Research Saint Report: St. Francis of Assisi

1181-1226

Feast Day: October 4

” If God can work through me, he can work through anyone.”

https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/francis_of_assisi_103418

Giovanni di Pietro or Saint Francis was born in Italy around 1181 or 1182. Francis was the only child. He had no sibling.  He was the only son of Pietro di Bernardone, a cloth merchant, and the lady pica who may have come from France. During Francis birth, his father was away on a business trip to France and later on His mother had him baptized in Giovanni. On his return, Pietro di Bernardone changed Francis’s name to Francisco because of his interest in France or lady pica’s background. Francis soon, later on, learned to read and write Latin giving him some literature. Francis liked to speak French even though he never did so perfectly. Francis was a spoiled person who didn’t do anything well. When Francis was at the age of 14, he had left school and disobeyed rules and the bad consequences that were given to him. Francis had many talents and skills that he learned like horsemanship something he was quite talented at. He was supposed to follow his Dad into the family business. Rather, he thought of being a knight.

As a young man, Francis enjoyed many feelings of life but when he was sick, he felt that God was calling him as Jesus did. Francis wanted more than money. Francis decided he wanted to be a knight. Battle was the best place to win he longed for. Francis finally got his first chance and he insisted war on the town of Perugia. Most of the troops from Assisi were badly hurt, injured and some cases even worse in the fight. Nevertheless, those rich enough with money were spared and the poor were taken prisoner at last. Francis was the bravest and like he always wanted to be but locked up in a dirty prison dungeon.  A year in the dungeon, he was spared but it didn’t change him. Meanwhile a year of captivity in the dungeon, he stayed happy with joy. soon when he has released Francis answers to God and started visiting the sick, injured, and hurt in hospitals and to do a helpful thing for the poor. He also wore clothes like the poor and he started to preach to people about peace. H he suffered and experienced a long sickness that bore him with patience.  later Francis recovered from his illness and joined the troops of the knight of Assisi. One day after his return from Rome as he prayed outside of Church in St. Damian’s, Francis felt the eyes of Jesus Christ looking at him and Heard a Voice multiple times saying Francis, go fix my house, which you see falling down. The building he was gazing upon was very old and ready to demolish and disintegrate into rubble. Now that he had found the right path, Francis went home and, from the kindness of his heart he took a very large, a huge load of clothes out of his father’s storehouse where he kept manufactured goods and sold it and with the horse that carried it. He then bought the money to the poor, priest of St. Damian’s church and asked if he might remain in St. Damian’s. The priest accepted Francis fellowship but turned down the offer with the money which Francis left laying on a window sill.

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Bernadone, furious at his son’s foolishness, came to saint Damian’s to bring him home but Francis hid and couldn’t be found. He spent mostly some days in prayer and then went fearlessly to see his father. The intensely irritated and frustrated Bernadone beat Francis and restrained his feet and locked him up. A little later his mom set him free and Francis went back to the church of Saint Damian’s. His father followed him in order to catch him there angrily declare that he must return home or formally declare the position, his share in his inheritance and pay the price of the horse, the products he brought and he had taken as well. Francis made no reason for disagreeing to being a change in his will but a statement that the other money now belonged to God and the poor. Bernandone had him a trial before Guido and told Francis to give back the currency and properties. The bishop said to have his church profit by goods. Francis gave back the money but went even further by giving up his clothing. So he took off his items of clothing and said our father who art in heaven. Bernadone left the court in a deep disappointment and rage with anger, while the bishop covered Francis with his own cloak clothing was brought. Francis was cut off from his mom and dad and started a new life. In the woods, some robbers stopped him and asked who he was He said, he was the herald of the great king. The robber mocked him and laughed at him and threw him into a hole. He got back up and continued on his way. At the monastery, Francis was given a job. as he was walking slowly with heavy footsteps due to exhaustion on to the town of Gubbio when he was noticed by a close friend who took him to his house and gave him clothing like a tunic, belt, and shoes. While at the town of Gubbio he learned of a hungry wolf that was terrorizing the people after some pets and animals were killed by the wolf. Some villagers thought of killing the wolf only to be its next victim. Many of the residents became scared to leave their houses then Saint Francis went out to find the wolf. while he was in the forest the wolf charged at him with sharp teeth but Francis stood his ground and spoke to the wolf making peace between the wolf and the town of Gubbio. Francis soon learned the wolf had been abandoned and started searching for food realizing the wolf meant no harm. After making peace, Saint Francis took the wolf to Gubbio and told the townspeople to feed them and they happily agreed to. When Francis went back to St. Damian’s the priests welcomed him, and Francis now began to repair the church. Later on, as time went by at the age of 44, Francis of Assisi passed away in Assisi, Italy on October 3rd, 1226. He was canonized by Pope Gregory the ninth on July 16th, 1228. Saint Francis of Assisi is the patron of an ecologist. For his love for animals, nature, and every being.

 Why I chose Saint Francis is because he helped people just like I do. Although I didn’t hear the voice of God, I can connect to Saint Francis of Assisi because during the summer every Thursday and mostly Tuesday I volunteered at the Saint Camillus food pantry to help out the homeless and people in need. In the food pantry organized foods that would later go out to the people in need like the homeless and the hungry as Francis did. I also help out people just like Francis because when my grandfather was sick, I took care of him and helped him with a lot of his needs in order for him to heal and recover. Although the process was not an all easy job or exciting. Even though I could have been doing something else like playing games or being lazy. It was a good way to bond together and get to know each other more than just family or Grandfather and Grandson. When I grow up, I am going to become a doctor or be in the medical field to help others in need just like my grandfather who is healthy, alive and well today. Sooner or later and for the rest of my life, I will devote myself to Christianity and help people in desperate need of my help. I will always look upon god like Saint Francis of Assisi did and cherish his love for people just like mine.

Sources:

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-Francis-of-Assisi

 https://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=50

https://www.ducksters.com/history/middle_ages/saint_francis_of_assisi.php

 Youtube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S_RxstfZ80s

 

What Makes Pope Francis a Good Leader?

INTRODUCTION

Pope Francis has taken the world by storm. His real name is Jorge Mario Bengolio, born on December 17, 1936 in Flores, Buenos Aires.  He has been elected as the 266th Pope of the Catholic Church. From the beginning of his papacy on March 2013, he has achieved several firsts that distinctly differentiate him from his predecessors. He is the first non-European pope in 1,200 years, the first Latin-American and the first Jesuit, he is also the first pope to choose the name Francis, in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi.

Because of the magnitude and speed of his achievements, TIME Magazine chose him as Person of the Year in 2013. His outspoken and radically different leadership style has made Pope Francis one of the most controversial pope’s ever.

PURPOSE OF THE REPORT

The purpose of this report is to discuss what makes Pope Francis a good leader.

WHAT IS A GOOD LEADER?

Famous authors have their own definition of good leadership:

Brian C Maxwell defines a leader as, “One who knows the way, goes the way, and shows the way.” While Brian Tracey says that, “Great leaders find the balance between business foresight, performance, and character.”

Great leaders exhibit the characteristics of Vision, Courage, Integrity, Humility

Jack Welch explains that Vision will help tap into people’s emotions. A good business leader will create, articulate, own the vision, and drive it into completion.               

Winston Churchill believes that Courage is the foremost of all virtues. Good Leaders are willing to take risks to achieve their goals.

According to Zig Ziglar, when you have Integrity, you always do the right thing and there is no fear of hiding anything.

Having Humility, they can recognise the importance of others without feeling threatened.

They know Plan Strategically by looking ahead to see the market trends.

The strengths of their employees and the strength of the company is their primaryfocus.

They are able to Cooperate with their employees in such a way that they work because they actually want to.

They are likeable. People follow the lead of those who are friendly and approachable.

 They are skilled at communication and are good listeners. They can motivate, instruct and discipline people.

WHY IS POPE FRANCIS A GOOD LEADER?

Pope Francis embodies many characteristic traits of a great leader.  He showed the world that his  style of leadership would be very different from the old ways of the Catholic Church, while his views on poverty, reforming the church, climate change and divorce have stirred up world opinion, making him a constant media personality. His visits to Israel and Cuba, his welcoming of Palestine President Mahmoud Abbas Vatican visit, and addressing US Congress as well as other world leaders have all made international headlines.

He has gone against thousands of years of strict Catholic tradition by welcoming gay people, as well as those who have been divorced. Sectors of society who would usually be looked down upon by the Catholic Church.

His most recent encyclical, “Laudato Si,” connects climate change to poverty and the rights of indigenous people. Effectively turning the environmental crisis into an issue of social justice.

WHAT ISSUES HAS HE IMPACTED?

 A real leader does not shy away from crisis and debate, but embraces them as part of finding a solution. Here are his views on ten key issues, in his own words:

1. Human Rights

“Human rights are not only violated by terrorism, repression or assassination, but also by unfair economic structures that creates huge inequalities.”

2. Equality

“We must restore hope to young people, help the old, be open to the future, spread love. Be poor among the poor. We need to include the excluded and preach peace.”

3. Peace

“Each of us has a vision of good and of evil. We have to encourage people to move towards what they think is good… Everyone has his own idea of good and evil and must choose to follow the good and fight evil as he conceives them. That would be enough to make the world a better place.”

4. Finance

“There is a need for financial reform along ethical lines that would produce in its turn an economic reform to benefit everyone. This would nevertheless require a courageous change of attitude on the part of political leaders.”

5. Work

“Together with a culture of work, there must be a culture of leisure as gratification. To put it another way: people who work must take the time to relax, to be with their families, to enjoy themselves, read, listen to music, play a sport.”

6. The Environment

“May the relationship between man and nature not be driven by greed, to manipulate and exploit, but may the divine harmony between beings and creation be conserved in the logic of respect and care.”

7. Sustainability

“Never have we so hurt and mistreated our common home as we have in the last 200 years.”

8. World Economy

“The idea of infinite or unlimited growth, which proves so attractive to economists, financiers and experts in technology … is based on the lie that there is an infinite supply of the earth’s goods, and this leads to the planet being squeezed dry at every limit.”

9. Government

“Every man, every woman who has to take up the service of government, must ask themselves two questions: ‘Do I love my people in order to serve them better? Am I humble and do I listen to everybody, to diverse opinions in order to choose the best path?’ If you don’t ask those questions, your governance will not be good.”

10. Power

“You cannot be in a position of power and destroy the life of another person.”

CHANGES MADE BASED ON LEADERSHIP

From the time of his election in March 2013, Pope Francis has established ground breaking progress by removing political red tape and making changes in the Church’s accountability and changing its focus to that of a pilgrim and a minister to the marginalised and less fortunate.

ABORTION, SAME-SEX MARRIAGE AND CONTRACEPTION

The Church has held staunch beliefs on controversial issues and has remained stalwart in its views concerning abortion, same-sex marriage and contraception.

Very early into his new role, Pope Francis criticised the Church for being obsessive in regards to these long-standing issues. He said that it was, “putting religious doctrine before love,” prioritizing these moral doctrines rather than serving the poor.

CHALLENGED VATICAN HIERARCHY

He called for the Vatican to step down from its high throne and start collaborating with laypeople, bishops and women in particular. Since then, three women have been appointed as consultants to the Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith in the Vatican.

THE STATE OF PALESTINE

Pope Francis hosted Israeli and Palestinian presidents in May 2014, for a prayer summit. He also flew into the West Bank where he referred to the Israeli-occupied territory as the “State of Palestine.”

CHANGE THE CHURCH STANCE ON DIVORCE

There is a battle between traditionalists who argue about the indissolubility marriage and high level officials who would like to give Catholics who have been divorced a chance to participate more fully in Church activities and for those who have remarried, to be able to have their previous relationship annulled

He Is Holding Bishops More Accountable for Sex Abuse

There has yet to be a pope who has confronted in public, bishops who have been accused of gross negligence. Under Pope Francis leadership, a tribunal for judging bishops has been created by the Vatican. This is in light with the clamor of victims of child sexual abuse which has been a hushed issue covered up by the Roman Catholic Church for more than three decades.

He Is Reviving Liberation Theology

The beatification of slain Archbishop Óscar Romero of El Salvador in May which has advanced his sainthood is sign of Pope Francis’ allegiance to the poor and oppressed.

Climate Change

“Laudato Si’,” the Pope’s latest encyclical, confronts the problem of climate change. It called for  “a radical transformation of politics, economics and individual lifestyles.” It attributed environmental destruction to “apathy, the reckless pursuit of profits, excessive faith in technology and political shortsightedness.”

 Commitment to a Respectful Dialogue

Pope Francis would like to bring together all religions, and atheists, in his pursuit of important global topics.

His positive relations with leaders of the Jewish, Muslim, Evangelical, and Orthodox Christian faiths has influenced them to pray for a peaceful solution to the Middle East crisis.

Unifying Social Sectors

Pope Francis has made it clear that he welcomes all people, even communities that have previously been harshly excluded from the Catholic Church, such as the LGBT community. Francis commented, “If someone is gay and he searches for the Lord and has good will,who am I to judge?”

REJECTS DISPLAYS OF WEALTH

Instead of living in the Apostolic Palace, he chooses to live in a humble apartment known as Santa Marta together with other bishops. He does not wear much ornamentation, wearing simple vestments and the pectoral cross he has used as a cardinal. He uses a fuel-efficient Ford Focus instead of a luxury car.

HE SHOWS OPEN RESPECT AND ADMIRATION FOR INDIGENOUS PEOPLE.

He showed respect for the language of indigenous groups in Paraguay by delivering the”lord’s Prayer” in Guarani, a language spoken by 80% of the population. While including readings in Quichua, the most-spoken native language in Ecuador.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN

He has stated: “If we destroy Creation, Creation will destroy us.”

THE ENCYCLICAL, “ LAUDATO SI”

A review of the Encyclical by Yale stated:

“Experts say the document has the potential to transform the global discussion on climate change for Catholics and non-Catholics alike by projecting the planetary crisis into moral and religious terms at a critical moment in global climate negotiations.”

The Pope cites consumerism, irresponsible development, and the use of fossil fuels as the causes of “a relentless exploitation and destruction of the environment” and “unprecedented destruction of ecosystems, with serious consequence for all of us.”

 “The warming caused by huge consumption on the part of some rich countries has repercussions on the poorest areas of the world … There is also the damage caused by the export of solid waste and toxic liquids to developing countries, and by the pollution caused by companies which operate in less developed countries in ways they … would never do in developed countries or the so-called first world.”

ACCOMPLISHMENTS BASED ON LEADERSHIP

The Pope’s accomplishments are many and varied. He has been able to make important changes in the way the Vatican treats the taboo subjects on the LGTB Community, the importance of women in the Vatican, the increased accountability of the church in the sex scandals, acting as a bridge to repair relations with Superpowers such as China, the US and Cuba, acknowledging the importance of poorer countries, indigenous groups and migrants, linking environmental crises to the greed of wealthy nations and apathy of the people, reaching out to all religions and calling for unification, as well as changing the church’s views on abortion, divorce, marriage, annulment and the death penalty.

LEADERSHIP STYLE

Walks the Talk

When we look at the leadership style of Pope Francis, we notice that he actually does what he says. He is a living testament to what he preaches.

Risk Taker

Pope Francis isn’t afraid to do things that are out-of-the ordinary. He is candid and unguarded in his actions. He is courageous and uses his influence to address worldwide issues despite criticism.

Asks for Advice

Pope Francis doesn’t rely only on his own personal experiences. Rather, he seeks counsel from others who have expertise on certain subjects.

Internet Savvy

Pope Francis makes use of internet technology to reach out and share even his personal thoughts and reflections. Although the Vatican has a website, the Pope has made an impact by using Twitter, where he has 4.3 million followers, to be able to connect to a wider audience.

Understand the importance of public opinion

Pope Francis understands that being liked plays an important part in his effectiveness. He listens to what the public has to say and acts accordingly to his beliefs, but always taking into consideration public opinion. In fact, a survey done by Pew Research Centre says that only 4 percent of Catholics have an unfavorable view of Pope Francis. 

Touches people

During Pope Francis’ “walkabouts,” he likes to connect with people by giving them a handshake or a hug. He reaches out to the sick and afflicted and isn’t afraid to goof around and enjoys taking selfies with the people.

He Speaks from the Heart

Pope Francis rarely uses a pre-written speech whenever he addresses the public.

CONCLUSION 

Pope Francis’ has shown the world what is to be, and what it takes to be called a great leader. His many achievements coupled with his unique characteristics of actually living the ideals of what he preaches, living simply, speaking his mind, promoting frugality, and working for peace and justice, making changes in doctrine that no longer apply to the 21st century has made him not only a good leader, but a great one.

He has been able to reach out to both Catholics and Non-Catholics alike. He has touched the lives of people all over the world and has created a platform for world leaders to effect change for the betterment of humanity.

References:

https://www.ranker.com/list/pope-francis-achievements-090815/mike-rothschild

https://real-leaders.com/10-reasons-why-pope-francis-is-a-real-leader/

https://www.crc-canada.org/en/leadership-pope-francis-teaches-us-ways-leads/

https://www.leadersleague.com/en/news/pope-francis-an-exceptional-leader https://www.huffingtonpost.com/jana-schilder/communication-lessons-fro_b_4533339.html http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/26/world/europe/pope-francis-changes-tone-at-the-vatican.html http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/20/world/europe/pope-bluntly-faults-churchs-focus-on-gays-and-abortion.html

Top 15 Leadership Qualities That Make Good Leaders (2024)

NY Times, Pope, in Mideast, Invites Leaders to Meet on Peace (May 25, 2014) .

NYTimes, As Vatican Revisits Divorce, Many Catholics Long for Acceptance (Jan. 24, 2015)

NYTimes, Pope Creates Tribunal for Bishop Negligence in Child Sexual Abuse Cases (June 10, 2015) .  NYTimes, Honor Comes Late to Oscar Romero (May 22, 2015)

NYTimes, Championing Environment, Francis Takes Aim at Global Capitalism (June 18, 2015)

CONCLUSION:

 For many, the reasons for the popularity of the Holy Father lie elsewhere. They are to be found first in the strength of a personality that goes against the grain of media outcry and political posturing; and second in the weaknesses of an era where such qualities as his are rare.
 

Case Study of Francis Valentine Cuthburt Shortis

Francis Valentine Cuthburt Shortis came from a wealthy Irish family that had established a successful business in cattle dealing. As an only child, Shortis was spoiled by his mother, however, his father thought that his son needed to learn how to be independent. On September 1893, eighteen years old Shortis was sailed to Canada alone on the S.S Laurentian to learn those values (Friedland, 1986, p. 3). After almost year Shortis had arrived in Montreal, his mother visited for a month to help her son establish a life in Canada. Shortis was hired to be a private secretary to Louis Simpson, the general manager of the Montreal Cotton Company for a trial of two months (Friedland, 1986, p. 4). However, Simpson did not renew Shortis’ contract as he did inadequate work and associated with a family of a rival company. While working at the company, Shortis associated himself with Millie Anderson and her younger brother Jack. The Anderson family had conflicts with Simpson and the cotton company as they had their own company the Anderson Foundry (Friedland,1986, p. 4). After being terminated from the company Shortis continued to see the Anderson family.

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In 1895 March 1st, Shortis had left the Anderson home around ten o’clock in the evening and went to the Montreal Cotton Company to visit his old co-workers (Friedland, 1986, p. 4-5). Particularly on this night, four workmen were unloading and packing $12,000 into pay packets in an office that was to be distributed to the workers the next pay day (Friedland, 1986, p. 5). As the workmen went to put the money in the vault, Shortis grabbed the company revolver he knew about from the office drawer shooting one of the workers, Hugh Wilson (Friedland, 1986, p. 5). As the other workmen stood in shock, another worker, John Loy, tried to call for a doctor but Shortis immediately shot and killed him (Friedland, 1986, p. 5). The other two workmen, John Lowe and Arthur Leboeuf, sheltered themselves within the vault closing the door behind them. Wilson tried to escape into the factory, but had been found by Shortis and was shot in the head (Friedland, 1986, p. 6). Shortis made his way back to the other workmen who were trapped in the vault, but before executing his plan to start a fire and smoking them out, Shortis encountered the night watchman and immediately shot and killed him (Friedland, 1986, p. 6). However, unknown to Shortis, Wilson had miraculously survived the gunshot in the head and went on to sound the alarm in the engine room alerting the authorities (Friedland, 1986, p. 6). As authorities arrived at the scene of the crime, Shortis had immediately surrendered and was charged with two accounts of murder.
Speculation of the crime was difficult to detect as Shortis’ motivations were unclear. Many believed the motive of the crime was robbery, but others had other theories that involved Millie Anderson and her younger brother Jack. Specifically, theorizing the crime as a revenge plot against Louis Simpson and as speculated robbery, but the money would have been used by Shortis to escape town with Millie as they had formed a romantic relationship at the time (Friedland, 1986, p.7). Although the motives of why Shortis committed the crime are unknown, two judges in different districts were assigned to the case as the venue of the trial was held an issue. The defence had made a petition to have the trial set in Montreal to as they believed that Shortis would not have a fair trial within the same district he had committed the crime (Friedland, 1986, p. 18). However, the petition was denied and the trial venue was not changed, Judge Michel Mathieu of the Quebec Superior Court assigned to the trial (Friedland, 1986, p. 31).
Summary of the Prosecution
As the trial began, Donald Macmaster and Charles Laurendeau, a Beauharnois lawyer, would represent the Crown (Friedland, 1986, p.32). Throughout the duration of the trial, the Crown was determined to eliminate the defence’s insanity plea, however, Judge Mathieu allowed the plea to be presented in court (Friedland, 1986, p. 35). In the opening address, Macmaster argues that determining whether a person is “insane” is solely based on an individual’s perception of their moral certainty that the accused was on wrongful mind when committing the crime (Friedland, 1986, p. 37-38). Concluding his opening argument, Macmaster notes that if the jury does excuse Shortis of being insane, determining the duration of his sentence is uncertain as Macmaster states that “there is no law that he will be confined for life” (Friedland, 1986, p.38). Introducing the Crown’s first witness, Macmaster brings John Lowe as he recounts the events that happened the night of the crime. The next witness brought in was Hugh Wilson. It was the first time Wilson had given a statement about the crime as he was recovering from his injuries during the inquest and preliminary hearing (Friedland, 1986, p.44). Wilson recounted the nights of the event from his perspective as Shortis shot at him several times before escaping and alerting the authorities. Other witnesses were called such as Dr. Sutherland, who had initially tended to Wilson’s injuries and first confronted Shortis with another workman, and Ernst McVicar, an employee of the mill who had evidence of premeditation as Shortis discussed topics of robbing the company and the train that contained the money that was to be delivered to the mill company (Friedland, 1986, p. 45).
Summary of the Defence
Representing the defence was Henri St. Pierre, J.N Greenshields, and George Foster, a solicitor (Friedland, 1986, p.14). The evidence presented by the defence was made within two days; no opening statements were made and the defence presented their first evidence which was of the Irish commission that consisted of 575 handwritten pages of statements made by forty-eight witnesses, however, only two of the forty-eight witnesses were heard (Friedland, 1986, p.47). Robert Dobbin, the first witness, was the defendant’s father’s solicitor. Knowing Shortis as a child for eight or nine years, Dobbin had seen a few incidents involving Shortis where he had the young boy putting out a large fire that he had suspected that he started it himself (Friedland, 1986, p.47). The second witness, John Ryan, a classmate of Shortis had considered him a “hot-tempered fool”, recalling the time he had seen Shortis acting like a “madman” hitting a worker with a heavy stick when he did not get out of the way, often having headaches, and a fascination for guns (Friedland, 1986, p.47). Other witnesses enhanced the defense’s insanity plea, as Richard Malone, a worker of the defendant’s father, told of how Shortis mistreated some of the cattle and found enjoyment in torturing the animals as he stuck pitchforks in the cattle (Friedland, 1986, p.48). The most important piece of evidence the defence presented were the testimonies of the defence’s psychiatrists. Each of the four psychiatrists supported the defence’s insanity plea as they had similar conclusions that Valentine Shortis was not of sound mind. One of the psychiatrists, James V. Anglin, concluded that Shortis was mentally ill from evidence such as incoherent speech, interests in subjects such as fatalism and reincarnation, delusions, and auditory and visual hallucinations (Friedland, 1986, p.60).
Verdict
With the jury about to decide the verdict of the trial, both the defence and the Crown gave their closing arguments, where the defence primarily focused on putting pressure on the jurors making them feel responsible for their decisions as Gre9enshields’ opening words were “Thou shalt not kill” (Friedland, 1986, p.90). Whereas the Crown concentrated on disproving the defence’s insanity plea, finding a contradiction in one of the defence’s psychiatrists, Dr. Clarke’s testimony, as Macmaster found Dr. Clarke had used his description of a criminal to describe the term moral imbecile, used to describe Shortis (Friedland, 1986, p.105). On 3 November 1895, the jury found Valentine Shortis guilty of the murders and was sentenced to death by hanging on 3 January 1896 (Friedland, 1986, p.115-117). Although the sentence was to be carried out, Greenshields made a statement stating, “(T)he only thing we now intend doing is to petition the Minister if Justice for commutation of sentence from the death penalty to imprisonment for life” (Friedland, 1986, p.119). Before the sentence was carried out, George Foster, the defence’s solicitor, went to present the petition in Ottawa to the minister of justice, Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper (Friedland, 1986, p.122). A cabinet meeting was held to discuss the petition of Valentine Shortis, a vote was to be made from ten cabinet members on whether to sentence was to be execution or life in prison (Friedland, 1986, p. 148). The vote was undecided as each side had five votes, therefore another vote was to be held with other cabinet members voting (Friedland, 1986, p. 149). Speculation of influencing cabinet members to have the petition be approved were thought as each cabinet member was associated with those who were affiliated with wanting Shortis to be given a life sentence. People such as Shortis’ parents as they may have bribed cabinet members in election funding, and Judge Mathieu, the trial judge, whose brother-in-law was one of the cabinet members may have influenced his vote as Mathieu was in favour of the petition (Friedland, 1986, p.150-151). On 31st December 1895, the petition was approved and was announced that Valentine Shortis was to serve a life sentence in St Vincent de Paul Penitentiary (Friedland, 1986, p.173).

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Conclusion
In reviewing the case of Valentine Shortis, I believe that justice was served. In today’s society, if a case were to be brought up under an insanity the jurors and those in court would be more understanding of the circumstances of the case. However, in the case of Shortis, the plea of insanity was questioned throughout the trial even though evidence of mental illness was presented by witnesses and psychiatrists. Perhaps because of the historical time period, the use of psychology in court was not acknowledged as if it is to be presented in court today as they may have believed that if a crime were committed the individual was sane and knew of their actions.
Bibliography
Friedland, M. L. (1986). The case of Valentine Shortis: a true story of crime and politics in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Analysis of Ernest Hemingway’s “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber”

Francis Macomber and His Short Life                    
Ernest Hemingway is an American author, short-story writer, and essayist who was granted the Nobel Prize for Literature. He was noted both for the extraordinary manliness theme of his composition and for his courageous and generally public life. His concise and clear composition style has an incredible impact on American and British fiction. His works are popular because of the themes of love, hatred, war, gain, and loss he has included in his literature. Ernest Hemingway’s “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber” is a short story illustrating a third-person omniscient story with snapshots of an untrustworthy interior monologue displayed mainly through the perspective of leading characters. The story presents the protagonists of the story, Francis Macomber, who needs the courage to live his life of manhood. Francis’s wife, Margot who needs money instead of love. Also, Wilson who is a hunter who knows how to guide and hunt. Entire circumstance in story, Francis lost his courage because his wife demotivates him by saying he is a coward. Integrated into the plot, Hemingway’s real theme of this story is courage, masculinity, a failed marriage, and domination. In this story, psychoanalytical criticism is used to reflect the effects of these themes through the use of characters, symbols, and settings of the story.

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The main characters of this story are Francis Macomber, Margot Macomber, and Robert Wilson, who have reflected the theme of the story through their nature and activities. The protagonist of the story, Francis Macomber, is a young American man on a safari in Africa. He is wealthy, but he lacks power and conviction. His target was to kill a lion in that safari, but he failed many times because of the fear of that giant wildlife. According to Harold Bloom, “Macomber flees, ‘bolting like a rabbit’ and leaving Wilson to shoot the lion again and again as it forces itself toward him.” This shows that Francis had fear inside him which discourages the hidden power inside him. However, at last, he achieves his manhood by killing the lion. Also, he shows his masculinity to his wife. He dominates Margot in many scenes such as in the car, while hunting, and while having breakfast with others. His stubborn nature is focused on his aim which can be seen in his happiness after killing the lion and buffalo.
Margot Macomber is Francis Macomber’s extremely beautiful and well-kept wife. She is a socialite and former model who knows how to control men. Margot is an archetypal female predator woman who defies standards of passive femininity by boldly asserting her beauty and perusing wealth instead of love. She is with Francis because of his wealth. According to Abby Werlock, “The Macomber marriage is on shaky ground, but Margot was too beautiful for Macomber to divorce her and Macomber had too much money for Margot ever to leave him.” So, she is rendered pathetic, her life without her husband was dismal because he sustains her lifestyle and well-being.
Robert Wilson is a British “white hunter” who is hired by an American, Francis Macomber, to get help in the African safari. The author presents himself through this character in the story as he was a hunter in his age. Wilson seems like a cool guy who is supporting women in her wrongdoing; Margot kills Francis and Wilson gets the chance to be closer by giving sympathy to her. He is a hunter who hunts women. In the story, the skeptical nature of Francis, the unsatisfied nature of Margot, and the attractive nature of Wilson have created conflicts that lead to the death of Francis. After killing her husband, Margot is getting sympathy and help from Wilson to overcome the murder of her husband.
Besides the characters, symbols have significant roles in the story to enhance the theme of masculinity, courage, risk, and domination. Mainly, the author has focused on two symbols to portray the theme. They are the lion and the car. The lion is a symbol of courage and the power of masculinity. This is the animal Francis encounters first while hunting. The lion causes fear in him. The sound of the roar of a lion in his tent makes him awake with weakness due to fear. This disturbing sound of the giant, life-threatening animal plunged him into paralyzing fear, which prevents him from killing the lion. This event caused him to be embarrassed in front of Margot and Wilson. According to Hemingway, “It had started the night before when Francis had wakened and heard the lion roaring somewhere up along the river. It was a deep sound and in the end, there was sort of coughing grunts that made him seem just outside the tent, and when he woke in the night to hear it he was afraid”(21). From the beginning, Francis is afraid of the lion even with its roaring, which presents a character with fear and who needs courage and power to face the lion.
The car represents the risk, rush, and control in hunting. The car that Wilson and Francis use to hunt is striking since it is prohibited. It is a symbol of development, masculinity, and mankind’s endeavor to rule the natural world. It reveals all through the narrative, encouraging the two parallel hunters and bearing characters between the campground and the hunting ground that is among safety and threat. The hunters should not use cars to hunt and shoot creatures since this gives them an advantage and it is unsportsmanlike. The car is itself a space of security that isolates people from conceivably awful creatures. However for Margot, who is kept in the car while her husband and Wilson hunt, the car is a symbol of imprisonment. It is doorless and box-bodied, enabling her to observe the safari but preventing her from being a part of the hunting. Her femininity keeps her apart from the space of the hunt, where manhood rules. Along these lines, the car symbolizes a central conflict between power, uncertainty, and defense both the hunt and sexual attraction between characters.
Along with the characters and symbols, the settings of the story “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber” has supported the theme of the entire story by shadowing the beliefs of that time and the territory where the scenes were captured. As per the time, this story was set in the 1930s which reflects the stereotypes of that time. Amidst the Great Depression, the way that Francis can stand to take an extravagance excursion takes on incredible significance. It indicates that they are far expelled from the substances of their day, which incorporate neediness, monetary unsteadiness, and general hopelessness. In a time before present-day feminisms were held, the thoughts of what established a genuine man or a genuine woman were regularly those dependent on custom. Men were bold, fearless, and chivalric, and women were feminine, refined, and respectful to men. Hemingway additionally used this female generalization, especially in the character of Margot Macomber. Oliver states, “…..she would like to leave Macomber, she is afraid she would not be able to attach herself to anyone else with as much money.” She does not adore her husband and has been unfaithful. Nevertheless, he is extremely rich which is why she does not leave him. The readers, at that point, can decipher her plan to kill him and turning into a rich widow all the while, as the activity of a femme fatale. Hemingway, whose works much of the time remark on the idea of masculinity, considered himself to be a paragon of manhood through his affinity for hunting, fishing, and bullfighting.
The entire story takes place in Africa, in a safari. Margot’s reference to Nairobi may show that the safari is someplace in Kenya, yet nothing precise about the safari area is indicated. In the story, Francis and Margot Macomber are well off Americans for whom hunting creatures on a safari is something fun. For some, rich outsiders, hunting for wild creatures in safaris is just a game; they could not care about the prosperity of creatures or about the way that they devastate valuable pieces of the natural world. Francis certainly chose to go hunting in the African safari since it was a casual adventure for him because he was not genuine in hunting.
Hemingway’s story “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber,” has presented various conflicts and scenes of rising activity by using characters, symbols, and setting of the story, which lead to an extraordinary ending. The contentions Francis has with himself, nature, and man prompts a demonstrated fear of the wild, and his deficiencies. These events lead to the unanticipated climax of the story where the actions of both Francis and his wife are addressed. It is also amusing that his wife, the real person who ought to secure him, is the reason for his death. Furthermore, the way that it might have been Margot’s drive to secure Francis which devastates him makes the peak of the story interesting. Hemingway uses the logical inconsistencies to give enough ambiguity in the account for the result of the story to be uncertain. Even though Francis’s life was short in years, it was admittedly cheerful as he had the option to confront his feelings of fear and beat his greatest deterrents. At last, he dies as the prime of his own life.
Works Cited:

Bloom, Harold. “‘The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber.’” Ernest Hemingway, Chelsea House, 1999. History Research Center,online.infobase.com/Auth/Index?aid=&itemid= &articleId=5795. Accessed 28 Oct. 2019.
Hemingway, Ernest. “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber.” The First Forty-Nine Stories, Alden Press, 1946, pp. 9-43. Accessed 28 Oct 2019.
Oliver, Charles M. “Margot Macomber.” Critical Companion to Ernest Hemingway, Facts On File, 2007. Bloom’s Literature,online.infobase.com/Auth/Index?aid=15149&itemid= WE54&articleId=54482. Accessed 28 Oct. 2019.
Werlock, Abby H. P. “‘The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber.’” Encyclopedia of the American Short Story, 2-Volume Set, Third Edition, Facts On File, 2013. Bloom’s Literature, online.infobase.com/Auth/Index?aid=15149&itemid=WE54&articleId=9472. Accessed 28 Oct. 2019.