muscle viscosity, adequate warming up and distensible joint capsule are importance or specific variable that affect flexibility of individual (ACSM, 2010). Furthermore, ligament and tendon also associated with flexibility. Stretching or 10 to 30 second and stretch beyond normal length have been recommended to increase the flexibility. Example of stretch being recommended is static trenching where it allows rapidly increased in strength reflex to a point of discomfort zone.
2.3.3 Muscle strength and muscle endurance
Muscle strength refer as external forced (work express in newtons, kilograms or pounds) that can be generated by specific muscle or muscle size also been called resistance lift (William et al. 2003). According to ASCM (2010) strength can be test out using two ways the first method is using static, refer to no movement and muscular and limb movement. Second method is using dynamic refer as muscle change in length caused by external forced.
Muscle endurance is ability of muscle group to repeatedly contract over period of time and enough to caused muscular fatigue or ability to maintain specific percentages of muscular contraction (ACSM, 2010). To develop both muscular strength and endurance the basic principle need to be master is overload, progression, specificity and intensity of load (William et al. 2003). Method can be used to develop muscular strength is, exercise at maximum or near maximum resistance and this will lead to physiological adaptation where muscle increased in strength. For muscular endurance development, method can be used is low intensity but with high repetition.
2.3.4 Body composition
Body composition is a distribution of body fat to lean body mass (Pangrazi, 1991). The balance proportions of body fat in human body is one factor contribute to individual’s fitness level. Essential fat and storage fat are two classification of fat in human’s body (Macardle, 1986), where essential fat being stored in the liver , the lungs, kidney, spleen, lipid rich tissues in the central nervous system and intestine muscles. Second the storage fat is being stored in adipose tissue for nutritional and also for internal protection function.
According to NIH (1996) stated that excess body fat especially that located surrounding abdominal, will associated with metabolic syndrome, hypertension, stroke, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary artery diseases. Other related illness may contribute caused of excess body fat is problem on muscle and joint where extra weight being stress on these two part, heart disease and high cholesterol. Understanding this problem is essential in order to counter back the problem being faced by many children right now.
2.4 Benefit Health Related Fitness
To increased health among school children or youth, component health related fitness play a vital role in improving individual fitness level. If student or youth involved in regular physical activity that involved proper or specific frequency, intensity, time, and duration of exercise they may develop good healthy fitness level. A strength or improve in health fitness will avoid such many chronic diseases or in other word non-communicable diseases.
Second by improving health related fitness especially muscular strength and endurance it will help in resistance to fatigue. Thus it also will help increasing in the quality of life and help enjoy leisure activity.
Student should be told or expose to the benefit of all packages of health related fitness, most of health problem occur in early part of life. In Malaysia it has being diagnosed, children under 12 years old, being overweight is 12.6% while 13.5% is obese caused of low physical activity that lead to low physical fitness level (Yeevon, 2011). The increasing health problems among children now are very alarming where most of cased will associated with failure metabolic rate and heart disease. The knowledge of health related fitness is very importance for the student to master it for early development health lifestyle, by understanding the importance, student will created attitude to value the fitness and the will knowledge that the fitness need some effort of regular exercise with a correct intensity and this will be the best preventive medicine for their life.
2.5 Current Health related fitness in school children
According to Tee, (2012) he stated that, the rate of mortality for local and abroad is very alarming where most of problem associated with cardiovascular death. One conclusion from the local data showed or stated that health related physical fitness among student and adult are not at satisfactory target or level. According to Frederick et al. (2010) electronic devices and automation that came from modern technology has made people less active as a result low physical fitness level among children and adults.
Second, current status of Malaysia growing’s children right now is very alarming where now Malaysia facing double burden problem such as increase in number of overweight and obese children and also increased in number of thinness or in other word undernourished children. The problem should be given full attention because the growing numbers are increase tremendously and Malaysian country is the leading country in Asian pacific in obesity rate (Tummy, 2011).
On the other hand, other health problem being faced by the Malaysia country is low bone mass and anemia this due to low body weight. Body images perception being faced by young adult and teenagers lead to eating disorder such as bulimia and anorexia (MASO, 2005). In nut shell it is importance for Malaysia people maintain their health status.
Furthermore, available data showed that, the prevalence of obesity among children in Malaysia has equal match on developed country (NCCFN, 2005). Two cross-sectional surveys has being carry out in year 2007 and 2008 (Ismail et al., 2009) on children age 6 until 12 years old in Peninsular Malaysia. The data showed that, increase overweight and obese children from 11.0% to 12.8% and 9.7% to 13.7% respectively (figure 2.1).
Figure 2.1: Prevalence overweight and obese in children age 6 to 12 years old in Peninsular Malaysia
Waist circumference has strongly associated with abdominal fat (NCCFN, 2005). According to Zhou, (2002) he pointed out, in large epidemiology studies, there are strong significant and independently correlated with dyslipideamia, blood pressure, 2 hours plasma glucose or diabetes. Based on the finding, waist circumference is one major importance test in determining individual at risk of chronic diseases.
Being inactive or low physical activity has not only associated with heart illness but many other related illnesses. Diabetes, obesity, failure of metabolic rate is some sort of low physical fitness level. In order to overcome the problem is by increase the awareness among children the benefit having physical fitness level.
CHAPTER 3
Methodology
3.1 Research Design
The study was a cross sectional study. All subjects male and female were enrolled in physical fitness test. This study tends to investigate the relationship between physical fitness, anthropometric and body composition among obese children. All subjects were recruited voluntarily and with consent from parents/guardian. The subjects were briefed verbally during the meeting. The protocol and potential advantages were explained to the subjects before they were given the consent form filled by their parents or guardian. Approval was obtained from the State Education Department as well as school authority prior to data collection.
3.2 Subject selection
Two hundred and eleven subjects were randomly sampled in eight primary schools in Beruas area. Subjects include male and female age 10-11 years old. Multistage sampling technique was used to to select all 211 subjects. The Multistage sampling technique was ensure equal reresentation of the subject.
3.3 Data collection
The data collection was carried out in primary schools. Data on anthropometry and body composition was collected before the subjects undergo the fitness tests. Standard fitness measurements were used to assess the fitness tests which were Queens College step test, hand grip test, partial curl-up, and sit-and-reach test.
Obtained ethical clearance and approval from Research Management Institute (RMI) and Ministry of education Malaysia
Exclusion criteria
Has medical condition
No approval from parent or guardian
Inclusion criteria
Male and female
Age of 10 and 11 years old
Screening and recruitment of
the subjects
SK Gelung Gajah
SK Jenis Kebangsaan Cina Pei Ching
SK Kampung Kota
SK Gangga
Subjects were recruited randomly
N=246
Informed written consent was obtained from each subject and parent /guardian
Data collection:
Anthropometry, body composition, physical activity and fitness tests
Statistic was analysis
Figure 3.1. Research Approach
3.4 Sampling Calculation
A total two hundred and four six subject were enrolled in this study. Sample size is determined using table prevalence population. (Krejce and Margan, 1970). The internal confident is 90 percent (confident level) and population percentages not more than .05.
Table 3.1
Determining sample size from given population
N
S*
480
214
500
217
550
226
Note: N = is population size; S = sample size; *sample size for 90% confident that the difference in the population and p There are 8 primary school located at Beruas perak. The population of all school children in Beruas is about 550 students and based on the determining sample size table, the sample size been required is about 217 subject. In order to avoid drop out the required sample size is being multiple by 10% . The calculation as followed:
N = sample size
= 226 x 10% (drop out) = 22 subject
= 22 + 227
= 248 subject.
3.5 Data Collection
3.5 1 Antropometry measurement
Anthropometry which includes body weight and height measurements were used in determining the subject’s Body Mass Index (BMI) by dividing the weight (kg) by height (m²). The height was measured using a body meter, SECA, 208 (Germany) to the nearest 0.5 cm and the weight was measured using a digital weighing scale, Tanita (Japan). Procedures are as below:
For measuring height:
The equipment was mounted on the wall and the subject was bare footed.
Both feet were closed together with the heels in contact with the wall, same as the shoulder, back and the buttocks.
With the head facing forward the height of the subjects were then measured.
For measuring weight:
The body weight was being measured in kilograms to the nearest 0.5 kg using the digital weighing scale with the subjects’ shoes off and light clothing.
Then, they were asked to step onto the equipment and stand straight with both hands placed on their side.
The measurement appeared on the screen of equipment and was recorded.
Waist circumference
With participant standing and arm at the sides. Feet together and abdominal relax, a horizontal measurement is taken at narrowest part of the torso (above the umbilicus and below the xiphoid process)
Hip circumference
With the subject standing, leg slishtly apart (10 cm), a horizontal measurement is taken at the maximal circumference of the hip/proximal thigh, just below the gluteal fold.
http://healthfreedoms.org/files/2012/07/Waist-to-Hip-Ratio-%E2%80%93-How-can-measure-Waist-and-Hip-Ratio.jpg
Figure 3.2 Figure of waist and hip circumference measurement
3.6 Waist-to-Hip Ratio
Waist-to-hip ratio compares circumferences of the waist to the circumference of the hip. WHR was expressed as a ratio, using the formula:
WHR = Hip Circumference ÷ Waist Circumference
Where:
WHR = waist-to-hip ratio
WC = waist circumference
HC = hip circumference
3.6 Body Mass Index Measurement (BMI)
The BMI (kg/m2) value of body mass index was calculated using WHO, (2007). It was used to analyze and differentiate subjects according to the underweight, normal, overweight and obese category.
Table 3.2
Classification of Body Mass Index (kg/m²) for male by age
Age
Underweight
Normal weight
Overweight
Obese
10
17.1 – 18.5
18.6 – 21.5
> 21.5
11
17.1 – 19
19.1 – 22.5
> 22.5
Note. From “World health organization,” (2007). Retrieved September 20, 2012, from: http://www.who.int/growthref/who2007_bmi_for_age/en/index.html
Table 3.3
Classification of Body Mass Index (kg/m²) for female
Age
Underweight
Normal weight
Overweight
Obese
10
16.6 – 19
19.1 – 22.5
> 22.5
11
17.4 – 19.9
20 – 23.7
> 23.7
Note. From “World health organization,” (2007). Retrieved September 20, 2012, from: http://www.who.int/growthref/who2007_bmi_for_age/en/index.html
3.7 Skinfold Measurement
Skinfold measurement was made on the right side of the body with subject standing upright. The clipper was placed directly on the skin surface, 1 cm away from the thumb and finger, perpendicular to the skinfold, and halfway between the crest and the base of the fold. A pinch was maintained while reading the clipper. Wait 1 to 2 second (not longer) before reading caliper. Take duplicate measurement at each site, and retest if duplication measurement are not within 1 to 2 mm. Rotate through measurement sites to regain normal texture and thickness calculation based on ACSM (2010), 4 site formula (triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac).
Instrument:
Skinfol clipper: SFCH80 Harpenden UK range 80mm
Procedures are as below:
Triceps: vertical fold: on the posterior midline of the upper arms, halfway between the acromion and olecranon processes, with the arms held freely to the side of the body.
Biceps: vertical fold: on the anterior aspects of the arms over the belly of the biceps muscle, 1 cm above the level used to mark the triceps site.
Subscapula: diagonal fold (at a 45-degree angle); 1 to 2 cm below the inferior angle axillary line immediately superior to the iliac crest.
Suprailiac: diagonal fold; in line with the natural angle of the iliac crest taken in the anterior axillary line immediately superior to the iliac crest.
Calculation: Equation developed by Durnin and Rahama (1967) to predict percentage total body fat (%TBF) as follows:
Formula density: Equation for boy = 1.1533 – 0.0643 (x)
Equation for girl = 1.1549 – 0.0678 (x)
(x) = log of sum of skinfold at 4 sites (triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac)
Formula total body fat (TBF%) = (4.95 / Dencity – 4.5) x 100
3.8 Body fat percentage
The body fat percentage was taken using Bio-impedance Analyzer, Karada (810), (Omron, Japan). It measures the body fat percentage in relation to lean body mass. A normal balance of body fat to lean body mass is associated with good health and longevity. Procedures are explained as below;
In straight standing position, subjects were to hold the equipment, grab the handle, and with the hand extend 90° from their body.
Measurement was appeared on the screen of equipment and was recorded.
Physical Fitness Test
Queen college step test (cardiovascular)
The Queen College Step test had been used to measure the cardio respiratory or aerobic fitness. According to Bolboli et al. (2008), it was quoted to predict maximum oxygen consumption and the reliability of the 3-minute step test was investigated with a specific rhythm. The procedures suggested are explained as below:
Subject was ask to step up and down on the step box height 30.5 cm at 24 cycles (up-up-down-down) a minute (metronome setting of 96) for 3 minutes.
Immediately after 3 minutes of stepping, the subjects were required to sit down.
A 60 second heart rate will be taken starting 5 seconds after the completion of stepping.
If the subject does not complete the test, they have to restart again.
The subject score is total 60 second pulse rate following 3 minutes of stepping.
Table 3.4
Queen Step test norms
Score Age
5
4
3
2
1
Male
10
71 – 92
93 – 113
118 – 142
>143
11
76 – 99
100 – 124
125 – 148
>150
12
24 -34
12 – 23
1 – 11
>0
Female
10
74 – 95
96 – 123
125 – 148
>150
11
83 – 99
100 -129
130 – 153
>154
12
78 – 107
108 – 137
138 – 167
>168
Note. From “Measurement by the physical educator: Why and how (5th ed),” by David K. Miller, 2006, Boston: McGraw-Hill Humanities Social. Copyright 2006 by David K. Miller. Adapted with permission.
3.9.2 Hand Grip Test (upper body Strength)
A muscular strength refer to the external force that can be generate by a specific muscle group and it can be express either statically or dynamically and isometric strength can be measured using hand grip dynamometer (ACSM, 2010). The hand grip test was measured using Digital Hand Grip Dynamometer (Takei A5401). Procedures are explained as below;
A maximum voluntary grip is performed on a pair of short parallel bars held between the flexed fingers and the palm, with counter-pressure being applied by the thumb.
The subject is verbally encouraged to produce a maximum effort by squeezing the bars as hard as possible and maintaining the maximal effort for 2-3 seconds.
Reset the dynamometer to zero before use. Adjust the handgrip dynamometer to fit the size of the subject’s hand.
The distance between the base and the handle of the dynamometer should approximate the distance between the base of the thumb and the base of the first digit.
The subject stands with the heels, buttocks and back resting against a wall. Set the pointer reading to zero.
Have the subject grip the dynamometer closely to their side of the body. When ready the subject grips as hard as possible to the count of three.
Record the score in the data entry screen and repeat for the other hand (Clerke, 2005).
Table 3.5.
Norms for hand grip test
Male
Female
Age
Wea
 

Resourcing Process for Hiring a New Fitness Centre Manager

The resourcing process for hiring a new fitness centre manager

Contents Page

Introduction………………………………….Page 3

HR planning…………………………………..Page 3-4

Job analysis……………………………………Page 4-5

Recruitment…………………………………..Page 5-6

Selection………………………………………..Page 6-7

Induction and retention…………………Page 7

UK Employment Market…………………Page 8

Conclusion……………………………………..Page 8

Bibliography……………………………………Page 9-11

Introduction

Human Resource Management is “the process of managing and informing management on the recruitment, selection, retention, and development of staff with the aim of achieving the organisation’s objectives” (Clegg, Kornberger and Pitsis, 2016, Page 163).

 

Anytime Fitness is a branch of a nation fitness centre chain based in London. The manager of Anytime Fitness will soon retire, so a new manager needs to be hired.

The purpose of this essay is to outline and explain the steps that need to be followed to hire, successfully induct and retain the new fitness centre manager. The essay will look at HR planning, job analysis, recruitment and selection, induction and retention, followed by a conclusion summarizing the recommendations for the hiring manager. Recommendations will be given throughout for the hiring manager on how to approach the recruitment process. The UK Employment market will also be assessed in order to gain an understanding in how the market could affect the resourcing approach.

HR planning

HR planning (HRP) is used by organisations to ensure that “the right person is in the right job at the right time” (Jackson and Schuler, 1990, Page 223). In recent years, the nature of HRP has changed due the changing needs of organisations. Stability, certainty and short term solutions have turned into “environmental instability, demographic shifts, changes in technology, and heightened international competition” (Jackson and Schuler, 1990, Page 223). In order to effectively address HR concerns, organisations have to look at long and short-term solutions (Jackson and Schuler, 1990). HRP looks ahead using methodical techniques to assess the degree to which an organisation will meet its requirements for labour in the future (Taylor, 2014).

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A HR plan is formed from looking at the business plan. Anytime Fitness need to consider whether a new fitness manager is necessary or whether they can still meet demand with their current workforce. If a firm over hires employees this will result in a profit loss. If Anytime Fitness, choose not to hire anyone then the firm could overkill the current workforce. The challenge for recruitment is to fill vacancies under inconsistent business demands, and hire high-quality talent (Su and Yang, 2013).

HRP involves forecasting future demand for an organisation. There are three forecasting methods that Anytime Fitness could use. The systematic technique analyses past and current experiences (Taylor, 2014). Recruitment activities are affected by seasonal trends (Su and Yang, 2013). The fitness industry is predictably seasonal, with summer and the new year encouraging an influx of “wanna-be-fit-converts” (Kulp, 2003). This suggests that the HR manager should consider the need for a fitness centre manager all year round or whether a seasonal manager would work. Another way to forecast future demand is through managerial judgement. This approach is based on subjective views of managers about the possible future needs for HR (Taylor, 2014). Working back from costs is another way of forecasting. This involves removing the process of looking at past experiences of the fitness centre. Alternatively, it involves looking at the future budget and “how many people at what salary level would be affordable” (Taylor, 2014).

The next step is to look at forecasting internal and external supply. This can be done by looking at succession planning. According to Gray (2014, page 35) succession planning helps to identify and then develop “key leaders” within a company. The purpose is to “increase engagement and retention by providing a career ladder” and to create a culture of talent development that supports the strengths and develops the different competencies that drive results (Gray, 2014, page 35). This would be helpful for Anytime Fitness because the HR manager could look at the talent of the current employees and see what potential exists for particular employees to move up the career ladder and take on the role of the manager, with appropriate training and development in place. Succession management will provide a pool of qualified candidates (Berke, 2005). If Anytime Fitness does not consider internal supply, the company would be wasting time, money and careers (Gray, 2014). However, when recruitment needs cannot be met internally, it is necessary to look at supply and demand in the external labour market (Taylor, 2014).

According to Taylor (2014), the problem with HRP is that forecasting has a reliance on what happened in the past and using it to make future predictions. Contrariwise, HRP is important because it views plans as adaptable which is important in a “turbulent environment” (Taylor, 2014, Page 103).

Job Analysis

The next step is to look at Job analysis and job design. Job analysis should be regarded as one of the most important responsibilities of the HR Manager at Anytime Fitness. The employee life cycle hinges on job analysis. The purpose of job analysis is to create an exhaustive understanding of the mandatory competencies for success in order to pick suitable candidates (Prien et al, 2009).

Therefore, Anytime Fitness need to conduct a thorough job analysis so that they know the ideal candidate to recruit.  Job analysis will provide the HR manager with the template for screening applications. An accurate and sufficient detailed job posting of the Fitness manager role will also act as a template that provides a degree of protection against charges of discriminatory recruitment (Prien et al, 2009). This is particularly important; the HR manager will want to keep within the law throughout this process.

Pilbeam looks at a 6 measurable factors of the person specification which have to be relevant to the job. These factors include; skills, knowledge and competencies, personality characteristics, level of experience, certified qualifications, physical characteristics and development potential. These factors can be divided into ‘desirable’ and ‘essential’ (Pilbeam and Corbridge, 2006).

To conduct job analysis, the HR manager could use direct observation of the Fitness Manager role, interviews with the current post holder and the staff that are working with them, reviewing how the role fits into Anytime Fitness’ objectives and the completion of questionnaires (Taylor, 2014). However, there are weaknesses to some of these methods. For example, the observation method causes concerns because individuals are unlikely to act the same as they would if they weren’t being observed; also known as the Hawthorne effect (Taylor, 2014). However, job analysis is seen as an important process which is a means to an end. Through job analysis; the job description and person specification are created (Taylor, 2014).

Recruitment

Once Anytime Fitness has defined the type of manager they are looking for, the next step is to plan how to attract the best candidates.

Recruitment is crucial to the successful functioning of an organisation. It is a critical mechanism to make sure that the organisation has the right skills, expertise and qualifications to deliver the key organisational objectives (Pilbeam and Corbridge, 2006, as cited in Muller-Camen, Croucher and Leigh, 2008). Effective recruitment is essential for the success of Anytime Fitness. If there aren’t good people, working collectively, Anytime Fitness is unlikely to fulfill the needs of their customers (Muller-Camen, Croucher and Leigh, 2008). If there isn’t effective recruitment, this could result in a rise in performance management issues and the need for the employee to attend substantial training and development (Muller-Camen, Croucher and Leigh, 2008).

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Recruitment can be done both internally and externally. Internal recruitment is seen by many as “crucial”. Using the internal network reduces the risk of selecting someone that doesn’t fit into the company’s “organisational culture and context” (Jøranli, 2018). As a result, Anytime Fitness would save time searching for a candidate who could potentially fit into the culture. Internal recruitment is very cost-effective, the vacancy can be advertised through notice boards and intranet networks. Learning times for internal candidates are minimal because they already understand how the organisation operates. Anytime Fitness would maximise their return on staff training if they chose an internal candidate, whilst also “enhancing motivation and commitment” (Taylor, 2014, pages 137-138). However, if the Fitness Centre chose internal recruitment only, there is an inclination that it will “perpetuate existing ways of thinking” (Taylor, 2014, page 138).

External recruitment connects the organisation to a “larger mass of potential candidates, from which the firm can screen and select” (Jøranli, 2018, page 190). Anytime Fitness should look into using an Employment Agency, online recruitment methods, printed publications or career events. An Employment agency have large databases of skilled candidates. An agency like Reed for example, have experience of finding workers for the fitness and health industry and are trained to find the best talent. Using an agency can be costly however it allows the company to concentrate on running the business. The Fitness centre could consider job boards such as “Indeed” or “Totaljobs” to host their adverts. There are thousands of job seekers who are engaged with these online platforms. With such a vast array of candidates, the platform will match highly skilled candidates to the Fitness manager role through factors such as location, job type and salary. Using online recruitment methods would benefit the fitness centre because a job board could allow ‘headhunting’ of candidates whereby searching the job board’s CV database for an appropriate match (BrightHR, 2019). Although there are lots of benefits for using online recruiting, a disadvantage is that employers tend to complain about the abundance of unqualified applicants which come from online advertising (Chapman and Webster, 2003, as cited in Chapman and Lievens, 2010).

Anytime Fitness should also look into updating their website for recruiting purposes. The website content, appearance and navigability are all important for recruiting the best. Research has suggested that updating a companies’ website results in “significantly higher attraction by prospective applicants” (Chapman and Lievens, 2010).

Selection

The next step of the recruitment process is to identify selection techniques for hiring. The selection process involves the application of appropriate techniques and methods to identify the right person for a position. Anytime Fitness should assess individual candidates against a set of agreed criteria which are deemed relevant to the post (Muller-Camen, Croucher and Leigh, 2008).

Initially, Anytime Fitness should sift CV’s and applications for the job and select candidates for the next stage of the process. Psychological testing would be a useful tool for the fitness centre. This is a way of measuring an individuals’ characteristics (for example; personality, abilities, intelligence, interests and aptitudes). This is a standardised measurement which promotes fairness and equal opportunities for all candidates. However, it is essential to note that these tests take considerable time and expertise to develop (Muller-Camen, Croucher and Leigh, 2008). Anytime Fitness should then look into conducting group assessments. A fundamental attribute of the fitness centre manager job is that they must have to ability to communicate effectively. A group assessment provides opportunity for candidates to show their communication and social skills, as well as their capability of working with other people as well as lead others in a work-related situation (Muller-Camen, Croucher and Leigh, 2008). This approach would allow Anytime Fitness to evaluate numerous abilities, including creativity, teamwork and problem solving. However, it isn’t fair to assume that newly formed groups with cultural diversity to be able to solve problems effectively (Strauss and U, 2007, page 149).

Interviews can be used on their own or in addition to group assessments. Interviews are used; to act as a tool of assessment, “mutual preview” and “negotiation” (Taylor, 2014). However, the information the interviewer receives from the candidate, ultimately is based on the “self-relevant information” the candidate chooses to disclose. The candidate is therefore in control of the image they convey of themselves (Barrick, Shaffer and DeGrassi, 2009).

Induction and retention

Once the vacancy has been filled, the next step in the recruitment process is induction. Induction is important because it enables the new employee to understand and perform their role correctly. An induction should pay close attention to rules and regulations, familiarisation of the fitness centre’s culture and their methods of operation within the organisation and personal training and developmental needs. This could potentially be achieved through “training courses, mentorship or programmed activity” (King, Roed and Wilson, 2018, page 471). Throughout the recruitment process the psychological contract is formed. This is to do with an individuals’ beliefs in regards to the exchange relationship between them and their manager or employee (Rousseau, Hansen and Tomprou, 2018).

Anytime Fitness should look at mentor schemes. Following a formal mentoring scheme, the employee will finish their induction with an accurate understanding of the company and its “learning goals, relationships and responsibilities” (Hall, 2008, page 450). The role of the mentor is to support and guide the employee’s learning. The mentor should “probe, challenge, and support” (Hall, 2008, page 452) but should never make orders or tell the employee what to do, they are simply assisting. However, a mentor mismatch may occur. This means that the mentor may not be suited to the employee. This might be because the mentor isn’t pushing them to their capabilities. Anytime Fitness must ensure therefore that the mentor and employee are a good match (Hall, 2008). Given the specific responsibilities of a manager, Anytime Fitness may wish to consider using another centre manager to mentor the new starter.

An effective induction is of vital importance. A carefully planned induction plan implemented by HR is a sensible investment for Anytime Fitness. The employees’ growth, development and output could lead to the Fitness Centre’s potential future success (Taylor, 2014). The new employee should not be made to feel like a “nuisance” by providing only “sketchy introductions” (Taylor, 2014, page 244). This will lead to low morale or a possible resignation.

This leads onto the importance of retention strategies. Retention refers to the ability of an organisation to retain its employees. There are many retention strategies that Anytime Fitness could use. These include; not overselling the vacancy in the recruitment process, holding employee consultations, being flexible, providing opportunity to voice employee dissatisfaction, emphasis on employee well-being and treating all employees fairly (CIPD, 2018).

Effective retention strategies are important because high labour turnover can result in huge costs for the company. When an employee leaves there are administration costs of the resignation, recruitment and selection costs, cost of covering the job whilst recruitment takes place, and the costs of an induction and training for the new employee (CIPD, 2018).

UK Employment Market

When labour market conditions are tight, it is important that Anytime Fitness recruits and retains more effective and committed workers than their competitors are able to (Taylor, 2014, page 368).

Currently, data has shown that there is high employment rates and demand for skills and labour. The impact of this on Anytime Fitness is that, as an employer, they will face difficulty when hiring for “hard-to-fill vacancies”. The UK Employment market has seen a massive drop in the number of EU and non EU citizens. This will impact Anytime Fitness because the labour supply is becoming reduced. This means that existing staff at Anytime Fitness will be overloaded with work and problems will arise in relation to meeting customer service objectives. The UK is still facing uncertainty about how Brexit will affect the Employment Market. This uncertainty is effecting wage growth, despite high demand for new starters. Overall, due to the current state of the labour market there is a requirement for HR to put effort into “workforce planning and high performance working”. It is necessary that Anytime Fitness address concerns about job security and keep employees informed on Brexit developments as they unfold (CIPD, 2018).

Conclusion

To conclude, this plan provides a well researched recruitment process for Anytime Fitness’s new manager. The plan starts off by looking at Human Resource Planning and the benefits and drawbacks of using it. This is followed by analysing succession planning as a way of forecasting internal and external supply. Anytime Fitness are recommended to use job analysis to decide on the content of the job to find the best person for the vacancy. The plan then focuses on analysing the different recruitment methods; both internally and externally. Appropriate selection techniques were discussed with group assessments being closely analysed, showing potential pros and cons. The plan should incorporate effective induction and retention strategies to minimise wasted time and costs. The UK Employment market has been examined and there is evidence of a number of challenges in a competitive marketplace. This means that attracting and retaining the right candidates is very important.

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