Total Quality Management (TQM) in Fly Emirates

.Emirates in the Middle East is the major airline and subsidiary of emirates group. It is the national airline of Dubai, United Arab emirates which thus operates near around 2000 passenger’s flights in a week from its hub at Dubai international airport, terminal 3 to 100 destinations in 60 countries in the 6 near about continents. The organization is a subsidiary of the emirates group which has more than 50,000 employees and is owned by the government of Dubai under the corporation of Dubai. The other cargo activities are thus undertaken by the Emirates sky group division. The airline has been ranked among the top 10 worldwide in terms of passengers, revenue, etc. and has thus become the largest airline in the middle east in terms of revenue, passengers, fleet size, etc. and in the recent survey of 2009, the airline was the seventh largest in the world in terms of the passenger carried and fourth largest in terms of scheduled international passenger kilometers flown. The organization has thus built a strong brand name as the trendsetter in the industry, peculiarly in terms of service excellence and the consistency of profitability and thus the organization was ranked fifth best airline in the world from all the perspective by the research consultancy by Skytrax in the year 2009. (2009)

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culture of the organization
The airline is the subsidiary of The Emirates group. The culture of the organization have always been in providing facilities up to the brim and up to the certain extent and that is why the organization have always been in top 10 airlines around the world. It is the quality of the organization that it has been steadily capturing the traffic from North America to South Asia and almost all the continents of the world, allowing all the passengers to bypass the traditional hubs of London, Paris, Frankfurt; the home bases of British airways, Air France with the transit stop at the Dubai international airport instead. The culture has also been to change the organization to the brand name and thus from 2004, the company changed its slogan to Fly Emirates. In the year 2008, the organization launched a slogan mainly around their root network of 100 destinations in more than 50 countries across six continents – Fly Emirates. Keep discovering and most recently it launched a campaign to promote Dubai as the destination using the slogan Fly Emirates. Meet Dubai. And some more like The finest In the Sky, Be Good to Yourself, When was the last time you did for the first time. The culture has been to provide optimum quality services to the passengers. They thus provide different class of seats like the First class which thus have a full suite, complete with closing doors to ensure privacy, a mini-bar and a coat rack. It also includes the feature of 58 cm LCD screen and a 2 meter fully flat bad and thus for the first class, they were ranked second by Skytrax. After the first class, they have the business class with the feature seats of 150 cm that recline to flat beds, 43 cm wide TV screen and thus these passengers have the ability to customize and save seat and the third is thus the business class. The organization culture thus includes innovation and providing new ideas and thus has the perspective of providing every possible feature to the passengers and for that they were the first airline who launched IFE system for all the three classes. IFE thus stands for In – flight entertainment system which thus have the feature like ICE which stands for Information, Communication and Entertainment. The culture has also been in investing different events like the organization is the official sponsor of the Fifa World cup, sponsors of many football groups like AC Milan, Arsenal F.C. they will thus also sponsor Rugby world cup 2011 and thus their branding have thus made them the official partner of International Cricket Council up to 2015. Another quality culture of the organization is that they have been always expanding their staff and recruiting more and more staff which is thus a good sign for the company’s growth. The global financial crisis have thus not impacted much on the airlines and thus they are recruiting more staff and thus they tell that their plans are on going and always promising and their aim is thus to acquire the number one position for maintaining the quality and the serviced rendered and not the size.
total quality barriers faced by the organization
There are many quality barriers that have been faced by the organizations that thus include the fare problems, the pilot’s problems and not delivering any facilities on the lounge. The fare problems thus include the problems that are faced by the customers on the online booking. They just complain that if there is a problem in their website and many a times they do not get any response. A fare problem thus include that while booking a ticket when the customer looks in the fare conditions, system tell them “Skywards flex” and when they look on miles they earn, the system shows them the both legs “Saver”. Another problem on the website is that while the customers are looking at the mileage calculator, the system always shows saver. Another problem include that while going through the whole process, the endorsement box always reads flex fare and when the customers go the manage booking, the system shows saver fare, then the customer call the reservation counter, they tell them to call the Skywards and the Skywards do not know it. Another problem includes many of the times the customers are not replied for their complaints. The problems become severe when the pilots complaint about the organization and make a statement that another threat or another accident is possible. The pilots say that there is a concern about the morale, management and the fatigue of the UAE – based airline. The pilots say that they do no want to see another smoking hole in the ground. Another pilot says that often they are made to flight to their maximum allowable time and the accident which took place on march 20 at the Melbourne airport, the reason for the accident was that the pilot had rarely slept in the day and before that accident the pilot had flown more than 95 hours in the last month an thus the pilots thus made the statement that if a fatigue related accident is going to take place, it will be definitely from the Fly Emirates and another pilot says that when people are tired, mistakes usually occur and the result of the mistake of the pilot can take many lives. Another flaw that has been usually observed in the Emirates is that not giving privilege to the old customers and thus making a feeling that it is rather running for the new passengers. These are some of the quality barriers that the organization has faced and is facing now too. (2006)
reasons for why these elements are barriers to total quality and why these barrirs are considered to be total quality barriers
When we look into the matter of the fare problem, it is the barrier to the total quality as the fare problem can not only reduce the quality but can also take some critical eroticization from the customers, there are millions of customers that do the online booking and if they face a problem sooner or later every time they book their tickets, certainly they will just remove their habit of going through this airline and would thus prefer some other airline. The several customers while booking if undergo through a problem, it is the responsibility of the company to sort out their problem when the complaint is put forward by the customer but when the complaint is not dealt with, the customer rather becomes unhappy by the facilities provided and rather do not prefer the same airlines again the next time he travels. The pilot’s problems are thus a severe one and thus have to be sorted out. At the time of global crisis, the Fly Emirates thus appointed fewer less pilots and thus the major problem that arose was the fatigue problem. A person when tired and not completely fit tends to do some mistakes and the pilot’s mistakes can take lives of lot of people. This will thus reduce the faith of the customers in the airlines and could pose a serious threat for the economy of the airlines. The flaw that arose in the recent times was also the crucial one. Emirates is thus not giving privilege to the old customers and thus they feel it is running only for the new passengers. At the international business level, you have to take care of the old customers as to broaden your business farther and farther. The travelers that will sooner become your permanent customers have to be dealt with properly and thus they are the people who indirectly promote the business
characteristics of a quality culture and the differences between FLy emirates culture and quality culture
Quality culture is thus a culture maintained in an organization to thus have the quality maintained. The culture thus is inducing in the organization to thus have a future good prospect. It thus includes providing quality facilities to the customers to the maximum. Characteristics of the quality culture thus include brooding up the business to have a good mind set in the people mind’s that the organizations always maintains quality. The difference between the Fly Emirates culture and quality culture was thus that they failed to provide quality to certain customers and thus the customers were disappointed. The factors might be many to make the difference between the emirates culture and the quality culture but once the customers is dissatisfied with the facilities, he never prefers the organization again and when the customer put forwards a complaint to the organization and then no regards are paid, the quality of the organization is thus not maintained. Likewise quality culture within an organization tells to deal with every customer properly and with quality while the Emirates could not develop relationship with the old customers, could not satisfy the customers properly and thus the quality of the organization could not be maintained.
report and analysis of the total quality system of fly emirates
Fly Emirates has always been known for the quality and that is why they have been ranked under 10 by Skytrax. The managers have always been saying that their basic motive is to acquire number one position in quality but not in size. The quality is always maintained by the organization. The organization was the first airline in the world to introduce a personal entertainment system on a commercial air craft. All the three classes have in – flight entertainment system which thus include ICE system. ICE thus stands for Information, Communication and entertainment. The facilities thus they serve in the three seats of class are as follows – The first one is thus the first class which thus has a full suite, complete with closing doors to ensure privacy, a coat – rack, a mini – bar and storage. They also feature an ICE system of 58 cm LCD screen and the seat converts into the 2 m fully flat bed and thus they were ranked second by Skytrax in the yea 2009. The business class feature seats with 150 cm pitch that recline to 200 cm long angled flat beds. Other features include privacy partition, massage function, winged headrest, an overhead seat of light and two individual reading lights, USB ports, in – seat power supply and an RCA socket for laptop connection and a 43 cm wide screen of TV. The economy class thus offers a 30 inch seat pitch and standard seat width. The seat features adjustable head rests, an ICE in – flight entertainment system. Thus they are always leading from the front providing the quality and maintaining the quality system in their organization.
how cultural change could be implemented and maintained within the fly emirates
The organizations culture has certainly less flaws but these flaws had to be removed by changing the culture of the organization. It includes satisfying every customer and taking a feedback from the customer and thus implementing on the feedback. For example if a certain lot of people claim that the sitting facilities in the business class are not comfortable, the organizers can have a look at the needs of the people and make the people feel comfortable and make them think they are listened and made them grow faith in the organization. This is the best method for the promotion and growth of the organization as the customers will help increase the customers as mouth publicity is the biggest publicity in the business class. It also includes developing a good customer organization interface by maintaining the old relations, giving privileges to the old customers. The failure of addressing the culture of an organization is thus the most frequent reason for the management initiatives that have limited the resources. We can thus say that the cultural change could be brought by change in behavior towards the old customers, developing a good customer organization interface, dominant values and looking towards the need and the beliefs of the people make the customers feel that they are an integral part of the organization, commitment by the organization and keeping it firm. Thus the culture of good team work as the organizers could thus be developed like investing at the proper place and many more.
recommendations on improvement of total quality management system of fly emirates
There are many recommendations that can be given to the organization on improvement of the total quality system of Fly Emirates. The recommendation thus include creating a consistency of purpose to serve the customers, adopting new philosophies and new ideas at different times, ceasing dependency on something peculiarly to rather achieve more success, improving constantly with time with new projects, new services offered and with new plans ejected. The recommendation also include opening up a different institute for training up the pilot’s, adopting and instituting leadership within the organization and driving out fear from every employee of the organization, separate distances between various staffs and managers, equal treatment to every employee should be given and thus the success should be shared among every employee, set some targets for the workforce, influence them by some slogans, removing barriers that rob people of pride of the workforce and removing the annual ratings and the merit system. Start a program that could institute self improvement within every employee of the organization, put everybody in the organization to work for accomplishing the transformations. The recommendations also include developing or creating some ethics for the organization which could rather maintain the discipline of the organization, creating the integrity, building up trust among the customers to have more business in the future. The communications among several employees is thus too important as the communications bind the employees together and bind everyone together. So these were the recommendation on improvement of the total quality management of Fly Emirates. (Emi10)
 

How Do Aeroplanes Fly?

Introduction:
Aeroplanes have become an increasingly popular method of transportation for human beings to travel all over the world. In this case, some people may consider why the aeroplanes drive faster or how these huge machines fly successfully in the air. This research is mainly to figure out this amazing ability for a specific shape to race through the air.
Forces: Basically, there are four forces acting on the plane when flying.

In this research, we are mainly trying to find out the reaction between the air and the plane.
In other to make a successful journey for the flight, there are two main keys to determine: Wings and Engines
Wings of a aeroplane can also be called an airfoil (aerofoil) with a curved upper surface and a flatter lower surface, making a cross-sectional shape.
In this case, when air meets the wings, it splits into two streams, top and bottom.
When the flight starts accelerating on the ground, the upper air travels the same time as the air underneath. But the upper air needs to travel a longer distance than the lower, therefore the former has a higher speed passing through the plane(wings).

According to the fluid dynamics of Bernoulli’s Principle[1], when the air moves faster, the pressure will decrease. Therefore the pressure at the top is lower than the bottom, which causes a force on the wing, lifting the plane upwards.(as shown below)

Figure 1 Different pressure exists on the wings
However, as what we can see in Fig 1 above, the lines on the top are moving faster than the bottom, though the position of the air starts at the same vertical line before it hits the wings. As we can see more clearer on Fig 2, the air at the top gets considerably earlier than the bottom. It is because the air beneath is affected by the free stream air and get slowed down. As the result of it, the separated air does not have the same time at the trailing edge, in which case the Bernoulli’s Principle can not be used in this situation.

Fig 2 the acceleration and deceleration of the different streams[2]
Therefore we need another cause of lift wings.
According to Newton’s Law:
Newton’s first Law: Any object must maintain uniform linear motion or rest until an external force acts on it to change the state of motion
Newton’s second Law: The total force of an object equals to the mass of the object multiplied by the acceleration of the object.
Newton’s third Law: The interaction between the two objects and the reaction force is always equal in magnitude and opposite in direction , acting on the same straight line.
From the Newton’s first Law, if the air is originally at rest, and it starts to accelerate or move, then there will be a force acting on it.
From the Newton’s third Law, if there is a reaction from the wings acting to the air, then there will be a lift acting on the wings to lift it up in the opposite direction.

Fig 3 There is no lift acting on the wings[3]
 

Fig 4 Wings with a certain angle can cause the lift[4]
In Fig 4, the air passes over the wings and bent down. Therefore the bending air causes the downward force acting on the air and the reaction to the wings is the lift.
According to Newton’s second Law, F=ma, the lift force is always equal to the mass of aeroplane multiply by the downward acceleration.

which can also be expressed as the rate of change of momentum of the air downward.
This can also be rearranged to .The quantity is called the impulse.
And because of Newton’s Third Law, momentum is always conserved.
Comparing the two figures above, we can see that the plane is heading at an angle to produce a lift. If not, there will be no force acting on the plane.
Angle of the attack to the air
In aerodynamics, angle of attack specifies the angle between the line of the wing of a fixed-wing aircraft and the direction of aeroplane movement.

Figure 5[5]
As shown on Fig 5, the greater angle of attack, the greater lift can act on the wings.
There is a lift coefficient related to the angle of attack. When angle of attack is increasing, the lift coefficient will increase up to the maximum lift coefficient, after which it starts to decrease.(as shown in figure 6)

Figure 6[6]
In fluid dynamics, a stall is the term to explain the reduction of the lift after normally 10-20 degrees of attack angle(as shown in the graph above).From Figure 7, after the stall point, it is noticeable that the gap between the air flowing and the wing is increasing and as a result of it, the drag increases while lift starts decreasing.

Figure 7[7]
Lift and Lift Coefficient
In reality, there are a few conditions affecting the lift acting on the plane. As what we can think of, the air density and the size of the wing can have an influence on the amount of lift force.
The relationship between lift force and coefficient of lift is shown below:
[8]
Where
L is lift force
ρ is the air density
v is true airspeed (is the speed of aircraft relative to the air mass or density)
A is wing area
is the lift coefficient
The equation above comes from the ThePrandtl lifting-line theory[9] used to predict the lift distribution, in this case to measure out the lift force for a particular plane in the air.
Flaps and Slats
In reality for the plane to fly, the pilots need to change the angle of attack in different conditions and height. There are a few ways to achieve this. The most common method is to extend flaps and slats.

Figure 8[10]
By altering the position of flaps and slats, the angle of attack is changed as the lift characteristics of a wing is improved. Therefore it can reduce the speed and aircraft can be flown safely and increase the angle of landing. As the drag can be increased during these changes, then the takeoff and landing distances can be shortened effectively.
Landing:

When the plane is coming down towards to the ground, landing gear comes out to give the plane keep driving on the ground for a distance until it finally comes to rest. In this case the friction should be the only force existing to slow down the plane. The acceleration is at the highest value when it first reaches the ground.
1. If the ground friction increases, f=-ma, then the acceleration will decrease more quickly.
2. If the shape of plane increases, the area of air contacting increases, which means the air resistance will increase. Using the same idea, then the acceleration will decrease more obviously.
Therefore, as the ground friction or the shape of plane increases, the quicker the plane will stop.
Engine: (Fueling flight)
When it comes to propelling an aircraft through the sky, different types of engines are taken in account, which can depend on the amount of thrust needed for each flight.
In a typical propulsion system, fuel is burnt and releases plenty of energy, which can generate mechanical power.
Turbo engine from the front of the intake air flows in the booster compressor, upcoming oil mixed with gas and ignited in the combustion chamber. High-temperature exhaust gas flowing through the turbine combustor after the rotation force generated , this force through the drive shaft to drive the compressor. At this point the exhaust still contains even more energy, namely via high-speed spray nozzle to produce thrust reaction according to Newton’s third law .
Conclusion:
As the development of technology, there are increasingly various ways to speed up the plane in the air, but the basic of flying aeroplane is related to the change of momentum of the planes. Meanwhile, Bernoulli’s effect is not the key effect for lift as the lift generated is very small in terms of flying the aeroplane.
Bibliography

http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aero/airflylvl3.htm How Airplanes Fly: A Physical Description of Lift Level 3 

The preceding is an article byDavid Anderson, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, andScott Eberhardt, formerly of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, now at the Boeing Company.

http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/airplanes.htm How Airplanes Work by Marshall Brain, Robert Lamb and Brian Adkins

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lift_(force)#Increased_flow_speed_and_Bernoulli.27s_principle Lift (Force), From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://www.explainthatstuff.com/howplaneswork.html Airplane by Chris Woodford

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stall_(fluid_mechanics) Stall (fluid mechanics), From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

[1] Influid dynamics,Bernoulli’s principlestates that for aninviscid flowof anonconductingfluid, an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease inpressureor a decrease in thefluid‘spotential energy.
[2] http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aero/airflylvl3.htm
[3] http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aero/airflylvl3.htm
[4] http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aero/airflylvl3.htm
[5] http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/airplanes3.htm
[6] http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aero/airflylvl3.htm
[7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stall_(fluid_mechanics)
[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lift_(force)#Increased_flow_speed_and_Bernoulli.27s_principle
[9] The theory was expressed independentlybyFrederick W. Lanchesterin 1907,and byLudwig Prandtlin 1918–1919after working withAlbert BetzandMax Munk.
[10] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leading-edge_slats
 

Fruit Fly Cross Breeding Experiment

Introduction:
The experiment conducted used drosophila or fruit flies to test certain crosses such as a sepia female drosophila x wild male drosophila, a white female drosophila x wild male drosophila, and red/vestigial female drosophila x sepia/normal male drosophila. They are easy and inexpensive to maintain and can also be easily examined (“Drosophila melanogaster”). In addition, drosophila has the most rapid reproductive rate of any dried-fruit insect (“Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)”). Furthermore, drosophila are diploid organisms which means that their chromosomes are arranged in homologous pairs and for a simple phenotypic trait, there will be two copies of the gene (one on each chromosome). Pairs of genes are called alleles and for each autosomal non sex-linked gene or trait, there are two alleles. Identical alleles in an organism signify that the organism is homozygous for that gene. In this experiment, we did a monohybrid cross, dihybrid cross, and a sex-linked cross. According the basic genetic law, in our experiment, the monohybrid cross should yield 50% red females and 50% red males in the F1 generation and 37.5% Red Females, 12.5% Sepia Females, 37.5% Red Males, and 12.5% Sepia Males in the F2 generation. The X-linked cross should yield 50% red eyed females and 50% white eyed males in the F1 generation and 25% Red Females, 25% White Females, 25% Red Males, and 25% White Males in the F2 generation.
Finally, the dihybrid cross should yield 50% red normal males and 50% red normal female in the F1 generation and 28.125% red normal males, 28.125% red normal females, 9.375% red vestigial males, 9.375% red vestigial females, 9.375% sepia normal males, 9.375% sepia normal females, 3.125% sepia vestigial males, and 3.125% sepia vestigial females in the F2 generation.
Hypotheses:
Cross I
Null: The distribution of the F1 and F2 offspring of the sepia female drosophila x wild male drosophila in cross1 will be 50% red females and 50% red males (or 100% red) in the F1 generation and 37.5% Red Females, 12.5% Sepia Females, 37.5% Red Males, and 12.5% Sepia Males (or 75% Red and 25% Sepia) in the F2 generation.
Cross 2
Null: The distribution of the F1 and F2 offspring of the white female drosophila x wild male drosophila in cross 2 will be 50% red eyed females and 50% white eyed males in the F1 generation and 25% Red Females, 25% White Females, 25% Red Males, and 25% White Males (or 50% red and 50% white) in the F2 generation.
Cross 3
Null: The distribution of the F1 and F2 offspring of the red/vestigial female drosophila x sepia/normal male drosophila in cross 3 will be 50% red normal males and 50% red normal female in the F1 generation and 28.125% red normal males, 28.125% red normal females, 9.375% red vestigial males, 9.375% red vestigial females, 9.375% sepia normal males, 9.375% sepia normal females, 3.125% sepia vestigial males, and 3.125% sepia vestigial females (or 56.25% Red Normal, 18.75% Red Vestigial, 18.75% Sepia Normal, and 6.25% Sepia Vestigial) in the F2 generation.
Methodology:
Materials- vials, fruit flies, fruit fly food, plugs, FlyNap (anesthetic), nets, microscopes, paint brushes, probes, freezer.
Procedure- To begin this lab, we must make a container that can sustain life for the fruit flies and their offspring. Since we are observing three crosses, there will be three vials needed. We added fruit fly food to each of the containers and netting inside the vials. We then added the parent generation flies needed for all three vials and sealed it with the plugs. Their traits have been checked to make sure they are the proper parent generation flies that we were supposed to observe. After we finished setting it up, we left the vials alone to let the flies breed and produce larvae which will be the F1 generation. After a few days, we placed the vials in the freezer in order to slow down to flies for removal. The parents are removed in order to prevent interference with the data The F1 flies are taken out and placed into a separate vial with FlyNap to complete incapacitate them for observation. Our group then took those flies and placed them under the microscope to see what traits they display. Between all of the crosses, we observed the sex, eye color, and in cross 3, the wing type. After counting up the flies, we removed them and left the original housing vials alone for the F2 generation to spawn. After a few days, we repeated the counting process with this generation of flies. When we finished all of the counting for our data, we released the remaining flies and cleaned out the vials at the conclusion of this lab.
Results:
Cross 1 – Sepia Female Drosophila x Wild Male Drosophila
Monohybrid Cross – Red is Autosomal Dominant
R = Red ; r = Sepia

rr crossed with RR (F1 Generation)

 

r

r

R

Rr

Rr

R

Rr

Rr

The expected phenotype for the F1 generation of cross 1 is all red eyed drosophila, 50% red females and 50% red males

Rr crossed with Rr (F2 Generation)

 

R

r

R

RR

Rr

r

Rr

rr

The expected phenotype ratio for the F2 generation of cross 1 is 3:1, 75% red drosophila and 25% sepia drosophila. In terms of sex, 37.5% Red Females, 12.5% Sepia Females, 37.5% Red Males, and 12.5% Sepia Males
Cross 2 – White Female x Wild Male
X – Linked Trait – White is mutant

XwXw crossed with Xw+Y (F1 Generations)

 

Xw

Xw

Xw+

Xw+Xw

Xw+Xw

Y

XwY

XwY

The expected flies in the F1 generation of cross 2 are 50% red eyed females and 50% white eyed males

Xw+Xw crossed with XwY (F2 Generations)

 

Xw+

Xw

Xw

Xw+Xw

XwXw

Y

Xw+Y

XwY

The expected flies in the F2 generation of cross 2 are 25% Red Females, 25% White Females, 25% Red Males, and 25% White Males
Cross 3 – Red/Vestigial Female x Sepia/Normal Male
Dihybrid Cross

RRvv crossed with rrVV (F1 Generation)

 

Rv

Rv

Rv

Rv

rV

RrVv

RrVv

RrVv

RrVv

rV

RrVv

RrVv

RrVv

RrVv

rV

RrVv

RrVv

RrVv

RrVv

rV

RrVv

RrVv

RrVv

RrVv

The expected flies in the F1 generation of cross 3 are all red normal flies; 50% red normal males and 50% red normal female.

RrVv crossed with RrVv (F2 Generation)

 

RV

Rv

rV

rv

RV

RRVV

RrVv

RrVV

RrVv

Rv

RRVv

RRvv

RrVv

Rrvv

rV

RrVV

RrVv

rrVV

rrVv

rv

RrVv

Rrvv

rrVv

rrvv

The expected flies in the F2 generation of cross 3 are 9 red normal flies, 3 red vestigial flies, 3 sepia normal flies, and 1 sepia vestigial fly; 28.125% red normal males, 28.125% red normal females, 9.375% red vestigial males, 9.375% red vestigial females, 9.375% sepia normal males, 9.375% sepia normal females, 3.125% sepia vestigial males, and 3.125% sepia vestigial females.
Data:

Cross 1 – Sepia Female Drosophila x Wild Male Drosophila

F1 Generation

 
 
 
 
 

Traits

Sex

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Totals

Red

Male

3

3

55

61

Red

Female

4

2

58

64

Sepia

Male

0

0

6

6

Sepia

Female

0

0

4

4

Cross 1 – Sepia Female Drosophila x Wild Male Drosophila

F2 Generation

 
 
 
 
 

Traits

Sex

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Totals

Red

Male

10

18

7

35

Red

Female

9

20

9

38

Sepia

Male

4

5

3

12

Sepia

Female

9

6

1

16

Cross 2 – White Female x Wild Male

F1 Generation

 
 
 
 
 

Traits

Sex

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Totals

Red

Male

0

0

15

15

Red

Female

24

2

32

58

Sepia

Male

24

1

10

35

Sepia

Female

0

0

13

13

Cross 2 – White Female x Wild Male

F2 Generation

 
 
 
 
 

Traits

Sex

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Totals

Red

Male

2

0

0

2

Red

Female

2

1

2

5

Sepia

Male

4

0

2

6

Sepia

Female

2

2

1

5

Cross 3 – Red/Vestigial Female x Sepia/Normal Male

F1 Generation

 
 
 
 
 

Traits

Sex

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Totals

Red/Normal

Male

33

2

 

35

Red/Normal

Female

18

2

 

20

Red/Vestigial

Male

0

0

 

0

Red/Vestigial

Female

0

0

 

0

Sepia/Normal

Male

0

0

 

0

Sepia/Normal

Female

0

0

 

0

Sepia/Vestigial

Male

0

0

 

0

Sepia/Vestigial

Female

0

0

 

0

Cross 3 – Red/Vestigial Female x Sepia/Normal Male

F2 Generation

 
 
 
 
 

Traits

Sex

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Totals

Red/Normal

Male

14

10

6

30

Red/Normal

Female

16

13

5

34

Red/Vestigial

Male

6

2

3

11

Red/Vestigial

Female

4

2

3

9

Sepia/Normal

Male

8

2

2

12

Sepia/Normal

Female

6

6

2

14

Sepia/Vestigial

Male

2

1

0

3

Sepia/Vestigial

Female

2

0

0

2

Chi-Square Test:

Cross 1 F2 Generation

Trait (Eye Color)

Observed (o)

Expected (e)

((o – e)2)/e

Red

73

75.75

0.0998

Sepia

28

25.25

0.2995

Total

101

101

 

Chi-Square Test = X2 =

0.3993

Cross 1 F2 Generation (AP Biology 2015 Class Data)

Trait (Eye Color)

Observed (o)

Expected (e)

((o – e)2)/e

Red

570

543

1.3425

Sepia

154

181

4.0276

Total

724

724

 

Chi-Square Test = X2 =

5.3701

Cross 2 F2 Generation

Trait (Eye Color)

Observed (o)

Expected (e)

((o – e)2)/e

Red

7

9

0.4444

White

11

9

0.4444

Total

18

18

 

Chi-Square Test = X2 =

0.8888

Cross 2 F2 Generation (AP Biology 2015 Class Data)

Trait (Eye Color)

Observed (o)

Expected (e)

((o – e)2)/e

Red

442

390

6.9333

White

338

390

6.9333

Total

780

780

 

Chi-Square Test = X2 =

13.8666

Cross 3 F2 Generation

Trait (Eye Color & Wings)

Observed (o)

Expected (e)

((o – e)2)/e

Red/Normal

64

64.69

0.0074

Red/Vestigial

20

21.56

0.1129

Sepia/Normal

26

21.56

0.9144

Sepia/Vestigial

5

7.19

0.6671

Total

115

115

 

Chi-Square Test = X2 =

1.7018

Cross 3 F2 Generation (AP Biology 2015 Class Data)

Trait (Eye Color & Wings)

Observed (o)

Expected (e)

((o – e)2)/e

Red/Normal

448

458.44

0.2377

Red/Vestigial

187

152.81

7.6497

Sepia/Normal

134

152.81

2.3154

Sepia/Vestigial

46

50.94

0.4791

Total

815

815

 

Chi-Square Test = X2 =

10.6819

Discussion of Results and Conclusions:
The null hypothesis for Cross 1 was supported by F2 generations’ results. The margin of error for the chi-square in both generations is small, therefore, acceptable. However, the F1 generation was supposed to yield 100% red in fly eyes. Our results contained a few sepia flies, which ultimately leads us to reject the null hypothesis. The null hypothesis for Cross 2 is rejected for the same reasons as Cross 1. Cross 2’s F1 generation should have contained only 50% red-eyed females and 50% white-eyed males. There were flies with traits that weren’t supposed to spawn in the F1 generation (white females and red males). As for Cross 3, the null hypothesis was that there were going to be 50% red/normal males and 50% red/normal females for F1. Our results matched the expected. On top of that, the F2 results had a low margin of error as indicated by the chi-square, which means we can accept the null hypothesis.

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The F1 data for Cross 1 didn’t completely meet our expectations. There were supposed to be only red-eyed flies, regardless of sex (expected 50-50 between males and females). We ended up with a few sepia flies on the day 3 fly count. The deviation could have been set up by error. Knowing how fast flies mature and breed, one of the earlier larvae to reach adult form could have gotten enough extra time between the days to breed. Those two F1 flies could bring in F2 flies during the F1 count through sexual reproduction. It is also possible that a few of the F1 flies stayed in the vials instead of being taken out for counting. Those remaining F1 flies could have extra time to breed since they are more mature than the remain larvae and pupae. Cross 2 experienced a similar phenomenon in F1 where flies have traits they should not have. The expected results of F1 for Cross 2 should yield 50% white males and 50% red females. There should not have been any other flies with different traits than that. However like Cross 1, Cross 2’s observed results could have experienced the same scenarios of error that were mentioned earlier. Cross 3’s F1 generation experience no deviation and only yielded flies with the expected traits.
Cross 1’s F2 punnett squares estimated that the expected phenotype ratio for the F2 generation of cross 1 is 3:1, 75% red drosophila and 25% sepia drosophila. In terms of sex, that yields 37.5% Red Females, 12.5% Sepia Females, 37.5% Red Males, and 12.5% Sepia Males. The chi-square results indicate a low margin of error as the expected and observed are close without any major deviations. Cross 2’s F2 punnett squares estimated that the expected flies are 25% Red Females, 25% White Females, 25% Red Males, and 25% White Males. In terms of eye color, there were supposed to be about 50-50 whites and reds. The chi-square results of the class data show that there are were slightly more red-eyed flies spawned than white-eyed flies. The margin of error was rather significant in that case. Cross 3’s punnett squares has estimates of 28.125% red normal males, 28.125% red normal females, 9.375% red vestigial males, 9.375% red vestigial females, 9.375% sepia normal males, 9.375% sepia normal females, 3.125% sepia vestigial males, and 3.125% sepia vestigial females. Our chi square results of Cross 3 indicate precision and a low margin of error between the results and the expected percentages. Deviation in any of the crosses could have happened as a result of several scenarios. Our group did encounter difficulty extracting flies for the counting process. We tried freezing them, but given the amount of time, we had to shorten the tenure in the cold for the flies. That left some flies still active enough to accidentally escape from the lab. Even when we did manage to slow down the flies, some of them were hopelessly stuck inside the vials. Occasionally, the food paste in the vials shifted enough where it basically plasters any fly in its way. That took away several flies from our data as they could not be extracted for counting.
We seemed to be vulnerable the error in this lab and several different things could have gone wrong. As I discussed earlier, the difficulty in the removal of the flies played a major factor in skewing our data. Whether they are stuck to the paste or escaped the lab, that gives us less flies to count. Cross 2’s vial experienced the food paste shifting during our lab. A plague in our results was the appearance of flies with traits that are supposed to be absent from F1 actually appearing in our F1 data. This occurred in Cross 1 and 2. This could have been because of how fast a fruit fly matures and the amount of time given between the days we counted the flies. That could have given the F1 flies enough time to breed and spawn F2 during the days we counted for the F1 flies only. A simple issue we faced was time. The lack of time in a class period was detrimental with the incapacitation step for the counting process. We put the vials in the freezer in order to slow down the flies for transfer, but given the time, we rushed to get the counting done despite the fact that some of the flies were very active.
Works Cited
“Drosophila melanogaster.” World of Genetics. Gale, 2007. Science in Context. Web. 31 May 2015.
“Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster).” World of Scientific Discovery. Gale, 2007. Science in Context. Web. 31 May 2015.
Digital image. Fruit Fly Head HD Desktop Wallpaper: High Definition: Mobile. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 June 2015.
Digital image. The Conversation. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 June 2015.