Current Environmental Issues in the Greater Toronto Area

Introduction

In this research paper, I will be talking about some current environmental issues in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). There are many current environmental issues in Toronto concerning different types of pollution caused by commercial and consumer activity in the city. There are many harmful effects of human activity, such as air pollution, water pollution, and other influences caused by urban infrastructure like highways and public transportation services. But in this paper, I am going to focus on these three current environmental issues in Toronto: the large amount of air pollution in our city, the extensive contamination in the waterways around the GTA, and the tremendous difficulties concerning waste management. I will first discuss the root cause for each issue. Then I will explain the effects of each issue, particularly those on health, the environment, and quality of life. I will conclude my paper by giving recommendations on how to solve each of the three primary environmental issues in Toronto.

Discussions and Analysis

The first environmental issue I will discuss is the large amount of air pollution in Toronto. In 2004, Toronto Public Health reported that there were around 1,700 premature deaths and 6,000 hospitalizations each year in Toronto because of air pollution. (Stephanie Gower, 2014) In 2014, air pollution had an even larger impact on the health of people in Toronto, even though there were improvements on air quality. Last year there were around 1,300 premature deaths and 3,550 hospitalizations in Toronto due to increased air pollution. (Stephanie Gower, 2014)

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More than 50% of Toronto’s air pollution is distributed to urban areas in and around the city. The primary causes of air pollution are exhaust from motor vehicles and emissions from factories. Millions of cars, trucks, vans and busses use the city’s roadways each year. The number of factories in the GTA is always increasing. According to the average, these sources of air pollution account for around 280 deaths and 1,090 hospitalizations in Toronto each year. (Stephanie Gower, 2014) These sources account for around 42% of premature deaths and 55% of hospitalizations because of air pollution in Toronto. These percentages of premature death and hospitalizations show that there is a decrease comparing with 2007 estimates, as air pollution distributed by vehicles gave rise to about 440 deaths and 1,700 hospitalizations that year. (Stephanie Gower, 2014) But there is still a very large health impact caused by air pollution.

There are two primary results of air pollution, and those are the affects on health and on the environment. Air pollution has very adverse effects on the health of children and adults. There are five key air pollutants that can harm humans, and those are sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and ozone (O3). (Health effects of air pollution, 2017) The elderly and young children are the ones greatly affected by air pollution. The five air pollutants affect breathing and lung condition, which can ultimately lead to such illnesses as: asthma, allergies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); and heart conditions, such as angina, arrhythmia, heart attack, heart failure, and hypertension. (Health effects of air pollution, 2017) Also, there are some symptoms that might be evident in a person’s behavior because of air pollution. These include: tiredness, headaches, dizziness, coughing, sneezing, wheezing, difficulty breathing, mucous in the nose or throat; and dryness or irritation in the eyes, nose, throat and skin.  (Health effects of air pollution, 2017) These harmful effects on health cause many people in Toronto to lose time at work, be hospitalized, or even die. As for the negative environmental effects of air pollution there are several, including acid rain, harm to wildlife, lower crop yield, forest damage, and global climate change. (JR., 2018) As for acid rain, this effect makes the river and lake water unsuitable for some fish and other wildlife in Toronto. As for the effects on wildlife, toxic pollutants in the air have a severe impact. Pollution causes animals to have many health problems, shortening the longevity and worsening the quality of life for countless species. In terms of crop and forest damage, air pollution can damage crops and trees in many ways, lowering crop yield and worsening the quality of produce. As for global climate change, air pollution produces greenhouse gases (GHGs) which harm the environment, causing the world to gradually become warmer each year, which is causing major weather disasters with more regularity. 

We know that transportation is a major contributor of air pollution, which has harmful impacts on health and the environment in Toronto. To reduce pollution and its harmful effects to people and the environment, there are certain things we can do as a society. We need to reduce vehicle usage, particularly the number of cars on the road, as this is directly causing a high percentage of air pollution. We need people to drive less and do more walking and cycling. We need everyone to use more public transit, such as taking the bus, streetcar, and subway. Also, we need to reduce the pollution produced from factories. Companies should be taxed more heavily for their harmful emissions, even if it results in higher prices for consumers and less profit for businesses. We need to reduce our consumption, reuse more of the materials that web typically throw away, and recycle more as well. All of these actions will result in better air quality, a cleaner environment, and fewer illnesses due to pollution. 

The second environmental issue that we are going to discuss is water pollution. Lakes, rivers, and steams in the GTA are becoming over-polluted. When we think about water pollution in GTA, we might think about smaller waterways such as the Don River, Humber River, and Rouge River. But in this research paper, I am going to be focusing on the sources of fecal pollution in Lake Ontario. Municipal wastewater is a major source of fecal pollution. (Thomas A. Edge , 2007) Even though we have made improvements to control the pollution in Lake Ontario through improved sewage treatment plant, there is still room for improvement. With the effluents and combined sewer overflows, beach closures persist in a lot of communities around Lake Ontario. There are many problems about fecal pollution in Lake Ontario, such as droppings from birds, impervious surface runoff, mats of cladophora green alga, and foreshore sand. (Thomas A. Edge , 2007) According to a recent investigation, fecal dropping from birds is the major contributor to the elevated numbers of Escherichia coli in the beach water of Lake Ontario. And this causes the water in Lake Ontario to be very dirty, which harms people and the environment.

The effects of fecal pollution on public health and the environment are large and harmful. Fecal pollution is extremely unsanitary and dangerous, as it contains pathogenic organisms that cause gastrointestinal infections following ingestion or infections of the upper respiratory tract, ears, eyes, nasal cavity and skin. (Faecal pollution and water quality, 2016) Fecal pollution causes people to have Infections and illness, and it is difficult to detect by routine surveillance systems. According to research, tests showed a number of adverse health outcomes including gastrointestinal and respiratory infections to be related on fecal pollution in Lake Ontario. (Thomas A. Edge , 2007) And this is a definite a burden of disease on public health and economic loss. Also, Fecal pollution has an extreme effect on the environment. It makes our water in Lake Ontario very dirty, making it difficult for species of fish and aquatic creatures to survive or breed. And if they cannot survive in the water, people cannot catch them and eat it, which results in a large drop to the economy and public utility. Also, if the water is dirty in the Lake Ontario, this will have a large effect on public health because the water is definitely not safe to drink. 

We know that fecal pollution has a large effect on the Lake Ontario. Right now, there are no specific ways to prevent this pollution because you cannot kill all the birds that cause the enormous amounts of fecal droppings. But we can use antimicrobial resistance analysis, a system that we can use to make sure our water is clean. Also we need to have a better understanding of water interface on beaches to inform sand-grooming practices and have a well-planned beach management system to protect public health in Lake Ontario. (Thomas A. Edge , 2007)

The last environmental issue that I will discuss is waste management. In 2006, 27,249178 tonnes of waste was dumped by Canada. An amount of 10,437,780 tonnes of waste was dumped by the Province of Ontario, and 1,218,540 tonnes of waste was dumped by the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Around 38.3% of Canadian waste was dumped by the Province of Ontario, and around 11.7% waste was dumped by the GTA. (Shamsul, 2010) Exactly 7,749030 tonnes of waste was diverted by Canada, 2,396,856 tonnes of waste was diverted by Province of Ontario, and 913,930 tonnes of waste was diverted by GTA. (Shamsul, 2010) In 2008, 1,067,054 tonnes of waste was dumped by the GTA and 1,078,261 tonnes of waste was diverted by the GTA. Comparing to the results in 2006, the disposal of waste decreased by 12.43% and diversion of waste was increased by 18% in GTA by the year 2008. (Shamsul, 2010) But waste management is still a big problem which requires a lot of improvement in the GTA, especially given the continuously increasing population growth. The major issue about waste management in the GTA is landfills. Dumping too much garbage will cause land pollution to worsen and an uncontrolled buildup of all sorts of solid waste. (What are Landfills?, 2016) There are multiple effects of poor waste management. The first effect is on air quality. Waste impacts the air quality around landfills because of the toxic fumes which are produced, such as Greenhouse Gas (GHGs) (Eugene A. Mohareb, 2011) which are very bad for the environment. The second effect is ground water pollution. Harmful run-off water is groundwater pollution that results from liquid which leeches from landfills, and it is hard to prevent the natural deterioration of ground water. This has severely adverse effects on the environment because animals and plants drink and absorb this poison. The third harmful effect by landfill waste is that on public health. If people live near the landfill areas, there are risks of health implications include birth defects, low birth weight, and particular cancers. Other undesirable impacts are sleepiness, nausea, headaches, and lassitude. The last unwanted effect by landfill waste is soil and land pollution. Landfill waste could directly make the soil and land to be unusable, destroying the ground area because of toxic chemicals spread over its area. Then after a long time, the soil is irreparably damaged, distorting soil fertility, and greatly harming plant life.

In order to solve the landfill waste issue in the GTA, there are multiple ways to improve the situation. The first solution is source reduction. Source reduction is the most effect way to minimize the waste in landfill. (Shamsul, 2010) It reduces the volume and toxicity of generated waste, such as lowering the GHG pollution. It also saves costs from transportation and extends the life of landfills. For example, instead of using plastic shopping bags, we can encourage people to use cotton or other disposable bags. People can buy less unnecessary consumables and use them most efficiently to reduce waste. The second solution is for people and companies to reuse and recycle much more material than at present time. This is an efficient way to reduce the millions of tones of waste that is constantly dumped in landfills. The three Rs help to extend the life of landfills and reduce GHG pollution. Also it saves limited and costly resources, which will make our environment becoming better and better. The last solution is to have a well-designed implementation of integrated waste management, as this can directly decrease the impacts of landfill on soil, air and water. If landfills are well designed and operated, then we will have a cleaner environment that is harmed less from pollution.

Conclusion

In conclusion, there are still a lot of environmental issues in the GTA, which are bound to persist for decades to come. After researching the pressing environmental issues of the GTA, I recognize that we can do a lot more to reduce the harmful pollution that is a result of human activity. People and all businesses should face larger fines and penalties for excessive pollution and dumping or not recycling. If people use more mass transportation like busses and subways, then there will be far less pollution in our valuable air. If factories reuse resources to produce in a more effective and efficient way, then there will be far less pollution in the air. Also if people do more recycling, then we can reduce our ever-growing problems of waste management. In the future, I will try to do my part by using more mass transportation and recycling more of my refuse more diligently and effectively. I must do these things otherwise when I tell others to do the same I will be nothing more than a bystander and hypocrite.

References

Thomas A. Edge , S. H.. (2007, May 17th). Multiple lines of evidence to identify the sources of fecal pollution at a freshwater beach in Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario .

What are Landfills? (2016). Retrieved from www.conserve-energy-future.com: https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-effects-solutions-of-landfills.php

Eugene A. Mohareb, H. L. (2011, May). Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Waste Management . Assessment of Quantification Methods .

Faecal pollution and water quality. (2016). Retrieved from www.whio.int: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/bathing/srwe1-chap4.pdf

Health effects of air pollution. (2017, November 16th). Retrieved November 11th, 2018 , from www.canada.ca: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/air-quality/health-effects-indoor-air-pollution.html

JR., R. K. (2018). Health & Environmental Effects of Air Pollution . Health Effects .

Shamsul, A. (2010). A Study on potential for sustainable waste management in the Greater Toronto Area.

Stephanie Gower, R. M. (2014, April). Path to Healthier Air. Toronto Air Pollution Burden of Illness Update .

 

Challenges for Parents when a Child wants Greater Autonomy

Describe whether and what new challenges parents may face when the child starts to seek a greater autonomy. Identify and describe one developmental theory to explain how these new challenges emerge and unfold from late childhood to late adolescence, and how parents or professionals could help parents and adolescents deal with the challenges.

Autonomy is the Erikson (Broderick 2015) concept of self determination or “I can do it by myself”. This stage starts during toddlerhood. It is important in this phase to allow the child to process through the tasks that they can do themselves to help them gain a sense of control and self-worth. Parents exerting too much control and not allowing the child to explore and practice can lead to a sense of shame, or that they are not capable of performing such tasks. It can also create resentment and refusal to accept authority because they are under too much control. On the other hand, too little control by the parent can lead to the child being put in danger by not having adequate borders to their exploration. Also, the child may not know how to submit to adequate borders at an older age when they are added.

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It is important to allow a child to practice the developmental tasks at the appropriate time and it is important for the parent to provide the right level of support. For example, a child will need first to understand that they are capable of exploring their environment, self-feeding, even if they make a mess. The feeling of success can help them tackle the next challenge of potty training. They may go from one task to the next with a greater sense of self ability. One autonomous success will help the child believe they can be successful at the next task they need to master. Later in adolescence, children must learn skills to help them manage their own lives and make healthy choices. Autonomy at this age is a sense of self-governance, responsibility, independence and decision-making. Autonomy at this age may look like choice of hair style, the way they keep their bedroom, the clothes they wear, activities they participate in, whom they date, what they spend their money on, and many more. Parents of adolescent children can support their child’s autonomy by being loving, warm, firm, fair, having consistent rules, discuss more adult topics and take their view points seriously, and allow them to experience the connection between action and natural consequence in a loving and supportive manner.

Autonomy is an important theme that continues through development. A study at The University of Minnesota (Sroufe, Fox, & Pancake, 1983) ranked children in characteristic related to autonomy, such as attention seeking, extreme reliance on the teacher, and involvement with teachers at the expense of peers. They found that toddlers who were securely attached infants are found in later ages by teacher to be direct, exhibit appropriate dependency behaviors by seeking help when they realistically need it and functioning independently when necessary. In contrast, insecurely attached children are indirect, more likely to act helpless, act out for attention, or passively not seek help when needed. This continues on as these children age. This study also found that by age ten securely attached children had greater confidence, more friend and better social skills. By age sixteen, children with secure infant attachments were more likely to trust a best friend and by twenty these children were able to resolve conflict with romantic partners. Adolescence is a tumultuous time for children and their parents. Children will begin to assert their desire for increased independence. Parents may feel this push for independence means that the child no longer needs the parent. That could not be any farther from the truth. Appropriate parental involvement is critical at the stage of development. Parents still to need to provide room to grow with a safety net. At each stage of development, the room gets a little larger and the safety net a little smaller.

Parents and professionals can help adolescents deal with challenges by providing them with experiences that allow them to grow to master autonomy and self-efficacy. There are forums for parent education and discussion groups that can help parents learn about developmental needs of children. These can help them to support their strengths and strengthen their weaknesses. Conversational language is an important topic relevant to the self-concept of development. It is an important educational topic to parents to learn about the implications of the language they use when talking with their children. Insensitive language can lead to shame in the child and must be avoided so they do not become part of the child’s self-concept. An environment rich with appropriate love and limits provides the child with the ability to grow a healthy self-system. When the environment is not filled with appropriate love and limits the child will make adaptations that will cause harm to the child’s developing true self. The growth of a child’s authentic self starts in infancy. The fostering of this growth should start in infancy and continue throughout development to start the child on the developmental path that will lead to healthy functioning at ever developmental stage in the future. Parents and professionals who help adolescents can discourage rebellion that may have been created in their youth by talking to the children about the changes they are experiencing and what these changes mean to the child, their family, and the larger world around them. The adults in the adolescent’s life can come to a better understanding of the child’s point of view by careful listening. This will allow the adults to respond in an understanding and appreciative way.

Explain the process of the dual-process model and the “selective optimization with compensation” model that describe how individuals deal with loss and grief. Provide a clear example of each process.

The dual-process model was proposed by Stroebe and Schut (1999). It defines the process of grief as a process that bounces back and forth between two different ways of dealing with loss. These are approach and avoidance coping strategies. The approaching, thinking about grief, and avoiding, withdrawing from the raw and painful emotions of grief. These strategies are contained within a flexible framework that allows the individual to go from one to the other. The approach is the movement of the individual toward and a recognition of the grief. The avoidance is the distancing of the individual from the grief to provide a protective respite. These coping strategies can be loss focused or restoration focused. The loss focused approach can cause great distress by creating excessive preoccupation on the loss. The loss focused process is the emotion focused strategy of coping. The restoration focused approach is the, almost opposite, of loss focused. During the restoration focused approach, the individual is able to disentangle their thoughts from their grief and attend to the necessary day to day tasks. This disentanglement allows for a distraction that mitigates the periods of loss focused distress. The restoration process is the problem focused strategy of coping. The individual will bounce back and forth between the loss focused and restoration focused coping strategies. The oscillation between these two states provides, over time, a type of grief desensitization.

This can be explained by the example of a person experiencing grief and alternating between approach and avoidance coping strategies. For example, a person has experienced the death of a parent. I recently lost my mother. It has been just over a year and at times the grief is very strong and almost overpowering. I would be immobile for anywhere from hours to days. But, eventually, some necessary task would pull me from my grief. It has been a very difficult first year. A person can only exist in this way for short periods of time. They must then attend to the tasks of the living. They must go to work, care for their families and home. The grief is still with them and they still think about it often. But, through necessity, they have to push the intensity away to a point they can still, for the most part, manage the necessary day to day tasks of life. They cannot escape the grief, even in the day to day task. These tasks are constant reminders of their loss, such as the holidays for which the deceased are not there and the traditions that have to be reimagined or replaced because the central person, they were created around, is no longer there. Then, when they feel strong enough, they approach the loss they are experiencing and again it is very strong and overpowering, but just a little less than it was.

Selective optimization with compensation is the bringing together the three process of selection, optimization and compensation. Selection is the limiting activities to a few that are particularly rewarding. For example, a person at retirement would choose what activities to participate in during this time. If they were very active, they may have to choose fewer active ways to spend their time to account for the physical restrictions age causes. Optimization is the finding of ways of enhancing achievement of remaining goals. For example, a person may have the goal of spending more time with their grandchildren. They may need to enhance this selection by moving closer to their grandchildren or buying a car that will have the increased number of seats to accommodate their grandchildren. Compensation is the finding of new means to achieve our ends. For example, a person may have to exclusively use a golf cart to continue to participate in their passion for the game once age have limited their mobility.

Selection is important at all stages of development. It is the process of making choices. For example, the choice of college to attend, degree to pursue, career to start, selection of a life partner, whether or not to marry, whether or not to have children, where to live, what to do in your free time, and an unlimited number of other choices to be made throughout an individual’s life. Optimization is about enhancing the selections an individual has made. It is about how an individual can improve the choices they made. For example, if an individual has selected to have a family, they may choose to enhance their lives by buying a car and or house that will easier accommodate more people. Compensation is about overcoming loss to meet the same goal. For example, if an individual has selected the career of actor but they became blind, they could compensate by learning to read their lines in braille. These three concepts combined lead to successful development by promoting autonomy, competence and relatedness. An individual uses two control strategies to meet their needs and face the challenges life brings. Primary control is the control that an individual can exert. This type of control is what is evidenced in selection and optimization. Secondary control is the type of control an individual can take when meeting challenges they cannot change. This type of control is evidenced in compensation.

For an example, my mother-in-law is at a changing period of time in her life. She is a widow. She has made the choice to move to Texas to live either with or near us. This will provide her with much needed companionship and a new beginning for her new life of a widowed retired person. To enhance this selection, she has decided to build a house on our property so she can be very close to us. This will give her better proximity to spend time with her grandchildren and also be closer to us so we can provide support. This was not her original plan for retirement.

She has overcome the loss of her husband and her compensation was to reimagine her retirement to accommodate the loss of her husband.

Describe with examples and frequent reference to relevant models of the development of “adaptation” from adolescence to late adulthood. Use one developmental theory to account for the development you describe. Be as concrete as possible and use very specific examples. You can, but do not have to, draw upon your professional experience or future careers when describing examples.

One theory used to explain adaptation is the life span developmental theory. It defines development as a process of adapting to the constant flux of influences in our lives. There are three kinds of adaptations. They are growth, resilience and regulation of loss. These three kinds of adaptation are seen across the life span. Growth is the addition of new characteristics, understandings and skills. Resilience is the ability to find news ways to continue functioning after loss. Regulation of loss is adjusting expectations to accept a lower level of functioning.

An example of these could be explained by sharing parts of my own life. I have been diagnosed with a few different health problems. Because of these health problems I am no longer able to do many of the things in life I used to enjoy very much. I had a farm and would breed, care for, and sell many different kinds of animals. I had geese, chickens, turkeys, sheep, and rabbits. Caring for these animals was very physically demanding. I could no longer expend that much physical activity so I had to stop farming. It was a very difficult thing to do. I experience regulation adaptation by adjusting my expectations and accepting my lower lever of functioning. I can no longer be a farmer, but I greatly enjoyed farming when I could. I have been able to move on with my life and accept my new way of being. My life can also provide an example of resilience adaptation. I was in a car accident in 2014 that left me unable to perform in my previous line of work. I was a web designer. It has taken a while to build myself back up. Even though I cannot sit at a computer all day, I have found a new way to have a job and be productive in society. I am going to school to become a counselor. This new career will allow me to rejoin the workforce, but in a way the allows for my disabilities. The last kind of adaptation I can apply to my life experiences is growth. I have used regulation and resilience to teach me things about life and myself. I have also learned a new set of skills during my master’s program for clinical mental health counseling.

Self-determination theory is another theory that talks about adaptation. It states that autonomy, competence and relatedness motivate adaptation across the lifespan. Autonomy, competence and relatedness are basic needs of individuals. Autonomy is being in control of oneself. Competence is the feeling of being effective. Relatedness is the feeling that you are important to others. If these needs are not meet, that creates stress in the individual’s life. These three needs come together and cause change when they are not met by the individual seeking to relieve the stress. If a person feels that they are not in control they may then make changes or adaptations to gain further control. If a person feels incompetent, they may then make changes or adaptations to gain competence. If a person does not feel related then they may then make changes or adaptations to increase their sense of relatedness. Dattlio et.al. (2018) looked at self-determination theory to understand adaptation among older adults. They state that adaptations were like a category of themes. These themes related to autonomy, competence and relatedness. An example of autonomy was maintaining a healthy lifestyle, competence was learning a new skill, and relatedness was making changes that more easily enabled proximity to family.

For example, a person has a health issues that limits their mobility and that challenges the ability to live alone. Living alone may increase the individual’s autonomy. This person may exhibit adaptation by buying an electric scooter to increase their mobility thereby assuring their ability to live alone which in turn increases their autonomy. An example of an adaptation for competence could be of an individual who has, because of their age, developed the need for help keeping track of their medications. This individual could learn how to use a new electronic medication manager. Relatedness can be further explained by the example of an individual moving closer to family to increase the time the can spend with them.

References

Broderick, Patricia C. (2015). The life span: human development for helping professionals / Patricia C. Broderick, Pamela Blewitt. — Fourth edition.

John Dattilo, Jacqueline Mogle, Amy E. Lorek, Sara Freed & Margaret Frysinger (2018) Using Self-determination Theory to Understand Challenges to Aging, Adaptation, and Leisure among Community-dwelling Older Adults,Activities, Adaptation & Aging,42:2,85-103,DOI:10.1080/01924788.2017.1388689

Sroufe, L. A., Fox, N. E., & Pancake, V. R. (1983). Attachment and dependency in developmental perspective. Child Development, 54, 1615–1627.

 

Do People Who Exercise Regularly Have a Greater Lung Capacity?

Question:

Do people who exercise regularly have a greater lung capacity?

Problem:

Unhealthy lifestyle habits of not completing sufficient amounts of exercise daily can inevitably lead to large scale ramifications upon the lungs functions in a decrease production of air.

Aim:

To determine whether those who exercise have a greater lung capacity?

Background information:

Physical activity allows the body to enhance and maintain overall health and wellness to sustain a healthy lifestyle through regular physical fitness. Exercising works your lungs and heart and improves endurance, enabling the body to use oxygen more efficiently to then develop stronger breathing. One example of physical fitness that supports your lungs is Aerobic activity which is split into 2 categories. Moderate aerobic activity consisting of 150 minutes a week participating in activities such as walking, swimming or mowing the lawn or engaging in 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity such as running, dancing or bike riding.  More health benefits are achieved from active participation in physical activity and will with time strengthen the body making the lungs stronger which will hence decrease shortness of breath.

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Regular exercise strengthens and tones the heart and lung improving efficiency and transportation of blood and oxygen throughout the body. From regular exercise it enables the pulmonary system to increase the maximum amount of oxygen that the lungs input and output. Exercising develops the lungs and makes them healthier. A greater lung capacity is sought through exercising and is most predominant relevant in athletes freedivers, singers and wind-instrument musicians.

Why men and women separated

A survey in 2014 showed that ‘65.3% of Australians aged 15 and over were sedentary or had low levels of exercise’. Not being physically active has serious implications on the body and can increase numerous health risks. These can include Coronary Heart Disease, stroke, high blood pressure, breathlessness, flabby body, little energy, stiff joints, osteoporosis, poor posture, being overweight. Researchers based in the Cleveland clinic underwent a study on 122,000 patients who participated in testing between 1991 and 2014 on whether lack of exercise is worse than smoking. Researchers found that not exercising can pose a greater risk on one’s health and ultimately lead to being worse for you than smoking and diabetes. Cardiovascular diseases are amongst some of the most common diseases impacting the lungs function as a result of easily correctable problems which include, unhealthy diet, lack of exercise and being overweight.

Exercising has diverse benefits on the body. When exercising the muscles work harder and leads the body to use more oxygen. The body becomes more efficient in getting oxygen into the bloodstream and transporting it throughout the body. During exercise the muscles work harder resulting in a higher demand in oxygen to be produced making the bodies circulating speed up to take the oxygen to the muscles to keep moving. The body cops with this extra demand by increasing breathing to about 40-60 times a minute. In figure 2, it highlights the function of the lungs when breathing 40-60 times a minute. Without exercise, people will have a reduced lung function and a large part of their breathing is used for breathing reserve.

Figure 1: In this chart, it outlines a few factors that contribute towards larger and smaller lung capacity. In the larger coloum ‘fit’ is seen and in teh smaller volume coloum ‘obese’ is seen.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lung_volumes

 

Figure 2: In figure 2, the diagram illustrates the function of the lungs breathing in and out. The image labels parts of the lungs and gives a brief outline on the lungs function when completing this task.

https://www.askdoctork.com/how-do-breathing-exercises-work-to-relieve-stress-201211083638

Hypothesis:

A person who exercises regularly will have a greater lung capacity than someone who is irregular with physical activity. This is because the stronger the heart and lungs get, the more efficient the flow of oxygen into the bloodstream becomes resulting in less time short of breath.

Variables:

Independent variables (changed variable)

The regularity of exercise, gender

Dependant variables (measured variable)

Lung capacity

Controlled variables (stays the same variable)

–          Age bracket

–          Same test

–          Weight bracket (40’s)

–          Amount of times test taken

Equipment:

–          2 x 30cm ruler

–          18 x Ballon

–          6 x Water bottle

–          Recording chart

Risk assessment:

What is the risk?

Identify how its a risk?

What is the level of risk?

(high/medium/low)

How will I prevent this risk from happening?

Incorrectly and harshly breathing exhaling

Participant may become in danger of side effects from forcefully releasing their breath to vigorously

Medium

Before starting the test remind them to stop when they’ve had enough and the experiment can break

Fainting

Participant may be dehydrated or feeling unwell

High

Confirm with the participant before starting the experiment that they are fine and make sure they have water before proceeding.

Nausea

Feeling sick and might throw up

Low

Continual checkups and breaks for each participant so they are monitored in case they begin to feel nauseous

dehydrated

One may become dehydrated for not drinking water before exerted ample amounts of air from their lungs

Medium

Make sure they drink water before they start the test, during each test and after completing all the tests to avoid being dehydrated

Method:

Step 1: Grab a balloon

Step 2: Call forth participant

Step 3: Blow up x1 balloon to 20 cm in diameter 2 or 3 times to stretch it (tip: release air each time)

Step 4: Give participant 2 minutes break to catch breath back

Step 5: Position participant standing up to receive the best result

Step 6: Prepare participant before indulging in activity with a 3-second countdown

Step 7: Take the biggest breathe you can by inhaling, then blow out all the air you can into the balloon in one blow.

Step 8: Tie up the end of the balloon to hold in the air exhaled

Step 9: Repeat steps 1 through to 8, 3 times per person for a reliable test

Step 10: Allow for a 1-minute break

Step 11: To prevent any dangers give participant water to be hydrated

Step 12: Place the balloon on a flat surface

Step 13: Grab x1 ruler to measure the diameter of the balloon

Step 14: Grab another ruler and aline it on top of the balloon with the ruler standing up vertically to collect the measurement

Step 15: Record data into the results table in seconds

Step 16: Calculate and add up all results gathered to create an average.

Results:

Person 1

Person 2

Average

Volume cm^3

Male

Trial 1 

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Exercise regularly

22.3 cm

22

cm

21.8 cm

21

 cm

20.4 cm

20.8 cm

21.4 cm

11.2 cm^3

Occasionally exercises

18.1

cm

18.5 cm

18.1

cm

18.9

cm

19.1 cm

19.1 cm

18.6 cm

9.7

cm^3

Does not exercise

16.9 cm

17.2 cm

17.2 cm

17.3 cm

16.9 cm

17.2 cm

17.1

8.9

cm^3

Person 1

Person 2

Average

Volume cm^3

Female 

Trial 1 

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Exercise regularly

19.2 cm

19.5 cm

19.3 cm

19.9 cm

19.0 cm

19.8 cm

19.5 cm

10.2

cm^3

Occasionally exercises

16.3 cm

16.5 cm

16

cm

16.5 cm

16.7 cm

16.8

cm

16.5 cm

8.6

cm^3

Does not exercise

15.1 cm

15

 cm

15

cm

14.9

cm

14.8 cm

14.8 cm

14.9 cm

7.8

cm^3

 

 Formulae for the conversion of diameter to cm^3:

Discussion

Would have liked more people in that age bracket to receive a wider range of results

Very quick

Why I chose the 40s bracket

Following through with the specifics of the method allowed for the results to be accurate

The background research conducted further proved

include a summary of your results, which includes describing patterns or trends in your results. 

Use your scientific knowledge from the research you did at the beginning of the report to explain the relationships, patterns or trends in your results (this is probably the MOST IMPORTANT THING IN THE WHOLE ASSIGNMENT). You may need to do some additional research to explain the trends in your results.

Suggest how your experiment/investigation could have been improved to reduce this experimental error.

The aim of this experiment was to determine what wind speed will power more energy. The results show that when more wind power is added and more force is pushed against the blades more energy is made. Whereas when low or no wind is added there is less force pushing against the blades creating only a small amount of energy. This shows that the more wind speed added to the blades, the more energy is created proving that high wind speed creates the most amount of energy. From the results of my experiment, it was shown that medium and high speed creates a similar amount of energy. This is due to a stronger wind force against the blades, producing more energy. The blades bending back in the experiment was a difficulty as they impacted the motion of the blades and created an impact on the energy being created. This default could’ve been fixed if the length of the blades were shorter and the material stronger. These improvements are necessary to benefit the production of efficient electricity to provide a sustainable amount of energy that will supply for households.

The aim of this experiment was to determine whether those who exercise have a greater lung capacity. The data from each of the trails were documented into the results table and with each category the results from the trails are turned into averages. The results showed that those people who exercise regularly will have a better lung capacity. Whereas, a person who exercises occasionally or not at all will have a smaller lung capacity. From the results in the trial it displayed that the participants both in men and women in the categories occasional exercising and not at all had closer results together than with the regular exercing results. This trend is due to the fact that the regualr exercise

Accuracy:

Collecting results from each category of exercise participation with 2 people involved, allowed for more accurate results. Having 2 people in each category of regular exercise, occasional exercise and does not exercise enabled the experiment to gather better, more accurate averages. In the experiment, the averages were taken out from each of the results of the trial and plotted on a column graph. A more accurate way to analyse the results documented. Through calculating the average it allowed for the results to be analysed clearer. However, measuring the diameter of the balloon using the manual method of 2 rulers would have altered the results due to human error.

Reliability:

Throughout the experiment to receive the most reliable results from the tests, each trial was conducted and repeated 3 times over per person as it allowed for a reliable conclusion of results. Reliability is improved by repetition so by completing each test 3 times over per person it ensured that the experiment was going to be reliable and the data gathered was fairly similar within there categories making the results consistent.

Validity:

To ensure the experiment was a fair test there was an independent variable which was the regularity of exercise so an aspect of the experiment was changed. However, the experiment also consisted of a variety of controlled variables that made the experiment valid which were; the age bracket, same test completed, weight bracket, amount of times test taken so the experiment maintained parts that stayed the same. Through these variables, they are relevant in the experiment for finding and answering the question, do people who exercise regularly have a greater lung capacity?

Newman question

1. The problem that you decide to solve must be complex and unique.

2. Evaluate the relevance of the findings of your experiment on society and/or the environment.

This is where you discuss the impact of your SRP on society. Discuss possible applications of your research findings in the world and propose areas that, if you had time and motivation, you would research further. Discuss the following:

–          Why your experiment was important?

–          How was your experiment relevant to people in society?

–          What benefits did your SRP have for society?

–          Are there any ethical or moral implications of this experiment?

Some starters for this section might include:

My research showed that…This is important because…

My research has relevance to society because…

The implications of my research are…

 

Throughout this experiment the question the task sought to answer was ‘Do people who exercise regularly have a greater lung capacity?’. From this question the experiment began to indulge in investigating a problem. Does unhealthy lifestyle habits of not completing sufficient amounts of exercise daily, inevitably lead to large scale ramifications upon the lungs functions in a decrease production of air. My research showed that not only does exercise improve and strengthen your lungs but enhances efficiency of blood flow through organs and muscles and helps at getting oxygen into the bloodstream and transporting it to the working muscles. This is important as exercise reduces numerous health risks such heart diseases and allows for the body to manage high blood pressure. My research in this experiment is relevant to society today as the work addresses and highlights topical issues with health in the world. Unhealthy eating and lifestyle habits are amongst the world’s worst medical problems resulting in hundreds and thousands of patients sick or dying from illnesses like heart disease. Illness such as heart disease are as a result of easily correctable problems such as exercising and eating healthy. Exercising is the best known method to maintain fitness levels and assists the body in strengthening and enhancing efficient in transporting blood and oxygen around the body. 

Conclusion:

Overall, throughout the experiment it can be concluded that a person who exercises regularly will have a greater lung capacity than someone who irregularly or not at all exercise. It is evident in the results shown in the table that shows a clear illustration that there was a larger output of oxygen by participants that exercise regularly. During the course of the experiment 3 trials were completed by each participant or each category of exercise participation to gather consistent reliable results. The averages were used and converted into diameters to plot on the bar graph to give a more accurate representation of results. The results were collected in a valid format and enabled the experiment to find a relevant answer to the question, do people who exercise regularly have a greater lung capacity. The background research conducted further lead to support in proving the hypothesis.  Specifically, the more regular a person works out the stronger the heart and lungs will become,  making the flow oxygen through the bloodstream more efficient resulting in less time short of breath. Less time short of breath ultimately means a greater lung capacity. Hence, it can be supported and proven with a high level of confidence that the research conducted throughout the findings in the experiment are all in favour of supporting the hypothesis.

Bibliography