Forecasting And Procurement At Le Club Fran Ais Du Vin Finance Essay

Le Club Français du Vin is founded in 1973 and had grown to a 10 million Euro per year business in 2004. The mission of Le Club is to offer wines of good to very good quality to its customers in France, Switzerland, and Germany, who receive interesting wines delivered directly to their homes. Every member of Le Club receives an offer of wine every two months via a catalog.

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Le Club Français du Vin largely carries French wines. The heterogeneity of French wines makes forecasting consumer demand for particular French wine extremely difficult. At Le Club Français du Vin, a group of professional wine experts create a sales forecast for each wine in the upcoming catalog taking into account both taste considerations and the season of the year in which the wine is offered in the catalog.
Once the forecasting process is over, Le Club places an order with the wine grower, which happens months before publishing the catalog and at a point when little information beyond the wine experts’ personal opinions is available. The Club pays the wine grower 75 days after having received the shipment. If the wine forecast equals the actual demand or comes close to it these payment conditions are very favorable for Le Club. However, such desirable cash flows are not always the case. If Le Club has over forecasted sales for the catalog season, excess bottles are stored in the warehouse and are likely to be discounted in a future catalog (white wines are discounted by 40% of their retail price, and red wines – by 30%). There is also an additional handling and shipping cost for discounted bottles of 1.25 Euro per bottle, and 0.10 Euro warehouse operational costs per bottle.
The main problem of the company is the mismatch between forecasts and actual customer demand, which results in either excess inventory or unsatisfied customers. For example, the Club had ordered 10,000 bottles of the 2002 St Emilion wine for the company’s January 2004 catalog, but only sold 1,704 bottles. On the other side, the Club forecasted to sell 10,000 bottles of the Côtes du Rhône, but actually experienced a demand of over 11,000 bottles. The Club currently holds over 200,000 bottles of wine in its warehouse.
The company has to choose between few options in order to decide how many bottles of each wine to order – to maximize expected profit, to generate a certain fill-rate or to achieve a certain in-stock probability.
If the manager chooses as an objective to maximize the expected profit, as seen in Exhibit 1, the total expected profit is supposed to be 147,998 Euro. However, the profit-maximizing order quantity may generate some unacceptable fill rate and in-stock probability from the firm’s customer service prospective. The fill rate varies in the range of 50% to 100%, while the stockout probability varies in the range of 0% to 83%. This scenario will result in a lot of unsatisfied customers who might choose a different supplier in the future.
The customers of the Club place their order by mail, phone, fax, or over the internet. If the customers place their order by phone or online they can be informed right away if a particular wine is out of stock. However, as a large portion of Le Club’s customers are in their 60s, orders by mail are most common, and these customers are unaware of the availability of the wine there are ordering. It is very rare for the company to be able to place additional orders for wines that have been under forecasted. As a result all demand for a wine that remains unfulfilled is lost. Given the complications associated with stock-outs, Le Club aims at high availability for its wines throughout the catalog season. That is the reason why the first scenario is not suitable for the company.
Let us assume that the company chooses to guarantee a fill rate of 99%, which means that 99% of the demand will be satisfied. As seen in Exhibit 2, the total expected profit is 102,382 , which is about 45, 000 euro less than the profit it generates in the first scenario, however, the in -stock probability is 94.74%. This is a better scenario for the Club, because it is going to guarantee that most of the customers during the season can be satisfied, and there is also a great probability that the customer’s demand can be satisfied even at the end of the season. The fill rate is a good measure of average customer service because it treats each customer as equally important. So, even though the company might experience some profit loss for certain types of wine, the total expected profit is 102,382 Euro, and along with that the Club can also achieve high levels of fill rate and in-stock probability.
The third option for the club is to choose to set as its primary goal to achieve a high in-stock probability (let us assume 97.5% rate). As seen in Exhibit 3, in this case the total expected profit is only 88,138 Euro, which is almost half of the expected profit in the first scenario. The fill rate is 99.57%. We see that achieving a very high in-stock probability can be quite expensive and sets the company at a much lower profit level. This scenario is also unacceptable for the company.
The company has to constantly try to balance the cash constraints inherent in holding large inventory positions with the goal of sustaining healthy margins (the club typically enjoys around 50%) while ensuring availability of a broad selection of wines even late in a catalog season. Therefore the club needs to make tradeoff – to give up some of its profit in order to obtain higher fill rate and in-stock probability in order to ensure better customer service and to keep its positions in the market. The second scenario seems the most optimistic and optimal for the company – it will lose some of its profit, but on the other side will guarantee a greater customer satisfaction, which is very important for the Club that capitalizes on a niche market.
Appellation
Q that maximizes expected profit
Expected profit
Fill Rate
Stockout probability
FAUGERES
12022
16235
88.47%
36.58%
GRAVES
803
1847
91.12%
30.32%
GRAVES
1149
2076
93.58%
23.77%
PESSAC LEOGNAN
3241
11721
100.00%
0.00%
CARTON PANACHE 6+2+4
5093
12880
99.38%
3.40%
BORDEAUX CLAIRET
3461
3286
81.65%
50.00%
CÔTES DE BOURG
1352
1985
90.00%
33.05%
ENTRE DEUX MERS
1129
940
74.41%
61.14%
BORDEAUX
4535
3063
74.63%
60.84%
CARTON PANACHE
5493
5993
84.41%
44.98%
Bordeaux
2127
1332
73.05%
62.96%
VDP des Côteaux de L’Ardèche
1651
344
50.59%
83.87%
VDP des Côteaux de L’Ardèche
1412
318
52.08%
82.91%
VDP du Comté Tolosan
1041
227
48.72%
85.02%
CARTON PANACHEE
1692
547
59.22%
77.54%
CABERNET D’ANJOU
2630
2581
82.31%
48.84%
SANCERRE
2092
6068
93.93%
22.76%
CHINON
4071
4315
83.84%
46.05%
ALOXE CORTON
2992
13549
100.00%
0.00%
BOURGOGNE ALIGOTE
1013
1505
84.68%
44.44%
GIVRY
1734
4028
99.95%
0.38%
COTEAUX DU LYONNAIS
2543
2293
80.61%
51.78%
CDR Vill RASTEAU
1075
2084
94.73%
20.40%
GIGONDAS
2493
5225
100.00%
0.00%
CÔTES DU VENTOUX
1052
1032
82.31%
48.84%
CARTON PANACHE
3742
7788
95.87%
16.85%
CORBIERES (6)
1155
1169
82.94%
47.71%
GAILLAC
2248
2347
83.54%
46.60%
MINERVOIS
3322
2847
79.57%
53.48%
MADIRAN
14445
28372
94.95%
19.75%
Total Expected Profit
147,998
Exhibit 1
Appellation
Q that guarantees fill rate of 99%
Expected sales
Expected leftover inventory2
Expected profit (fill rate = 99%)
In-stock probability
FAUGERES
18121
10280
7841
12379
94.74%
GRAVES
1133
642
490
1588
94.74%
GRAVES
1510
857
653
1926
94.74%
PESSAC LEOGNAN
1963
1114
849
10134
94.74%
CARTON PANACHE 6+2+4
4832
2741
2091
12871
94.74%
BORDEAUX CLAIRET
6040
3427
2614
1219
94.74%
CÔTES DE BOURG
1963
1114
849
1632
94.74%
ENTRE DEUX MERS
2265
1285
980
-341
94.74%
BORDEAUX
9060
5140
3920
-1022
94.74%
CARTON PANACHE
9060
5140
3920
3338
94.74%
Bordeaux
4379
2484
1895
-737
94.74%
VDP des Côteaux de L’Ardèche
5285
2998
2287
-3335
94.74%
VDP des Côteaux de L’Ardèche
4379
2484
1895
-2682
94.74%
VDP du Comté Tolosan
3473
1970
1503
-2623
94.74%
CARTON PANACHEE
4530
2570
1960
-2289
94.74%
CABERNET D’ANJOU
4530
2570
1960
1082
94.74%
SANCERRE
2718
1542
1176
5678
94.74%
CHINON
6795
3855
2940
2252
94.74%
ALOXE CORTON
1812
1028
784
11367
94.74%
BOURGOGNE ALIGOTE
1661
942
719
863
94.74%
GIVRY
1359
771
588
3997
94.74%
COTEAUX DU LYONNAIS
4530
2570
1960
663
94.74%
CDR Vill RASTEAU
1359
771
588
1985
94.74%
GIGONDAS
1510
857
653
5001
94.74%
CÔTES DU VENTOUX
1812
1028
784
433
94.74%
CARTON PANACHE
4530
2570
1960
7572
94.74%
CORBIERES (6)
1963
1114
849
542
94.74%
GAILLAC
3775
2142
1634
1181
94.74%
MINERVOIS
6040
3427
2614
571
94.74%
MADIRAN
18121
10280
7841
27136
94.74%
Total Expected Profit
102,382
Exhibit 2
Appellation
Q that guarantees In-stock probability = 97.5%
Expected profit(in-stock probability = 97.5)
Expected fill rate
FAUGERES
19745
10565
99.57%
GRAVES
1234
1444
99.57%
GRAVES
1645
1820
99.57%
PESSAC LEOGNAN
2139
10387
99.57%
CARTON PANACHE 6+2+4
5265
12876
99.57%
BORDEAUX CLAIRET
6582
466
99.57%
CÔTES DE BOURG
2139
1450
99.57%
ENTRE DEUX MERS
2468
-739
99.57%
BORDEAUX
9872
-2297
99.57%
CARTON PANACHE
9872
2286
99.57%
Bordeaux
4772
-1366
99.57%
VDP des Côteaux de L’Ardèche
5759
-4219
99.57%
VDP des Côteaux de L’Ardèche
4772
-3410
99.57%
VDP du Comté Tolosan
3784
-3300
99.57%
CARTON PANACHEE
4936
-3017
99.57%
CABERNET D’ANJOU
4936
526
99.57%
SANCERRE
2962
5391
99.57%
CHINON
7404
1450
99.57%
ALOXE CORTON
1974
11703
99.57%
BOURGOGNE ALIGOTE
1810
606
99.57%
GIVRY
1481
4018
99.57%
COTEAUX DU LYONNAIS
4936
85
99.57%
CDR Vill RASTEAU
1481
1903
99.57%
GIGONDAS
1645
5052
99.57%
CÔTES DU VENTOUX
1974
210
99.57%
CARTON PANACHE
4936
7347
99.57%
CORBIERES (6)
2139
304
99.57%
GAILLAC
4113
732
99.57%
MINERVOIS
6582
-215
99.57%
MADIRAN
19745
26076
99.57%
Total Expected Profit
 
88,138
 Exhibit 3
 

Product Design of a Fran Blade

1. Manufacturing Concepts
1.1 Product Design Specification of fan blade
To effectively develop a Product Design Specification for the Fan Blade, we need to firstly define the basic functions of the Fan blade. The basic function of a fan is to cause effective air flow in a room and this should be accomplished for a long usage of several years at varying rotations per minute.

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The quality of fans is rated by their performance in moving the air effectively and quietly. This is monitored by such factors as the pitch, length, and number of ceiling fan blades, and their revolutions per minute (rpms).The angular edges of the ceiling fan blades are termed as the pitches which are particularly important for the effective movement of the air. The shape enables the blade to apply pressure to the air in front of it and thus the air is forced downwards.
Thus the important specifications required for our component would be:

Effective Air Flow
Low Noise levels
No Wobbling
Durability
Light weight for low power consumption
Should not get rusted.
Aesthetics
Low cost

The higher the pitch the more is the replacement of air. Good quality ceiling fan blades have a pitch of 12-14 degrees. Blade pitches as low as 8 or 10 degrees leads to poorer performance and thus lower Air flow and higher noise levels. While the short ceiling fan blades with minimum pitches can swirl at high speeds, they do not make for much air circulation and they are noisier than the types of fans with longer blades and higher pitch though they rotate more slowly.
One of the issues people sometimes find with their ceiling fans is wobbling. While many people may think that the wobbling is caused by the motor, this is usually not the case. The wobbling of the fan is usually caused by blades that are out of weight alignment. This is due to the use of warped, bent, or unmatched blades. Another reason for wobbling is that the blades may not have been screwed into the brackets straight.
Aesthetics are very important in the design of a ceiling fan as the color and design need to live up to the looks of the place of installment. Different materials like solid wood, cross-laminated veneer and less-expensive veneered constant-density boards are used to render the ceiling fan blades a smart and contemporary look. This also may include a metal finish, or a wooden looks. Contrast or reversible ceiling fan blades are another innovative addition to the whole range of ceiling fan blade designing.
Ceiling fans usually are not replaced for many a years at a stretch. Thus they are expected to be durable to withstand long usage at varying speeds. Though some designs of fan blades may consume low power at the cost of low air flow, a better design would include the use of a low weight material for the fan blade. Rusting of metallic fan blades can cause unevenness in the balancing of the fan blades because of change in weight and it also will affect the durability. Thus the blades need to be coated effectively with paint to prevent oxidation of the fan blades.
1.2 Wooden and Plastic blades in comparison with Aluminum blades
The most widely used materials for making ceiling fan blades are Wood, Plastic and Metal. We have decided on using an aluminum blade for our fan, but let us also consider the other materials too.
Wood had been traditionally used as it is a light weight material that is easily available. It also can be carved elegantly to add beauty to the aesthetics of a home. It is known that the conventional blade of a ceiling fan is made of plywood or solid wood. In the manufacturing procedure, such a blade needs to go through many processing steps such as cutting, planing, multi polishing, finishing, painting and printing or covering with printed paper, etc. Moreover, each blade must finally be weighed and three or four blades of the same weight must be selected as a set for the packing operation. Therefore, the whole processing procedure for a wooden blade is quite labor-intensive and time-consuming, and therefore very expensive. The wooden blades are made of longitudinal strips of wood that have their sides laminated together. Due to the thermal cycling and operational stress, the laminated wooden blades may crack along the length of the blade. Under such impact the blade could separate into one or more pieces and send harmful missiles about a room.
The plastic blade comprises a blade frame made by injection molding or die casting a commercially available tensionable plastic or fabric. This method of making fan blades greatly reduces manufacturing time and expense. The assembled blade also has a controllable weight error falling within a tolerable range so that the weighing and selecting procedures performed before packing can be greatly simplified. The blade frame is mass produced by plastic injection molding. The blade plate can be pre-printed with various colors and designs, and then mass cut by a cutter, whereby the production speed is greatly increased. Moreover, the blade frame and blade plate can be assembled by means of a specific assembling machine in a factory or assembled outside a factory by contract so that production can be greatly increased with less labor. Thus the manufacturing cost is greatly reduced. The blade has a total weight which is 40-50% that of a conventional wooden blade. Therefore, the power of the blade-driving motor can be reduced according to the reduced weight. Therefore, the cost of the motor as well as of the blade is lowered.
Blades for conventional ceiling fans have been manufactured from numerous materials in a variety of shapes and sizes. Generally, the environment in which the ceiling fan is intended to operate is a significant factor in accompanying drawings, the selection of the material for the blade composition. Rigid materials such as wood or plastic are commonly used on fans intended solely for indoor use, but are prone to warping when subjected to long-term outdoor use due to the extreme fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Thus aluminum blades which are made from aluminum casting seem ideal for outdoor usage.
1.3 Suitable manufacturing process
The wooden blades are made from a number of materials and are given a wide variety of finishes. The natural wood and painted blades are made from solid wood, cross-laminated veneer (plywood), and less-expensive veneered constant-density board.
The finishes include natural, appliance white, cherry wood, oak, walnut, burled camphor, bleached oak, white, faux granite, rosewood, black, high luster, colors, and many more.
Many processing steps are involved such as cutting, planing, multi polishing, finishing, painting and printing or covering with printed paper, etc. Thus the making of a wooden blade seems more laborious and time consuming. From our Product design specification, the wooden blades satisfy the conditions of being light weight, rust proof and having high aesthetic value. But it is not durable as wood might absorb moisture, and this may cause unevenness in the balancing of the blades.
Using a plastic blade is considered safer then using a metal or wooden one, this way you don’t need a shroud over the blade. Unlike wooden blades, a plastic blade is made by Injection molding process and its production is not laborious and time consuming. The whole plastic blade can be made of one piece, unlike a wooden blade which is mostly an assembly of wooden pieces glued together.
Due to the lower material and manufacturing costs and the ease with which they can be mass produced, one-piece molded plastic fans of both the impeller and centrifugal or blower types are being used as air circulating means in numerous appliances such as hair dryers, automobile heaters, refrigerators. Even though such fans are relatively small and light, it is nevertheless desirable that they be dynamically balanced to within accurate limits.
The method used for obtaining dynamic balance has involved the molding of a test fan in each mold cavity, testing these molded fans for dynamic balance and thereafter machining away material from selected areas of the mold surfaces thereby to increase the weight of the portions of the fan formed by these areas to obtain a balanced weight distribution.
The plastic blade is quite useful as it satisfies most of the Product design specifications. But it cannot be said to be durable as the plastic may warp due to higher temperatures thus affecting the balance of the blades.
Thus we see that a metal blade made from aluminum is ideal as it is durable and can be placed outdoors to without being rusted.
2. Mechanical Principles
The design proporsal is as follows. The Aluminum blades are supported on a strong plastic plate at the bottom. They are fixed together by two tightly fixed screws one behind the other. The plastic plate is in turn connected to the hub of the fan by two screws. The weight of the Aluminum blade is supported on the plastic plate. They are a total of four blades fixed symmetrically to the hub.
2.1 Mechanical principles relating to the Aluminum Blade
Our design of the Ceiling fan with four aluminum plates would have the following mechanical principles acting on it.

Force acting downwards due to weight of aluminum blade.
Radial force when the fan is in rotating.
Normal force of the plastic plate acting upwards
Normal force of pushing air down acting up wards.
Tangential normal force from the bolts to the Aluminum blade, which causes rotation
Torque acting on the bolts due to the weight of the Aluminum blades.

2.2 Analysis
For an aluminum plate of dimensions 14cm Ã- 2.5cm the area of the plate is approximately 35cm. The thickness of the plate is around 0.1 cm.
Therefore the volume of the Aluminum blade would be 3.5cm^3.
The density of Aluminum is 2.7 gm/cc.
Therefore the weight of each Aluminum blade is 9.45gm
The RPM at which fans are usually expected to rotate is around 80-220 rpm or 8.37-23 radians per second
The radial forces acting on the aluminum blade is F = m?2r where m is the mass of the aluminum blade, ? is the angular velocity and r is the radial distance of the center of mass of aluminum blade from the vertex. The radial distance of the center of mass of the aluminum blade to the center point of the hub = Hub radius + ½ length of blade
= 6cm +7cm = 13cm
Thus the maximum radial force for 23 radians per second = 0.65 N
The weight of the aluminum plate is = 0.092 N
The Aluminum plate is connected to the plastic plate by 2 bolts.
Suppose we use a M2 bolt made of low or medium carbon steel, fully or partially annealed. The Ultimate tensile strength is 1176N
The Ultimate shear strength can be approximated by
Therefore the Ultimate shear strength is = 882 N
The Shear stress acting in the radial direction t = F/[dÃ-(t1+t2)]
= 162500 N/
For calculating the Shear stress acting in the tangential direction, we write the moment equation for the bolt.
Therefore the Shear stress on the bolt acting in the tangential direction is =
= 26750 N/
Now to check for the effect of fatigue on the bolt, we check the S-N curve for Carbon steel. It is to be noted that after = 560N
The tensile strength acting on the bolt is much lesser and thus there is no problem of the bolt breaking due to fatigue.
2.3 Effects of Analysis on Design procedure
We thus see that the radial force acting on our blades is much more than the weight of the aluminum blade acting downward. It is also more than the tangential stress acting on the bolt. It is also observed that due to the small size of our fan, even one bolt can support each blade. But for balance sake we shall change the design to place the bolts symmetrically across the radial center line from the hub to the blade. Thus a three bolt joint would help create better stability and would prevent wobbling conditions. Since we are using Aluminum blades over plastic blades, we can try to reduce cost by including three blades instead of four. The effect of adding an extra blade does not increase the air flow much, so the fourth blade can be avoided.
2.4 Effect of Final design on Manufacturing/Material
Since we have decided on using a 3 bolt joint to fix the blade to the plastic plate, the position of the plastic plate can be shifted on above the aluminum blade for better aesthetic values.
It is also clear from our analysis that bigger fan blades can be used for better performance without compromising on the fear of fracture.
We could make the baldes from plastic, as it would reduce the cost and make the manufacturing process easier, but it would risk deformation.
Since we are looking for using durable blades that can be used in outdoor conditions too, we shall neglect the use of wood and stick to using aluminum as our blade material.
3. References

Thomas Cartwright (2005), “Fan Blade”, Publication number: US 2004/0047735 A1.
Norton, Robert L (2006), “Machine Design-An Integrated Approach”, Pearson Prentice Hall.
Leigh A. Junkin (1992), “Fan Blade”, US Patent 5,110,261, Google patents.
Kuo-Neng Chien (1994), “Ceiling Fan Blade”, US Patent 5,338,156, Google patents.
GarrettD.Euler (2002), “Standard Metric and USA Bolt Shank Dimensions”, available at http://euler9.tripod.com/bolt-database/23.html> [26th April]
Dane Roger, Patricia (2001), “Eye on Design”, Washington post.
Roy Beardmore (2010), “Bolted Joint Design”, available at http://www.roymech.co.uk/Useful_Tables/Screws/Bolted_Joint.html > [25thApril]
H.W. Hayden, W.G. Moatt, and J. Wulff (1965), “Structure and Properties of Materials” John Wiley & Sons.
Robert B Gelbard, (1964), “Mold for molding dynamically”, US Patent 3,136,001, 1964 – Google Patents.
Brydson, J (1999), “Plastics Materials”, Butterworths 9th Ed.

2
 

Fran Lloyd Wright: Biography and Architecture Style

Fran Lloyd Wright (1867-1959), a great morden architect from the US. His design leads us to a new perspective of builind and living. He believes in sincere and simple design concept. The aspects of his design ideas are the organic buildings, prairie style and the incorpration of fuctional and form. The main fucouse of his design is always base on the natural ansd real that the building need to respect by the surrounding enviornment. Wright designed everything from private houses to commercial spaces, from architecture to furniture, and urban design as well. He had his own personal characteristic and expression that make his work a big difference from the mainstream of design at the time.
Herbert F. Johnson House, “Wingspread” (1937, Wisconsin)
Context:
The Wingspread house which was a commission of Herbert F. Johnson, the presidence of S.C. Johnson Et Son Company in 1937, when Wirght was underway of the construction to begin on the Fallingwater House. The house was completed in 1939, and it was built on a very opened prairie surround with woods and ravines at Wind Point. In the early 20th century, Wright’s works were mostly related to the nature by developing the relationship between human and nature, integrating the building and nature, also the use of natural materials. The Wingspread House, as Wright called it “ the last of Prairie houses”. Based on Prairie-style, in order to have a natural flow of the space, we often see large open plans for public areas, such as living room or dining room. Up to today, it is considered as one of the Wright’s most beautiful and expensive houses.
Concept:
A house in the open prairie, the design of the Wingspread House is about embrace nature. Just like the name of this house, an idea of windmill comes to the overall shape of the house. Indeed, the shape is also like something grows from the earth, and perfectly blends to the natural as well as the use of nature materials. Private spaces set to different wings that extended from the central of the building where is designed for the family activities. The mezzanine and changes of levels brings more sense of human scale of this large space. This irregular shape even though is not organic, but still bring a very unusual way of design residential house, which is like the natural will always over our imagination. In order to emphasize the interaction of each family number, the concept of this house is also allowed them to communicate in diffierent levels. Wright also considered a lot of the kids which to design the space both functional and playful.
Organization:
The overall floor space is 14,000 sq.ft. The center of the house where the entrance hall, family room, living room, music room, library and dining room are located. The master bedroom, children’s bedrooms, guests’ room and servants’ room are placed in four different wings where they all have their own private space. Instead of partition, a tall stone chimney is designed as a feature element from floor to ceiling with four fireplaces build at ground floor, and one on the mazzanine level. This also divides the main area into different function zones. Also, a spiral staircase is set in a playful way on side of the indoor chimney for kids to go up to the roof. A high dome ceiling with three rolls of sky light gives more natural lights and sense of spacious. The master bedroom wing is for Mr. and Mrs. Johnson and their daughter. It has three bedrooms and a sitting room. And each bedroom has a bathroom. This wing is at the mezzanine level, and the rest three wings are at the ground floor. The children’s wing has three bedrooms and three bathrooms, and it is connected to the outside terrace with a swimming pool, and a playroom as well. The kitchen is set on the servant wing, with three maids’ room, one shared bathroom and sitting room. Also the guest’s wing is connected to the access of a garage for five cars.
Details:
The use of natural material often sees in Wright’s project. The Wright House as well bring the brick work from the out side of the house to the interior to apply the 30 foots chimney, which also give a sense of masculine and power to emphasize as it is the feature of the main area. The oversize concrete squares for the flooring in the living room is about to keep the temperature at a comfort level by the radiant heating. Also, after the construction, Johnson Was designed specific product to give a low gloss finish for the flooring. The build-in wood furnitures bring a harmony of the space and also neutralize the roughness of the brick. Windows surround the most of the house, as well as the rows of skylight in the main area to give as much as the natural light. Wright said that, “ This house, while resembling the Coonley House, is much more blood, masculine and direct in form and treatment-excuted in more permanent materials. The house has a heavy footing course of Kasota sandstone, the best brickwork I have seen in my life- and the materials of construction throughout are everywhere substantial…”
https://franklloydwright.org/site/wingspread/
https://www.archdaily.com/115102/ad-classics-wingspread-frank-lloyd-wright
https://www.scjohnson.com/en/a-family-company/architecture-and-tours/frank-lloyd-wright/wingspread-frank-lloyd-wrights-largest-prairie-style-house-was-home-to-the-johnsons
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (1943, New York)
Context:
In 1943, Wright got a commission from Baroness Hilla von Rebay to build a new museum to collect Solomon R. Guggenheim’s non-objective painting. Guggenheim required designing the museum that is unlike any other. The museum is one of Wright’s famous projects, and also known as his longest project that took about 16 years until opened to the public in 1959, six month after he passed away. During the long process of this project, Wright had many chanllenges of design the museum, in terms of the WWII, economic crisis in the late 40s, and building code requirements. It is located at the Fifth Avenue in Manhattan and next to the east face of the famous Central Park where is also the downtown area of New York City. Even Wrights had to modify and redesign many versions of this museum within the 16 years, but the final result is still something marvelous. His design language brings out the simplicity and naturality. Wright always tries to design things unusual, so the Guggenheim Museum is also become to an impressive mark in Manhattan. 
Concept:
“I am so full of ideas for our museum that I am likely to blow up or commit suicide unless I can let them out on paper.” Wright wrote to Rebay shows that he has all his passion and ambitious about the museum project in 1943. He provided six complete perspective drawing that implied architectural, structural, electrical and mechanical. Wright defined that, “ A museum should be one extended expansive well proportioned floor space from bottom to top – a wheel chair going around and up and down, throughout.” This idea also shows that he is not only design an object itself, but also considering with a humanist approach and then bring it to the design. The shape of the building is described as an “inverted ziggurat”. The exterior concrete bands grow slightly larger at each higher level that gives a feeling of powerful. As well as the interoir space offsets the curved wall from exterior and continued ramp from the first floor to the top to feel natural and smooth. The ramp gives visitors freedom to walk around the whole building without any staircases. It stands in a high contrast to the surrounding traditional building. The organic shapes and the sense of simplicity make it like a natural product. The building itself is actually like an artwork, a sculpture than leading people want to go inside and explore. Although, there are still some different opinions concern about overpower design of the building that may compete for attention to the exhibit.
Organization:
The interior of this museum is very expressive with a central well from the first floor to the sixth level that provide a large open hollow design with a 97 feet glass dome for skylight. The entrance is located in the ground floor with the vestibule and waiting room. In the basement, it provides the lecture room with a mezzanine below the central court. The main gallery stars from the first floor where is above the ground floor, and there is also a library. To go to the upper level, the ramp continues up to the sixth floor that the rotation ends without a full revolution. There are toilets and elevator on each level, also a triangular stairwell on the side as an emergency exit. Offices and workrooms are on the second floor. At the top floor, it has an outdoor balcony, and also the director’s office.
Details:
Frank Loyd Wright’s design concept of organic architecture also applies to some details. The glass dome is designed in to different geometric shapes, which are triangles, ovals, arches, circles and squares. The skylights not only appear from the top ceiling. From the exterior view, concrete bands seem like floating on top of each other, and they actually have skylights along the circle on every top of each level. In this case, we can see how Wright tried to repect the use of natural lights. Indeed, the triangle recessed lights and staircases are also nutrualise the overall organic shape. A feature pond built at the ground floor that can be noticed from every level above. However, the curved interior wall is controversial from some artists who complained about the placement of their painting. But this does not sinfluence the love and praise of the visitors for it. To compare with the expansive main gallary, the entrance is relative low, small and conceal. That gives visitor a contrast leading suddenly into an open space.
Every period of his time, from naturalism, organicim, prairie style to mordenism, he had also caused new influences and impacets on the world’s architecture. Frank Lloyd Wright provided an exploration and important referencefor the future design.