Masculinity In Hemingways In Our Time Literature Essay

Masculinity can be defined as the condition or quality of being masculine, in the past which is traditionally masculinity was considered to be the characteristic of a man or male. Ernest Hemingway has written so many books among them In Our Time which is a collection of many stories which focuses on this theme of masculinity. The book captures the great influence of war with the patterns of the acts of people before war, during the war, and also after the war from the beginning of this book to the very end of the book. It is highlighted that it is always important that the male persons in the society obtain their value of being masculine. It is described as though being masculine is a duty which must be kept at task, to be recaptured or proven at all times.

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This theme of masculinity is able to tie all the stories together in this book of Hemingway, making this theme of masculinity to be a major theme. In a short story titled “Indian Camp,” all the eyes of the characters are on one doctor rather than being on the Indian woman who was in labor. The male doctor takes over the role of child birth into his hands and he operates on the woman in labor. This male doctor does not give this woman any option of giving birth naturally, but he goes ahead to operate on her. This woman therefore gives birth successfully through a Caesarian section. We find the theme of masculinity well represented in this part of the story because this male doctor decided to operate on the woman although he did not have the required anesthetic to ease the pain that this woman was already experiencing. Afterwards after the baby was delivered successfully, we find the doctor, Uncle George and Nick’s father celebrating the birth of the child…………./////////
The collection of the short stories by Hemingway in his book In Our Time, we find that it follows a character named Nick Adams. We start by finding him as a young boy during the Indian Camp and later we follow him into adulthood in the other two parts. We find Nick learning and developing the main facts of this life. Nick is shown to be a character that changes his lifestyle and behavior due to the effects of war in various levels. Though Hemingway does not mention the war, he uses these stories in order to express various emotions and effects caused by war. Nick’s father wants Nick to learn more about life through the experiences that they go through together. For example’ when the Indian man finally commits suicide, the father to Nick does not want him to find out because he believed that any man who would commit suicide is not courageous enough to face life. Nick’s father did not want Nick to learn such things. However, the father to Nick did not comment on this issue and this is a very strong sense of silent masculinity. Later in the book we find Nick opting to go out with his father rather than answering his own mother who was calling out for him.
After the incident of suicide of the Indian man,, the behavior of Nick changes and he looks to his father for further explanation of what has happened in the suicide case and also comfort him. This incident scars Nick a lot not even like the father had thought and the fact that he had witnessed suicide was disturbing enough at Nick’s young age and this would restrain the psychological development of Nick. Nick was almost sure that he would not die at the end of the story. From this we can conclude that though he had witnessed the death first hand, he still did not understand death fully. This is the first part of introduction to this theme of masculinity in the story and also how he is going to struggle with it throughout the story and his life.
The father to Nick stormed into the typically known female situation of giving birth and he changed it to be male dominated area or environment. This is where starts appreciating the masculine life that he would lead other than femininity. The three of the Adam’s family live in their different worlds. We find the mother to Nick lying in a room, the blinds drawn, and she is surrounded by so many Christian Science books. The father to Nick is cleaning his gun intently rather than having any meaningful and important and meaningful conversations with his only wife who is Nick’s mother. The father to Nick does not even want to answer any question that the wife would ask and asks and in case he is forced by circumstances to answer, he lies to her. This father to Nick assumes that the wife will not understand the reasoning that he had when he was arguing outside. This is a show case of masculinity in the family by Nick’s father.
The wife who is Nick’s mother has religious demands for the husband to always avoid losing his temper and this tells us that she does not want her husband to be some stereotypical protective and aggressive male. The Christian science religion that Nick’s mother totally believes in does not believe in the use of medicine, and this means that Nick’s mother does not have any respect towards the work of her husband. Therefore we find Nick’s father deciding to out hunting, to the environment where he could express his levels of masculinity. Nick also decides to follow his father into the hunting sprees, and this tells us that the young Nick has started showing interest in the male to male interaction. This means that the young Nick looks down on the male to female interaction especially with his mother. The masculinity that is very clear in this story can also be found at the end of the story when the young Nick is still calling out his father so that he could follow him around and learn more from him.
The family of Adams comprising of the father, mother and Nick should interact more amongst themselves and this would help Nick to develop much more psychologically. Nick is still treated as a young kid and therefore he tends to act like one. The father should be able to teach the young man to become a responsible man.
Nick is also taught to prefer the masculine life rather than the feminine life. Toughness is one of the characteristics of masculinity that Nick is taught by the father. There is also the strong believing that through the bull ring men or the male species are made. There is a male child in a bull-fighting vignette submits himself to the code of this ring and he is able to kill five times where he reaches his majority. This child had already made it into manhood and the crowd was overwhelmed and they threw and hollered things into the bull ring out of excitement. This is how seriously the quality of masculinity was valued in the community (Ernest 83). This also symbolizes masculinity because a man should make himself the master of his small arena; in the houses, hotels, camps, bull-rings, clearings and bedrooms.
Such ritual ceremonies and arenas are very rich in importance and significance. The physical characteristics sanctions in the bull-ring and also the rituals carried out there are enough to show how masculinity is valued in most communities. The empty spaces should be made into ordered spaces which provide the necessary boundaries by which potentially chaotic action should become comprehensible structures. The small arena allows the men to show their mastery over all other creatures and also over themselves (Leo 230).
The five stories about Nick Adams deal very keenly with familial, cultural and also gender conflicts which are central to the collection of Hemingway. We find that Nick is initiated into adult men world through death and blood.
In the story titled “The End of Something” we find Nick and the reactions that he had towards relationships which would help us to bring out the theme of masculinity. When the story is coming to an end, we find Nick breaking up with his girlfriend named Marjorie. Nick says that he is bored with his life and therefore the two could not continue relating and staying together. Due to the past life of Nick, he was not ready to have relationships with women even when he was of age. Nick is also not ready to live the traditional life that Marjorie expects him to. This shows that masculinity on the part of Nick especially because he is not ready to change.
Nick has not developed well and therefore he can not commit and communicate at the time that he should have known to communicate. They were trying to catch fish but it could not bite on the line and this signifies that Nick was trying to inform Marjorie that it was not yet time for commitment especially for him. Nick was not ready to marry and settle down and he was also not ready to give up on his masculine life. This shows his value for the masculinity.
Nick also has an interaction with one of his friends named Bill in the story titled “the three day blow”. The two friends spend much time together but most of it was spent in drinking. At the same time Nick was still questioning the decision that he had made of breaking up with Marjorie. This story titled “the three day blow” represents a time in the life of Nick where only the most important things mattered and were necessary.
For these two friends, Nick and Bill, the most significant and important thing that would remain was to be their masculinity and also their love of games and sports. In order for Nick to become the manly, tough man, he had to put away or throw away the emotions he had towards Marjorie completely out of his system. His friend Bill attempts to convince him that he had made the correct decision of not wanting to marry. However, this is the biggest struggle that Nick has of deciding if he wants to become a family man or a man’s man. Nick is undergoing such hard times attempting to make this decision because of the power of masculinity. Nick has to decide on the type of person that he would want to become and also the decisions concerning whether life includes domesticity, love and marriage.
The two friends Nick and Bill do not want to face their lives and make the decisions that they needed to because of the masculinity aspect in them and therefore they decide to be completely drunk with alcohol and then go out on hunting sprees. Nick however as we already know is running away from the responsibility of making chief decisions in his own life. Afterwards, Nick is taken to another place in his own rites of passage. This is in the story titled “the battler”. In the previous stories Nick is in his own hometown where he does not develop but in this case he has to develop. In this story we find Nick taking a long journey which is to signify the internal progress that he has made through the physical indication. It is a clear indication of Nick in a war. Nick is able to learn more about life from a beating that he receives from a man who was in the same train with him. This man meets a crazy boxer named Ad Francis who offers various lessons to Nick. This Ad Francis is a tough and therefore Nick feels that he has to be tough like him. This kind of toughness is a part of masculinity which Nick is on the road to attain.
The man named Ad Francis has been made crazy by a woman and therefore Nick is warned against getting very close to women who would make him to be dependent on them for money or also be crazy for love like this man. However, it was the decision of Nick on whether to take the ideas that he was being given of manliness. Towards the end of the book we find Nick again in the story titled “Big two hearted river: part I” where we find Nick returning home to the old fishing ground slightly after the war. Upon reaching home, Nick is introduced to all the issues that all men should face after they return from war. This is the time when he found his home abandoned and burnt. This is a similar feeling that the most veterans have to face after returning from the fighting battles. This is masculinity because most of these veterans are male and they never find their homes as they had left them. The homes are not as cheerful and innocent as they were before hand. Nick is also left all alone because the people who had not gone to war could never understand what Nick was going through. This is a good exercise of masculinity because Nick can now take put up with the solitude.
The second part of this story titled “big two hearted river: part II” is a light hearted story. We find Nick attempting to enjoy his life by camping and fishing. Nick now shows masculinity in all the dealings that he goes through. He is now tough, courageous and ready to take risks and responsibilities. Nick sets up a small camp and in this camp he keeps telling himself that it is a good place and a good camp (Ernest 147). Nick is also ready to be happy just by the fact that he is alive. Nick takes his last form of combat when he is able to fight with a huge fish. These battles however are not violent like the ones that he had been used to before in the wars.
From this fight we can conclude that Nick and the big fish are the two hearts of this big river which makes the battle bring them close together other than much further apart. The two are unable to connect because they are both male. After all that Nick has gone through, he still did not allow women to get into his life. He still believed that there are successful unisons with the females in the masculine life. We therefore can conclude that Nick has not yet accepted the traditional ways of living and the way they work out. This is an achievement of the masculine self-reliance through sheltering himself from the rest of the world of human complication. Nick shuts out civilization from his life and even starts his own life in solitude and this is in an attempt to preserve masculinity.
This book titled “in our time” especially in this story “big two hearted river” focuses on the aggressive fishing expeditions by Nick that pit these heroic male protagonists against the nature. Violence also that we find in this book are associated with the entire heroic male who are engaged in the bloody hunting expeditions. We however know and understand that violence is synonymous with masculinity. The women who attempt to engage in violence are finally termed as killers or worse even as destroyers of men.
 

Evaluate Masculinity in Hemingway’s ‘In Our Time’

The theme of masculinity suggests itself as an obvious area of focus with Hemingway’s collection In Our Time, as these short stories and vignettes are explicitly concerned with men, male activities, male professions and traditionally masculine areas of human experience such as war, hunting and fighting. The collection is notable for its focus on male characters, most notably figures such as Nick Adams, and for the relative absence of women (indeed, Hemingway titled another of his short story collections Men Without Women). Where women do feature, it is often in a secondary or passive role, with the male characters in the story wielding power in the text and also providing the perspective of Hemingway’s narration. This essay will argue that masculinity is a central theme in In Our Time, and moreover that much of the tension within the texts comes from the conflict between characters’ self-perceptions of their own masculinity and the reality of their masculine behaviour. Defining what masculinity means, both for themselves and in the context of other characters’ perceptions of them, is a central concern of Hemingway’s male protagonists in this collection, as in his oeuvre more generally (Fore, 2007).

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In the early story ‘The Indian Camp’ and the vignette Chapter II, Hemingway presents women from the perspective of men: they are associated with children in general and with childbirth in particular. Notably, women are not given a voice in either of these stories; instead, they are seen from the perspective of men. As passive individuals whose primary role is to give birth, women in In Our Time are figured as secondary. Their lack of masculinity means a lack of driving force in the text, which instead comes from male characters, male actions, and male interactions. Hemingway championed, in his fiction as well as in his life, the notion of the competent, masculine male; his motto on this subject was the masculine notion of ‘grace under pressure’ (Durham, 1976). The ability to perform a task or job well is one that Hemingway values in his life and fiction, and in In Our Time we see this confident, competent male type embodied by Nick Adams’ father the doctor. In the story ‘The Indian Camp,’ his visit to the camp is predicated on the notion that he is an extremely competent doctor, able as he notes to perform a caesarian with a jack knife and stitch it up afterwards. In this same story, the doctor can be contrasted with the Indian father who kills himself, thereby dichotomising the able male and the unable male and introducing another of Hemingway’s key themes: namely, suicide. That suicide in the text is no less gendered than professional competence is made evident in the exchange between Nick and his father which follows their leaving the Indian Camp:

“Do many men kill themselves, Daddy?” “Not very many, Nick.” “Do many women?”“Hardly ever.” “Don’t they ever?” “Oh, yes. They do sometimes.” (Hemingway, 1925, n.p.)

The differences in the behaviour of men and women take on an almost anthropological quality in the gendered presentation of character in In Our Time. Men are explicitly figured as active, aggressive and macho in contrast to women’s passivity. Whilst Hemingway of course nuances his presentation to include different types of men, and to suggest that there is more than one way of being masculine, there are recurrent themes which can be said to centre around the idea of violence. Men in the stories measure themselves and each other in terms of acts of violence. In the story ‘The Doctor and the Doctor’s Wife,’ masculinity is presented as a form of awareness of one’s own capacity to commit acts of violence. Dick Boulton’s very felicity as a male seems to depend on the accuracy of his awareness of his own masculinity: ‘Dick Boulton looked at the doctor. Dick was a big man. He knew how big a man he was. He liked to get into fights. He was happy’ (Hemingway, 1925, n.p.). Violence, recognition of one’s capacity to commit violence, and comfort in one’s own power as a male, are here presented as key features of felicitous masculinity. By contrast, those male characters who are unhappy and who commit acts of violence against themselves (alcoholism, more literally suicide) are ones whose self-perceptions of their own masculinity do not accord with the reality, leading to what some critics have identified as the ‘crisis of masculinity’ in Hemingway’s fiction (Hatten, 1993). The very title of the story ‘The Doctor and the Doctor’s Wife’ contrasts the male and the female characters as Hemingway sees them: the Doctor is impulsive, angered, and takes the more cynical interpretation of his adversary’s actions; by contrast, his wife is presented as pious, forgiving, and somewhat naive in her reading of human motives. However, she is able to calm the doctor down and he goes outside to see Nick. Tellingly, however, Nick decides to go off with his father at the end of the story rather than go inside to see his mother. He tells his father he knows where there are black squirrels, and they set off to take part in that most male of activities: hunting. Ultimately, female piety and compassion only temper the masculine urges and drives in the story; it is masculinity which pervades as a theme, and violence – or the potential for violence – which is restored by the story’s close.
Hemingway’s presentation of masculinity must therefore be contrasted with his notions of femininity, and it can be noted that both are presented in terms of types. In In Our Time, the greatest type division is between men and women; within these divisions, there are sub-categories. Thus the short story ‘Mr and Mrs Eliot’ presents the dichotomy of the male and female in its title, and then proceeds in the story itself to break down this division further into different types. At no point, however, is it questioned that there are certain characteristics which can be considered exclusively or predominantly feminine, and those that can be considered masculine. Femininity and masculinity are not abstract notions but rather the locus of concrete differences in the text. Thus Mrs Eliot is presented in terms of stereotypes concerning her gender and geographical origins: ‘Like all Southern women Mrs. Elliot disintegrated very quickly under sea sickness, travelling at night, and getting up too early in the morning’ (Hemingway, 1925, n.p.). This sentence is not a qualified presentation of an individual, but a stereotyping of all females from the South of the United States. This is typical of the way in which gender, masculinity and femininity, are presented in the texts: there are clear archetypes for human characteristics, and characters are presented as conforming to them or deviating from them. Implicit in the short story ‘Mr and Mrs Eliot’ is a critique of the ways in which Mr Eliot departs from the ideal of masculinity presented in the collection more generally: he is a poet, he drinks white wine, he has not been with many women and he tries, unsuccessfully, to have a baby with his wife. Ultimately, he is emasculated and usurped from the marital bed and his role as a masculine impregnator of women: ‘Mrs. Elliot and the girl friend now slept together in the big mediaeval bed. They had many a good cry together’ (Hemingway, 1925, n.p.). Instead, the bed becomes the site not of any female (lesbian) eroticism but instead of female communication and empathy: the women cry there together. This is presented as an antithesis to the idea of idealised masculinity, in which actions speak louder than words. In such a context, Mr Eliot’s being a poet, and dedicating his nights to writing verse and drinking white wine instead of more becoming masculine pursuits, can here be read in a critical light as a satire on the ‘modern’ man who departs from the traditional notion of masculinity as embodied in the collection by figures such as Nick Adams and his father.
The story which perhaps most clearly presents the idealised model of masculinity, and the key notion of the potential difference between men’s perceptions of themselves and the reality of their masculinity, is ‘Big Two-Hearted River.’ Here, Nick Adams is presented as happily in an elemental, masculine state. Men are happy in Hemingway when they are doing an activity well, and here Nick Adams is presented as engaged in fishing the river, a feeling which he enjoys and an experience which he knows well. Hemingway explicitly presents this activity in physical terms; masculine behaviour is notable in the collection for being physically impressive and physically demanding, and the impression is of behaviour which is rewarding for men to the extent that it is physically draining. Thus Nick is happy in proportion to the degree to which he exerts himself: ‘The road climbed steadily. It was hard work walking up-hill. His muscles ached and the day was hot, but Nick felt happy’ (Hemingway, 1925, n.p.). The pleasure of physical exertion is a defining theme of masculinity in this collection as well as in Hemingway’s writing more generally (Fore, 2007); it is seen in the context of a number of typically male activities, from fishing as in this story through to war, bullfighting and shooting (Vernon, 2002). The story also presents a key Hemingway theme in the context of masculinity: namely, male bonding and the ways in which men negotiate their own masculinity together. Much has been made of homoeroticism and suppressed homosexualities in Hemingway’s work as well as in his life (Blackmore, 1998; Cohen, 1995; Elliott, 1993; Fantina, 2004), but what is more obviously present here is the notion that masculinity is something which is negotiated between men, indirectly rather than directly. Thus Nick Adams measures his own masculinity alongside his old friend Hopkins, who is now presumably dead, drinking a tribute coffee to the man whom he bonded with and against whom he measured some elements of his own masculinity:
Not the first cup. It should be straight Hopkins all the way. Hop deserved that. He was a very serious coffee drinker. He was the most serious man Nick had ever known. Not heavy, serious. That was a long time ago. (Hemingway, 1925, n.p.)
Significantly, this male bonding is something which is negotiated indirectly, with intervening time and space coming between Nick and Hopkins. Even more significantly, Hemingway presents this masculine bonding indirectly, through the free indirect discourse of Nick’s thoughts and reminiscences. This device allows Hemingway to present masculinity indirectly, and to emphasise in the nostalgia and pathos of this longer story the loss and pain that the masculine world of war creates (Clifford, 1994). Nick is not presented as having any direct contact with Hopkins, there is no quoting or speech, but instead Nick and the reader are obliged to experience this process of masculine connection from a distance, at a remove.
To conclude, it is evident that masculinity is an extremely important theme in In Our Time. In particular, it allows for a dichotomy to be present in the texts between males as active, violent and powerful on the one hand, and women as passive, responsive and objectified on the other. Women are the subject of the male gaze, which is always seeking to define itself in terms of idealised masculinity. However, men also turn their gazes on themselves and each other, and it can be noted in conclusion that a central source of narrative tension in the text is the conflict between characters’ perceptions of their masculinity and the reality. This comes to the fore in relationship problems with women, but also in acts of violence and conflict between males, where the need to assert one’s masculinity comes at the expense of denying another man the opportunity to fully exert his. The pathos of this disconnect between idealised masculinity and the harsh reality of many of his male characters’ existences is what gives to Hemingway’s collection In Our Time its unmistakably elegiac tone.
References
Blackmore, D. (1998). ” In New York it’d mean I was a…”: Masculinity anxiety and period discourses of sexuality in The Sun Also Rises. The Hemingway Review, 18(1), 49.
Clifford, S. P. (1994). Hemingway’s Fragmentary Novel: Readers Writing the Hero in In Our Time. The Hemingway Review, 13, 12-23.
Cohen, P. F. (1995). ” I won’t kiss you… I’ll send your English girl”: homoerotic desire in’A Farewell to Arms.’. The Hemingway Review, 15(1), 42-54.
Durham, P. (1976). Ernest Hemingway’s Grace under Pressure: The Western Code. The Pacific Historical Review, 425-432.
Elliott, I. (1993). A farewell to arms and Hemingway’s crisis of masculine values. Lit: Literature Interpretation Theory, 4(4), 291-304.
Fantina, R. (2004). Hemingway’s Masochism, Sodomy, and the Dominant Woman. The Hemingway Review, 23(1), 84-105.
Fore, D. (2007). Life Unworthy of Life?: Masculinity, Disability, and Guilt in The Sun Also Rises. The Hemingway Review, 26(2), 74-88.
Hatten, C. (1993). The Crisis of Masculinity, Reified Desire, and Catherine Barkley in” A Farewell to Arms”. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 4(1), 76-98.
Hemingway, E. (1925) In Our Time. New York: Simon and Schuster. Available online at scribd.com [accessed 3rd March 2016] at: https://www.scribd.com/read/236832081/In-Our-Time.
Vernon, A. (2002). War, Gender, and Ernest Hemingway. The Hemingway Review, 22(1), 34-55.
 

Ernest Hemingway’s Literary Techniques

 Every successful author has various writing approaches within their pieces of literature. These writing techniques are much like an artist’s signature at the bottom of a canvased masterpiece, to indicate to viewers and spectators, or in this case, readers, that a piece of work belongs to a specific creator. This added touch or flair gives individuality to their work, and sets the author apart from other writers; it provides the reader with a sense of remembrance of who the author is after reading multiple pieces of literature created by them. There are many different writing techniques in the field of literature, some being more practical, like alliteration, or use of similes, while others are more complex, such as the use of theme, symbolism, and character development. Authors use theme as a literary technique to convey their message, idea, or opinion to spark a belief, point of view or understanding into the minds of their readers. Other types of complex literary techniques include symbolism, in which writers will use an artistic approach using symbols to represent ideas, or in other forms of literary technique, character development, in which writers will create believable characters by giving the character depth and personality. The interesting part about reading literature is that no author writes the same as another. Many of these literary techniques are used in various kinds of writing, however, they are all executed in very different ways. As an example, Ernest Hemingway has a very exclusive way of carrying out his various short stories. Ernest Hemingway’s “The Killers”, “Hills Like White Elephants”, and “The Good Lion” all use theme, symbolism, and character development effectively. The theme in these three pieces of literature similarly display the struggle of social acceptance and social conformity within various cultures. These three pieces of literature also similarly display symbolism, and ambiguity, as well as how Hemingway’s characters are often defiant of what society expects. These patterns are found across all three stories, and is not only used effectively, but is also characteristic to Hemingway’s style of writing.

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 One of the many ways that Hemingway executes literary techniques within his short stories is through his common theme that displays the struggle of social acceptance and social conformity within various cultures. This theme is found within all three pieces of literature, “Hills Like White Elephants”, “The Good Lion”, and “The Killers”.  Within “Hills Like White Elephants” the theme of seeking social acceptance is very clear. This story is about a young man and woman travelling in Spain for a very specific operation that is never outwardly mentioned what the operation is, however, it is assumed this procedure they are travelling for is an abortion. “Ernest Hemingway’s ‘Hills Like White Elephants’ is suited to a psychoanalytic perspective criticism and is the most effective, as it contains hidden, deeper meaning which the author had represented in this piece, by explicating the text to explore themes of choices, plot, setting and imagery, and essentially abortion” (Essay about Heart of Darkness: Psychoanalytic Criticism). This story is certainly set in a different time period, for it was written in 1927; it was written in a time period when abortion was not an accepted operation by society, as well as premarital pregnancy. The couple in this story are not married, and one may assume the couple also desires to keep the abortion a secret, because of it being a premarital pregnancy, and because the operation of abortions are taboo, especially for the time period. One can also assume that the couple wants to keep the pregnancy and the abortion a secret because of their travelling. The story is set in Spain where the couple are waiting to get aboard a train to get the operation. This is perhaps an underrated part of the story, that actually gives the theme more support. The couple are travelling to proceed with this procedure far from home, so that no one around them will ever know about the pregnancy or the procedure at all. They desire to keep this a secret because they want to maintain their reputations; they desire to be socially accepted, and to do that, they go through extreme measures to ensure that they are conformed to what is expected from society. Although this next short story was written for children, “The Good Lion” is another example of how Hemingway uses theme to display the desires of his characters to gain social acceptance. The lion in this story is not like other lions. This lion eats pasta, and other kinds of human food. Other lions threaten to kill the good lion, and in the process, pressure him to conform to what was socially acceptable within his sect of life, among the other lions. Hemingway writes throughout the story “that we love [the good lion] because he was so good” (The Good Lion, Holiday 9). The good lion criticizes the lions that eat raw meat and hunt their prey in the jungles of Africa, but at the end of the story, he conforms to be just like the “bad lions” described in the story. “He is, of course, even worse than the bad lions in the jungle, since they, at least, are not hypocrites” (HEMINGWAY’S HEMINGWAY PARODIES: THE HYPOCRITICAL GRIFFON AND THE DUMB OX). “The Good Lion” displays how peer pressure to conform to society’s expectations effects behavior and may even change one’s identity. Hemingway’s “The Killers” is a different kind of story, yet still one that shares the theme of social acceptance, just perhaps in a different perspective. This short story is about two hitmen seeking to kill an old man named Anderson. The protagonist, and arguably the hero of this story, Nick Adams warns Anderson of his fate, in hopes to save him; surprisingly, Anderson is unphased, and accepts his fate. “”Ole is passive and deterministic; in his refusal to act, he accepts that death is imminent […]” (The Killers 37). The theme of this story is slightly different than the idea of social acceptance of oneself within society; the theme of this story is the social acceptance of death, and the inability to escape fate, or death. The majority of society as a whole have fears about death and dying, and this story goes against this idea.
 Another one of the many ways that Hemingway executes literary techniques within his short stories is through his common use of symbolism and ambiguity. In Hemingway’s “Hills Like White Elephants”, many believe that the undiscussed topic throughout the story is about abortion, and how the woman feels about it in contrast to the man. The reader can get a sense of the woman’s feelings and how she desires to keep the baby, while the man selfishly pushes the woman to get the procedure done. One may assume the couple in the story are discussing an abortion through their dialogue. The man says, “It’s really an awfully simple procedure […] We’ll be fine afterward. Just like we were before […] That’s the only thing that bothers us. It’s the only thing that’s made us unhappy” (Hills Like White Elephants 203).  This is a very ambiguous, taboo story, “[that becomes] a work of irony spanning generations of determined readers desperate to find meaning within its ambiguous void” (Sequence of “It”: Explicating the Riddle of Ambiguity in Hemingway’s “Hills Like White Elephants”). Hemingway tells the story and creates dialogue between the characters without ever giving away what the story is actually about, leaving many grey areas left for interpretation of the reader. Hemingway does this through providing  metaphors and symbolism, without actually straightforward telling the story. Even the title of the short story, “Hills Like White Elephants” symbolizes pregnancy. However, because of the saturation of symbolism within this story, the plot’s message is not completely clear and has many layers of ambiguity that are meant to be left a mystery for readers to ponder on and interpret for themselves. “The Good Lion”, written by Hemingway, also has some ambiguous meanings. One prominent interpretation could be the conflict between morals of oneself, and the battle between good and evil. As for “The Killers”, written by Hemingway, some suggest that there are deeper interpretations of what this story actually is supposed to be about, such as Hemingway’s experience in World War I. Once again, Hemingway portrays his characters, as well as the story’s plot in a manner that leaves a lot of ambiguity, and room for many different interpretations of the true meaning. “’The Killers.’ In particular, dominant realist readings of ‘The Killers’ as a story of Chicago gangsters and the adolescent Nick Adams’s moral education have failed to recognize the text’s deep internal contradictions and absurdities, which point toward its secret representation of an entirely different scene of psychic and historical reality. Circumstantial but compelling archival evidence supports a radical re-reading of Hemingway’s classic story based not on things left out but on things cryptically inscribed on the surface of the text in the form of the rebus. When deciphered, the text’s secret inscriptions locate the ‘other’ scene of ‘The Killers’ in Hemingway’s experience in World War I, and identify the text as a remarkable experiment in modernist form” (Ham and Eggs and Hermeneutics: Re-reading Hemingway’s ‘The Killers’). “The Killers” as well, has a rather ambiguous ending leaving readers to wonder what exactly happens next after Nick Adams attempts to save the day, and Anderson refuses. Does Anderson die? Did he change his mind? That’s up for the readers to decide.
 Another way that Hemingway executes literary techniques within his short stories is through his commonly defiant characters. Hemingway’s characters are often defiant of what society expects, and portrays the overall message that not everything may be as it seems. This is proven in all three pieces of literature. In “Hills Like White Elephants”, Hemingway’s characters in this short story, are a couple about to go through an abortion. This is not at all what readers from this time period, or even readers reading this piece now would expect. The plot of this story is completely against what society expects out of the story. The dialogue seems lighthearted, making it even more unexpected that the plot of this story was about something so dark, and secretive. In “The Good Lion”, Hemingway once again creates a character that is defiant of what society expects. The good lion, the protagonist in this short story, does not behave like a normal lion. He is a good lion, acts proper, and criticizes other lions for their diets. In “The Killers”, the ending is again, unexpected and the characters are defiant of what society expects. In this story, Hemingway proves this to be true when Anderson, the man that’s fate will soon be murder, behaves calmly and gladly accepts his fate without hesitation, which is not the happy ending that readers expect. Instead first time readers are hoping for an alternative ending, such as the hero, Nick Adams coming to the rescue to save Anderson’s life. Hemingway shows readers that life is not always happy endings.
 There are many different writing techniques in the field of literature, some being more practical, like alliteration, or use of similes, while others are more complex, such as the use of theme, symbolism, and character development. Authors use theme as a literary technique to convey their message, idea, or opinion to spark a belief, point of view or understanding into the minds of their readers. Other types of complex literary techniques include symbolism, in which writers will use an artistic approach using symbols to represent ideas, or in other forms of literary technique, character development, in which writers will create believable characters by giving the character depth and personality. The interesting part about reading literature is that no author writes the same as another. Many of these literary techniques are used in various kinds of writing, however, they are all executed in very different ways. As an example, Ernest Hemingway has a very exclusive way of carrying out his various short stories. Ernest Hemingway’s “The Killers”, “Hills Like White Elephants”, and “The Good Lion” all use theme, symbolism, and character development effectively. The theme in these three pieces of literature similarly display the struggle of social acceptance and social conformity within various cultures. These three pieces of literature also similarly display symbolism, and ambiguity, as well as how Hemingway’s characters are often defiant of what society expects. These patterns are found across all three stories, and is not only used effectively, but is also characteristic to Hemingway’s style of writing. These pieces of literature written by Hemingway have messages coiled up within them, left for the reader to interpret, in a way that is relatable and personal to them. Many of these underlying messages within Hemingway’s writings hit close to home. Some of these include navigating social acceptance, and peer pressure, as well as accepting the fears of life, like the bluntness of the inability to escape death. These pieces of literature, along with others written by Ernest Hemingway are memorable because these issues are relatable and still effect readers today.
Works Cited

Booth, Philip. “Hemingway’s ‘The Killers’ and Heroic Fatalism: From Page to Screen (Thrice).” Literature-Film Quarterly, vol. 1, 2007, p. 404., EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,shib&db=edsglr&AN=edsgcl.160017085&site=eds-live&scope=site.
“Essay about Heart of Darkness: Psychoanalytic Criticism.” Bartleby, www.bartleby.com/essay/Heart-of-Darkness-Psychoanalytic-Criticism-F3CCDCKSVJ.
“Ham and Eggs and Hermeneutics: Re-Reading Hemingway’s ‘The Killers.’” Journal of Modern Literature, vol. 40, 2017, pp. 41–59., EBSCOhost, doi:10.2979/jmodelite.40.2.03.
Hemingway, Ernest. “Hills Like White Elephants.” The Seagull Book Stories, 4th ed., W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2017, pp. 201–206.
Hemingway, Ernest. “The Good Lion.” Holiday, 1951.
Hemingway, Ernest. The Killers. www.sfponline.org/Uploads/372/The%20Killers.pdf.
Michael, Sherry. “Senescence of ‘It’: Explicating the Riddle of Ambiguity in Hemingway’s, ‘Hills Like White Elephants.’” Philological Review, 2015, pp. 87–89., search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,shib&db=hlh&AN=128948154&site=eds-live&scope=site.
Widmayer, Jayne. “Hemingway’s Hemingway Parodies: The Hypocritical Griffon and the Dumb Ox.” Studies in Short Fiction, 1981, EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,shib&db=a9h&AN=7133368&site=eds-live&scope=site.

 

Hemingway’s Metaphorical Hills

 Author Ernest Hemingway is known to be keen on making his stories as minimalistic as possible, giving the reader just enough undeniable indications to be able to make indefinite conclusions. This is certainly the case in the short story Hills Like White Elephants.  Many scholars have written about this very short story and the metaphors Hemingway hid within it. Four such scholars are Frederick Busch, Lewis Weeks, Doris Lanier, and Paul Rankin. These scholars discuss the symbolism of the title, as well as analyze the dialogue, and also attempt to predict the future of these two well-developed characters through other metaphors Hemingway slips into the story.

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  These academic journals could be used to argue that the title of the story and other seemingly insignificant details functions as symbolism towards the characters circumstances. I agree because, for example, it is clear as the story unfolds that they are not just comparing hills to white elephants for descriptive purposes, there is obviously a deeper meaning to their words that we, the reader, have to uncover. I will examine the metaphors Heminway used in Hills Like White Elephants through my own beliefs and the ideas proposed in academic journals written by established scholars. These metaphors can be uncovered through analysis of the indirect dialogue between the main characters, and  the function of physical elements mentioned within the short story. 

 Hemingway establishes symbols throughout the story, allowing the reader to make a conclusions pertaining to the meaning of the title. Weeks notes in his article analyzing Hemingway’s short story that a large portion of the three page story is committed to the description of the hills that allegedly look like white elephants.  He states that not only does Hemingway use it in the title of the story, but also “within this very short three page story, two references to the whiteness of the hills and four to them as white elephants.”  Weeks supports the concept that the title Hemingway gave to the story has a duality to its meaning.  The first point Weeks makes is related to white elephant sales.  The goal of white elephant sales are for people to donate and get rid of their unwanted goods.  Weeks believes that in terms of the story, the white elephant is the unborn baby through the perspective of the American male.  I agree with this idea proposed by Weeks. The second interpretation of the title from Weeks’ perspective is more supportive of the woman and the unborn child.  This meaning of white elephant that creates duality is that a white elephant is a “rare and valuable, royal and sacred” (77) being. I believe that this explanation honors Jig’s fortuitous pregnancy while the other dismisses it, akin to what the American does to Jig.  Correspondingly, Busch also notes the gravity of the title in this Hemingway story.  Busch states “but the hills, and her analogy, bear the weight of their real subject- her will, and her body, which Hemingway sets in opposition to her lover’s plans for her body in spite of her will” (919).  The latest maturation in Jig’s body does not reciprocate the plans that the American had for himself and Jig.  Thus the reader is left to speculate how Busch’s interpretation of the metaphors in the title will influence Jig’s attitude towards her pregnancy.  This fact is made by Busch is valid because it seems to me as the story unfolds and the American’s negative comments gain momentum, Jig appears to become more congenial and not as inclined to express articulated thoughts.  Jig characterizes the hills as “white in the sun and the country was brown and dry” (Hemingway, 350), allowing for there to be a contrast between “joy and sorrow” (75) as Weeks puts it. It is also important to consider that this comment made by Jig encourages the contrast in Jig’s and her partner’s attitude on the position they have gotten themselves into.  Specifically because the American’s retort to Jig about her comment on what the hills look like raise the tension in the dialogue between the two. In the midst of an agitated conversation about hills and white elephants, the American irritably explains “just because you say I wouldn’t have [seen a white elephant] doesn’t prove anything” (Hemingway, 350).  This further inforces the same contrast discussed by Weeks between the characters and their potentially very divided ideas for the future of their relationship.  I acknowledge Weeks and Busch perspectives that the title is not to be taken literally, and has multiple meanings that are subtly expressed by the dialogue exchanged between the characters throughout the story.  It appears that Jig equates the hills apart of the spanish landscape to white elephants because she perceives her unborn child as valuable, in immediate contrast to the American’s unfavorable reference of Jig’s pregnancy. 

 Many scholars have analyzed the dialogue within Hills Like White Elephants.  I find that the dialogue between these two characters reveals a lot about who they are as human beings.  The reader gets clues about the American’s character through his sarcastic and impatient replies to Jig.  Busch states that “he replies, with the bullying facticity of a country-club Babbitt” (919).  I think this further develops the American’s perspective of the situation and explains the dynamic of their relationship.  Weeks also notes, after an exchange regarding the fact that Jig notes their lives consist of looking at things and trying new drinks, “the implication as to the casualness and triviality of their lives, in which drinks are of such importance…is made apparent” (75).  Lanier then furthered the themes pertaining to their drinks by analyzing the choice of absinthe. This story is so rich in dialogue that most of the clues Hemingway leaves for the reader lies within the dialogue. Lanier describes that in Hemingway’s story “the couple is forced to vent their emotions in an unobtrusive way” (280). Going off of Lanier’s belief this could explain the use of sarcastic and dismissive comments made between the two as the story unfolds.  At a specific spot during the plot of the story, after vehement conversational exchanges between the two main characters, the American takes off from Jig so he can take their bags to the other side of the train station where they are waiting.  Busch highlights the substance of the American doing this, and I agree that this action made by the American at this in the story is very telling about his character. After the American man does this he describes the other passengers waiting for their train to be “perfectly reasonable” (Hemingway, 353).  From this small seemingly insignificant thought the American had , Busch is able to conclude that the American believes that the girl whom he impregnated is waiting unreasonably due to her wish to keep their unborn child. Busch goes on to explain that the American’s perspective of reasonable has to do with “pleasure, with self-aggrandizement, but not with the birth of any sort” (919). Varying drastically from Jig’s definition of reasonable. This contrast of beliefs between the two main characters can be attributed to their varying experiences as humans in this world. Explaining the drastically varying notions that Hemingway created between these two distinct characters.

 Another substantial symbol in Hemingway’s story is the character’s choice of alcohol, specifically their choice of absinthe.  Lainer argues that there is an importance to their choice of drink because the characters are drinking while they carry out momentous conversations.  Lainer even states that absinthe “reverberates beneath the surface of the story” (279). I agree with Lainer in this sense because a side effect of absinthe is forgetfulness, which is what the American wishes for referring to the pregnancy.  The idea of forgetting mentioned by Lainer can be compared to ideas pertaining to white elephants sales proposed by Weeks. Another significant aspect of absinthe that reveals a deeper meaning to the reader is the taste of the alcohol.  The american describes the taste of absinthe being similar to licorice, a food known for being bitter. He states “Everything taste of licorice. Especially all the things you have waited so long for. Like absinthe” (Hemingway, 350). The bitterness of the absinthe can be compared to the exchanges between Jig and the American. The American’s quote also speaks to how many people, like Jig, wait excitedly for the day they will become a parent. However, from the American’s point of view this pregnancy is as unwanted as the bitter taste of licorice is.  Similar to the bitterness of absinthe, elephant meat too has an unpleasant taste to most. This is evidenced by the explorer from the 1400’s Alvise Cadmost. At this time period it was rare to consume elephant meat, and Cadmost was the first to record the taste of it. Overall, Cadmost found the meat difficult to get down similar to how many feel about absinthe.  This allows for there to be ties between the title and symbols in the story, reinforcing the unpleasantness Jig and the American felt towards their circumstances to the reader.  Lainer describes that the “bitterness has become a substitute for the sweet” (288) possibility that pregnancy could bring to Jig.

I recall the most powerful conversation to occur at the conclusion of Hemingway’s story.  The American asks Jig if she feels better, and she replies “I feel fine. There’s nothing wrong with me. I feel fine” (Hemingway 353).  Regarding the outcome of the couple’s current dilemma, Busch notes the American “wants the fetus aborted, ands she wants to keep him” (919) and ultimately Busch predicts that “he will win” (919).  Weeks also makes a prediction regarding the future of Jig’s pregnancy.  Weeks believes “The man will not permit it; and the woman will be denied the fulfillment of motherhood” (76).  Rankin also supports the idea that the man will get his way by stating “Hemingway’s unnamed American Male protagonist dominates the meeker, weaker-sexed Jig- the other in terms of her femaleness, her youth…, and her foreignness” (234). Rankin ultimately comes to the conclusion that “she [Jig] submits to his will and consents to aborting the child” (234). Based on Rankin’s quote pertaining to Jig’s gender and ethnicity, I believe that he has come to this conclusion based on evidence from society. According to sociology males typically acquire more political and economical resources giving them greater decision making power compared to their female counterparts. Rankin infers that this societal norm between genders applies to Jig and the American. I, however, argue that Rankin excludes the possibility of Jig being an exception to this unfortunate norm.  I support the idea of Jig being an exception to this disproportion of power because of her scarcastic and secure comments towards the man trying to convince her to get an abortion. I also must note my bias on this stance, being that I am a female that supports other females making their own decision. Although, so far I have mostly agreed with the assessment of the short story by Weeks and Busch, this is where our opinions begin to part ways. I don’t think that Jig will succumb to the American’s attempts to bully her into having an abortion.  I think that she will not submit to his desires, which is evidenced through her logical and quiet strength demonstrated in her dialogue throughout the story. For I am a firm believer that not responding to an antagonizing comment can be the strongest thing to do, and that is precisely what Jig does in this scenario. When the American sees her at the end of the story, it appears to me as the reader that she has already set her mind and is perfectly content with her decision to keep the baby.  Contrarily, I would also argue that the American’s toxic habit of  being self-centered and simple in his nature will ultimately be his downfall. Leading to Jig part ways with him. The idea of them parting ways is demonstrated by Hemingway choosing the setting of the story to be at a train station, a place where there are different paths for one to take to their destination. Jig’s powerful desire for motherhood dualing with the American’s self-centered wishes for Jig to get an abortion makes for an epic battle in which I think Jig and the baby will be victorious.

 The academic journals discussed the symbolism of the title of Hills Like White Elephants, as well as the deeper meaning within the dialogue, predictions of what will happen to Jig’s unborn baby, and other subtle symbols Hemingway included .  Hemingway strategically planted symbols and developed conversation in this dialogue-rich three page short story.  I agree with the examinations of the story written by these scholars, but I see the unwritten outcome of the story oppositely.  The acadamic journals discussed support the idea that the American will Bully Jig into getting an abortion, while I believe that Jig is much more secure in herself than they give her credit to be. Giving her the confidence to go against the American’s wishes and keep the baby.  Overall, Hemingway makes his ability to leave explicit clues for the readers to make implicit conclusions obviously distinct in the story Hills Like White Elephants.

Works Cited

Bausch, Richard, and R. V. Cassill. The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction: Instructors Handbook, Seventh Edition, Shorter Seventh Edition. W.W. Norton & Company, 2006.

Bausch, Richard, R. V. Cassill, and Frederick Busch. Ernest Hemingway’s “Hills Like White Elephants” The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction: Instructors Handbook, Seventh Edition, Shorter Seventh Edition. W.W. Norton & Company, 2006.

Lanier, Doris. “The Bittersweet Taste of Absinthe in Hemingway’s ‘Hills Like White Elephants.’” Studies in Short Fiction, vol. 26, no. 3, Summer 1989, p. 279. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=7133560&site=ehost-live.

Rankin, Paul. “Hemingway’s HILLS LIKE WHITE ELEPHANTS.” Explicator, vol. 63, no. 4, Summer 2005, pp. 234–237. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/00144940509596952.

Weeks Jr., Lewis E. “Hemingway Hills: Symbolism in ‘Hills Like White Elephants.’” Studies in Short Fiction, vol. 17, no. 1, Winter 1980, p. 75. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=7134801&l.

 

Analysis of Ernest Hemingway’s “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber”

Francis Macomber and His Short Life                    
Ernest Hemingway is an American author, short-story writer, and essayist who was granted the Nobel Prize for Literature. He was noted both for the extraordinary manliness theme of his composition and for his courageous and generally public life. His concise and clear composition style has an incredible impact on American and British fiction. His works are popular because of the themes of love, hatred, war, gain, and loss he has included in his literature. Ernest Hemingway’s “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber” is a short story illustrating a third-person omniscient story with snapshots of an untrustworthy interior monologue displayed mainly through the perspective of leading characters. The story presents the protagonists of the story, Francis Macomber, who needs the courage to live his life of manhood. Francis’s wife, Margot who needs money instead of love. Also, Wilson who is a hunter who knows how to guide and hunt. Entire circumstance in story, Francis lost his courage because his wife demotivates him by saying he is a coward. Integrated into the plot, Hemingway’s real theme of this story is courage, masculinity, a failed marriage, and domination. In this story, psychoanalytical criticism is used to reflect the effects of these themes through the use of characters, symbols, and settings of the story.

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The main characters of this story are Francis Macomber, Margot Macomber, and Robert Wilson, who have reflected the theme of the story through their nature and activities. The protagonist of the story, Francis Macomber, is a young American man on a safari in Africa. He is wealthy, but he lacks power and conviction. His target was to kill a lion in that safari, but he failed many times because of the fear of that giant wildlife. According to Harold Bloom, “Macomber flees, ‘bolting like a rabbit’ and leaving Wilson to shoot the lion again and again as it forces itself toward him.” This shows that Francis had fear inside him which discourages the hidden power inside him. However, at last, he achieves his manhood by killing the lion. Also, he shows his masculinity to his wife. He dominates Margot in many scenes such as in the car, while hunting, and while having breakfast with others. His stubborn nature is focused on his aim which can be seen in his happiness after killing the lion and buffalo.
Margot Macomber is Francis Macomber’s extremely beautiful and well-kept wife. She is a socialite and former model who knows how to control men. Margot is an archetypal female predator woman who defies standards of passive femininity by boldly asserting her beauty and perusing wealth instead of love. She is with Francis because of his wealth. According to Abby Werlock, “The Macomber marriage is on shaky ground, but Margot was too beautiful for Macomber to divorce her and Macomber had too much money for Margot ever to leave him.” So, she is rendered pathetic, her life without her husband was dismal because he sustains her lifestyle and well-being.
Robert Wilson is a British “white hunter” who is hired by an American, Francis Macomber, to get help in the African safari. The author presents himself through this character in the story as he was a hunter in his age. Wilson seems like a cool guy who is supporting women in her wrongdoing; Margot kills Francis and Wilson gets the chance to be closer by giving sympathy to her. He is a hunter who hunts women. In the story, the skeptical nature of Francis, the unsatisfied nature of Margot, and the attractive nature of Wilson have created conflicts that lead to the death of Francis. After killing her husband, Margot is getting sympathy and help from Wilson to overcome the murder of her husband.
Besides the characters, symbols have significant roles in the story to enhance the theme of masculinity, courage, risk, and domination. Mainly, the author has focused on two symbols to portray the theme. They are the lion and the car. The lion is a symbol of courage and the power of masculinity. This is the animal Francis encounters first while hunting. The lion causes fear in him. The sound of the roar of a lion in his tent makes him awake with weakness due to fear. This disturbing sound of the giant, life-threatening animal plunged him into paralyzing fear, which prevents him from killing the lion. This event caused him to be embarrassed in front of Margot and Wilson. According to Hemingway, “It had started the night before when Francis had wakened and heard the lion roaring somewhere up along the river. It was a deep sound and in the end, there was sort of coughing grunts that made him seem just outside the tent, and when he woke in the night to hear it he was afraid”(21). From the beginning, Francis is afraid of the lion even with its roaring, which presents a character with fear and who needs courage and power to face the lion.
The car represents the risk, rush, and control in hunting. The car that Wilson and Francis use to hunt is striking since it is prohibited. It is a symbol of development, masculinity, and mankind’s endeavor to rule the natural world. It reveals all through the narrative, encouraging the two parallel hunters and bearing characters between the campground and the hunting ground that is among safety and threat. The hunters should not use cars to hunt and shoot creatures since this gives them an advantage and it is unsportsmanlike. The car is itself a space of security that isolates people from conceivably awful creatures. However for Margot, who is kept in the car while her husband and Wilson hunt, the car is a symbol of imprisonment. It is doorless and box-bodied, enabling her to observe the safari but preventing her from being a part of the hunting. Her femininity keeps her apart from the space of the hunt, where manhood rules. Along these lines, the car symbolizes a central conflict between power, uncertainty, and defense both the hunt and sexual attraction between characters.
Along with the characters and symbols, the settings of the story “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber” has supported the theme of the entire story by shadowing the beliefs of that time and the territory where the scenes were captured. As per the time, this story was set in the 1930s which reflects the stereotypes of that time. Amidst the Great Depression, the way that Francis can stand to take an extravagance excursion takes on incredible significance. It indicates that they are far expelled from the substances of their day, which incorporate neediness, monetary unsteadiness, and general hopelessness. In a time before present-day feminisms were held, the thoughts of what established a genuine man or a genuine woman were regularly those dependent on custom. Men were bold, fearless, and chivalric, and women were feminine, refined, and respectful to men. Hemingway additionally used this female generalization, especially in the character of Margot Macomber. Oliver states, “…..she would like to leave Macomber, she is afraid she would not be able to attach herself to anyone else with as much money.” She does not adore her husband and has been unfaithful. Nevertheless, he is extremely rich which is why she does not leave him. The readers, at that point, can decipher her plan to kill him and turning into a rich widow all the while, as the activity of a femme fatale. Hemingway, whose works much of the time remark on the idea of masculinity, considered himself to be a paragon of manhood through his affinity for hunting, fishing, and bullfighting.
The entire story takes place in Africa, in a safari. Margot’s reference to Nairobi may show that the safari is someplace in Kenya, yet nothing precise about the safari area is indicated. In the story, Francis and Margot Macomber are well off Americans for whom hunting creatures on a safari is something fun. For some, rich outsiders, hunting for wild creatures in safaris is just a game; they could not care about the prosperity of creatures or about the way that they devastate valuable pieces of the natural world. Francis certainly chose to go hunting in the African safari since it was a casual adventure for him because he was not genuine in hunting.
Hemingway’s story “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber,” has presented various conflicts and scenes of rising activity by using characters, symbols, and setting of the story, which lead to an extraordinary ending. The contentions Francis has with himself, nature, and man prompts a demonstrated fear of the wild, and his deficiencies. These events lead to the unanticipated climax of the story where the actions of both Francis and his wife are addressed. It is also amusing that his wife, the real person who ought to secure him, is the reason for his death. Furthermore, the way that it might have been Margot’s drive to secure Francis which devastates him makes the peak of the story interesting. Hemingway uses the logical inconsistencies to give enough ambiguity in the account for the result of the story to be uncertain. Even though Francis’s life was short in years, it was admittedly cheerful as he had the option to confront his feelings of fear and beat his greatest deterrents. At last, he dies as the prime of his own life.
Works Cited:

Bloom, Harold. “‘The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber.’” Ernest Hemingway, Chelsea House, 1999. History Research Center,online.infobase.com/Auth/Index?aid=&itemid= &articleId=5795. Accessed 28 Oct. 2019.
Hemingway, Ernest. “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber.” The First Forty-Nine Stories, Alden Press, 1946, pp. 9-43. Accessed 28 Oct 2019.
Oliver, Charles M. “Margot Macomber.” Critical Companion to Ernest Hemingway, Facts On File, 2007. Bloom’s Literature,online.infobase.com/Auth/Index?aid=15149&itemid= WE54&articleId=54482. Accessed 28 Oct. 2019.
Werlock, Abby H. P. “‘The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber.’” Encyclopedia of the American Short Story, 2-Volume Set, Third Edition, Facts On File, 2013. Bloom’s Literature, online.infobase.com/Auth/Index?aid=15149&itemid=WE54&articleId=9472. Accessed 28 Oct. 2019.