Glacial History of Mount Hood in Oregon

Mount Hood, composed primarily of andesite and dacite, is considered one of the Stratovolcanic Mountain in the Cascade Volcanic Arc in northwest Oregon, in the United States of America; having existed for more than 500,000 years (Wikipedia). It is located about fifty miles east of Portland and thirty-five miles south of the Colombia River,(Oregon encyclopedia) and the fourth highest peak in the Cascade Ranges that extends to about 11,244 feet high, and a prominence of about 7,706 feet and thus considered Oregon’s highest point(Oregon encyclopedia).
The Social, Cultural and Environmental Significance of Mt. Hood
This mountain has significantly played a rich history in shaping up the geological, historic, cultural and environmental history of North West Oregon and the entire Pacific Northwest. One of the major factors, which have attracted particular attention to the study of this Mountain, are: it’s the rich background of its glacial activity, which has overtime impacted the Oregon society to be considered as a National historic landmark. Some of its renowned historical accounts are its usage in the sporting activities e.g. skiing, and mountain climbing; it has six major ski areas: Timberline, Mount Hood’s Meadows, Ski Bowl, Coopers spur, Snow Bunny and Summit. In addition, it encompasses some of the historic land marks as Timberline Lodge (located in Southern flank of Mount Hood just below Palmer glacier), Mount Hood National Forest. It is also regarded by the Chinookan tribes: Cascade and Molala people as a sacred place for worship, and as a viable source of raw material for their economic activities e.g. basketry weaving industry, fishing, hunting and gathering activities.(orogencyclope)

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Currently major expeditions are in underway taken by scientist to study its major glacial activities and land features formation e.g. The Snow Dragon Cave, ice caves in Paradise as Johnson puts it that, “there are some aspects of glacier caves that are interesting as a main subject of study”, () this depicts how avid major activities are undertaken to explore one of the Oregon gigantic mountain.
History of the glacial activity
In the past 15,000 years, Mount Hood has had at least four major eruptive periods, in which the last three occurred within the past 1,800 years from its vents high on the SW flank, producing volcanic deposits that were distributed primarily to the south and west along the sandy and zigzag river(mountain hood hist).
According to one of the European explorer in 1972, Mount Hood is believed to have been triggered by a mild seismic activity, maintaining a consistent summit elevation. This elevation process gradually changed overtime. The estimated elevation of mountain Hood has however varied substantially overtime, despite its physical consistency. ()
After the periods of seismic action, glacial activities have impacted to a great length, to the shaping up of Mount Hood.
Glacier and Glaciations process
By definition, a glacier is composed of perennial snow or ice and it moves (orogencyclopedia). It refers to a mass of slowly moving ice or river; that results as an action of compaction or accumulation of snow on mountains or near poles.(dictionary) Glacial activity in Mount Hood has been evident by the existence of crevasses; gaping cracks developing in the ice. This differential movement causes tension. If the tension is more intense than the ice pressure, it results into cracks forming crevasses. (orogenicyclopedia)
Glaciers and permanent snow-field majorly found in the many of the western state including: Washington, California, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana and Nevada, commonly located in the high alpine environment of Oregon, covering an area of approximately 42.5 square kilometer and numbers to about 463 glacial and perennial snow fields. (glacierinoregon),
The types of glacier in Mount Hood.
Glacier in the United States was not known to science, not at least until 1871 when a geological survey expedition, led by Clarence King, who identified glacier on Mt. Shasta in California, nearly almost the same time a team from the King survey, led by Arnold Hague, identified the Sandy glacier on Mt. Hood, during the subsequent periods many other glaciers in Oregon were discovered.
Some of the chronological order of these glaciers expeditions discovered is:
The Palmer Glacier; was also ones known as Salmon River Glacier; discovered in 1924 on the Eastern side of Hood Mountain, situated in the valley below Triangle Moraine, draining into the Salmon River. Was ones thought to be a snowfield not until 1923-1924 where, crevasses of the glacier were revealed.
Zigzag Glacier; drains into the Zigzag River, Lost Creek, and rushing water Creek. It originated in the crater between Crater Rock and Hawkins Cliff below illumination Rock. This was the first Glacier on Mt. Hood to be trod upon the white man when Joel Palmer climbed the slope in 1845. (Mounthood)
Reid Glacier; drains into the Sandy River, and found between illumination Ridge and Yocum Ridge. It was named in 1901 for professor Harry Fielding Reid of John Hopkins University; an expert in glaciology who did extensive studies of the White River Glacier.
Sandy Glacier; Drains into the Muddy Fork of the Sandy River, located on the West-Northwest side of the Hood Mountain and is rarely seen.
Glisan Glaciers; Drains into the McGee Creek. Was named after Rodney L.Glisan and is situated on the Northwest side of the Hood Mountain.
Ladd Glacier; it is situated between Cathedral Ridge and Eden Park and drains into Ladd Creek. Ladd Glacier named after William Ladd, one of the builders of Cloud Cap Inn. This glacier was located in the north-northwest side of the Hood Mountain.
Coe Glacier; depicted as one of the north flank largest glacier, draining mostly into Coe Creek with some flow into Elk cove. .(USGS.Volcanohazard prog) It was named after the Hood River store keeper and an early developer of the North side area; Henry L.Coe. Coe Glacier is situated below Pulpit Rock and is divided by Horseshoe and Andersons Rock. It is mainly used for irrigation purposes for the productive Hood River Valley fruit orchard, and also for fish habitat.
Langille Glacier; located west of Langille Crags and drains into the East Fork of Compass Creek.
Eliot Glacier; is one of the largest glacier on the North flank stretching to about 2.5 meters to 3 meters long in Mt. Oregon, draining into Eliot Creek.(USGS.Volcanohazard prog) Was named after an Early north side explorer; Thomas L.Eliot. It is the most spectacular glacier on Mt. Hood; lying, northwest of the summit and can be accessed easily from Cloud Cap Inn.
Newton Clark Glaciers; Drains into Newton Creek to the north and Clark Creek on the south with a large moraine between the creeks. It was later then named after a well known Hood River surveyor from the 1800s; Newton Clark and is situated on the Eastside of the summit.
White River Glacier; The White River is a branch of the Deschutes River, flowing into it near Tygh Valley. Ever since it was first spotted by the Barlow Party in 1845, it has gradually receded vastly, this is due to the response to volcanic heat exposing steam vents in its early 1900s (orgencyclopedia); these may however pose threats of devastation to the Highway 26 at the White River Bridge, if it will continues to occasionally release packets of retained water. White River Glacier is at the eastside due south of the summit of Hood Mountain, and have its origin in the crater to the east of the Hogsback.
Colman Glacier; changes its shape dramatically from a slopping body of ice, down to Hot Rocks, to a 40 feet ice cliff in the same place.
Summary
Over the last 100,000 years, after the ice cap covering Oregon Cascades from Mt. Jefferson retreated; during the period of the warmer Holocene, resulted into a much smaller glacier as the climate fluctuation caused glacier to wax and wane. Over the past Century glacier have advance and retreat in response to climatic variation specifically Oregon Mountain retreated rapidly from 1900s through the 1950s. During the 1960s and 1970s, the climate cooled a bit and the glacier held their own, with some of them even showing signs of significant adjustments. Retreat did however resume by the 1980s and up to currently still continues. This has totaled to a 34 percentage loss of glacier in Hood Mountain since 1910 statistics.() Mount Hood so far hosted eleven named active glaciers i.e. Zigzag, Reid, Sandy, Glisan, Ladd, Coe, Langille, Eliot, Newton Clark, White River and Colman. The Palmer glacier, initially christened as Solomon Glacier in 1924 didn’t stand the test of time to be regarded as a snowfield as it had lost enough of its volume and mobility to be categorized in the classes of Mt. Oregon snow field. This Mountain is also regarded as a source of five major Rivers namely: Salmon, Zigzag, Sandy, Hood, and White.(Mt. Hood historyhome.com)
References
2015-portland state university and the oregon historical society. (n.d.). Retrieved March 17, 2015.
USGS: Volcano Hazards Program – Mount Hood Geology and History. (n.d.). Retrieved March 17, 2015,
 
 

Comparison of Perrault’s ‘Little Red Riding Hood’ and Angela Carter’s ‘Company of Wolves’

All fairy tales, both old and new that exist today can be said to have a long history that lies beneath them. However, some aspects of the fairy-tale history are somewhat hard to trace because it’s only the literary forms that can obviously survive. Furthermore, what we do know is that the majority of them have been around and retold for many years. Most, if not all of the famous fairy tales that we know have been adapted into various new versions as products of new challenging ideas around the society in which we live. Bonner states that fairy tales are ‘the usual subjects of adaptation because of their massive appeal to both adults and children worldwide.’ The story ‘Little Red Riding Hood’ arguably offers a very interesting and challenging tale for enhancements through the application of the chosen contemporary theories in literary criticism that some critics have noticed throughout the years of its existence. Furthermore, in this essay I intend to compare Perrault’s version of ‘Little Red Riding Hood’ with Angela Carters version ‘Company of Wolves’.

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‘Little Red Riding Hood’, ‘Little Red Cap’ or simply ‘Red Riding Hood’ is a European fairy-tale about a young innocent girl and a wolf. The tale was first published by Charles Perrault in 1697, which in fact was an adaptation of an older tale still. Thus, Perrault’s version ever since has been adapted and criticised throughout its history. Zipes holds ‘the genre is relevant to contemporary culture as it holds issues that exist within gender and its society. ‘ Perrault’s version was named ‘Little Red Riding Hood.’ The red hood is seen as a popular symbol in Europe and North America. In the 19th century young daughters of wealthy families were painted in red caps or hoods. Erich Fromm considers the hood to ‘symbolise menstruation and the approaching puberty that lingers upon the young person that wears it.’ 
Perrault’s version can be described as a much more descriptive fairytale than many others. It begins with ‘once upon a time’ which the traditional way to start a fairy-tale and also gives the image of timelessness throughout the tale. This relates to the narration and the structure within the fairy-tale of which certainly precedes the middle class’s existence within. It portrays the image of the little girl being highly attractive ‘the prettiest creature who was ever seen.’ She is also said to be extremely naïve, ‘the poor child who did not know it was dangerous to stay and hear the wolf talk.’ This shows her innocence and that she isn’t aware of the bad happenings in the outside world due to her controlled life at home and within her society, this relates to Trimmers view that ‘ both children and children’s tales should be kept away from such happenings within society that are out of the norm.’
In Perrault’s version of the tale the little girl’s mother simply instructs her to take some food for her grandmother: never mentioning danger or anything that she should avoid on her journey, thus showing how safe society was perceived throughout the time. Tater argues ‘it resembles a somewhat cautious tale to society, a wakeup call.’
Moreover, the existence of the wolf within the tale gives the audience an image of a villain being portrayed. The wolf is seen as a popular image of danger in fairy tales as it is seen in this and other stories such as ‘The Three Little Pigs.’ It is an obvious predator that exists within the forest and thus relates to a natural choice for the story rather than witches etc. it can also be portrayed as a metaphor for a sexually predatory man. He is of course the only male gender within the tale thus is portrayed as a powerful and strong figure, seen in the phrase ‘gaffer wolf’ personifying the wolf as the boss within the tale. He shows a strong influence upon the naïve country girl as he persuades her to divert from the safe path in which she was on after foolishly telling him exactly where she was going. This clearly portrays to the audience a somewhat clear contrast between the village and it’s surrounding in which the girl lives, which is seen as safe and the dangers that are withheld in the wide world past what the little girl is used to. Hence, holding a strong morality message throughout the fairytale, warning people to stick to what they know.
Tater identifies the tale as a place to ‘work through people thoughts and anxieties about sexuality, gender and sometimes violence.’ When Little Red Riding Hood makes it to the house, she has no sense of anything wrong and states ‘What big arms you have!’ Exclamation can be argued to be the favourite story element for tales, being seen as a story building tool that creates the anticipation and horror for the reader as they know that she isn’t talking to her grandmother. Warner considers her initial failure to distinguish the wolf from her grandma as a crucial element within the story, as it creates the tension before the horrific ending of the fairy-tale.
Furthermore, critics that exist such as Freud argue that there is evidence of underlying sexual motivations and tensions, evidence of this is the Hungry wolf simply not just eating the poor old grandmother, but ‘he fell upon the good woman.’ Feminist critics portray this as an image of rape and sexual tension. In addition, before he sadly digests the young girl he invites her to bed, ‘come and lie down with me.’ This can be seen as another sexual connotation within the tale, and also a disturbing image for its older audience. Thus being an innocent, clueless little girl she climbs into bed with him. Therefore by disobeying her mother’s instructions and talking to strangers Freud dramatically insinuates that this struggle can only lead to her death which is the exact fate of Little Red Riding Hood, as ‘he ate her up too.’ The terrifying ending makes the tale seems more realistic leading to the moral at the end of the story of not talking to strangers and staying to paths in life you are familiar with; Bettelheim says it ‘deliberately threatens the child with its anxiety producing ending.’
Moreover, the tale of ‘Little Red Riding Hood’ has been seen to undergo adaptation in relation to society of the time. Hence, in comparison to Perrault’s version, ‘The Company of Wolves’ by Angela Carter. This can be found in her selection of short stories within ‘Bloody Chamber’.
Throughout the short story Carter retells the famous fairytale in a somewhat gothic light. It is said to convey the ‘completeness of corruption and unconventional ideas of sexuality and an ability to defend one using characteristics which are usually conveyed through a male such as slyness and confidence.’ However, unlike the Perrault’s version, it takes place in a mountainous country on Christmas Eve in the dead of winter. Thus, in comparison to Perrault there are no flowers or sunshine present for the little girl to get distracted by on her walk to Grandma.
Angela spends the first part of the story telling the reader terrifying folk tales of wolfs and werewolves that bombard society and proceed to do ruthless and evil deeds that live to kill. Clearly it adapts with the time within the story when food would be scarce and these creatures are said to lack the ability to ‘listen to reason.’ They are portrayed as ‘forest assassins, grey members of a nightmare.’ They were feared so great that children carried knifes around with them, seen as different to the original Little Red Riding Hood who isn’t even warned of the dangers that she could encounter on her journey. In Carters version, the wolves are disguised as men and have to become naked to become a werewolf within the tale, ‘If you spy a naked man in the forest run as if the devil were after you.’ Moreover this can be seen to link to Perrault’s version, as it holds the notion of sexual tension and desires and involves the wolf as a sexual predator, a symbol of both danger and desire. However, Carters version holds a twist within the tale in that the young girl is able to triumph, by adapting her new found sexual desires and power and thus, gives in to notions of somewhat carnal desire, unlike Perrault’s characters that are seen to be weak and unable to fend for themselves.
Furthermore, similar to Perrault’s version we see Little Red Riding Hood again to be all innocent as she is described as an ‘unbroken egg, a sealed vessel’ and also beautiful with pale skin and dark hair. In addition, as before she is taking food to her sick grandmother; however we see a sense of time and self-defence within this tale as she ‘takes a large knife for her 2 hour trip,’ and we are told its Christmas Eve again portraying that sense of time and place. However, due to her naivety and the way she has been brought up se doesn’t think she is in danger as she is ‘too loved to ever feel scared.’ She is portrayed as the most beautiful and young girl in the family thus they want to keep her young. However, the difference between this girl and Perrault’s version is that she has a notion of menstruation and sexual readiness about her evidence of this is, ‘the child’s cheeks are an emblematic and scarlet white.’ This portrays the young girl as being on the verge of puberty and menstruation, thus adding to the idea of her vulnerability. This is further shown when she bumps into the wolf in the forest who is in fact a hunter and finds him immediately attractive. Compared to Perrault’s version of events Little Red Riding Hood makes friends with this stranger and foolishly lets him carry her basket which has her knife in. After a long walk, and when she has told him were she is going, he bribes her with a kiss for the winner of whoever gets to grandma’s house first. Liking this idea she agrees and allows him to leave with her basket, this gives the image of bargaining with the notion of seduction. Unlike before little red riding hood shows her adolescence and sticks to the path she’s on. However, she walks slowly to ensure he gets his kiss again showing her sexuality and desires.
The wolf arrives at the grandmother’s house as a completely different person that we have just witnessed before; he is chewing meat of his catch like a savage. Carter then links in the sexual connotations as he strips naked revealing a ‘naked, hairy, lie covered body,’ and his ‘nipples that are as red as poison fruit.’ He then devours her. However disgusting this image, it is portrayed as somewhat attractive and sexually arousing. The grandmother within the tale is old and feeble as in Perrault’s version also, however, she lives alone with her dog and bible. In the past she has lived her life as a devoted Christian and wife. She throws the bible at him showing some self-defence which the original grandmother doesn’t even attempt in Perrault’s version, sadly though this isn’t enough to help her against the wolf that is upon her. He then disposes all evidence and waits for the girl to arrive.
Unlike the little girl in Perrault’s version upon her arrival in Carters short story she immediately realises that something isn’t right and senses danger in grandmother’s house, ‘fear does her no good so she refuses to be afraid.’ When she arrives there are uses of the same rhymes within the Perrault’s version, thus showing connections within the adapted version. However, in this tale the girl sees the wolf as strange, unknown creature and thus gives him his owed kiss and starts to undress herself. It is argued by Bettelheim that we can see Little Red Riding Hood wear her desires and sexuality literally on her sleeve. This is seen through her cape, as it portrays a sexual readiness and again symbolising menstruation and blood that she will shed when she loses her virginity. She shows a somewhat sexual power that allows her to intoxicate the lustful creature, ‘small breasts gleamed as if snow had entered the room.’  Evidently, the seduction gets reversed and we see the power shift as the girl becomes the sexual creature within the tale. This can be seen as the reason why grandma and the original little red riding hood didn’t survive, she was old and lacked wit and tactfulness, Little Red Riding hood refuses to be weak and vulnerable as she survives and sacrifices her virginity to save her life, showing that self-defence that the original girl didn’t have. She comments on the wolves teeth as in the original but when the wolf says ‘all the better to eat you with’ instead of screaming and having her fate decided, she laughs and says im ‘nobody’s meat’, Bacchilega interprets this meaning as acting out sexual desires offering her flesh not meat, hence sacrificing her body to him sexually then burning her cape in order to become one of the werewolves herself and adapt to his kind. The cottage is then surrounded by wolves howling a marriage song and the girl engages in a marriage ceremony conducted by the choir. Thus feminists state that she does not call upon god or scream or get eaten. She ‘freely exercises her own sexual power, trusting her own nature.’ This then leads to ‘sleeps in granny’s bed, between the paws of her tender wolf.’ A disturbing image towards its audience.
It is also interesting to see that Carter uses a werewolf instead of a wolf that is used in Perrault’s version. Timmer states that this produces a moral message to its audience, whether that be children or adults that people should not judge others, people aren’t always what they seem.’ Thus using a half wolf half human villain within the story allows us to identify with the wolf as people and maybe realise that we all have a little beast in us at some point.
In conclusion, one of the many adapted versions of Perrault’s implies that sexuality is not something within our society that should be something we loath, fear or runaway from and a bad end, which we see within the Perrault’s version comes only form those in servile situations. Through Carter, we see the young girl take the power into her own hands and use it without fear or shame in order to survive unscathed unlike Perrault’s version, what ends in tragedy from both the grandma and Little Red Riding Hood. However, both versions are heavily criticised by many, especially feminists as they say it is full on female liberation that implies the view to the reader that nothing else in the world will save you against such horror and the only way to survive is through temptation, desire and the ability to fight fire with fire.
 

Red Riding Hood: Hunted or Hunter?

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Robin Hood Ethnic

Introduction
Robert Hood is an outlaw who lived in Sherwood Forest of England. The ethnic piece of literary helps to depict the culture and stories of the person. This research describes the life of Robert hood and ethnic mythology that includes the folktales, myths, legends, fables, poetry, etc. The stories of Robin Hood show him to be a legend and it no longer seems to be a history.

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Ballads (songs that state stories) related to the Robin Hood became popular in the 14th century. In the 15th century, robin was featured in games also. The main reason behind the survival of the Robin Hood’s Stories is that his character is portrayed as an outlaw and rebel, which are striking characters, particularly those whose motive behind the rob is not for personal gain but for the cause of providing justice to the common people (Doel, 2000).
Thesis statement: Ethnic literary plays a vital role in reflecting the culture, as in the case of Robin Hood, ethnic literary reflects his pagan culture.
Mythology
Mythological Robin:
He became the most renowned part of May Games. He was viewed as the legend and became a celebrated part of the May Games. Robin was seen as a fabulous summer king who could successfully lead a procession. This linked the Robin with other legends of the forest.
Legends:
The story describing him would be literal as the tales depict the real figures from the history. Alteration has been made in the historical fact and that too in a creative manner. This has blended together numerous important precepts, which encourage the right living and moral conduct. The narratives consist of mixture of facts, which separates them away from the other stories in folklore. Robin used to spare the goods of the poor and women’s were not harmed. As a result, he became popular among the common public (Potter, 1998).
Fables: These are associated with educating the readers with the important truths in simple tales and usually provide a lesson or morale at the end. The story of robin is short and at the end depicts the truths, which are not easily seen in the every day life. Most of the characters in fables are the non-living objects and animals which show the human passions and interests (Blamires, 1998).
Folk tales: these tales consider the adventures which are both fantastic and authentic. These are also referred as the simple stories that describe the evil and the good deals. Apart from this, these also act as a better source of teaching the values. In the story of the Robin Hood, he has been identified as wearing green because he was associated with the deep Green Man of folklore and art (Phillips, 2003).
Myths: Myths represent the prehistoric and the oldest stories. By nature, they are realistic and holy. According to Robin, productiveness is known as foliage. Myths are of different types in nature. History behind the myth of creation is the formation of world; it is a real concept and also eases the complexity and secrecy of the creation of the world. Another myth deals with the adventure of the divinity and achievement of courage. These tales frequently have cyclic model in which facts are explained in the shape of sign and story to make clear the individual situation and the basis for his distress.
Ballads: The description of ballad was based on Gest, which emerged in the 16th century, soon after the preface of issue in England. After that century, Robin is rewarded to the rank of nobleman. He is nominated as the Earl of Huntington, Robert of Locksley, or Robert Fitz Ooth. In the early hours of ballads, by difference, he was the associate of yeoman classes, who were ordinary freeholder having a small landed park.
Culture
The weapons and tools used by Robin Hood show his connection with ancient woodland and ethnic practices. His main weapon was bow, which was the weapon of Diana, virgin Goddess of the Hunt and his secondary weapons, the quarterstaff and sword, showed the manliness and tarot practitioners use it as an esoteric symbol. He used a horn to call his followers, which is related to recalling the hidden horns on his head (Hahn, 2000).
The ritual followed in celebration of festivals like Beltane or May Day clarifies the ancient themes engrafted with Robin Hood fable. The myth of Robin Hood matches with some other myths and traditions of countries around the world. Robin Hood was expelled from community with his wife Marian and his lieutenant Little John like Rama in India. The Robin Hood story ponders the Ramayana. When Britons visited India, two cultures started to share their views, language and heritage (Hahn, 2000). The very old Proto-Indo-European myth got combined when the two cultures merged. Both were having two great archer heroes, Rama & Robin.
Apart from the Indo-European cultural similarity, there is one more character in Chinese novel. Song Jiang with his 108 followers carried a war against corrupt feudal system. Novels, films and songs developed Robin Hood’s image according to their needs. Robin Hood has become a symbol who helped the have-nots by taking the surplus from the persons who owned the resources in excess (Potter, 1998).
References
Blamires, D. (1998). Robin Hood: A Hero for All Times. J. Rylands Univ. Lib. of Manchester.
Doel, et al. (2000). Robin Hood: Outlaw and Greenwood Myth. Tempus Publishing Ltd.
Hahn, T. (2000). Robin Hood in Popular Culture: Violence, Transgression and Justice. D.S. Brewer.
Phillips, H. (2003). Robin Hood: Medieval and Post-medieval. Cornell University Press.
Potter, L. (1998). Playing Robin Hood: The Legend as Performance in Five Centuries. University of Delaware Press.s
 

Analysis of Little Red Riding Hood

Even though there are abundant ways of engaging in accepting literature, psychoanalytic interpretation tries to find a meaning even beyond what is seen in the text. By distrusting the actuality of intrinsic and concealed motives, it provides a wide range of conceptual and imaginative possibilities. “Freud’s theories were enormously influential, but subject to considerable criticism both now and during his own life” (Cherry). His psychoanalytical theories are still used today in analyzing literature. When the psychoanalytical theory of personality is being applied in Charles Perraults, “Little Red Riding Hood,” it proposes evidence approaching sexual motivations. It perfectly integrates with Sigmund Freud’s psychic apparatus which contain the three essential sections of the mental processes which are the id, ego and superego.

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Sigmund Freud developed the formulation of the psychoanalytical idea behind his principle theory that all human behavior is motivated by sexuality. Throughout Perrault’s, “Little Red Riding Hood,” there were various amounts of sexual associations throughout the story. Even the moral of the story suggests being cautious against “smooth-tongued and dangerous beasts,” that like to dispossess innocence from young girls. Similarly, the wolf does more than just consume the Little Red Riding Hoods grandmother, but alternatively, “he immediately fell upon the good women and ate her up in a moment” (Perrault). Furthermore, before eating Little Red Riding Hood, he invites her to come in the bed with him. At that point, the young girl “took off her clothes and got into bed. She was greatly amazed to see how her grandmother looked in her nightclothes” (Perrault). After she thoroughly examines and comments on the bodily features of the wolf, he then “threw himself upon Little Red Riding Hood” (Perrault) and ate her too. With Little Red Riding Hood experiencing seduction from the wolf, Little Red Riding Hood by no means showed any motive via escape or fighting back. She is an ignoramus and maybe on the other hand she wanted to be misled. Furthermore, Perrault also makes use of another example: “Put the cakes and the little pot of butter on the bin and climb into bed with me” (Perrault). The young girl does not disagree plus she felt obligated to follow the wolf’s wishes, which shows her sexuality and desire for the wolf. In addition to these details Little Red Riding Hood is switched from being gullible, pretty young girl, which was persuaded towards disobeying her mother’s forewarning and enjoys living in her own little fantasy world. These clear references in the text are proof of evidence that support Freud’s theories on the psychoanalytical approach.
In the beginning of “Little Red Riding Hood,” Little Red Riding Hood adventures off and while she is skipping carrying the goodies where then, “she met with a wolf, who had a very great mind to eat her up” (Perrault) and continues to have a sociable conversation with the wolf. This was Little Red Riding Hoods first mistake. Being immature and oblivious of the way the world works and she thought it was okay to talk to a wolf that was very sly. Since the little girl is immature and extremely vulnerable, since Little Red Riding Hood is showed as being friendly and slightly ignorant she didn’t think anything was wrong with talking to the wolf that confronted her in the woods. The wolf asks Little Red, “Little Red, just where does your grandmother live?” (Grimm) She responded, “A good quarter of a league farther on in the wood; her house stands under the three large oak-trees, the nut-trees are just below; you surely must know it” (Grimm). She wasn’t thinking thoroughly of what could come of her explaining where the wolf could find Little Red Riding Hoods grandmother. Due to Little Red Riding Hoods ignorance of what could possibly happen due to her irresponsible choice of blabbing about your grandmother’s whereabouts with a dangerous and senseless wolf.
When correctly applying the psychoanalytical approach to this story, it is appropriate to prove the interactions of the human mind. The concept of the unconscious mind can inspire human behavior because it is essential to the investigation of Perraults, “Little Red Riding Hood.” Cherry expresses the thought that, “Sigmund Freud believed that there were three psychic zones of mental processes: id, ego and superego” (The Id, Ego and Superego). In “Little Red Riding Hood,” Little Red Riding Hoods elders, grandmother and mother represent the superego in the story. They both raise Little Red Riding Hood by helping to protect and control her motives and desires. On the other hand, the wolf symbolizes the id. Lacking both the logic and rule of action, he only functions only to reach full satisfaction. The wolf is at fault because he gave into his own uncontrolled desires. When the wolf first catches sight of the young girl he, “wanted to eat her up, but he dared not, because of some woodcutters working nearby in the forest” (Perrault). The wolf refrained himself from his own desires because he didn’t want to be killed by the woodcutters that were nearby. Eventually, giving into his voluptuous urges, he arrived at the grandmother’s house first and devoured her. Once the wolf ate the grandmother he couldn’t stop himself in giving into his own temptations.
The wolf was not being smart once he gave into his temptations because at that point he was only thinking with his stomach. Cherry explains that, “The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension” (The Id, Ego and Superego). The wolf relied on his aggression and determination to obtain what he wanted as his final result. On the other hand Little Red Riding Hood served as the middle man between self-control and utter confusion. Little Red Riding Hood symbolizes the ego which attempts to be the equilibrium between both the id and superego. At the beginning of the story, Little Red Riding Hood is characterized as being the, “prettiest creature who was ever seen” (Perrault). With her mother so adoring of her, she later enters into the woods where she confronts the id. At this point, she disobeys her mother’s instructions, and evolves to being a “poor child.” The moral of the story, is that these young women maybe well brought up, but they still turn unwise and ignorant when they do speak to strangers. Being considered as the “prettiest creature,” it was Little Red Riding Hoods own fault for leaning too far into the senseless id. Furthermore, Sigmund Freud suggests that this struggle of the psychic apparatus of the three mental processes of the psychoanalytical theory of personality can only conclude to the death of Little Red Riding Hood, which inevitably also turned out to be the fate of her grandmother.
Little Red Riding Hood becomes extremely happy when she gets to see her sick grandmother and try and cheer her up. Little Red Riding Hood being ignorant and is unaware that her grandmother is actually the sly wolf. If she asks her grandmother all these questions about her bodily features and if she saw something abnormal then she could have realized that there was something truly wrong with the way her grandmother had looked. She currently had no reasoning in this situation. The sly wolf, who’s only goal is to ingest any type of flesh, tricks the young girl. The wolf and the young little girl are both idiots in this situation. The wolf could care less about anything else, except his only motivation which is to get Little Red Riding Hood into bed. “Put the cake and the butter down on the bread-bin and come and lie down with me” (Perrault). The wolf only wanted to just satisfy his irresistible needs. The wolf doesn’t know right from wrong, he just reacts to his animalistic desires. The wolf is a creature who is trying to exert himself for his full gratification of his wants and needs.
The moral of the story cautions that the wolf in the story is going to try and take advantage of any ignorant or vulnerable creatures. People are capable of bestowing into their own temptations, but they need to know what is right from wrong. The psychoanalytic approach is used for examining literature; it results in being entirely intriguing. Sexual motives are clearly seen throughout the story, thus confirming the complexity beyond what is seen in the text. Maybe it is abnormal than just analyzing literature. However, this examination remains both thought of being out of the norm and intriguing.
 

The Philosophical Views of Robin Hood

When someone utters the name: Robin Hood and almost immediately people will conjure up images of the green-clad archer of Sherwood Forest, or the noble robber who steals from the rich to give to the poor, and in a deeper sense, a man who will stand up to injustice and tyranny during the period that historians classify as the Middle Ages. Robin Hood is looked at by many as a hero. When taking a look at this idea through a philosophical point of view, there are more things to consider. Should people actually regard him as a hero? If so, don’t we have some sort of a responsibility as a society to look upon people who steal no matter what the reason for their actions may be as nothing more than a thief who is blight on society? On the flip side, is it acceptable to consider him a hero because he is helping those who are deemed less fortunate in society and therefore making society better as a whole? Upon using the ideas of Mills, and Kant it is this authors opinion that indeed Robin Hood though his actions aren’t the most morally ideal, he is breaking laws that ultimately were made by rich men and done so to most of the time to protect themselves and their fortune. Philosophically speaking, what Robin Hood did was help the greater good of many at the expense of a few and as a result society as a whole improved.

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Before diving in and explaining this further one must look at the three philosophers and their ideas and compare them to the folk hero himself. John Stuart Mill’s idea of utilitarianism can be considered as the idea of greatest happiness. Like the folk hero Robin Hoods actions, it can be described as that that a person has a duty to always act so he/she can accomplish the most happiness for the greatest number of people. One of Mill’s major ideas to the concept of utilitarianism is that he argues for the group over the individual. When looking at Robin Hood, while he is stealing, he is doing so for the greater good of many as opposed to the individual (in most cases, Robin Hood steals from the Sheriff of Nottingham). But there is a difference between what Mills argues than that of say Jeremy Bentham. Bentham argues that all phases of happiness as indeed equal. Mills tends to argue that pleasures derived from thinking and that of moral fiber can be considered superior to those pleasures that are in the physical nature. Mills also argues that happiness can be considered of higher value than that of contentment. This can be considered one part where Mills might have a problem with what Robin Hood is doing. Mill’s idea of being morally correct and having that leading to happiness can lead some people to believe that he would not have approved at Robin Hoods actions.
Mill’s definition of the difference between happiness of a higher and lower nature coupled with the idea that those who have seen and been a part of both tend to favor one over the other. In other words, Mill’s tends to argue is that it is the simple pleasures of life that people tend to prefer when they have no experience with something such as art or a night out at a museum and are because of this, these people are not in a position to make any sort of distinction between the two. This is something that can apply to Robin Hood as the people that he steals from certainly have an idea about museums and art and those who he gives his stolen products to certainly prefer the simple pleasures in life such as being able to eat a full meal or have some place to sleep. While Mills is certainly distinguishing two groups of people, he is not forgetting about the people that can be considered poor in his writing. Therefore it can be argued that while morally he does not totally agree with Robin Hood’s way of being, when looking at this writing, he does talk about the happiness for the greater good and there are some people who prefer the simple pleasures in life. These people, who prefer the simple pleasures, are those who Robin Hood helps the most although he may not fit into Mills idea of moral ambiguity. It should be noted that, Mills certainly have advocated sending the poor to universities to get an education and he believed that education would then qualify them to have more influence in say government but lets not forget that at the time that Robin Hood supposedly lived, there was a rigid class system and it was like it was today where people have ways through government programs to make that happen so this idea of his argument does not really apply here and therefore one must go back to the simple writings of Mills of happiness for the greater group and the simple pleasures that the poor during this time period to apply the idea of Robin Hood and whether he is right or wrong. When taking all factors into consideration it is the argument of this author that he would have seen Robin Hood as someone who is doing good work.
When taking a gander at Immanuel Kant, he tends to argue that people occupy a special place in the idea of creation, and his definition of morality can best be defined as that there is a law of reason that create all of humans duties and obligations. In other words, there is a reason that people do the things that they do and sometimes the reasons can be really simple. He takes this one step further by arguing that anything important as any idea that declares a certain action to be necessary. A good example of this can be described as: if someone is thirsty, they must have something to drink to make that thirst go away. Well, when looking at the idea and actions of a Robin Hood, he quenches the thirst of those who are thirsty. He feeds those who are hungry. He takes care of those who are less fortunate and does so using Kant’s definition of morality because there is a reason that creates his duty and obligation (the definition above). It should be noted however, that he also talks about a categorical imperative which, on the other hand, denotes an absolute, unconditional requirement that asserts its authority in all circumstances. “It is best known in its first formulation:
“Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.” This last idea is where Kant might have a problem with the actions of Robin Hood. Certainly, stealing will never become universal law, but this begs to ask the question, is feeding someone who is deemed an outcast from society because they don’t believe in the laws made by someone who is ruthless and attempts to weed out those who don’t agree with him wrong? Let’s not forget that laws are made by man himself and usually those laws are made to benefit those who make them. They are not made with everyone in mind. This is why the idea of universal law can be certainly considered biased. They are made with the idea that they benefit those who are making them without thinking of how they affect the “little people” of society. This is who Robin Hood thinks about; those who are not taken into consideration when laws are made. This is why he can be considered “a man of the common people.”
Kant was known for his major unhappiness with those moral philosophies that were considered popular during his time; because he believed that it would never pass the level of being hypothetical. An idea such as that a utilitarian says that killing someone is indeed wrong because it does not create the most good for the most number of people. But this idea doesn’t relate to someone who doesn’t care about the greater good of the group and is only concerned with maximizing the positive outcome for themselves such as the Sheriff of Nottingham. Because of this, Kant argues that the idea of hypothetical moral systems cannot influence people’s moral actions or be looked upon as moral judgments against different people.
While both Kant and Mills would not totally be on board, so to speak with the way that Robin Hood conducted his daily life, it would be safe to argue that a lot of their writings pertain to the idea of what Robin Hood represents. Robin Hood showed people that sometimes an otherwise wrong deed is at times a good thing. Or in simpler terms, sometimes stealing isn’t necessarily wrong, particularly when justified by worthy ideal such as the greater good of the group or when laws are made by man for the benefit of the few in society, an idea that is still very prevalent today all over the world. Some consider Robin Hood an outlaw, this author considers him someone who had the courage to stand up to those who could not stand up for themselves and often was banished by society. He is fighting what can be considered a class war during the Middle Ages and it certainly is an idea that almost a millennium later, we are still fighting as a society. Maybe some things will never change.