Qualities Of A Good Football Player Physical Education Essay

Football has become a sport that interest by all population in this world. To play or become a good football player, the person must master many skills and have a healthy physical and mental. Football players also must combine speed, strength, agility, power, and endurance as basic qualities before the individual skills inherent to the playing of soccer can be utilized and depend on the position such as defense, strikers, midfielder and goal keeper. The understanding of the physical and the mental demands of the sport will enable a more scientific approach to the training of soccer players by (Bell and Rhodes 1975; Caru et. al. 1970; Fardy 1969).
According to (Nicks et. al. 2006; Romer et. al. 2002) Soccer is one of the intermittent sports that require high intensity bouts of exercise, with periods of passive or active recovery and coherent performance in repeated sprints need sufficient recovery between sprints.
So the player must have strong muscles, high muscular endurance, have strong core and have high level of aerobic capacity because the football game are played for 90 minutes. So the training must contain high aerobic training to improve cardiovascular and pulmonary functions so the athlete can cope with the sport.
Physiological assessment of athletes can provide an opportunity to examine or test the adaptation to specific types of exercises and training. These adaptations can be valuable to the clinician, coaches and athletes themselves. For example, lab test that can be proceed to examine the adaptation to specific types of exercises and training. To test the adaptation to the lung we can use pulmonary functions test to examine the effectiveness of lung muscles functioning, to check the vital capacity and to estimate the lung volumes.

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The function of the lung is to deliver O2 to gas exchanged surface and exhaust CO2 to atmosphere. To achieve this with brain functioning normally, breath begins with contraction of inspiratory muscle enlarging the thorax, lowering intrathoracic and pleural pressures, enlarging the alveoli and airways, expanding the alveolar gas so reducing its pressure below atmospheric. Air at atmospheric pressure must flow into the thorax where it is conducted to, and diffuses, out into the alveoli. The carriage of air through the airways depends on the patency of the tube as well as on the consistency of the lung and the power of the respiratory muscles. At any one moment approximately 100ml of desaturated blood, with a strong affinity for O2, is spread over an area of 70 square meters( area of pulmonary capillary bed ) separated from air by a membrane 0.2 micron thick. Oxygen from alveolar air diffuses rapidly across the alveolar capillary membrane and is finally chemically combined with hemoglobin molecules within the circulating red blood cells (RBC), CO2 diffuses into opposite direction and is eliminated in expired gas.
The Vital capacity test is one of the oldest and most common respiratory tests. The measurement of vital capacity (VC) simply requires that an individual blow as large a breath of air as possible into a spirometer. Thus, the person expels three of the four components of the total lung volume when performing the vital test. There are inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal volume (TV) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV). It provides an indirect indication of the size of the lung, although it is not a complete measure of the entire lung size because it does not account for residual volume. In general facts, vital capacity relate to three uncontrolled characteristics which are age, stature and gender.
Lung function measurements also may be made for several reasons. They are useful in describing the lung for diagnostic purpose and subsequently in monitoring change. Accuracy and consistency are therefore very important, and a convention exists for the procedure of measurement and expression of result. In general, a measurement will only be accepted after multiple attempts have been scrutinized and expressed under standard conditions. These are usually body temperature and atmospheric pressure.
To guarantee accuracy, laboratory practice should include regular physical and biological calibration of the equipment. Standard for good laboratory conduct have been described greatly by British Thoracic Society or association of respiratory technologist and physiologist 1997. In health there are several factors which influence the magnitude of the lung function. These include height, sex, age, and to a lesser degree weight and ethnic origin (Cotes1979, Anthonisen1986). As a result, assessment of normalcy can only be compared with reference values. The better can be obtained from the study of larger numbers of normal people from the relevant population (European community for Coal and Steel 1983). Once obtained, results can be expressed as percentage predicted or, more correctly, by comparison with the 95% confidence interval for the valves.
Problem statement.
It is interesting to know whether there are any different of lung volumes and lung capacities base on the different position in the football team such as striker position and defenses position. In football team, the defenders position tasks are different with the striker position task, for example the defensive position, the job of the centre backs or central defenders is to stop opposing players, particularly the strikers, from getting the opportunity to score, and to clear the ball from their own penalty area. So usually the defense has big physical to stop the striker, but different with the striker position, usually the strikers’ position players have not too big physical, because these positions are for the fast person to score the goal.
This study of pulmonary function of the Uitm football players base on position, have taken students group of both striker position and defense position of aged between 19-25 years and focused on essential parameters including, FVC and has used Spirometer. The spirometer device used to assess these parameters. This study mainly concentrates on lung parameters including Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and how far it varies base on the position such as striker and defense. The FVC also use to assess the lung function of Uitm soccer players.
Operational Terms
1.2.1 Exhalation is act or an instance of exhaling air.
From journal sources Masaoka Y, Satoh H, Akai L, Homma I. (2010)
1.2.2 Inhalation is the drawing of air or other substances into the lung.
From internet sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
1.2.3 Total lung capacity are refers to the total amount of air in the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible.
From internet sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
1.2.4 Ventilation is a cyclic process of inspiration and expiration whereby optimal levels of Oxygen and cabondioxide are maintained in the alveoli and arterial blood.
1.2.5 Tidal Volume (VT) is defined as the amount of air that is inspired and expired during normal resting ventilation.
1.2.6 Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) is the maneuvers in which the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled following a inspiratory effort.
1.2.7 Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) is defined as the maximum volume of air that can be breathed voluntarily by an individual in one minute.
From internet sources http://www.answer.com/topic/maximum-breathing-technique
Objectives
In this study, there are some purposes or objective that can be seen. They are;
To measure the level of fitness of Uitm football players by using force vital capacity
y test.
To determine whether there is a different in pulmonary functions base on position in football team such as defense and striker.
1.4 Hypothesis
H°-There is no significant different on pulmonary functions in football position such as striker and defense
Hª-There is significant different on pulmonary functions in football position such as striker and defense
1.5 Significant of the study
The significant of this study is mainly to measure and compare the lung volumes and capacities among the Uitm football player base on their position. Does the football position such as striker position and defenses position have differences effects on the lung volumes and capacities? The study is important because it can help certain peoples such as coach, physiotherapy and athletes especially in any kinds of sports to improve pulmonary functions. In addition, this study also can increase knowledge of coach and athletes, and show them how important is to have efficient and strong lung to improves their performances for their sport.
1.6 Delimitation
The first delimitation is the number of any kinds of research subjects, which consists thirty (n=30) age range from 19-25 years old will take part in this study. The subjects are selected in the Uitm football team and physically active and all the participants must be healthy. The subjects are divided into two groups of defense and striker. The others delimitation is the subject gender and age. The test will be conduct in Physiology Lab.
Limitation
In this study, the participants involved may have some experience in vital capacity test. The participants that will be selects in this study will be participating in the lab test by using spirometer. The participation is important in this study because it can affect the results and data if the participants do not cooperate and participate willingly.
Besides that, the time constrains also can be one of the factors because the participants have their own schedules and will clash with the test schedules and can not attend the test.
In addition, money can be a problem because, there is no sponsored in this study. The daily activities of the participants will not be controlled.
Assumption
In this study, it can be assumed that all the participants can do and completed the vital capacity test. Thus, I also believe and make sure that all the participants will understand and follow all the instruction given by the technician. The researchers also predict that all the participants are physically active and healthy.
The researcher assumed that the test in this study instrumentation was appropriate for the target population. I also predict that all the participants fully understood the types of test and method and how to perform it correctly.
The research participants accurately of completed the inventory leisure participation and leisure constraints to the best of their ability. Lastly, all the participants are coming from the same populations, which Uitm football team aged 19-25 years old.
 

The History Of American Football Physical Education Essay

American football resulted from several major divergences from rugby, most notably the rule changes instituted by Walter Camp, considered the “Father of American Football”. Among these important changes were the introduction of the line of scrimmage and of down-and-distancerules. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, gameplay developments by college coaches such as Eddie Cochems, Amos Alonzo Stagg, Knute Rockne, and Glenn “Pop” Warner helped take advantage of the newly introduced forward pass. The popularity of collegiate football grew as it became the dominant version of the sport in the United States for the first half of the twentieth century. Bowl games, a college football tradition, attracted a national audience for collegiate teams. Bolstered by fierce rivalries, college football still holds widespread appeal in the US.

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The origin of professional football can be traced back to 1892, with William “Pudge” Heffelfinger’s $500 contract to play in a game for theAllegheny Athletic Association against the Pittsburgh Athletic Club. In 1920 the American Professional Football Association was formed. This league changed its name to the National Football League (NFL) two years later, and eventually became the major league of American football. Primarily a sport of Midwestern industrial towns in the United States, professional football eventually became a national phenomenon. Football’s increasing popularity is usually traced to the 1958 NFL Championship Game, a contest that has been dubbed the “Greatest Game Ever Played”. A rival league to the NFL, the American Football League (AFL), began play in 1960; the pressure it put on the senior league led to a merger between the two leagues and the creation of the Super Bowl, which has become the most watched television event in the United States on an annual basis.
First games
Although there are mentions of Native Americans playing ball games, modern American football has its origins in traditional ball games played at villages and schools in Europe for many centuries before America was settled by Europeans. There are reports of early settlers atJamestown, Virginia playing games with inflated balls in the early 17th century.
Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional “mob football” played in England, especially on Shrove Tuesday. The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton students played a game called “ballown” as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as “Bloody Monday” began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. Dartmouthplayed its own version called “Old division football”, the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s. All of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities. They remained largely “mob” style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. Rules were simple and violence and injury were common. The violence of these mob-style games led to widespread protests and a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860, while Harvard followed suit in 1861.
“Boston game”
While the game was being banned in colleges, it was growing in popularity in various east coast prep schools. In 1855, manufactured inflatable balls were introduced. These were much more regular in shape than the handmade balls of earlier times, making kicking and carrying easier. Two general types of football had evolved by this time: “kicking” games and “running” (or “carrying”) games. A hybrid of the two, known as the “Boston game”, was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club. The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in 1862 by schoolboys who played the “Boston game” on Boston Common. They played mostly between themselves, though they organized a team of non-members to play a game in November 1863, which the Oneidas won easily. The game caught the attention of the press, and the “Boston game” continued to spread throughout the 1860s.
The game began to return to college campuses by the late 1860s. Yale, Princeton, Rutgers, and Brown all began playing “kicking” games during this time. In 1867, Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. A “running game”, resembling rugby, was taken up by the Montreal Football Club in Canada in 1868.
Intercollegiate football
Rutgers v. Princeton (1869)
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On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in a game that is often regarded as the first game of intercollegiate football. The game was played at a Rutgers field under Rutgers rules. Two teams of 25 players attempted to score by kicking the ball into the opposing team’s goal. Throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed. The first team to reach six goals was declared the winner. Rutgers won by a score of six to four. A rematch was played at Princeton a week later under Princeton rules (one notable difference was the awarding of a “free kick” to any player that caught the ball on the fly). Princeton won that game by a score of eight to zero. Columbia joined the series in 1870, and by 1872 several schools were fielding intercollegiate teams, including Yale and Stevens Institute of Technology.
Rules standardization (1873-1880)
On October 19, 1873, representatives from Yale, Columbia, Princeton, and Rutgers met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City to codify the first set of intercollegiate football rules. Before this meeting, each school had its own set of rules and games were usually played using the home team’s own particular code. At this meeting, a list of rules, based more on soccer than on rugby, was drawn up for intercollegiate football games.
Harvard, which played the “Boston game”, a version of football that allowed carrying, refused to attend this rules conference and continued to play under its own code. While Harvard’s voluntary absence from the meeting made it hard for them to schedule games against other American universities, it agreed to a challenge to play McGill University, from Montreal, in a two-game series. The McGill team traveled to Cambridge to meet Harvard. On May 14, 1874, the first game, played under “Boston” rules, was won by Harvard with a score of 3-0. The next day, the two teams played rugby to a scoreless tie.
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The Rutgers College football team of 1882, wearing uniforms typical of the period
Harvard quickly took a liking to the rugby game, and its use of the try which, until that time, was not used in American football. The try would later evolve into the score known as the touchdown. In late 1874, the Harvard team traveled to Montréal to play McGill in rugby, and won by three tries. A year later, on June 4, 1875, Harvard faced Tufts University in the first game between two American colleges played under rules similar to the McGill/Harvard contest, which was won by Tufts 1-0. The first edition of The Game-the annual contest between Harvard and Yale-was played on November 13, 1875, under a modified set of rugby rules known as “The Concessionary Rules”. Yale lost 4-0, but found that it too preferred the rugby style game. Spectators from Princeton carried the game back home, where it also became popular.
On November 23, 1876, representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit House in Springfield, Massachusetts to standardize a new code of rules based on the rugby game first introduced to Harvard by McGill University in 1874. The rules were based largely on theRugby Football Union’s code from England, though one important difference was the replacement of a kicked goal with a touchdown as the primary means of scoring (a change that would later occur in rugby itself, favoring the try as the main scoring event). Three of the schools-Harvard, Columbia, and Princeton-formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, as a result of the meeting. Yale did not join the group until 1879, because of an early disagreement about the number of players per team.
Walter Camp: Father of American football
Walter Camp is widely considered to be the most important figure in the development of American football.
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Walter Camp, the “Father of American Football”, pictured here in 1878 as the captain of the Yale football team
As a youth, he excelled in sports like track, baseball, and soccer, and after enrolling at Yale in 1876, he earned varsity honors in every sport the school offered.
Camp became a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where rules were debated and changed. He proposed his first rule change at the first meeting he attended in 1878: a reduction from fifteen players to eleven. The motion was rejected at that time but passed in 1880. The effect was to open up the game and emphasize speed over strength. Camp’s most famous change, the establishment of the line of scrimmage and the snap from center toquarterback, was also passed in 1880. Originally, the snap was executed with the foot of the center. Later changes made it possible to snap the ball with the hands, either through the air or by a direct hand-to-hand pass.
Camp’s new scrimmage rules revolutionized the game, though not always as intended. Princeton, in particular, used scrimmage play to slow the game, making incremental progress towards the end zone during each down. Rather than increase scoring, which had been Camp’s original intent, the rule was exploited to maintain control of the ball for the entire game, resulting in slow, unexciting contests. At the 1882 rules meeting, Camp proposed that a team be required to advance the ball a minimum of five yards within three downs. These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby or soccer into the distinct sport of American football.
Camp was central to several more significant rule changes that came to define American football. In 1881, the field was reduced in size to its modern dimensions of 120 by 53 1/3 yards (109.7 by 48.8 meters). Several times in 1883, Camp tinkered with the scoring rules, finally arriving at four points for a touchdown, two points for kicks after touchdowns, two points for safeties, and five for field goals. In 1887, gametime was set at two halves of 45 minutes each. Also in 1887, two paid officials-a referee and an umpire-were mandated for each game. A year later, the rules were changed to allow tackling below the waist, and in 1889, the officials were given whistles and stopwatches.
After leaving Yale in 1882, Camp was employed by the New Haven Clock Company until his death in 1925. Though no longer a player, he remained a fixture at annual rules meetings for most of his life, and he personally selected an annual All-American team every year from 1898 through 1924. TheWalter Camp Football Foundation continues to select All-American teams in his honor.
Rules
Field and players
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The numbers on the field indicate the number ofyards to the nearest end zone.
American football is played on a field 360 by 160 feet (109.7 by 48.8 m). The longer boundary lines are sidelines, while the shorter boundary lines are end lines. Sidelines and end lines are out of bounds. Near each end of the field is a goal line; they are 100 yards (91.4 m) apart. A scoring area called an end zone extends 10 yards (9.1 m) beyond each goal line to each end line. The end zone includes the goal line but not the end line. While the playing field is effectively flat, it is common for a field to be built with a slight crown-with the middle of the field higher than the sides-to allow water to drain from the field.
Yard lines cross the field every 5 yards (4.6 m), and are numbered every 10 yards from each goal line to the 50-yard line, or midfield (similar to a typical rugby league field). Two rows of short lines, known as inbounds lines or hash marks, run at 1-yard (91.4 cm) intervals perpendicular to the sidelines near the middle of the field. All plays start with the ball on or between the hash marks. Because of the arrangement of the lines, the field is occasionally referred to as a gridiron.
At the back of each end zone are two goalposts (also called uprights) connected by a crossbar 10 feet (3.05 m) from the ground. For high skill levels, the posts are 222 inches (5.64 m) apart. For lower skill levels, these are widened to 280 inches (7.11 m).
Each team has 11 players on the field at a time. However, teams may substitute for any or all of their players, if time allows, during the break between plays. As a result, players have very specialized roles, and, sometimes (although rarely) almost all of the (at least) 46 active players on an NFL team will play in any given game. Thus, teams are divided into three separate units: the offense, the defense and the special teams.
Start of halves
Similarly to association football, the game begins with a coin toss to determine which team will kick off to begin the game and which goal each team will defend. The options are presented again to start the second half; the choices for the first half do not automatically determine the start of the second half. The referee conducts the coin toss with the captains (or sometimes coaches) of the opposing teams. The team that wins the coin toss has three options:
They may choose whether to kick or receive the opening kickoff.
They may choose which goal to defend.
They may choose to defer the first choice to the other team and have first choice to start the second half.
Whatever the first team chooses, the second team has the option on the other choice (for example, if the first team elects to receive at the start of the game, the second team can decide which goal to defend).
At the start of the second half, the options to kick, receive, or choose a goal to defend are presented to the captains again. The team which did not choose first to start the first half (or which deferred its privilege to choose first) now gets first choice of options.
Game duration
A standard football game consists of four 15-minute quarters (12-minute quarters in high-school football and often shorter at lower levels), with a 12 minute half-time intermission after the second quarter. The clock stops after certain plays; therefore, a game can last considerably longer (often more than three hours in real time), and if a game is broadcast on television,TV timeouts are taken at certain intervals of the game to broadcast commercials outside of game action. If an NFL game is tied after four quarters, the teams play an additional period lasting up to 15 minutes. In an NFL overtime game, the first team that scores wins, even if the other team does not get a possession; this is referred to as sudden death. In a regular-season NFL game, if neither team scores in overtime, the game is a tie. In an NFL playoff game, additional overtime periods are played, as needed, to determine a winner. College overtime rules are more complicated and are described in Overtime (sport).
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A line of scrimmage on the 48-yard line. The offense is on the left.
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A quarterback searching for opportunity to throw a pass.
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A running back being tackled when he tries to run with the ball.
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A quarterback preparing to throw a pass.
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Forward pass in progress, during practice.
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A kicker attempts an extra point.
Advancing the ball
Advancing the ball in American football resembles the six-tackle rule and the play-the-ball in rugby league. The team that takes possession of the ball (the offense) has four attempts, called downs, in which to advance the ball at least 10 yards (9.1 m) toward their opponent’s (the defense’s) end zone. When the offense succeeds in gaining at least 10 yards, it gets a first down, meaning the team has another set of four downs to gain yet another 10 yards or to score. If the offense fails to gain a first down (10 yards) after 4 downs, the other team gets possession of the ball at the point where the fourth down ended, beginning with their first down to advance the ball in the opposite direction.
Except at the beginning of halves and after scores, the ball is always put into play by a snap. Offensive players line up facing defensive players at theline of scrimmage (the position on the field where the play begins). One offensive player, the center, then passes (or “snaps”) the ball backwards between his legs to a teammate behind him, usually the quarterback.
Players can then advance the ball in two ways:
By running with the ball, also known as rushing.
By throwing the ball to a teammate, known as a forward pass or as passing the football. The forward pass is a key factor distinguishing American and Canadian football from other football sports. The offense can throw the ball forward only once during a down and only from behind the line of scrimmage. The ball can be thrown, pitched, handed-off, or tossed sideways or backwards at any time.
A down ends, and the ball becomes dead, after any of the following:
The player with the ball is forced to the ground (a tackle) or has his forward progress halted by members of the other team (as determined by anofficial).
A forward pass flies beyond the dimensions of the field (out of bounds) or touches the ground before it is caught. This is known as an incomplete pass. The ball is returned to the most recent line of scrimmage for the next down.
The ball or the player with the ball goes out of bounds.
A team scores.
Officials blow a whistle to notify players that the down is over.
Before each down, each team chooses a play, or coordinated movements and actions, that the players should follow on a down. Sometimes, downs themselves are referred to as “plays.”
Change of possession
The offense maintains possession of the ball unless one of the following things occurs:
The team fails to get a first down- i.e., in four downs they fail to move the ball past a line 10 yards ahead of where they got their last first down (it is possible to be downed behind the current line of scrimmage, losing “yardage”). The defensive team takes over the ball at the spot where the 4th-down play ends. A change of possession in this manner is commonly called a turnover on downs, but is not credited as a defensive “turnover” in official statistics. Instead, it goes against the offense’s 4th down efficiency percentage.
The offense scores a touchdown or field goal. The team that scored then kicks the ball to the other team in a special play called a kickoff.
The offense punts the ball to the defense. A punt is a kick in which a player drops the ball and kicks it before it hits the ground. Punts are nearly always made on fourth down (though see quick kick), when the offensive team does not want to risk giving up the ball to the other team at its current spot on the field (through a failed attempt to make a first down) and feels it is too far from the other team’s goal posts to attempt a field goal.
A defensive player catches a forward pass. This is called an interception, and the player who makes the interception can run with the ball until he is tackled, forced out of bounds, or scores.
An offensive player drops the ball (a fumble) and a defensive player picks it up. As with interceptions, a player recovering a fumble can run with the ball until tackled, forced out of bounds, or scores. Backward passes that are not caught do not cause the down to end like incomplete forward passes do; instead the ball is still live as if it had been fumbled. Lost fumbles and interceptions are together known as turnovers.
The offensive team misses a field goal attempt. The defensive team gets the ball at the spot where the previous play began (or, in the NFL, at the spot of the kick). If the unsuccessful kick was attempted from within 20 yards (18.3 m) of the end zone, the other team gets the ball at its own 20 yard line (that is, 20 yards from the end zone). If a field goal is missed or blocked and the ball remains in the field of play, a defensive player may pick up the ball and attempt to advance it.
While in his own end zone, an offensive ball carrier is tackled, forced out of bounds, loses the ball out of bounds, or the offense commits certain fouls. This fairly rare occurrence is called a safety.
An offensive ball carrier fumbles the ball forward into the opposing end zone, and then the ball goes out of bounds. This extremely rare occurrence leads to a touchback, with the ball going over to the opposing team at their 20 yard line (Note that touchbacks during non-offensive speplays, such as punts and kickoffs, are quite common).
Scoring
A team scores points by the following plays:
A touchdown (TD) is worth 6 points. It is scored when a player runs the ball into or catches a pass in his opponent’s end zone. A touchdown is analogous to a try in rugby. Unlike rugby, a player does not have to touch the ball to the ground to score; a touchdown is scored any time a player has possession of the ball while the ball is on or beyond the opponents’ goal line (or the plane above it).
After a touchdown, the scoring team attempts a try (which is also analogous to the conversion in rugby). The ball is placed at the other team’s 3-yard (2.7 m) line (the 2-yard (1.8 m) line in the NFL). The team can attempt to kick it over the crossbar and through the goal posts in the manner of a field goal for 1 point (an extra point or point-after touchdown (PAT)[19]), or run or pass it into the end zone in the manner of a touchdown for 2 points (a two-point conversion). In college football, if the defense intercepts or recovers a fumble during a one or two point conversion attempt and returns it to the opposing end zone, the defensive team is awarded the two points.
A field goal (FG) is worth 3 points, and it is scored by kicking the ball over the crossbar and through the goal posts (uprights). Field goals may be placekicked (kicked when the ball is held vertically against the ground by a teammate) or drop-kicked (extremely uncommon in the modern game, with only two successes in sixty-plus years in the NFL). A field goal is usually attempted on fourth down instead of a punt when the ball is close to the opponent’s goal line, or, when there is little or no time left to otherwise score.
A safety, worth 2 points, is scored by the opposing team when the team in possession at the end of a down is responsible for the ball becoming dead behind its own goal line. For instance, a safety is scored by the defense if an offensive player is tackled, goes out of bounds, or fumbles the ball out of bounds in his own end zone. Safeties are relatively rare. Note that, though even more rare, the team initially on offense during a down can score a safety if a player of the original defense gains possession of the ball in front of his own goal line and then carries the ball or fumbles it into his own end zone where it becomes dead. However, if the ball becomes dead behind the goal line of the team in possession and its opponent is responsible for the ball being there (for instance, if the defense intercepts a forward pass in its own end zone and the ball becomes dead before the ball is advanced out of the end zone) it is a touchback: no points are scored and the team last in possession keeps possession with a first down at its own 20 yard line. In amateur football, in the extremely rare instance that a safety is scored on a try, it is worth only 1 point.
Kickoffs and free kicks
Each half begins with a kickoff. Teams also kick off after scoring touchdowns and field goals. The ball is kicked using a kicking tee from the team’s own 30-yard (27 m) line in the NFL and college football (as of the 2007 season). The other team’s kick returner tries to catch the ball and advance it as far as possible. Where he is stopped is the point where the offense will begin its drive, or series of offensive plays. If the kick returner catches the ball in his own end zone, he can either run with the ball, or elect for a touchback by kneeling in the end zone, in which case the receiving team then starts its offensive drive from its own 20 yard line. A touchback also occurs when the kick goes out-of-bounds in the end zone. A kickoff that goes out-of-bounds anywhere other than the end zone before being touched by the receiving team is a foul, and the ball will be placed where it went out of bounds or 30 yards (27 m) from the kickoff spot, depending on which is more advantageous to the opposite team. Unlike with punts, once a kickoff goes 10 yards and the ball has hit the ground, it can be recovered by the kicking team. A team, especially one who is losing, can try to take advantage of this by attempting an onside kick. Punts and turnovers in the end zone can also end in a touchback.
After safeties, the team that gave up the points must free kick the ball to the other team from its own 20 yard line.
Penalties
Fouls (a type of rule violation) are punished with penalties against the offending team. Most penalties result in moving the football towards the offending team’s end zone. If the penalty would move the ball more than half the distance towards the offender’s end zone, the penalty becomes half the distance to the goal instead of its normal value.
Most penalties result in replaying the down. Some defensive penalties give the offense an automatic first down. Conversely, some offensive penalties result in loss of a down (loss of the right to repeat the down). If a penalty gives the offensive team enough yardage to gain a first down, they get a first down, as usual.
If a foul occurs during a down, an official throws a yellow penalty flag near the spot of the foul. When the down ends, the team that did not commit the foul has the option of accepting the penalty, or declining the penalty and accepting the result of the down.
Variations
Variations on these basic rules exist, particularly touch and flag football, which are designed as non-contact or limited-contact alternatives to the relative violence of regular American football. In touch and flag football, tackling is not permitted. Offensive players are “tackled” when a defender tags them or removes a flag from their body, respectively. Both of these varieties are played mainly in informal settings such as intramural or youth games. Another variation is “wrap”, where a player is “tackled” when another player wraps his arms around the ball carrier. Professional, intercollegiate, and varsity-level high school football invariably use the standard tackling rules.
Another variation is with the number of players on the field. In sparsely populated areas, it is not uncommon to find high school football teams playing nine-man football, eight-man footballor six-man football. Players often play on offense as well as defense. The Arena Football League is a league that plays eight-man football, but also plays indoors and on a much smaller playing surface with rule changes to encourage a much more offensive game.
Another variation often played by American children is called Catch and Run. In this game, the children split into two teams and line up at opposite sides of the playing field. One side throws the ball to the other side. If the opposing team catches the ball, that player tries to run to the throwing teams touchdown without being tagged/tackled. If no one catches the ball or if the player is tagged/tackled, then that team has to throw the ball to the opposing team. This repeats until the game (or recess period) is deemed over.
 

SWOT Analysis of the Football Association (FA)

This paper looks to produce a report that seeks to analyse the work of the Football Association (FA) in the context of an evaluation of the impact of its strategy regarding the advancement of the national game and its legitimacy as an organisation in England. This report provides a background to what is the FA’s general remit and how this fits with sports strategic management emanating from the work of the UK government. This report then considers what the FA does and how this reflects its strategy for advancing the national game and its legitimacy as an organisation allowing all participants to enjoy the game and maximise their ability and evaluate where the problems lie around the FA’s strategic management to date.

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This report seeks to evaluate the Football Association’s (FA’s) adjective of the advancement of football in England and the FA’s legitimacy as an organisation in this country that serves to permit all those that wish to participate in the sport to enjoy it and maximise their ability through a SWOT analysis. First, this report looks to provide a background to the FA’s work before analysing how this fits with the UK government’s work with other organisations to achieve effective strategic management for then advancing the FA’s aims through recognition of the opportunities for reform. This report then considers the FA’s activities and how this reflects its strategy for advancing the national game and its legitimacy as an organisation through organisational management and evaluate the strengths of the organisation and where the problems lie and what threats they pose. Finally, this report will summarise the key points derived from this report regarding analysis of the FA’s work in its strategy regarding football’s advancement and its legitimacy as an organisation.
Findings
(a) Background – What is the FA and what does it do?
The FA has governed English association football since 1863 to oversee both the professional and amateur levels by sanctioning all domestic competitive football matches at the national level directly or local level indirectly through the fifty-five County Football Associations with a view to advancing the development of the sport and its legitimacy as an organisation in this country (The FA.com, 2010b). The FA also run eleven competitions including the FA Cup and appoints the manager of all twenty-four national football teams and has also developed and runs Wembley Stadium (The FA.com, 2010f). Additionally, the FA is a member of both the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) along with having a permanent seat upon the International Football Association Board (IFAB). Moreover, the FA bears responsibility for all national teams managements appointments along with the FA Cup’s organisation and having the power to set and vary league rules since both the FA and the Football League (and the Premier League – although not commercially affiliated) have the power to restrict the transfer of players and also take points away from clubs where they seriously contravene rules of the game (The FA.com, 2010a).
(b) SWOT Analysis
To better assess the activities of the FA in relation to its long-held policy objective of advancing the development of the sport and its legitimacy as an organisation in England it is necessary to utilise a SWOT analysis created by Albert Humphrey as a means of strategic planning to analyse the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (hence, ‘SWOT’) involved with the FA’s work (Drejer, 2004). This kind of analysis involves identifying the internal and external factors that are favourable and unfavourable for the FA achieving the advancement of the development of football and its legitimacy as an organisation in England (Armstrong, 1982). This is in keeping with the fact that it has been recognised, for effective strategic management to be carried out by a body like the FA, that there is a need for clear planning, organising, leading and evaluating of both their actions and the resources that they have available to them with a view to advancing the development of the sport and its legitimacy as an organisation in England (Masteralexis, et al, 2009). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the FA’s activities and match them to the environment and its resource capabilities regarding the consideration of operational impacts in terms of expectations so as to then be able to further the FA’s long term aims (Torkildsen, 2005). Then, it is also necessary to make a strategic choice through the generation and evaluation of all of the available options so as to then select a strategy for implementation through a set organisational structure that advances the FA’s previously alluded to objectives (Parker, 2004).
(i) Strengths
In considering its organisational strengths, one of the FA’s key strength is that it is responsible for both developing and regulating the sport without government involvement through effective organisational management accounting for the environment, the organisation’s resources and stakeholders expectations (The FA.com, 2010f). To this effect, a further strength of the FA is that, to achieve football’s advancement in England, the FA has a clear commitment to making football more accessible for all regardless of their race, religion, gender, sexuality, ability or background to maintain its market dominance through re-engineering, delayering and restructuring (The FA.com, 2010f). The FA is also able to call upon a significant level of funding illustrated by the fact that the Premier League has generated billions of pounds from Sky, sponsorship and spectators (Bower, 2007) whilst, more specifically, the new Wembley stadium has made a profit of £229 million annually as an important source of revenue for the FA they could reinvest in football (Wembley Stadium, 2010). This has served to mean that the FA is able to invest around £60 million annually with around two-thirds of that being utilised at the grass-roots level so there are now around seven million people of all ages playing football in this country (The FA.com, 2010f).
Additionally, in view of its desire to increase its legitimacy within the community, the FA has established a series of community projects to further its fundamental objective of advancing the sport and the legitimacy of the organisation in this regard. In total the FA have developed around 6,000 projects valued at over £630 million to improve facilities along with a further £4.5m having been invested in Women’s football annually so there are now more than a million females involved annually (The FA.com, 2010c). By way of further illustration of the breadth of areas the FA’s programmes cover, the ‘FA Charity Programme’ has been developed to move significant funds to areas within society where it can play a beneficial role with notable partners including ‘The Bobby Moore Fund’ (The FA.com, 2010c). Furthermore, the ‘FA Hat-Trick Programme’ has been established to deliver Community Football Development workers to England’s most deprived communities whilst also removing barriers to participation for people from all ethnic backgrounds (Norfolk FA, 2010). Moreover, more than 700,000 children under the age of eleven have benefited from ‘The FA Tesco Skills Programme’ (The FA.com, 2010e), whilst ‘The FA’s Respect Programme’ has improved behaviour and respect to reflect the need for social acceptance (The FA.com, 2010d).
(ii) Weaknesses
Having recognised the FA’s strengths it is necessary to also consider its weaknesses as an organisation. To this effect, in the wake of the Premier League’s creation in 1992, the FA has arguably lost some of its power of administration and regulation and become immersed in high finance and commercial planning but has been found to lack the professional expertise expected by professionals to its detriment (Bower, 2007). The reason for this is that, although the Premier League may have generated billions of pounds from Sky, sponsorship and spectators, the FA’s management has been detrimentally impacted upon by a confused structure of organisation (Bower, 2007). As a result, the FA have proved somewhat stubborn regarding the possibility of reforming themselves with a view to preventing agents corruption, eliminating possible conflicts of interest among club owners and bringing about heightened controls of the ever-increasing prices and wages for players (Bower, 2007). Matters have then only been further exasperated by the ramifications of increased foreign ownership of professional football clubs domestically along with the ever-increasing escalation in the value of TV deals impacting upon the Premier League so that the FA now risks the prospect of there being a potential collapse and usurping of the FA by the Premier League (Bower, 2007). Such problems have then been only further exacerbated by the ongoing rise in foreign ownership from billionaire organisations all over the world only arguably serving to further strengthen the Premier League to the detriment of the rest of football that is governed by the FA throughout the hierarchy of the sport (Bower, 2007).
(iii) Opportunities
Despite the weaknesses that have been recognised with regard to the apparent threats to the FA from the Premier League and billionaire foreign investment, the FA has suggested a system of enforcement to impose a ‘fit and proper’ test for potential club owners in the Premier League to achieve an effective balance between sporting needs and its commercial potential (Bower, 2007). At the same time, however, it is necessary for the FA to look to maintain its market dominance through re-engineering, delayering and restructuring from the top of the FA all the way down throughout its entire hierarchy (Bower, 2007). In addition, there remains scope for the FA to heighten its legitimacy through the use of community programmes like the the ‘FA Charity Programme’ that has been developed to move significant funds to areas within society where it can play a beneficial role with notable partners including ‘The Bobby Moore Fund’ (The FA.com, 2010c). Furthermore, more than 700,000 children under the age of eleven have benefited from ‘The FA Tesco Skills Programme’ (The FA.com, 2010e), whilst ‘The FA’s Respect Programme’ has improved behaviour and respect to reflect the need for social acceptance (The FA.com, 2010d).
(iv) Threats
As for threats to the FA’s stated objective of achieving the advancement of the sport and its legitimacy in this country, the problem is that the Premier League will not concede control of its affairs to the FA to make more effective changes to the way in which football is administered and run in this country (Bower, 2007). This is because FA have proved to be somewhat stubborn in relation to the possibility of reforming themselves with a view to preventing agents corruption, eliminating possible conflicts of interest among club owners and bringing about heightened controls of the ever-increasing prices and wages for players (Bower, 2007). With this in mind, as a result of being somewhat outwitted by the Premier League and now foreign owners, the FA now seem to be somewhat powerless to get the new foreign owners to help with the development and sustainability of the sport domestically (Bower, 2007). This is because it has come to be understood that, if the FA’s strategic management is weak, there is a risk the Premier league may take over the running of the domestic game so that the limited money trickling down to the grass roots (around £60 million annually) would cease to the detriment of the advancement of the legitimacy of the organisation and the development of the sport (Bower, 2007).
Conclusions – What can be understood regarding the FA on the basis of this SWOT analysis?
From the SWOT analysis that has been undertaken here, with a view to achieving the FA’s objective of the advancement of football as a sport in England and its legitimacy as an organisation in this regard, the FA consistently seeks to advance best practices along with its legitimacy as an organisation to further the development of the sport (The FA.com, 2010f). This kind of analysis involves identifying the internal and external factors that are favourable and unfavourable for the FA achieving the advancement of the development of football and its legitimacy as an organisation in England (Armstrong, 1982). The reason for this is that the FA is seeking to achieve networking and support to further its stated aim through innovative policies in the manner already described to develop skills through an effective infrastructure that permits the establishment of a healthy community and regeneration (Parker, 2004). Therefore, as well as looking to administer football throughout its hierarchy, the FA can issue monetary fines, restrict the transfer of players and deduct points from clubs where they seriously contravene the rules put into place by the FA in matters of finance leading to administration or their failure to keep control of staff (The FA.com, 2010f).
In addition, the FA also looks to invest around £60 million annually in the sport with around two-thirds of that being utilised at the grass-roots level through its sponsorship and broadcasting partnerships so there are now around seven million people of all ages currently playing football (The FA.com, 2010f). At the same time, however, the FA has been subjected to some significant threats from the ongoing development of the Premier League to the detriment of those involved in the sport throughout the hierarchy – what with increased sponsorship and billionaire foreign ownership – so it has then fallen upon the FA to look to regulate the activities of the FA (Bower, 2007). The problem is that the Premier League is a separate body to the FA and does not consider itself wholly subject to either its administration or regulation to the detriment of the FA’s objective of the advancement of football in England and its legitimacy as an organisation. Nevertheless, it remains arguable that the FA will retain a high degree of relevance within society because of the Premier League and, despite the risks to its funding, the FA continues to advance its legitimacy through its use of around 6,000 projects valued at over £630 million to improve facilities throughout England (The FA.com, 2010c). This is in keeping with the fact that, for effective strategic management to be carried out by a body like the FA through its work, there is a need for planning, organising, leading and evaluating of both their actions and the resources that they have available to them with a view to advancing the development of the sport and its legitimacy as an organisation in England (Masteralexis, et al, 2009).
 

The Physiological Demands Of Association Football

Association football at the elite level has developed vastly over recent years and many studies into match performance and training have been performed. It is clear that this research has enabled science to be incorporated to a greater extent into the training conducted in football. Earlier studies looked into the physiological demands of the game, by performing physiological measurements before and after the game or at half-time. In addition to this earlier research, some up to date studies have scrutinized changes in both performance and physiological responses with a special focus on the most demanding activities and periods in the game.

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Another area to have received considerable attention individual differences in the physical demands players are exposed to throughout the games and in training. These can be affected by training status, playing position and to the specific tactical roles assigned to the players. Thus, most top level clubs have incorporated the tactical and physical demands of the players into their fitness training.
This paper will look into the demands of different activites of football, aerobic and anaerobic energy production in match play, the fatigue experienced in football matches and the training of top level players.
Aerobic Energy Production in a Football Match
Association football is an intermittent sport in which the aerobic energy system is utilized majorly, with mean heart rate at around 85% of maximal and peak heart rate at around 98% of maximal, Taking these values, it is possible to discover oxygen uptake using the relationship between heart rate and oxygen uptake. Though, it is unlikely that the heart rates measured during a match will be accurate enough to lead to a correct estimation of oxygen uptake, since variables such as dehydration, hyperthermia, and mental stress elevate the heart rate without affecting oxygen uptake. However, taking these factors into account, the heart rate measurements received during a game suggest the average oxygen uptake is around 70% of VO2 max.
This is supported by core temperature data measured during the match. Since a linear relationship has been reported between rectal temperature and relative work intensity (Saltin & Hermansen, 1966), core temperature can be used as an indirect measure of energy production. Throughout a bout of continuous cycling, completed at 70% VO2 max, the rectal temperature was 38.7°C. In association football, the core temperature increases relatively more compared with the average intensity due to the intermittent nature of the game. Hence, it is pragmatic that a 60% of VO2 max work rate, the core temperature was 0.3°C higher during intermittent than continuous exercise (Ekblom et al., 1971). All the same, core temperatures of 39-40°C for the duration of a game propose that the average aerobic energy production rate for the period of a game is around 70% VO2 max (Mohr et al., 2004).
Conversely, a factor of more interest than the average oxygen uptake may possibly be the rate of rise in oxygen uptake during the many short intense actions throughout the duration of the game. A player’s heart rate during a game is rarely below 65% of maximum, which means that oxygen delivery is continuously high. However, the oxygen kinetics during the constant flow from low to high intensity during match play appear to be restricted by the oxidative capacity of the contracting muscles (Krustrup, Hellsten, & Bangsbo, 2004).
Anaerobic energy production in a Football Match
Top football players complete approximately 150-250 short duration, intense actions (sprints, shooting, tackling etc.) throughout a game (Mohr et al., 2003). This suggests the rate of anaerobic energy production will vary from low to high during the game. Albeit, not studied directly, the intense exercise leads to a high rate of creatine phosphate breakdown, which in some measure is resynthesized in the low-intensity exercise periods (Bangsbo, 1994). On However, creatine phosphate levels may decrease during periods of the game if the intense activities are completed with short recovery periods. Creatine phosphate in muscle biopsies obtained after intense exercise periods during a game have provided values above 70% of those at rest, although could be due to the delay in attaining the biopsy (Krustrup et al., 2006).
A range of blood lactate concentrations of 2-10 mmol·l−1 have been observed during matches, from a variety of research (Krustrup et al., 2006). These findings suggest that the rate of muscle lactate production is high during match-play. However, it is important to consider that muscle lactate has been measured in only one study. In a non-competitive match between non-professional teams, data indicated that muscle lactate increased by 400% in comparison with resting values, after intense periods in both halves, (Krustrup et al., 2006). A study in 2003 by Krustrup, found values over three times those observed previously. However, more interesting was the fact that muscle lactate was not correlated with blood lactate. This is supported by research when participants performed repeated intense exercise using the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (Krustrup et al., 2003). This is in contrast to continuous exercise where the blood lactate concentrations are lower but reflect well the muscle lactate concentrations during exercise. This difference between intermittent and continuous exercise are most likely caused by the different turnover speeds of muscle and blood lactate during the two types of exercise, with muscle lactate being removed more readily than blood lactate (Graham, & Saltin, 1993).
The relationship between muscle lactate and blood lactate also appears to be influenced by the activities immediately before sampling (Krustrup & Bangsbo, 2001). Thus, the rather high blood lactate concentration often seen in football may not correspond to a high lactate production in the activity just performed, but instead, an accumulated reaction to a sequence of high-intensity activities (Krustrup et al., 2006). This is important to take into account when looking at the relationship between blood lactate concentration and muscle lactate concentration. Yet, it is suggested that the rate of glycolysis is high for short periods of time during a game based on the finding of high blood lactate and moderate muscle lactate concentrations during match-play,
Fatigue in a Football Match
Several studies have suggested that players’ ability to perform the high-intensity activities associated with football,is reduced towards the end of games in both elite and non-professional football (Krustrup et al., 2006; Mohr et al., 2003). Therefore, it has been established that the amount of sprinting, tackling, shooting, and the distance covered are lower in the second half compared to the first half of a game (Mohr et al., 2003). What’s more, it has been suggested that the amount of sprinting decreases in the final 15 min of a top-class soccer game (Mohr et al., 2003). However, there is a wide range of mechanisms that have been suggested to explain the decrease in exercise performance at the end of the football match. One particular mechanism is the depletion of glycogen stores, since the onset of fatigue during intermittent exercise has been linked to a lack of muscle glycogen. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that increasing muscle glycogen before intermittent exercise by carbo-loading enhances performance during exercise (Balsom et al., 1999). A study by Krustrup et al. (2006), found that the muscle glycogen concentration at the end of the match was reduced to 150-350 mmol·kg. Thus, there was still glycogen available. However, histochemical analysis revealed that about half of the individual muscle fibres of both types were almost depleted or depleted of glycogen. This reduction can be linked to the reduction of sprint performance at the end of the match, and it was suggested a depletion of glycogen in some mucsle fibres does not allow for a maximal effort in single and repeated sprints. Nevertheless, it is unclear what the mechanisms are behind the possible causal relationship between muscle glycogen concentration and fatigue during prolonged intermittent exercise (Maughan, 2007).
Dehydration has also been linked to the onset of fatigue in the later stages of a football game (Magal et al., 2003). Elite players have been reported to lose up to 3 litres of fluid during games (Maughan, 2007) and it has been observed that 5 and 10 m sprint times are slowed by dehydration which amounts to 2.7% of body weight (Magal et al., 2003). On the other hand, in a study by Krustrup et al. (2006) a significant decline in sprint performance was found, although the fluid loss of the subjects was only about 1% of body mass. Thus, it would appear that fluid loss is not always an important component in the impaired performance seen towards the end of a game.
Current research via analysis of professional male football players during games has pointed out that players become fatigued at stages in a game (Mohr et al., 2003). Accordingly, in the five minutes subsequent to the most intense time of the match, the ability to complete  high-intensity exercise was decreased to levels below the average. Fatigue throughout a match is a complex and one with a wide range of explnations. One of these may be cerebral in nature, especially during hot conditions (Meeusen, Watson, & Dvorak, 2006). Nevertheless, it has been suggested that the cause of fatigue, in elite level athletes only, is a muscular mechanism. In the study by Krustrup et al. (2006), the decrease in performance for the period of the game was correlated to muscle lactate. Conversely, the connection was very weak and the alteration in muscle lactate were not particularly clear. What’s more, numerous studies have publicized that the build up of lactate does not cause fatigue (Krustrup et al., 2003). A further mechanism suggested to be responsible muscle fatigue at some point in intense exercise is a low muscle pH (Sahlin, 1992). Nonetheless, muscle pH is not reduced dramatically, only to about 6.8, throughout a game and no correlation with performance level has been observed (Krustrup et al., 2006). Nevertheless, none of these explanations offer a clear picture into what is the primary cause of the fatigue during the game, and further research is needed to reveal the mechanisms causing fatigue throughout the match.
Conclusions
It is clear to see that association football utilizes both the aerobic and anaerobic energy production systems heavily, and could not be described as predominantly either aerobic or anaerobic. With the players travelling on average 10-13 km through a 90 minute game, the aerobic system is very important and training needs to focus on aerobic exercise. However, as the players complete, on average, 150-250 intense activity exercises throughout the 90 minute game, and blood and muscle lactate levels both dramatically increasing throughout the game, anaerobic exercise would also need to be focused on in order to improve this part of the game. It is the players that  can managed the balance between aerobic and anaerobic exercise that reach the top level of the game, and differences are seen between international players and other professionals, like they are non-international players and non-professional players.
Based on the analysis of the demands of association football it is evident that the training of elite football players should focus on enhancing their ability to perform intense exercise and to recover rapidly from these periods of high-intensity activity. This can be achieved by performing an aerobic and anaerobic training regime on a regular basis (Bangsbo, 2005), which is easy for elite level football players who are played to train every day. However, for those who are wanting to become a professional football player, it is more difficult to train regularly, while potentially completing other work to earn money. 
In a typical week for a professional football team with one match to play, the players might have six training sessions in 5 days, with the day after the match used to recover. For the average person, this sort of time is hard to find, and restricts an individual, who has not come through the academy system, wanting to become professional.
 

Reasons For Decline In Football Attendances Essay

Introduction
The British football sector is characterised by considerable diversity in relation to the nature, type, size and success of football clubs (Wilson and Piekarz, 2015). However, what these clubs all share is a diminishing ability to attract large audiences. For example, by June 2015, just two months before the start of the 2015/2016 season, the English Premier League club, Newcastle United had only managed to sell 70 per cent of its season tickets; articles that just one decade earlier had been the subject of considerable demand (Edwards, 2015). Clubs at the lower echelons of the English footballing hierarchy, like Millwall and Brighton are faring even worse (Gupta, 2013), while many of those in the Scottish League are suffering a similar fate (Watt, 2014). This paper examines and discusses the drivers of the fall in football attendances and ticket sales in the United Kingdom in recent years. The paper finds that the decline cannot be attributed to any one factor; rather, a number of aspects have combined to produce a decline in interest, or ability of football fans to attend games. Against this background, a number of strategies to boost ticket revenues are proffered. The paper is organised as follows. The next section identifies and critiques four possible reasons for the decline in attendances and sales (the late 2000s recession, the limits of capacity, hooliganism and the increase in the number of televised football matches). Next three novel tactics to boost sales are identified. A short conclusion summarises the key findings of the paper.

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Causes of decline
The late 2000s recession
In 2008, the British economy officially entered into a recession. Unemployment rose – particularly among the working classes (the social class in which football fans and audiences have traditionally been located), downward pressure was placed on wages, and, as a consequence of growing inflation, disposable incomes were squeezed (Wilson and Piekarz, 2015). It seems reasonable, therefore, to suggest that the decline in the uptake of football tickets by potential attendees is at least partially attributable to their inability to afford the expense. Indeed, research shows that during periods of economic downturn, households cutback expenditure on items that are perceived to be non-essentials or luxuries; for many households, attendance at a football game will fall into one of these categories (Dobson and Goddard, 2011). Thus, a negative correlation between (paid) football attendances and inflation rates should be expected. However, there is some research that indicates that football consumption is in fact, price inelastic, even in the higher price brackets (Forrest, Simmons and Feehan, 2002). What this means is that avid football fans will continue to purchase tickets and attend matches if the relative price increases (as occurs during a recession) even if their economic circumstances should, according to a rational analysis, inhibit this. The price inelasticity of football attendance has been explained according to the theory of fandom (Goldblatt, 2014). This refers to the fact that football should not merely be understood as a game, but as a subculture comprised of a community of consumers whose identities and interests are reinforced through the consumption of the activity of which they are a fan (Harris and Alexander, 1998). Many individuals are long-term fans of football teams (or, of the game in general); their history of interaction with the sport can often be traced through familial lines. In such instances, expression of fandom continues regardless of obstacles such as affordability and economic context.
The fact that football is characterised by fandom suggests that the recession alone cannot explain the sharp decline in attendances and revenues witnessed in recent years. However, some commentators have argued that the effects of the recession should be understood in conjunction with the massive, real rise in prices of football tickets that have been evident over the past two decades. Since the 1980s, the cost of attending a football game has increased substantially (Buraimo, 2014). In the English Premier League – the highest professional league in the country – the average price of a ticket has risen by some 1100% (in real terms) since 1995 (Buraimo, 2014). One of the reasons for the huge increase in prices is the need for clubs to invest substantial sums in new talent in order to remain financially viable (Dobson and Goddard, 2011). Devoted fans understand this and may be happy to contribute funds through higher ticket prices during normal economic times. However, faced with declining incomes, even the most dedicated followers may be forced to make cutbacks on attendance.
Capacity limits have been reached
Another explanation for the decline in attendances and sales is that the limits of growth have now been reached. During the 1990s and early 2000s, many large clubs built new stadia or extended or remodelled their existing infrastructure (Dobson and Goodard, 2011). Examples include Bolton’s Reebok Stadium, which was built in 1997, Sunderland’s Stadium of Light (completed in 1997) and the DW Stadium (Wigan) which was built in 1999. Indeed, Deloitte (2014) catalogues some 30 new stadium built between 1992 and 2012. The improvement in facilities and increase in capacity meant that aggregate attendance levels, and hence, revenues, sharply rose in the late 1990s and early to mid-2000s (Dobson and Goddard, 2011). Thus, the fall in numbers attending games and the revenues that this yields that has been witnessed in recent years merely represents a return to what economists term equilibrium, or the natural state of things (Dobson and Goddard, 2011).
Hooliganism
Since the 1980s, many football matches have been marred by instances of hooliganism (Hopkins and Treadwell, 2014). Hooliganism refers to a bundle of deviant and criminal behaviours (including violence, destruction, vandalism, intimidation, brawling and fighting) that is not typical of, but unique to the sport of football. Although hooliganism in football has a long history (according to Hopkins and Treadwell, 2014, the earliest recorded incident of football hooliganism occurred as far back as 1880), it proliferated during the 1970s and 1980s in English football. Many teams were supported by organised groups of hooligans such as Middlesbrough’s Frontline, the Naughty Forty (hooligans associated with Stoke City) and the County Road Cutters (Everton) (Hopkins and Treadwell, 2014). Growing incidents of hooliganism arguably made physical attendance at football matches far less desirable compared with the ability to watch the sport at home or televised in some space away from the stadium (Jewell, Simmons and Szymanski, 2014). The impact of hooliganism on attendances and revenues may also be more indirect. It may also have been partly responsible for the hike in prices that occurred during the 1990s, as clubs sought ways to attempt to dissuade hooligans from attending games. However, the impact of hooliganism on football attendances and revenues could perhaps be overstated. As Green and Simmons (2015) and Perryman (2013) have both noted, there has been a decline in incidents of hooliganism in recent years in both England and Scotland. This is attributable to a crackdown placed on hooligan activities by British law enforcers as well as increased powers of clubs to prevent sales of tickets to individuals known to be associated with football related crime.
Increased access to televised football
Finally, it is argued that physical attendances at football matches have dropped because there is simply no need for fans to attend any longer. As a consequence of new economic models characterised by the sale of the rights to televise football games to a number of production companies, it is possible for fans to watch most games either at home (if they have the relevant subscriptions) or in some other space (such as a public house) (Solberg and Mehus, 2014). Furthermore, channels through which football can be watched and accessed are growing in diversity as a result of advances in communications technologies. The proliferation of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets means that individuals can tune in to their favourite clubs’ games even when they are on the go (Cleland, 2015; Solberg and Mehus, 2014). Although football fans express the joy and excitement of attending a ‘real-life’ game (Goldblatt, 2014), there are many advantages to watching a game outside of the football stadium. First, audiences have access to home comforts and facilities, such as toilets and drinks, and do not have to endure poor weather which may in fact improve their enjoyment of the game. Second, watching a game at home or in a public space is considerably less expensive than attending a physical game, even if a television (or other platform) subscription must be paid for (Dobson and Goddard, 2011). The cost of ancillary products such as food and drink is lessened, and souvenirs, if desired, can be easily sourced online (Solberg and Mehus, 2014). Thirdly, there may be better camaraderie for fans of the game because large groups of individuals are able to watch the game together; whereas only devoted fans are likely to travel to away games, and the cost of both home and away games, as well as restrictions on sales may prevent some individuals from attending. Fourthly, if hooliganism is perceived to be a problem, fans may believe it to be safer to watch the game away from the stadia (Perryman, 2013).
Despite the advantages of watching football games away from the stadia, as well as the increased ability to do so, some commentators argue that the impact of television and other media on the negative economic fortunes of the game have been overstated. Firstly, it is pointed out that clubs derive considerable revenues from their deals with television companies (Cleland, 2015). Secondly, many avid fans view televised games as inferior to watching games in real life. Thirdly, the games of many football clubs, especially those in the lower leagues, are not televised at all (Wilson and Piekarz, 2015). This means that the drop in attendance at these games cannot be attributed to the proliferation of broadcasted matches.
Strategies to boost revenues from ticket sales
Many of the factors that may be driving reduced sales are, to some extent, out of the control of the football clubs. Therefore, novel or innovative strategies may be necessary to increase sales. Drawing on the tactics used by American sports teams faced with declining sales (reported in Howard and Crompton, 2004), the following strategies are recommended to UK football clubs to boost revenues from ticket sales.

Use differential pricing. Differential pricing is a pricing strategy in which the price of tickets is adjusted according to the quality of the teams involved in the game, the weather or the time of the season (Dobson and Goddard, 2011). If low audience numbers are expected due to, for example, poor weather or the economic climate clubs are advised to drop prices in order to boost sales.
Flexible season tickets. This involves offering fans the ability to tailor season ticket packages to their needs and has been found to be highly successful in boosting sales (Howard and Crompton, 2004).
Facilitate resale markets. Clubs are advised to develop ticket facilities that enable secondary sale of already purchased tickets. This will allow individuals facing financial difficulties to recoup losses by selling tickets to other fans.

Concluding remarks
Football is big business. The survival and thriving of British football clubs depends largely on their ability to attract audiences, to grow those audiences (particularly season ticket holders, who are more loyal) and to convince those audiences to spend cash on ancillary goods (e.g. food drinks and souvenirs) when they are in attendance. However, the ability of clubs in the UK to grow audiences and to convert them into revenues is under threat. This paper has highlighted some of the drivers of the drop in football attendances and revenues from ticket sales in the United Kingdom in recent years. The paper finds that reduced revenues cannot be attributed to any one factor. Rather, the fall in sales is likely due to increased prices in tickets, reduced affordability caused by the economic downturn, the increase in hooliganism and the increased ability to watch football matches in spaces away from the physical stadia. Against this background, clubs are advised to adopt three tactics to support their economic and financial growth.
References
Buraimo, B. (2014). Spectator demand and attendances in English league football. In Goddard, J. and Sloane, P. (Eds.). Handbook on the Economics of Professional Football. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar
Cleland, J. (2015). A Sociology of Football in a Global Context. London: Routledge.
Deloitte (2014). Annual review of football finance. London: Deloitte
Dobson, S., & Goddard, J. (2011). The economics of football. Cambridge: and Goddard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Edwards, L. (2015). A third of Newcastle season tickets unsold. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/football/teams/newcastle-united/11706929/A-third-of-Newcastle-season-tickets-unsold.html
Forrest, D., Simmons, R., & Feehan, P. (2002). A Spatial Cross-Sectional Analysis of Elasticity of Demand for Soccer. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 49(3), 336-356.
Goldblatt, D. (2014). The Game of Our Lives: The English Premier League and the Making of Modern Britain. London: Nation Books.
Green, C., & Simmons, R. (2015). The English disease: has football hooliganism been eliminated or just displaced? In Rodriguez, P., Kesenne, S. and koning, R. (Eds). The Economics of Competitive Sports. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar
Gupta, R. (2013). Clubs like Brighton & Millwall take steps to halt declining attendances http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/football/21142999
Harris, C., & Alexander, A. (1998). Theorizing fandom: Fans, subculture, and identity. Jersey: Hampton Press
Hopkins, M. and Treadwell, J. (2014). Football Hooliganism, Fan Behaviour and Crime: Contemporary Issues. London: Palgrave Macmillan
Howard, D. R., & Crompton, J. L. (2004). Tactics used by sports organizations in the United States to increase ticket sales. Managing Leisure, 9(2), 87-95.
Jewell, R. T., Simmons, R., & Szymanski, S. (2014). Bad for Business? The Effects of Hooliganism on English Professional Football Clubs. Journal of Sports Economics, 15(5), 429-450.
Perryman, M. (2013). Hooligan wars: Causes and effects of football violence. London: Random House.
Solberg, H. A., & Mehus, I. (2014). The Challenge of Attracting Football Fans to Stadia?. International Journal of Sport Finance, 9(1), 3-19.
Watt, T. (2014). How has your club’s average attendance changed in past 20 years? http://sport.stv.tv/football/clubs/celtic/302136-how-has-your-clubs-average-attendance-changed-in-past-20-years/
Wilson, R., & Piekarz, M. (2015). Sport Management: The Basics. London: Routledge.
 

Theories of Fatigue: Football Case Study

What are the key theories of fatigue, how does it develop throughout the course of a game in footballers and what are its implications on injury risk?
Introduction
Everyone experiences fatigue, and many of us have felt fatigue associated feelings of tiredness, lethargy and slowed reactions it in the context of sport and exercise. Fatigue represents a key limiting factor for performance in sportspeople, and it is therefore a very important topic in Sports Medicine. With this essay, I hope to provide an interesting introduction to the field of fatigue and to demonstrate its importance in sport. The physiological processes underlying the development of fatigue are complex and still widely debated. Nevertheless, I aim to discuss some key theories of the contributing central and peripheral mechanisms, their merits, and how they have developed over time. I will describe how fatigue effects footballers as a match progresses and in doing this, introduce some methods used to monitor the activity of footballers during a game and perhaps prevent injuries. To further highlight the impact of fatigue in sport, I will end by giving evidence that fatigue increases the risk of injury and an important example of how this might occur.
Theories of Central Fatigue
Central Fatigue (CF) describes processes occurring within the Central Nervous System, resulting in a reduced rate of firing by alpha motor neurones to skeletal muscle, and can be summarised as an ‘impaired motor drive’.1 Strong evidence suggests that central mechanisms play a greater role than peripheral mechanisms in fatigue caused by low-intensity exercise.2,3,4 A study published in 20072 illustrates the reduced motor drive caused by CF in low-intensity exercise particularly well. Despite having a relatively low participation of 18, I think it is worth highlighting as it exhibited tight control of unwanted variables. Low-intensity contractions were performed at 20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and high-intensity contractions at 80% of MVC. Participants were randomised between these two groups and required to perform their respective fatiguing task until failure, which unsurprisingly took longer for low-intensity contractions. Precautions were taken to isolate the elbow flexors including strapping of the shoulder, and neither the subjects nor investigators were informed of their time to task failure as it occurred. Voluntary activation – the increase in force when an electrical stimulus is delivered to a muscle during an MVC – was measured before and after each task. Voluntary activation gives an indication of neural drive and was reduced after both tasks, indicating that CF had affected the elbow flexors. However, the reduction in VA was greater after low-force contractions (14%), suggesting a more significant CF impact than after high-force contractions (5%). In addition, the authors used Electromyography to measure levels of electrical activity in the elbow flexor muscles during and after each fatiguing task. Levels of electrical activity were increased, but measured less after the low-force task, again supporting the theory that CF is primarily responsible for task failure during lower intensity exercise.

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A key first hypothesis of the mechanism behind CF, the ‘Serotonin-Hypothesis’, was outlined in a 1987 paper.5 The authors predicted that during exercise, supra-physiological levels of serotonergic activity in the brain were the cause of lethargy and loss of drive during prolonged exercise. This link has been investigated, and it has been shown in rats that a reduced run-time to exhaustion is observed when a general Serotonin antagonist (Quipazine Dimaleate) is administered.6 This effect was not replicated when a Serotonin antagonist restricted to the periphery (Xylamidine Tosylate) was administered. This finding adds weight to the theory that serotonergic activity in the brain, and not in the periphery, plays a role in CF. The mechanism by which exercise causes increased levels of Serotonin is thought to be due to influences it has on the uptake process of Serotonin precursor, Tryptophan, across the blood-brain barrier (BBB).1 More recently, evidence has emerged through studies of amphetamine use 7,8 that dopamine also plays an important role in CF. For example, two papers have shown that a low dose of amphetamine increases endurance in fatigued rats, with endurance being assessed by measuring swimming time and treadmill time to exhaustion.7,8 The mechanism for Dopamine’s role in CF is not completely clear, but its involvement in motivation and reward could be significant.1 The modern theory of CF incorporates all of the above findings, suggesting that an exercise-induced increase in the ratio of Serotonin to Dopamine in the brain is responsible for feelings of lethargy during prolonged exercise.9 If correct, this means that there is the potential to artificially manipulate brain neurotransmitter levels, postpone the onset of CF and boost levels of performance.
Unsurprisingly, given the potential benefits to sports medicine, a lot of research has been done investigating whether the impact of CF in exercise can be reduced. Management of nutrition can be used to artificially manipulate neurotransmitter levels. A number of studies have investigated the administration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), which compete with Serotonin precursor Tryptophan for transport across the BBB, on prolonged exercise performance. One such study investigated whether administering a mixture of BCAA to participants during a 30km or 42.2km race could improve race times.10 Unfortunately, the study’s field-based nature meant there was a lack of control over participants during the race. Nevertheless, the authors found that running performance was significantly improved in marathon runners (42.2km) who normally ran at a slower pace, completing the race in 3.05-3.30 hours. Runners who normally posted a ‘faster’ time of under 3.05h showed no significant improvement, leading to the authors’ suggestion that these runners had developed resistance to feelings of CF. This is a fascinating proposition which, if its mechanism can be understood properly, could lead to targeted fitness training for professional sportspeople to overcome the effects of CF. I haven’t been able to find any papers investigating this and believe it would be an interesting topic for future research. As well as managing nutrition, pharmacological manipulation of neurotransmitter levels has been attempted using Serotonin reuptake inhibitors11 and Serotonin Receptor antagonists.12 These papers, along with those investigating nutritional management, struggle to provide a clear consensus regarding the mechanism of Central Fatigue and more robust studies are needed before we can state beyond doubt the roles of Serotonin and Dopamine.
Theories of Peripheral Fatigue
Peripheral Fatigue (PF) describes processes taking place within a muscle, which reduce its capacity to exert force. It is considered responsible for task failure in high-intensity exercise,13 including most exercises performed to build strength. In exercise with high-energy demands on a muscle, anaerobic glycolysis occurs producing lactate. Rates of lactate synthesis outstrip its rate of conversion back to glucose, causing lactate build-up and a shift in equilibrium favouring lactic acid production. Many factors have been suggested as responsible for PF, with early theories citing lactic acidosis as the probable cause,14 although scepticism surrounding this link has since emerged.15,16 A good example of this scepticism is a study which used the ‘Yo-yo intermittent recovery test’ to observe changes in muscle lactate levels and PH, along with other physiological responses, when exercising to exhaustion.16 Participants were asked to run 20m back and forth at progressively increased speeds, until fatigue caused them to twice fall short of the finishing line. Those who had muscle biopsies were sampled on two occasions. During a first run, all 13 were biopsied after exhaustion, with 7 participants also being biopsied at rest beforehand. During a second run on a different occasion, the remaining 6 participants were biopsied at what was calculated to be 90% of their time to exhaustion. The aim of this comparative measure was to observe any change in metabolite levels in the time between 90% and 100% exhaustion. As expected, muscle lactate levels increased eightfold after exhaustion (51.2 ± 7.6 mmol·kg-1) compared to rest (6.8 ± 1.1 mmol·kg-1), and the muscle was more acidic at exhaustion (PH: 6.98 ± 0.04) than at rest (PH: 7.16 ± 0.03). However, there was no observed change in either measurement between 90% and 100% of exhaustion. It should be noted that the samples of only 7 participants were measured for this comparison and a larger participation would have produced even more reliable results. Nevertheless, it is hard to ignore the number of other studies with similar findings15,17 and accordingly, lactic acidosis is no longer considered a determining factor for developing PF. That is not to say that it doesn’t play a smaller role in PF, in combination with other mechanisms. For example, some evidence suggests that acidosis reduces myofibrillar sensitivity to Ca2+ as H+ ions also compete for binding with Troponin C.18
A more popular theory is that Inorganic Phosphate levels are a determining factor for PF. During skeletal muscle activity, Creatine Phosphate (CP) is broken down as part of a process generating ATP, leading to reduced concentrations in exercising muscle. A review of the relevant literature estimated that intense periods of exercise during football matches causes levels of CP to fall by 40%.19 This estimate came after considering the time delay between exercise and biopsy in which resynthesis of CP will take place. Dephosphorylation of CP unsurprisingly leads to increased levels of inorganic Phosphate (Pi) in muscle cells, and this has been shown to correlate with fatigue. One study electrically stimulated the human Tibialis Anterior muscle to induce fatigue and investigate how levels of metabolites changed in relation to reduced contractile force.20 A pneumatic cuff was used to keep the muscle ischaemic, based on the assumption that this would prevent metabolite levels changing between contractions and measuring of metabolites using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). Metabolites were measured at rest and after 3, 10, 15 and 20 induced contractions. The authors found that force declined to 63% of initial force after 20 contractions. Levels of Pi increased just over fivefold after 20 contractions (29.6 m.moles per litre of intracellular water) compared to at rest (5.6 mmoles) and Figure 1 demonstrates the correlation observed between Pi concentration and Force. Another study used genetically modified mice lacking Creatine Kinase (CK), which catalyses the reaction responsible for regenerating CP, in their skeletal muscle.21 This provided a good model for further investigating the association between Pi and fatigue. Skeletal muscle fibres from the genetically modified mice had a higher Pi concentration at rest compared to wild-type fibres and generated a significantly lower force upon electrical stimulation of tetanus. Additionally, they displayed no significant reduction in force even after 100 induced tetanic contractions, whereas force was reduced to 2+ in the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum,22 meaning less Ca2+ is available for release during force production. The two suggested mechanisms for this are that either high levels of Pi inhibit uptake of Ca2+ by the SR,23 or that Pi enters the SR and precipitates with Ca2+.24

How fatigue develops over the course of a game in footballersA couple of techniques are used to collect data on footballers’ activity patterns throughout a match. GPS and accelerometer technology can be worn by players during matches to collect data on their locomotor activities.25 Alternatively, it is possible to analyse film of players and use computerised coding to discern their activity patterns to a high degree of accuracy and reproducibility.26 A 2003 study adopting this technique filmed eighteen top-level professional footballers over 129 matches, along with 24 footballers of a moderate standard.27 The authors recorded the frequency and duration of various levels of activity, which were categorised according to speed, and presented the data for every 5, 15, 45 and 90 minutes. This allowed them to compare different stages of the match and pinpoint when levels of athletic performance changed. As well as this, lots of comparisons were made between players of different standards and playing positions which, whilst interesting, aren’t wholly relevant to the topic of fatigue. Top-level footballers ran for longer periods at both low and high intensities, and covered more distance in the first half (5.51 ± 0.10km) compared to the second half (5.35 ± 0.09km) of matches. Figure 2 gives a good visualisation of how distances covered during high-intensity running were unevenly distributed between halves. Distance covered whilst sprinting for top-level footballers was 43% less in the last 15 minutes than the first 15 minutes. Arguably, this could be put down to the fact that the outcome of matches had already been decided as the last 15 minutes approached. However, this is unlikely to be the case because the majority of matches observed had a score difference of only one goal or less approaching this stage, meaning neither team could afford to deliberately lower their intensity. It was also found that substitutes, in comparison to those playing the entire match, undertook 25% more high-intensity running and 63% more sprinting during the last 15 minutes, presumable because they were not fatigued. A 2016 study which used GPS and accelerometer data, presented findings similar to the 2003 study when they observed a significant decrease in locomotor efficiency towards the end of each half in English Championship U21 footballers.25For this study, investigators used a new unit called ‘PlayerLoadâ„¢ per meter’, suggesting that it gives a good representation of locomotor efficiency and may, therefore, be useful for informing decision making before or within a match. For example, squad rotation or training regime decisions could be made base on the locomotor efficiency shown by a player during training or a previous game. This is an example of a very important area of Sports Medicine which is the prevention of injuries by properly managing players outside of match-play. Overall, we can clearly see that footballers become fatigued throughout the course of a match, which I’d like to suggest may be due to the gradual onset of CF. The authors of the 2003 study also wanted to establish whether a ‘temporary fatigue’ effect existed.27 To do this, they identified 5 minutes over which each player covered their peak distance in high-intensity running, representing their most taxing period of exercise for each match. In the 5 minutes following this, on average, each player performed 12% less high-intensity running that the average for all 5 minute periods. This demonstrates that players are affected by a ‘temporary fatigue’ within matches, potentially because they are experiencing PF induced by a period of very high-intensity exercise.
The implications fatigue on injury risk
Injuries represent a huge challenge for professional sports clubs, as players are rendered unavailable for selection whilst also costing money in wages. This problem is well illustrated by the fact that over 15 seasons for 50 elite football clubs, the average proportion of a squad available for match selection has consistently been below 90%.28 A number of huge epidemiological studies have been set up to investigated the incidence and nature of injuries in professional footballers, 28,29 the most prominent being the ‘UEFA Elite Club Injury Study’ which is updated every season. Over the 2015/16 season, injury data from 29 clubs comprising of an average of 59 matches and 218 training sessions per team was analysed. Over this period, the study found that that on average 0.6 matches and 2.1 training sessions were missed per player per month due to injury.

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Data from the ‘UEFA Elite Club Injury Study’ can be used to analyse patterns of injury occurrence during matches. There is an increasing incidence of injuries occurring over time in both halves of football matches, a trend observed in the three most common injury types: strains, sprains, and contusions.28 This strongly correlates with the pattern by which fatigue has been shown to develop over the course of a game,25.27 and it is fair to say that fatigue almost definitely the cause of this increased incidence. A more specific example of how fatigue impacts injury risk can be seen in a 2009 study, set out to establish a link between fatiguing mechanisms and an increased risk of injury to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) of the knee.30 ACL injury is particularly devastating for a footballer, not least because of its long-term impacts. A follow up of 176 top level footballers in Sweden who had suffered ACL injuries, found that only 30% were still playing after three years compared to 80% in a control group.31Participation in the 2009 study30 was by 20 female student-athletes who had no history of previous injury to the knee or lower extremities. The biomechanics of participants’ lower limb joints were recorded as they performed randomly ordered, unanticipated jump landings, according to a light stimulus activated just after take-off. They then underwent a fatiguing task consisting of three single leg squats, after which biomechanics were recorded again. This cycle was continued until participants could no longer perform the three single leg squats unassisted, indicating maximal fatigue. Fatigue elicited a number of changes to biomechanics, importantly including a reduction in knee flexion and an increase in the angle of knee rotation, which promote the risk of ACL injury.
Conclusion
The importance Serotonin and Dopamine in controlling CF onset has emerged over time. A developed theory of CF is yet to be proven beyond doubt, despite there being lots of research investigating it. This could be because it is difficult, especially in humans, to structure a study with tight control over the levels of multiple neurotransmitters in the brain. It is also possible that there are more factors contributing to CF which are yet to be identified or supported by evidence. It has been suggested that resistance to CF can be developed through training, which could prove useful to Sports Medicine if investigate further. An early theory involving the build-up of lactic acid in muscle playing a key role in PF has been widely rejected by the scientific, but there is lots of evidence pointing towards increased levels of Pi being a determining factor. Ultimately, PF is probably a combined response to a number of intramuscular mechanisms. Some more potential contributors to this which I have not had a chance to touch upon include depleted glycogen levels in muscle32and altered muscle fibre membrane potentials.33 The influence that fatigue has on sporting performance is significant and can be clearly observed over the course of football matches. Tools exist, including measures of a player’s locomotor efficiency, which play an important role in preventing injury due to fatigue. Whilst there is evidence that fatigue has an impact on cognitive abilities,34,35 there are no studies I am aware of which investigate this in a footballing or sporting context. It would be interesting to see if there is a relationship between fatigue and the quality of a player’s decision making. Epidemiological studies have shown that there is a clear correlation between the onset of fatigue in football matches and a spike in incidences of injuries. There are many examples of injuries for which fatigue is a significant risk factor, with one example being ACL damage. This essay should provide a useful introduction to different areas of interest involving fatigue, all of which can be researched further.
References

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The 11 Training Program In Football Physical Education Essay

Football is a high participation sport world-wide and like most sports is associated with a certain risk of injury for players, both at the competitive and recreational level (Junge & Dvorak, 2004). However, it has been shown that the incidence of football injuries can be reduced by adopting various injury prevention strategies including warm-up, with an emphasis on stretching, proper medical attention for injuries, appropriate recovery methods and time, appropriate cool-down, use of protective equipment good playing field conditions and adherence to existing rules (Dvorak et al; 2000).

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Physical conditioning interventions have been shown to provide significant benefit in the prevention of injuries in adults (Caraffa et al., 1996), particularly with respect to the reduction of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Similarly, in younger adolescent male (Junge et al., 2002) and female football players (Mandelbaum et al; 2005) and in other team sports (Emery et al., 2005) the usefulness of exercise-based conditioning programmes for injury prevention has been shown.
Whilst it is clear that sport- specific strength training programmes that include a balance training component are effective in improving physical condition and reducing the risk of injury in mature athletes, there is lack of documentation on such strategies among younger football players. There is a need to determine how physical conditioning intervention benefits younger children since they are skeletally immature and when participating in sport, are susceptible to a range of hard- and soft-tissue injuries (Frank et al., 2007).
Sport injuries could be one of the main reasons why athletes drop-out from sports or stop playing prematurely. However, other factors may also predispose to the prevalence of dropping out, for instance the condition of the playing field. In most countries, football is traditionally played on natural grass but for climatic and economic reasons, artificial turf has become a popular alternative playing surface. However, till date, the risk of injury on artificial turfs is poorly documented (Steffen et al., 2007). There is a possibility that playing on different surfaces or switching between turfs may lead to an increased risk of injury in elite as well as in amateur football.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Conceptual Framework of Study
In this study, experimental participant football players will subject to The “11” training programme to elucidate the effects physical performance. On other side The “11” is a time-efficient injury prevention program, and can after a short period of Familiarization is completed in 10-15 minutes (F-MARC, 2005). The exercises require no equipment except a ball, and are meant to be part of the warm-up period each training session, replacing similar exercises often used during warm-up. The “11” includes ten exercises, focusing on core stability, balance, dynamic stabilization, and eccentric hamstring strength. Training programme will increase positive effects for approaches of physical performance that involve Leg power, Coordination and Explosive Leg Power, Core Stability and Muscular Endurance , Speed, Football-Specific Agility. These positive effects will reflex obviously on injury incidence among young football players that result in decreasing injury risk and injury rate. Figure 1. Show the Conceptual framework to indicate effects of training on physical performance and injuries.
2.2 FIFA’s “The 11” a prevention programme
“The 11” comprises 10 evidence-based or best-practice exercises being enhanced by education and promotion of Fair Play. The programme is designed to reduce football injury, such as ankle sprains, hamstring and groin strains, and ligament injuries in the knee. “The 11” requires no equipment other than a ball, can be complete in 10 to 15 minutes and should be performed routinely in every training session. The programme can be performed on the field with the players wearing their usual equipment and football shoes. The exercises can be carried out anywhere at any time, ideally daily and not only during training sessions or match days (Dvorak, J. 2005).
The effectiveness of FIFA’s “The 11” to actually reduce injury incidence and physical performance in football has yet to be determined, for any age group or level of player. The impact of “The 11″ programme on actual injury risk is not possible to determine from the data collected in the present study. However, the observed improvements in physical attributes and findings of previous longitudinal studies (Hart, et al., 2001) would suggest that ”The 11” has the potential to reduce injury risk across the age range. Whilst no data currently exists showing the efficacy of exercise-based injury prevention programmes for young players, data from slightly older players is considered. However, we acknowledge the limitations in speculating on injury prevention using different populations drawn from other studies. In a study involving 42 female high school football players aged 14- 18 years, Heidt et al. (2000) demonstrated that a 7-week individualized, football-specific, pre-season training programme (focusing on cardiovascular conditioning, plyometrics, strength training and flexibility) was successful in significantly (p “The 11”. More recently, (Mandelbaum et al, 2005) investigated the effectiveness of a neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programme in adolescent football players over a 2 year period and reported a reduction in ACL injury of 88% (Year 1) and 74% (Year 2) compared to a control group. Collectively, these studies clearly show the effectiveness and usefulness of such programmes for injury prevention purposes in adolescent sport participants. Whilst speculation can only be made until further studies are conducted, it is possible that the “The 11” would offer similar benefits to previous conditioning interventions, specifically to young players, and importantly, across the age/experience continuum.
2.3 Physical Performance
All sports are a combination of technique, tactics, physical fitness and psychological fitness. The complexity of football is such that the relative importance of each of these variables can change from game to game. Probably one of the reasons that football is played by so many is that the game requires no specific gifts to be successful. Some games have traits that are unique to but a few, such as strength and power for American football, height for basketball, speed for sprinters, or endurance for distance running. Football, while not requiring any specific trait for success, does require some ability in all aspects of physical fitness (Dvorak, et al; 2000). However, explosive efforts during sprints, duels, jumps, and kicks are important performance factors in football, requiring maximal strength and anaerobic power of the neuromuscular system (Hoff & Helgerud, 2004). Low physical fitness may therefore contribute to an increased injury risk. In preventing injuries, increased strength has been shown beneficial in male (Askling et al; 2003) and female athletes (Knapik et al; 1991). In addition, jumping height among young females (Emery et al; 2005) and estimated VO2max (maximum oxygen uptake) among female and male football players could not be associated to injury risk. To conclude, there is little knowledge about the potential relationship between physical fitness and injury risk.
2.3.1 Leg Power
Many studies have reported that in soccer games, aerobic and anaerobic power are important features Players of a Danish first-division junior soccer team performed 76 high-intensity runs of 12 to 15 m during a soccer match. Therefore, sprint running performance, with or without the ball, is an important factor that may explain the superiority of a winning team. In addition, (Stolen et al). reported that 96% of sprint bouts during a soccer game are shorter than 30 m, with 49% being shorter than 10 m. In this context, it must be emphasized that the 10-m performance (or even shorter distances such as 5 m or power production from a stationary start) is a relevant test variable in modern soccer. This may be crucial in critical ball duals. Similarly, jumping performances might be considered as determinant of physical demands during soccer duals. The power produced depends on both force and velocity Power is defined as the combination of strength and speed. In any sport explosive movement is critical for improving performance. In sports like tennis, football, basketball, and football sprinting from one side of the court or field to another is an important part of winning. Also in many situations, to score goals or to stop goals being scored, the player should be faster and more powerful than the opponent. Moreover, by increasing force in appropriate muscles or muscles groups, acceleration and speed may improve in skills critical to football such as turning, sprinting, and changing pace.
In many situations, to score goals or to stop goals being scored, the player should be faster and more powerful than the opponent. Moreover, by increasing force in appropriate muscles or muscles groups, acceleration and speed may improve in skills critical to soccer such as turning, sprinting, and changing pace (3). Soccer is becoming more and more athletic and to win a running or jumping dual or to catch the ball before the opponent and to score, high short-term muscle power is necessary. The power produced depends on both force and velocity.
2.3.2 Coordination and Explosive Leg Power
Modern football requires a high level of physical conditioning throughout a competitive season. Therefore, one of the most important aims of training programs in the preparation (pre-season) period is to improve football-specific strength. Football-specific strength is a concept which is extensively used in training practice and can be defined as the ability of a football player to use muscle strength and power effectively and consistently within a game and a whole season (Bangsbo, 1994).
Also, during a football game, each player performs several dynamic movements (headers, cutting, tackling, sprints, and kicks) which require a very good level of muscle strength, power and endurance .Strength in its various forms (maximum and explosive strength, rate of force development) plays a critical role on performance of such skills (Cabri et al; 1988). Football practice suggests that a football player needs to develop a level of maximum strength and power, which is utilized effectively within the game (Buhrle, 1985).
Moreover, typical athletic movements are characterized by the occurrence of a special strength variant which is called explosive leg strength. Explosive strength is defined as the individual ability of the neuromuscular system to manifest strain in the shortest possible time-span (Verhošanski, 1979). In his definition of explosive strength, (Zatziorsky, 1995) introduced the notion of reversible strength which consists of two phases: the eccentric (stretch) and concentric (shortening) phase. The concentric phase should follow the muscle extension phase that precedes it as soon as possible. These kinds of muscle actions are used when hitting a ball, in a running start and during jumps (Stojanović & Nešić; 2005). The stretching and shortening cycles are characteristic of plyometrics training. The elastic characteristics of muscles and the reflex function have a significant influence on the stretching of muscles. The muscle stretching reflex is included in the SSC (stretch shortening cycle).
For a high quality eccentric- concentric contraction, three important conditions have to be satisfied: the timely activation of the musculature just prior to the eccentric contraction, the short duration of the eccentric contraction and the instant shift from the stretching phase to the shortening phase (Komi & Gollhofer, 1997).In addition, it has been demonstrated that explosive-type resistance training is more effective in improving vertical jump compared to high-resistance training. However, it has also been reported that resistance training does not always result in enhancement of vertical jump, which is affected by other factors such as learning effect training status and volume training. Other studies reported that combined training programs including resistance and explosive unloaded tasks such as throwing, jumping or kicking in the same training session may improve muscular strength and the speed of execution on the task term changes in football players repeated sprint ability is not documented. the jumping ability depends on inter limb coordination, muscle type fiber and occasionally, on maximum strength, depending on the level of the player vertical jump is improved through various types of training interventions, such as jumping exercises, depth jump, resistance training and combination of plyometrics exercises and electro stimulation, also starting power is necessary for sports that require high speed to cover a given distance in the shortest time possible. Athletes must be able to generate maximum force at the beginning of a muscular contraction to create a high initial speed. A fast start, either from a low position as in sprinting or from a tackling position in football, depends on the reaction time and power the athlete can exert at that instant.
In summary, Vertical jump performance is determined not only by the strength of the muscles of the lower body, but by the rate at which the muscles can develop force, the speed with which they can contract and still maintain force output, the ability to utilize the stretch-shortening cycle to maximize the jump height and the degree of coordination and skill in performing the movements. Traditional weight training strength will only increase jump height in athletes who exhibit low initial strength. If the athlete is already strong, training should concentrate on improving rate of force development and muscle power output.
2.3.3 Core Stability and Muscular Endurance
The effectiveness of core stability type exercises for treating or preventing lower back and lower and upper extremity injuries. Core stability exercises performed for rehabilitation purposes are often performed on unstable equipment such as a Swiss ball, wobble board, low density mat, or air filled disc.
However core stability can be developed with exercises that are structured to emphasize muscular characteristics such as endurance, strength, exercises designed to develop these characteristics should be performed to mimic the movement patterns encountered during sports participation. Therefore, the majority of core stability exercises should be performed with free weights while standing. The traditional free weight lifts commonly performed while standing on stable ground provide a great foundation for further core stability training. However, all of these lifts emphasize trunk movement and stabilization in the sagittal plane. Therefore, athletes should consider performing other lifts that involve trunk movement and stabilization in the frontal, transverse, and diagonal planes. Many times an athlete must execute a skill while supported on a single leg, and research has demonstrated higher core muscle activity when resistance exercises were performed unilaterally versus bilaterally. Therefore, ground based free weight lifts should be modified periodically to focus on unilateral strength and power development (Vera at el, 2000). Moreover, strength training for sports must be based on the specific physiological requirements of the sport and must result in the development of either power or muscle endurance. Furthermore, strength training must revolve around the needs of planning-periodization for that sport and employ training methods specific to a given training phase, with the goal of reaching peak performance at the time of major competitions. Strength, speed and endurance are the important abilities for successful performance. The dominant ability is the one from which the sport requires a higher contribution (for instance. endurance is the dominant ability in long-distance running). Most sports require peak performance in at least two abilities.
Power, the ability to perform an explosive movement in the shortest time possible, results from the integration of maximum strength and speed. The combination of endurance and speed is called speed-endurance, a relationship of high methodical importance exists among strength, speed, and endurance. A solid foundation for specialized training is built during the initial years of training. This sport-specific phase is a requirement for all national-level and elite athletes who aim for precise training effects. As a result of specific exercises, the adaptation process occurs in accordance with an athlete’s specialization. For elite athletes, the relationship among strength, speed, and endurance is dependent on the sport and the athlete’s needs (Tudor, 2001). In conclusion, there are two types of endurance, short and long range. Short endurance refers to ability to sprint longer and long endurance is more general and it help pull off an entire match. It’s important to know that endurance isn’t just about being able to run for the ball longer in a match. However, core stability training should receive some attention in the training programs of all athletes.
2.3.4 Speed
Speed plays in football an important role, the accelerated pace of the game calls for rapid execution of typical movements by every member in a team. In many instances, successful implementation of certain technical or tactical maneuvers by different team members is directly related with the degree of velocity deployed (Kollath & Quade, 1993).Football players running speed can be improved following several types of training interventions such as sprint training, towing, over speed and specific plyometrics exercises, According to the Dawson study (2003), the large majority of sprints performed in football take six seconds or less to complete, over distances of only 10-30 meters, and many of the sprints involve at least one change of direction. As running speed increases, longer strides are taken. In this instance, the swing phase involves greater knee flexion and hip extension, and greater hip flexion in the latter part of the phase (Howe, 1996).
During football games, many actions affect the result of games. These actions are characterized by intermittent and multi-directional movements, as well as the movements of changing intensity and time. (Reilly & Ball 1984) stated that each game typically involves about 1000 changes of activity by each individual in the course of play, and each change requires abrupt acceleration or deceleration of the body or an alteration in the direction of motion. Specific physical and physiological characteristics of football players can be used by coaches to modify training programs and to help players prepare for the game strategy. The modern football relies on the ability of all players to attack and defend whenever necessary. Therefore, it is important that all players achieve a high level of performance in the basic skills of kicking, passing, trapping, dribbling, tackling and heading. Analysis of the physical and physiological characteristics of the players and determination of the specific requirements for optimal performance are thus a necessity (Tiryaki et al., 1996).
When running with a ball, much shorter strides are taken as the player must be ready to change direction and speed. At the toe-off phase, the leg may not be as extended heel stride may not be as pronounced, rather the foot may land in a more neutral position or be plantar flexed It is known that players with sprint skills have advantage over other players, accelerating power refers to the capacity to achieve high acceleration. Sprinting speed or acceleration depends on the power and quickness of muscle contraction to drive the arms and legs to the highest stride frequency, the shortest contact phase when the leg reaches the ground and the highest propulsion when the leg pushes against the ground for a powerful forward drive. The capacity of athletes to accelerate depends on both arm and leg force. Specific strength training for high acceleration will benefit most team sport athletes from wide receivers in football to wingers in rugby or strikers in football (Howe, 1996).
In conclusion, football coaches focused on their athletes for endless sprints of the’ training speed’ purpose. It must be understood that this type of training does not amount to quantifiable speed work. Training stimulus in which athletes are asked to perform repeated efforts with limited rest time (especially when the symptom logy of the effort includes breathlessness, excessive sweating or an increase in lactic acid production) is not an efficient or realistic means by which to increase speed. Speed training involves a deliberate focus on the efficiency of motion, a targeted directive towards nervous system activation and adequate rest periods so as to allow this efficiency sequence to be repeated without undue fatigue
2.3.5 Football-Specific Agility
Agility is the ability to change the body’s position, and requires a combination of balance, coordination, speed, reflexes, strength, endurance and stamina. Agility is usually achieved when a person is using their anaerobic systems. For example, in football, an agile player can respond quicker to an opposing player, closing down or jockeying. An agile player has the ability to explosively break, change direction and accelerate again.
Also, agility is an essential attribute if a football player is going to give 100% effort and commitment during a match. Regardless of your position you need to be able to accelerate and change direction quickly. For example, a wide player must be able to dribble past an opponent using both feet and tricks. This requires the development of speed and agility. In football, the ability to accelerate, decelerate and rapid movements in all directions is more important than simply running fast. There are various methods of improving a player’s agility, these exercises and drills can be completed with or without a ball. In addition, agility refers to the capability to change the direction of the body abruptly. The ability to turn quickly, dodge and sidestep calls for good motor coordination and is reflected in a standardized agility run test. (Reilly, 1996).
Agility tests comprise different directional movements with changes between 35 m and 142 m in area (Haywood, 1986). Wilmore has defined agility as the ability to change movement direction, and it constitutes conjunction of sprint, strength, stability and coordination factors. Also, agility is the product of a complex combination of speed. Coordination, flexibility and power as demonstrated in gymnastics, wrestling, football, football, volleyball, baseball, boxing, diving and figure skating when agility and flexibility combine, the result is mobility, the ability to cover a playing area quickly with good timing and coordination Too, agility training is particularly useful to football players who spent much of the game cutting, pivoting and moving side to side. Also, agility can help on several levels in football. Goalkeepers will have better reflexes and they’ll be able to get to high balls quicker if they’re more agile. Defenders will be harder to dribble and their tackles will be more accurate and clean with the right level of agility. Midfielders can dribble with ease if they’re agile and strikers work well around their quickness in order to get in front of the defender and finish on crosses, or dribble their way to goal when possible(Wilmore, 1992).
In conclusion, an essential element of successful football performance is agility, change direction quickly and deceives the opposition. Performing these movements while dribbling with alternate feet requires considerable effort and control. This requires development of speed and agility.
2.4 Incidence of Injury among young football players
In contrast, several prospective studies have documented the injury incidence and patterns in players older than 12 years, where the incidence seems to increase with increasing age. Players in the 16- to 18-year age group appear to have injury incidences comparable with those of adult players. Because of the paucity of data on injuries among children playing organized football, we wanted to investigate whether there are differences between children aged 6 through 12 years playing 5- or 7-a-side football and adolescents aged 13 through 16 years playing regular 11-a-side football (Froholdt et al, 2009).
In addition, in youth football, rule changes to reduce aggressive contact leading to ball control may have a potential for decreasing injury. Researchers have studied the relation of football injuries to age. Higher rates of injury occur in the older male (16 -18 years). In age-matched players, relatively poor muscular strength has been shown to be associated with higher rates of injury. In one study involving male and female players, the highest injury rates were reported for the oldest girls (17-19 years), and the lowest rates were reported for the youngest girls (9 to13 years) (Kucera at el; 2005).The incident of injury in New Zealand school teams playing football is high when compared with other youth team sports, probably because of the low ratio of hours spent in training relative to hours spent playing matches. Specifically, the incidence of match injuries was more than twice as high in rugby players compared with football players, the greater severity of rugby injuries was shown by the higher incidence of fractures and dislocations in the rugby players compared with the football players (Junge, et al; 2004). In summary, Prevention programs, fair play, and the continuing improvement of skills may reduce the incidence of injuries among young football players in the long term.
2.4.1 Injury Rate in Youth Football
Injury rate provides an estimate of the chance that an athlete will experience an injury during a specified time or exposure interval. Injury rate is defined as the number of injuries per 1000 hours of player activity time, or number of injuries per 1000 athlete exposures. Athlete-exposure is one athlete participating in one competition or one training session where he/she is exposed to the possibility of being injured, no matter what amount of time is involved. For example, two competitions involving 40 participants and three training sessions involving 50 participants would result in a total of 230 athlete exposures. (Knowles et al. 2006).
On the other hand, male players have higher injury rates than female players during competition. One possible reason is that male players are usually playing at higher competitive levels. The more competitive the match, the greater the speed of movement and more body contact, all of which increase the chances of injury. On the other hand, male players have higher injury rates than female players during competition. One possible reason is that male players are usually playing at higher competitive levels. The more competitive the match, the greater the speed of movement and more body contact, all of which increase the chances of injury (Wong & Hong, 2005).
2.4.2 Injury Risk in Youth Football
Injury risk is the probability of an athlete sustaining an injury. Data on injury risk in seasonal elite football revealed surprisingly high injury rates for 15 to19 year-old French female football players. These figures reflect similar or even higher injury rates than recorded in adult elite level female football. The incidence of match injuries was also notably higher than match injury rates found among male youth and adolescent football players, suggesting that adolescent elite female football players are at high injury risk. Mismatches in biological maturity between young athletes may also have implications for an increased injury risk, specifically in sports that are characterised by physical contact between teammates and opponents for example, in ball team sports and martial arts. Competing regularly against older, more mature, and heavier opponents may lead to a higher incidence of injury in younger athletes (Kathrin et al; 2010).
In addition, Football has a higher injury rate than many contact, collision sports such as field hockey, rugby, basketball, and football, although in community study of 7- to 13 year-old players, football did have a higher percentage of serious injuries and higher frequency of injury per team per season. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), through its National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, estimated that there were 186544 football-related injuries in 2006.
Approximately 80% of these injuries affected participants younger than 24 years, and approximately 44% occurred in participants younger than 15 years. It is unfortunate that there is a wide variation in the reported incidence of football injuries as a result of study differences in factors such as level of competition, intensity of exposure, definition, classifications, and reporting of injuries. Because of difficulties with interestedly comparisons, standard definitions and methodology have been proposed to ensure consistent and comparable results in the future.
With respect to age, participants younger than 15 years tend to have a higher relative injury risk and greater prevalence of injuries compared with older players. According to the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, football injuries among young athletes in the United States occur at a peak of injuries per 1000 participants. 10 For football players older than 12 years, rates of 4 to 7.6 injuries per 1000 player-hours have been reported. Over an entire football season, girls’ and boys’ teams may expect 4.0 and 3.5 injuries per season, respectively. It is notable that the risk of injury is greater during competition than during practice sessions.
Although suffering a previous injury within the past year confers a 1.74 relative risk of a new injury, there have been no consistent findings to support a higher risk to any position on the field. Some have reported overall injury rates to be similar between boys and girls, but others have found higher prevalence of injuries in female players, with girls having an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears and concussions and being more likely than boys to be injured in training situations. In contrast, boys have a greater relative risk of injury during competition (Chris et al; 2009).
In summary, the young elite athlete seems to be subjected to a high injury risk. However, the current knowledge on injury risk for this population is a part from football, based on few and for the most part small studies. Large prospective investigations are needed in most sports (Kathrin et al; 2010).
3. Problem Statement
Football is the highest incidence of sports injury and like most sports higher rates of injury occur in the young football players, especially in the 14 to16 year old players than in the 16 to18 year old players. there are many reasons lead to the occurrence of these injuries such as young football players due to lack of awareness of injury prevention, insufficient preparation, technical movements are not standardized, also this might be explained by weaknesses in techniques and tactics as well as in muscle strength, endurance, and coordination in the less experienced, younger players, too youth football players are they sometimes do not understand the importance and seriousness of some things that needs to be done. Sometimes, because o
 

Premier League Football Physical Education Essay

The Premier League is the most watched football league in the world and it’s at the first level of the English football league system. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation where each club plays every other club twice, once at home and once away, getting three points for a win, one point for a draw and zero for a loss. The team with the highest point at the end of the season wins the league for that particular season. Seasons run from August to May, with teams playing 38 games each totalling 380 games in the season. The 20 clubs acts as shareholders with each team having one vote for issues like contracts and rule change. It is sponsored by Barclays Bank and therefore officially known as the Barclays Premier League.

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Manchester United has been in the top flight on English football and will be our focus for this report. The club was formed as Newton Heath in 1878, joined the Football League in 1892, and has played in the top division of English football since 1938 with the exception of the 1974-75 seasons. Average attendances at the club have been higher than any other team in English football for all but six seasons since 1964-65.
Manchester United are the reigning English champions, having won the 2008-09 Premier League. The club is one of the most successful in the history of English football and has won 22 major honours since Alex Ferguson became manager in November 1986. In 1968, they became the first English club to win the Cup. They won a second European Cup as part of a Treble in 1999, and a third in 2008, before finishing runner-up in 2009. The club holds the joint record for the most English league titles with 18 and also holds the record for the most FA Cup wins with 11.
Manchester United FC was recently acquired by the American magnate, Malcolm Glazer. For the clubs strategic planning session, he is interested in finding answers to the following questions:
What should Glazer’s strategic priorities be for Manchester United? What targets should he establish for his management team?
What determines organizational capability in football (soccer)?
What can Glazer do to help Manchester United regain its position as England’s best football team? Should Glazer retain Alex Ferguson as head coach/team manager?
The case reveals that David Gill, the MUFC Ltd Chief Executives’ most pressing concern now is the imminent retirement of Sir Alex Ferguson, MUFC’s most successful coach. The club hasn’t found a replacement for him, and to seek his replacement Mr. Gill is pondering the fundamental qualities that make a football manager successful in England and Europe. This study aims to answer the owner and the CEO’s questions.
Problem Definition/Structuring:
To effectively answer the questions listed above, it is important that we understand the club (Manchester United FC), the industry it operates in (EPL/UEFA), and the inter-relationships between variables, so that we can target variables to be improved in measurable ways.
In the cognitive map that was developed for this case (figure 1.0, see appendix), we can identify Manchester United’s fundamental objective as ‘To be the best club in England’. This ambition is a huge holistic goal that is influenced by many factors and goals, clustered with different levels of causality. For instance, in its simplest form, to be considered the best club in England, Man U has to win the premier league trophy and the FA cup at least. To do this, they would need to play good football, which in turn depends on the quality of the players and the coach. Now, these two depend on a variety of factors as shown by the detailed cognitive map.
We have also added a SWOT (table 1.0 in the appendix) analysis to examine the state of the club and to help Mr Glazer to determine his most pressing needs.
Industry Analysis/PESTEL:
Having looked at the different factors that determine if a club can become the best in its league, we move on to examine the place of the club in the wider football industry. With the use of a PESTEL analysis for a 5 year scenario, we analyze the macro variables affect Manchester United FC. The analysis suggest that the over the time period under consideration economic factors (players transfer fees and salaries), regulatory factors (FA/UEFA) and increased competition from newly acquired clubs will be the main factors to watch. Table 2.0 in the appendix shows the detailed PESTEL picture.
Literature Review:
Manchester united delivers its key value creating service through its human resources and not machines. From the influence diagram in figure 1.0, their success depends on the quality of players and coaching crew. In pondering the sustained success of MUFC during the Ferguson era one wonders what the difference might be since other clubs also have players and coaches. In Mintzberg, et al, (2009), we are reminded of the economics view that holds “that it is the efficiency of the production system that plays a central role competition”. Mintzberg, et al (2009) go on to argue that competitive advantage is rooted in the culture of the firm; implying that the uniqueness of a particular team might account for their strategic advantage. In the light of this, one can better understand the actions of Sir Alex Ferguson in 1986. After he was appointed, he started setting standards of conduct, training; effectively, he was establishing a structure, a way of doing things – the Manchester United culture under him. All of these culminated in a build-up of capabilities within a culture of excellence that has given the club strategic competitive advantage over their rivals.
So, what makes Manchester United FC tick? Penrose (1959) answered the question when she asserted that “firms derive their advantages from market imperfections”. In recognising that though the English Premier League might be very competitive, it cannot be described a perfectly competitive market. The same information, knowledge and capabilities are not shared by everyone in the same degree. The capabilities of MUFC’s head coach have clearly been the unique basis for their competitive advantage. This is not to say that Sir Alex Ferguson was the only resource at MUFC’s disposal, because as Mintzberg, et al, (2009) “firms are a bundle of resources in competition with each other. Rather, he was the prime architect of the team’s success by organising and effectively deploying all other resources to achieve set objectives. This can also be seen in the case of Apple Computers after the exit and re-entry of Steve Jobs.
Also, Jay Barney (1991) argued that a firm’s competitive advantage was a function of the quality of the bundle of resources at its disposal. For a football team, the players and coaches matter the most. While money is important, it is not critical because it has been shown that the hallmark of a great coach is the ability to record remarkable success with relatively unknown players, as shown by Ferguson (Aberdeen) and Mourinho (Porto). Manchester United FC only achieved sustained competitive advantage after Ferguson took over. The capability to groom budding youngsters to super star status was rare, valuable, inimitable (because most coaches couldn’t replicate that) and non-substitutable (there was only one Sir Alex Ferguson). Other factors that helped MUFC can be identified in the work of Magaret Peteraf (1993) as; resource immobility (he identifies talent early and commits them to an exclusive long term contract) and heterogeneity. The last point can be seen in the way he assembles unique talent in his teams make up and blends them to suit his desired game strategy. In conclusion, having Sir Alex Ferguson, as coach truly is their competitive advantage, and finding a coach who displays similar qualities is a must if the club must sustain their advantage post Ferguson.
Recommendation:
What should Glazer’s strategic priorities be for Manchester United? What targets should he establish for his management team?
Focus 1: Convince Sir Alex Ferguson to remain at Old Trafford in the short to medium term; another two seasons.
Focus 2: Find a suitable successor to Sir Alex Ferguson. Though continuity of Fergusons structure is important, it is best to be open to some change and lay more emphasis on a coach that has demonstrated similar capabilities to Ferguson. While getting him to commit to retaining as much of the current structure as possible.
Focus 3: Generate more revenue.
He should establish the following targets for his team:
Identify a young, long term replacement for Ferguson before the season ends.
Secure a 20% increase in revenue via new deals within the year.
Further exploit the opportunities in Asia
Grow the number of Man U card holders to 3 million
Appoint more franchisees and spin offs in Asia.
Secure new markets for the Manchester United brand.
Organise formal fan clubs in other continents; Australia, Africa and South America.
Source for new commercial partners on the new continents.
Win the English premier league, the FA cup, and reach the semi-finals of the UEFA champions league (at least).
What determines organizational capability in football (soccer)
The key driver of organisational capability in football is the quality/talent of the head coach/manager.
Poorly managed teams with skilful individual players achieve very little. Clubs with a lot of money don’t always attain success, but great coaches build great teams. And whenever they have the luxury of talented players and money then it’s even better.
What can Glazer do to help Manchester United regain its position as England’s best football team? Should Glazer retain Alex Ferguson as head coach/team manager?
Yes, Mr Glazer should retain Sir Alex Ferguson as head coach in the short term. Also, he should develop a clear succession plan to integrate the would-be successor into the current team culture.
Secondly, Mr Glazer should allow the manager full control of the football aspects of the club, as this was how Ferguson was able to build his dynasty in the first place. He should concentrate primarily on the commercial aspects.
He should set clear and measurable objectives for the manager and equip him with the required resources.
Appendix: Fig 1.0
Table 1.0
Strengths
Weaknesses
Strong brand equity
Strong fan base
Weak cash position
Uncertainty of Ferguson’s future
Weak coach succession planning structure
Opportunities
Threats
Alex Fergusons’ exit
Intensified competition from other deep pocketed clubs for talent
Table 2.0
PESTEL ANALYSIS
P
E
Stability of ownership
Limited stadium capacity
Changes in interest rates
Inflated transfer/sign off fees
Intense competition for talented players
S
Increasingly restive fans
Increasing influence/bargaining power of superstar players
T
Increasing complaints of traffic congestion for match days
E
More rich owners taking over clubs
L
F A restriction on home talent
UEFA crackdown on breakeven
UEFA crackdown on expensive signings
Council restrictions on stadium expansion/construction
 

The Vital Capacity Test In Football

Football has become a sport that interest by all population in this world. To play or become a good football player, the person must master many skills and have a healthy physical and mental. Football players also must combine speed, strength, agility, power, and endurance as basic qualities before the individual skills inherent to the playing of soccer can be utilized and depend on the position such as defense, strikers, midfielder and goal keeper. The understanding of the physical and the mental demands of the sport will enable a more scientific approach to the training of soccer players by (Bell and Rhodes 1975; Caru et. al. 1970; Fardy 1969).
Football is one of the sports that need high intensity of workload or physical activity, for example the combination of walk and repeated sprints need sufficient recovery between activity. Stated by (Nicks et. al. 2006) and Romer et.al.
So the player must have strong muscles, high muscular endurance, have strong core and have high level of aerobic capacity because the football game are played for 90 minutes. So the training must contain high aerobic training to improve cardiovascular and pulmonary functions so the athlete can cope with the sport.
Physiological assessment of athletes can provide an opportunity to examine or test the adaptation to specific types of exercises and training. These adaptations can be valuable to the clinician, coaches and athletes themselves. For example, lab test that can be proceed to examine the adaptation to specific types of exercises and training. To test the adaptation to the lung we can use pulmonary functions test to examine the effectiveness of lung muscles functioning, to check the vital capacity and to estimate the lung volumes.

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The function of the lung is to deliver O2 to gas exchanged surface and exhaust CO2 to atmosphere. To achieve this with brain functioning normally, breath begins with contraction of inspiratory muscle enlarging the thorax, lowering intrathoracic and pleural pressures, enlarging the alveoli and airways, expanding the alveolar gas so reducing its pressure below atmospheric. Air at atmospheric pressure must flow into the thorax where it is conducted to, and diffuses, out into the alveoli. The carriage of air through the airways depends on the patency of the tube as well as on the consistency of the lung and the power of the respiratory muscles. At any one moment approximately 100ml of desaturated blood, with a strong affinity for O2, is spread over an area of 70 square meters( area of pulmonary capillary bed ) separated from air by a membrane 0.2 micron thick. Oxygen from alveolar air diffuses rapidly across the alveolar capillary membrane and is finally chemically combined with hemoglobin molecules within the circulating red blood cells (RBC), CO2 diffuses into opposite direction and is eliminated in expired gas.
The Vital capacity test is one of the oldest and most common respiratory tests. The measurement of vital capacity (VC) simply requires that an individual blow as large a breath of air as possible into a spirometer. Thus, the person expels three of the four components of the total lung volume when performing the vital test. There are inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal volume (TV) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV). It provides an indirect indication of the size of the lung, although it is not a complete measure of the entire lung size because it does not account for residual volume. In general facts, vital capacity relate to three uncontrolled characteristics which are age, stature and gender.
Lung function measurements also may be made for several reasons. They are useful in describing the lung for diagnostic purpose and subsequently in monitoring change. Accuracy and consistency are therefore very important, and a convention exists for the procedure of measurement and expression of result. In general, a measurement will only be accepted after multiple attempts have been scrutinized and expressed under standard conditions. These are usually body temperature and atmospheric pressure.
To guarantee accuracy, laboratory practice should include regular physical and biological calibration of the equipment. Standard for good laboratory conduct have been described greatly by British Thoracic Society or association of respiratory technologist and physiologist 1997. In health there are several factors which influence the magnitude of the lung function. These include height, sex, age, and to a lesser degree weight and ethnic origin (Cotes1979, Anthonisen1986). As a result, assessment of normalcy can only be compared with reference values. The better can be obtained from the study of larger numbers of normal people from the relevant population (European community for Coal and Steel 1983). Once obtained, results can be expressed as percentage predicted or, more correctly, by comparison with the 95% confidence interval for the valves.
Problem statement.
It is interesting to know whether there are any different of lung volumes and lung capacities base on the different position in the football team such as striker position and defenses position. In football team, the defenders position tasks are different with the striker position task, for example the defensive position, the job of the centre backs or central defenders is to stop opposing players, particularly the strikers, from getting the opportunity to score, and to clear the ball from their own penalty area. So usually the defense has big physical to stop the striker, but different with the striker position, usually the strikers’ position players have not too big physical, because these positions are for the fast person to score the goal.
This study of pulmonary function of the Uitm football players base on position, have taken students group of both striker position and defense position of aged between 19-25 years and focused on essential parameters including, FVC and has used Spirometer. The spirometer device used to assess these parameters. This study mainly concentrates on lung parameters including Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and how far it varies base on the position such as striker and defense. The FVC also use to assess the lung function of Uitm soccer players.
Operational Terms
1.2.1 Exhalation is act or an instance of exhaling air.
From journal sources Masaoka Y, Satoh H, Akai L, Homma I. (2010)
1.2.2 Inhalation is the drawing of air or other substances into the lung.
From internet sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
1.2.3 Total lung capacity are refers to the total amount of air in the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible.
From internet sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
1.2.4 Ventilation is a cyclic process of inspiration and expiration whereby optimal levels of Oxygen and cabondioxide are maintained in the alveoli and arterial blood.
1.2.5 Tidal Volume (VT) is defined as the amount of air that is inspired and expired during normal resting ventilation.
1.2.6 Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) is the maneuvers in which the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled following a inspiratory effort.
1.2.7 Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) can be defined as the maximum volume of air that can be breathed by a person in one minute.
From internet sources http://www.answer.com/topic/maximum-breathing-technique
Objectives
In this study, there are some purposes or objective that can be seen. They are;
To measure the level of fitness of Uitm football players by using force vital capacity
y test.
To determine whether there is a different in pulmonary functions base on position in football team such as defense and striker.
1.4 Hypothesis
H°-There is no significant different on pulmonary functions in football position such as striker and defense
Hª-There is significant different on pulmonary functions in football position such as striker and defense
1.5 Significant of the study
The significant of this study is mainly to measure and compare the lung volumes and capacities among the Uitm football player base on their position. Does the football position such as striker position and defenses position have differences effects on the lung volumes and capacities? The study is important because it can help certain peoples such as coach, physiotherapy and athletes especially in any kinds of sports to improve pulmonary functions. In addition, this study also can increase knowledge of coach and athletes, and show them how important is to have efficient and strong lung to improves their performances for their sport.
1.6 Delimitation
The first delimitation is the number of any kinds of research subjects, which consists thirty (n=30) age range from 19-25 years old will take part in this study. The subjects are selected in the Uitm football team and physically active and all the participants must be healthy. The subjects are divided into two groups of defense and striker. The others delimitation is the subject gender and age. The test will be conduct in Physiology Lab.
Limitation
In this study, the participants involved may have some experience in vital capacity test. The participants that will be selects in this study will be participating in the lab test by using spirometer. The participation is important in this study because it can affect the results and data if the participants do not cooperate and participate willingly.
Besides that, the time constrains also can be one of the factors because the participants have their own schedules and will clash with the test schedules and can not attend the test.
In addition, money can be a problem because, there is no sponsored in this study. The daily activities of the participants will not be controlled.
Assumption
In this study, it can be assumed that all the participants can do and completed the vital capacity test. Thus, I also believe and make sure that all the participants will understand and follow all the instruction given by the technician. The researchers also predict that all the participants are physically active and healthy.
The researcher assumed that the test in this study instrumentation was appropriate for the target population. I also predict that all the participants fully understood the types of test and method and how to perform it correctly.
 

The History Of Manchester United Football Club

Manchester United is the biggest most famous football club not only in England but worldwide. It has the largest fan base in the world with over 50 million supporters. They have had the greatest average attendance in England for 36 out of the last 40 years and their stadium old Trafford located in greater Manchester is consistently full to capacity for every home game which is about 76,000 fans. Man united is the most successful football club over the last 20 years, accumulating 18 major honours. Although Manchester united was not always as successful and wealthy as it is today.

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The club was founded in 1878 but not as Manchester United but as Newton Heath L & YR f.c. Newton Heath was a depot for the Lancashire and Yorkshire railways, and the club was set up as the workers football team. The team played on a small football pitch near Manchester Piccadilly station for 15 years before moving to Bank Street in 1893. During this time the club entered the football league of England and its links with the railways began to diminish they changed their name to Newton Heath F.C removing further links with the railways and appointed a club secretary. During their first few seasons in the football league the club accumulated sizeable debts amounting to over £2500 and were on the brink of bankruptcy until a man named J H Davies the owner of the local breweries invested large amounts of money into the club and became the club chairman. To get a fresh start he changed the name from Newton Heath F.C to Manchester United F.C. The name Manchester United officially came into existence in September 1902.
When Manchester united entered the football leagues for the first time in 1902 their chairman J H Davies changed the clubs colours from green and gold of Newton Heath to the now famous red and white. His next step was to appoint a club secretary that would guide the club from the second division up into the first division. He appointed a man called Ernst Mangnall to do the job. After his first season in charge he helped united to finish in fifth position although it was a good season they failed to get promoted. The new secretary thought that the only way that they could compete at the highest level was if they bought new players. They bought four top class players one of which was a club record of £750 to try and get into the first division. They didn’t have to wait long as they gained promotion two seasons later in the 1905-06 season.
The long list of Manchester united silverware began in 1907 were they won the first division, and in 1908 they won the charity shield and the first of their record number 11 FA cups. As a result of their huge success and all the revenue that followed their moved into their new stadium in old Trafford. With this huge success came trouble when the man who brought the club to the top of the league left and joined bitter rivals Manchester city. This was the start of a dark era in the history of Manchester united the club got relegated back to division two and things got really bad when World war 2 started, their stadium was destroyed in the bombings and Manchester city were kind enough to let them play at their stadium Maine road at an annual fee of £5000 and all gate receipts.
Manchester united moved back to old Trafford in 1945 after the troubles and with this they appointed Sir Matt Busby as there manager. Matt Busby was the first manager that insisted that he pick the team and what players he wanted sign as this was traditionally left to the chairman. The risk of hiring Matt busby paid off as united as United finished second in the league between 1947-49 and they won the FA cup in 1948.
United then won no silverware until 1952 and Busby believed it was because their wasn’t enough young players in the team so he decided to recruit players from their youth academy. The young side with an average age of 22 only took one season to win the league. Manchester united were the first English team to play in the European cup and they reached the semi final that year.
The following season with there second European cup commencing United were very confident of success but disaster was on the horizon as the team plane crashed while returning home from a European match killing 8 players and 15 staff members. The team continued playing with a weak team but Matt Busby set about rebuilding the team in the 1960’s. The new recruits included United legends Denis Law and George Best. The new team became one of the most famous teams ever winning the clubs first European cup in 1968. Sir Matt Busby resigned as manager in 1969. United struggled to replace Busby and there three big players had moved on and they were relegated in 1973. Tommy Docherty was the current manager and they gained promotion the following year. Although Docherty was a successful manager he got involved in off the pitch scandals and was sacked as manager and replaced by Dave Sexton in 1977. Sexton was sacked in 1981 because of his boring style of football and replaced by the hot headed Ron Atkinson. Atkinson signed some of united’s greatest ever players such as Bryan Robson, Gordan Strachan and Mark Hughes. Although a great start to the 1984-85 United collapsed and finished a disappointing fourth place. The bad form continued into the following season and Ron Atkinson was sacked.
Sir Alex Ferguson took over Man Utd in 1986 and was giving the task of taking the club back to its former glory. In his first season they finished in 11th place and the pressure was mounting. Ferguson’s reign as United manager looked over in 1990 as united were not in contention for the league but thanks to Mark Hughes united went on to win the FA cup.
Manchester United went on to the public stock exchange and were valued at £47million. United brought in new talent including Eric Cantona, Gary Pallister and Denis Irwin. With this United won there first League title since 1967 in the 1992-93 season and they won the double the following season, (league and FA cup).However the following season 1994-95 United were only runners up in the league and FA cup and with this manager Alex Ferguson sold a number of the teams well known players and replaced them with players from their youth academy including David Beckham, Paul Scholes and Gary Neville. The risk paid off as United won the double again in the 1995-96 becoming the first English club ever to do so.The 1998-99 season was most successful season by any English club in history. Manchester United won the treble ( League, FA cup, Champions league). The next few seasons saw United win the league in 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2007.
Manchester United have recently extended their stadium which is located in Sir Matt Busby way Old Trafford in greater Manchester making the largest premiership stadium at a capacity of 76,212. Sponsorship plays a major role in the success of the club as it allows the club to develop as a team and a business. Some of the clubs main sponsors include AIG as their principle sponsor, Nike as their sportswear provider, Audi as their official car provider and Budweiser as their official beer. The club has only ever had 3 main sponsors being Sharpe electronics 1982-2000, Vodafone 2000-2005 and AIG 2005- present. Like the small number of shirt sponsors the shirt manufacturers is also limited. They have only ever had 4 kit manufacturers. These are Admiral, Addidas, Umbro and a record breaking £303million deal with Nike.
Manchester United’s list of club honours is by far the longest in English football league history. They have accumulated 16 League titles, 11 FA cups, 16 charity shields 2 league cups 2 European cups a cup winners cup and a super cup, not bad for what was once a railway workers team playing on a bad football pitch behind a pub.
Manchester united have the greatest fan base in the world but this was not always the case. In the early days before world war two, people in Manchester were neither man united fans nor man city fans as it was impossible to travel to away games they would just go the home matches and because their was only one home match every two weeks fans would go to either of the Manchester teams home matches. This came to an end after the war as public transport was available and a fierce rivalry developed between the two clubs. Manchester united’s fan base has grown steadily over the last 60 years and after the 1958 Munich air disaster the attendance at United’s home games increased dramatically. Today Manchester united remains the strongest football team in England and the future looks promising.