A Marketing Analysis of 5* Hotels in London

Marketing Assignment
Assessment 1.B Akshay Rai

Positioning Maps

The first positioning map is a comparison between my hotel ‘The Rai Hotel’ and the top three main competitors in the area which are The Hilton Hotel, Sky City Grand and The Langham.
Sky City Grand sits on the top as it is the highest price because of the facilities they offer such as the Sky Tower and Casino. Just under is The Rai Hotel as the price and quality is more balanced than Sky City Grand because although there is less facilities than Sky City. Just under is The Hilton and The Langham, the Hilton is more expensive but the Langham is of higher quality.
The second positioning map is of accommodation types in general around Auckland.
5 Star hotels are the highest price and best quality then slightly under is serviced apartments, the price is more expensive for the location because living in central Auckland is very expensive. Just under are the 4 star hotels with the price still slightly high because the quality is high and 3 stars the price is average and the quality is average.

Description of market research method with advantages and disadvantages

I choose the Quantitative research methodology to conduct primary research to find out if the Wi-Fi in The Rai Hotel is up to our guest’s satisfaction and standards. I know this information is not already out there. I have organised a survey to research the chosen area I have decided to study. There are survey sheets in 400 out of the 500 rooms there is in the hotel. The guests will fill out the surveys before they depart from their stay from the hotel and housekeeping will collect them once finished. The 100 remaining rooms in the hotel there are instructions left for the guests to do the survey online and also left the survey sheet. We have done this because we also wanted to research what is the ratio of our customers would prefer to do things electronically rather than on paper.
Once I have collected the results I analyse the finding I have received and found out that 219 rooms of the 400 have been completed and 37 rooms did the survey electronically and 12 did the survey on the paper. (Wright, 2014)
Advantages of Quantitative Research:
Less expensive than some other methods such as doing a phone or interview survey. It is fast and efficient, since the questions are simple and easy to answer. The results can be administered online from the online survey we provided. The answers from the survey as usually just yes and no, so the answers are easier to coordinate for researchers. The survey is anonymous so it is more likely for people to participate. (Wyse, 2012)
Disadvantages of Quantitative Research:
You need large numbers of participates involved to fill out the survey. There also can be sampling problems and answers cannot be followed up due to the anonymity. There is limited flexibility of the questions and there can be misinterpretation of questions by the participates, i.e. non English speaking guests. (Wyse, 2012)
Questionnaire

Is the speed of the Wi-Fi up to you’re satisfaction?
Was the Wi-Fi easy to set up on you’re electronic device?
Do you think the coverage of the Wi-Fi is good around the hotel?
Was free Wi-Fi a factor of you choosing to book with us?
Are you interested in unlimited internet or are you happy with 1GB a day?

Explanation of MIS and examples
MKIS stands for “Marketing Information System” is a system that allows the effective storage of data in a system on a computer, for example excel. The data can be used at any time, also anywhere for the managers to use. Computers are the core aspect of MKIS because all the data is stored on there. Having all the data about various information around the hotel, managers can make effective factual decisions.
(Hatlett, 2010)
Four Components of MKIS are Internal data, Marketing intelligence (External environment information), and Marketing research that all go towards the Storage and analytical processing system (Computer & Software, Hardware, Filing System)
(McCallum, 2014)
Our hotel will store the results from our survey we have done on Wi-Fi in our MIS system called Neo Life Technology. The purpose storing this in our MKIS is to find out if we need to improve our Wi-Fi and internet in our hotel and so our managers have easy access to this information.
Advantages of MKIS are the data stored in the MIS is kept for a long period of time. The information of the MIS is relevant and up to date. Our managers can access large amounts of data because of the ease of access to it. Also the speed in obtaining relevant information to make decisions is much quicker than any other way. There is an easy follow up and maintaining customer relations. (Boaz, 2006)

Find Out How UKEssays.com Can Help You!
Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.
View our services

Some Disadvantages of MKIS are it costs a lot of initial time and there is a high labour cost involved. It is very complex to set up a system and involves specialised I.T. people. There also can be a limited amount of the right kind of information if there is not the right amount of sufficient research done and data stored.

List of businesses in a partnership with:

Samsung Electronics

We are partners with Samsung, they supply our TV’s in the rooms, phones all throughout the hotel and our computers that we use in reception. We are in a 5 year contract with Samsung and they are required to supply all of these electronics.

Aotearoa Fisheries Limited

We are in a 2 year contract with a local food company called Aotearoa Fisheries Limited, they supply all of our seafood in the restaurants. They are our preferred supplier for seafood and we have a good relationship with them.

Altura Coffee

We are in a 1 year contract with Altura Coffee that is located in Auckland and supplies our restaurants with coffee powder and coffee machinery. We buy in bulk from them every month but our barista’s are not happy with the quality of the coffee so we are looking at finding a new supplier next year.

Air New Zealand

Our hotel is working with Air New Zealand in a long term relationship on a 5 year contract. We are part of Air New Zealand’s air point programme where Air New Zealand customers can book with our hotel by paying with Air Points, this brings us more customers domestically and Air New Zealand pays the hotel an amount of money to pay for the customers who have booked with us. (Hotel Partners, n.d.)

Hospitality Textiles NZ

HTNZ is our preferred linen and towel supplier. We have a long term contract with them for 5 years because we have a close relationship with them. Every 6 months we buy in bulk from them and they supply all the linen in the hotel.
References
Boaz, A. (2006). Marketing in New Zealand (Third Edition). Auckland: Pearson Longman.
Grover, S. (2014). Hotel Management Magazine, 50-62.
Hatlett, M. (2010, 04 16). Marketing Information System. Retrieved from Business Dictionary: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/marketing-information-system.html
Hotel Partners. (n.d.). Retrieved from Air NZ: http://www.airnewzealand.co.nz/spending-airpoints-hotel-partners
McCallum, D. (2014, 03 23). Lecture Notes in Marketing. Pacfic International Hotel Management School.
Wright, K. (2014, 03 16). Lecture Notes in Research. Pacific International Management School.
Wyse, S. E. (2012, 10 16). Advantages and Disadvantages of Surveys. Retrieved from Snap Surveys: http://www.snapsurveys.com/blog/advantages-disadvantages-surveys/
 

Morris Lapidus Miami Beach Hotels Design

Morris Lapidus was one of the most important architects of the 20st century, not because of what he built but because of the way he thought and his willingness to break rules. His architecture manifested both popular culture and the collective unconscious. Through his designs- synaggogues and large-scale housing as well as the famous shops and glamorous hotels-he had a powerful way of enhancing an experience and lifting people’s spirits.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

His introduction to the Miami hotel scene began when his friend the architect Charlie Spector brought him to a meeting with Ben Novak, partner of Harry Mufson, to edit plans for the Sans Souci hotel on Miami Beach. Morris was sketching various parts of the hotel that could be made more interesting. He indicated that the exterior should have imposing pylons and a circular drive to dramatize the entrance. Several days later he got a phone call from Harry Mufson, asking when he could come to Miami Beach.
The two resort hotels , Fontainebleau and Eden Roc, makes us see architecture differently. We can describe the form, tectonics, content, and detail of the resort hotels different as a pedestrian or when we drive a car. Lapidus’ resort hotels, were stage sets for tpuristic spectacle and glamour more than built demonstrations of distinctly modernist theories and practices. Miami, was the farthest extension of North America into the Caribbean, far enough from the rest of the United States to nurture exotic tropical fantasies. There is a reason that makes both of these resort hotels more prestigious and more as an image of Miami then any other hotel.
In 1952, Morris Lapidus landed the job of the largest luxury hotels of Miami Beach, the Fontainebleau and Eden Roc perhaps the most famous hotels in the world. He designed the hotel in such an artistic and symbolic way that when you pass by the hotel by car or as a pedestrian, your brain captures its style and symbols so that you can separate it from other hotels.Fontainebleau and Eden Roc are located in Miami beach, between the beach and Collins avenue, where the best oceanfront hotels are based. It is a perfect location to impress tourist who comes to the beach and sees all the luxury resorts facing the ocean.
The fronts of the Fontainebleau and Eden Roc look to the Collins avenue, the architectural structure and the decoration plays a big role in this part. The strategy here is to impress and make the building prestigious and interesting. If you are a tourist and driving a car in the Collins Avenue, you will see several Miami Beach hotels next to each other, almost all of them having the same color and design. Fontainebleau’s perception is different than what the other hotels have. You can enter to the hotel by taking the entrance road. You will see multiple tall palm trees aligned and white sculptures matching the color of the building that are located in front of the lobby and on the waterfall. Compared to other luxury resorts, Eden Roc can also be easily distinguished. When by pass as a pedestrian,by car or even by a plane you will be able to compare Eden Roc to other buildings. As a pedestrian you will see that right by the entrance road, there is a big text of Eden Roc with a special font that makes it more unique. As a flying passenger, if you are passing over Miami Beach, you will see that all the buildings are colored white and have almost the same structure. So if you can not distinguish the buildings by its shape which is the case for most people, Morris Lapidu put the text of Eden Roc with the same font as the one at the entrance. Fonts are really important for branding, it gives a perception depending on the type of the font and also makes people remember the brand.
These two luxury resorts’ inside are as prestigious as their exteriors. Morris Lapidus designed a modernism based on north?south connections. His hotel environments were containing Latin designs and tropical themes.  Lapidus’ interiors were juxtaposing his proven idea to commercial space with regional elements such as natural stone, singing birds and tropical foliage.
With the Fontainebleau and Eden Roc, he was called as the as hotel doctor and hotel designer. From the idiosyncratic pedestal base to the bold curves of the two hotels, Fontainebleau and Eden roc broke with orthodoxy and defined Lapidus signature hotel

Solid Waste Management For Hotels In Mauritius

The main objectives of this mini project were: to provide a review of key concepts and issues relevant to solid waste management for Small ,Medium ,and Large Hotel in Mauritius ; to analyse and evaluate the hotel solid waste management (HSWM) program in Mauritius and to suggest recommendations and areas for further research. The following data collection methods were used in this study: deep review of documents and literature, interviews and a propose methodology to carry out the study.
Tourism can bring both positive and negative impacts. One aspect of tourism that can have an impact on local communities is solid waste management (SWM). Improper SWM can lead to pollution and deterioration of the aesthetic appeal of tourist destinations. However ,may airline agency are assessed the hotels for safety and ecology before placing the tourist in the hotels.
A proposed survey questionnaire has been designed and could be administered at a later stage for future evaluation of solid waste in small, medium, and large hotel .The questionnaire has been designed in such a way to be able to analyse all solid waste within a hotel ,example ,waste from kitchen ,store ,office ,Front Office ,Laundry ,Housekeeping and so on

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Waste minimization is essential in the hotel industry with regards to waste reduction, reuse, recovery and disposal. This is also referred to as the Hierarchy of Waste Management .From the literature review obtained from different sources, small ,medium and large hotel can adopt the hierarchy of waste Minimization ,Reduction ,Reuse and Recovery .However it is also noticed that there is advantages and disadvantages using Waste Minimization Approach .
Now ,there is a lot of recycling companies in Mauritius which collect or hotel go to disposed all the materials to be recycled such as glasses to Glass Gallery ,Metals to Steel Scrap Ltd ,Plastic Bottle to Polypet Recyclers Ltd ,Paper to Agripac or Dakhri Paper .
If Solid Waste is not properly managed by the hotel ,there can be a environmental degradation and pollution, resource depletion and damage to marine ecosystem. The EPA 2002 is enforced by the Ministry of Local Government .According to the EIA ,no hotel construction till the approval of the EIA Report
Many hotels generate above 20% of food waste , Green Waste and can be composting .According to the Ministry of Local Government ,very few hotels carry out the composting and many of the hotels whether small ,medium or large do not have expertise on composting .
It is also evident that small and medium hotels pay less attention for the implementation of waste minimization than larger hotels, because the costs outweigh the benefits. The small and medium hotels have limited space for them to apply the minimization totally .But to some extent small and medium hotels can apply the hierrerchy .Concepts such as appropriate technology, cleaner production, life
cycle assessment and environmental management systems can be useful for improving
how solid waste management is approached.
Conclusions and lessons learned from the literature are presented and links
between concepts in the literature and .recommendations made on how to management waste in these hotels
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First and foremost, I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor, Mrs Geeta Devi Unmar for her valuable meetings guide ,support for my mini project on Solid Waste Management for Hotel(Small, Medium and Large ) . I am also grateful Mr Prakash Kowlessur ,Director Solid Waste Unit ,and Mr Micheal Marie ,Principal Enforcement Officer ,Ministry of Local Government , for his helpful coordination with his staffs to collect the quantity of waste per week. Special thank to Mr. Shardoo ,Environment Officer at Ministry of Environment and NDU for his useful information on EIA guide line for coastal hotel .Finally special a thank to Mr. Lan Pin Wing Michel,Statistic Section, Ministry of Tourism
ABBREVATIONS
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction
1.1 An Overview of Solid Waste In Mauritius
The rapid industrialisation and urbanization during the past decade have led to changing production and consumption patterns that continue to present new demands for natural resources and create new waste streams. It is estimated that solid waste produced in Mauritius is about 380,000 tonnes a year (or 1,200 tonnes per day) and is expected to reach 418,000 tonnes in 2014.Each Mauritian generates around 0.7 kg of solid waste daily and this is expected to rise to 0.9 kg by 2010. The development of an integrated solid waste management strategy is among the priorities identified in the National
Environmental Strategies to reduce future costs from environment degradation
The increase in the economic development has changed the life style and the consumption pattern of the population. Consequently, this has led to an increase of the amount of solid waste generated.
1.2 Composition of MSM
It is found that most of the waste is organic in nature and can be compost easily
(Fact Sheet- Ministry of Environment)
.
1.3 Waste Composition from Hotel
There are three main sources of waste from hotels (office/guest rooms, gardens, and kitchen/restaurant), and each source contains different types of waste. For example, there are a lot of compostable, which can be biologically decomposed, present in kitchen-waste while more recyclables are present in waste from office/guest rooms (Chopra, 2004)
According to Reseearch ,Dr Wan Li Liao ,2008 A typical hotel’s waste stream in Belize consists of the following component percentages:
paper/cardboard 27%, food waste 45%, yard waste 8%, plastic 5%, metal 5%, glass 5%,
demolition and construction waste 3%, other 2%.
1.4 Disposal Of Solid Waste In Mauritius
Formerly solid wastes were disposed of in open dumping grounds, but due to public complaints of the nuisance caused by the foul odour emitted by the putrefying waste, all the open dumps have now been closed. The Ministry of Local Government and the Local Authorities are responsible for collection and transportation of household and commercial wastes. Today, solid wastes are collected and disposed of at the Mare Chicose landfill through transfer stations.
There are presently 5 transfer stations in Mauritius namely:
– Poudre d’Or
– Roche Bois
– La Brasserie
– St Martin
– La Laura
Wastes are compacted at the transfer station to reduce their volume before they are transported in larger vehicles to the sole landfill of the country which is at Mare Chicose.
In hotel actually the waste is collected in different bins, that is , segregation at source .Waste carrier come to collect the waste and then transfer to land fill .For Most of the hotel the transfer is subcontracted to cleaning service such as Securiclean, Maxiclean ltd or even to private lorry .Sometime due to poor management of solid waste , poor storage , and irregularity of waste carrier to collect waste ,make rise to bad smell ,rodents and sometimes it is not esthetics .
Now the tourism industry is one of the three pillars of the Mauritian Economy. Mauritius is become one of the most important international tourist destinations in the Indian Ocean. The tourist arrivals for the year 2009 rose up to 413,504, with a forecast of 1.0 million tourist arrivals for the end of year 2010.
Due to the expansion of tourism industry , there were total of 97 registered hotels in operation by the end of June 2009 (C.S.O., 2009).
Hotel activities produce huge amount of wastes, which tend to increase as the number of hotels increases. The problem of waste generation associated to environmental pollution is a challenge to hotels with regards to waste collection and disposal. Our space land fill become limited
Much emphasis is placed on ecotourism. Ecotourism in fact consists of three elements: natural-based, educational and sustainable management (ecoT mgt and assess) Mauritius itself is described as an ecotourism destination in the Indian Ocean and Africa region. (encyclo of ecoT). One example of an “ecogreen” hotel in Mauritius is Le Coco Beach Hotel, whereby ecotourism practices are applied (ecot themes..)
“Ecogreen” hotels can help to protect the environment, make hotel operations sustainable, reduce cost and liabilities, and improve health and safety. Since hotel operations such as housekeeping, bar and restaurant, kitchen, greenscaping, administrative office and staff quarters, generate large quantities of solid waste, a good solid waste management system is essential.
Priority must be given to the development and implementation of a sustainable and integrated solid waste management system, encouraging current practices such as reuse, recycling, composting, waste reduction and prevention, facilities for waste disposal and technologies to convert waste into energy.
1.5 Research Goals
The improvement of solid waste management is one of the challenges faced by tourist
destinations in Mauritius.
This mini project provides full literature review of the HSWM program in Mauritius to disseminate information about an innovative solid waste management program in a tourist destination. This study will explore the topics
Conclusions,recommendations and future research directions will be presented at the end of the study.
The research objectives for the study were:
To provide a review of key concepts and issues related to solid waste management in Mauritius
. To analyse and evaluate the hotel solid waste management (HSWM) program in Mauritius pertaining to Small ,Medium and Large Hotel
To provide space to the landfill
. To suggest recommendations and areas for further research.
1.6 Beneficiaries
From the outcome of this mini project I have try to identify the HSWM within the Small , Medium and Large Hotel and how the system is working within the hotel ,that the hotel staff is facing and this can serve a starting point in the Hotel for improving its conditions, infrastructure, work environment and attitudes towards the waste management ,and eco environment .It will be a great benefit for the Small and Medium Hotel
2.0 Literature review
2.1.1 What is waste
Wastes are those materials no longer required by an individual, institution or industry. Wastes are thus regarded as by-products or end products of the production and consumption process respectively. (Source: A. Vesilind, 1995)
2.1.2 Solid waste is that material which arises from various human activities and which is normally discarded as useless or unwanted. Examples of solid wastes:
waste tires
scrap metal
furniture and toys
domestic refuse (garbage)
discarded appliances and vehicles
empty cans, paint cans and compressed gas cylinders ,plastics and bottle
construction and demolition debris,
2.1.3 SOURCES AND TYPES OF WASTES
Wastes are produced by human activities and include:
1. Municipal wastes
2. Industrial wastes
3. Agricultural wastes
5. Energy generation wastes
.
2.1.3 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste type that includes predominantly
household waste (domestic waste) with sometimes the addition of commercial wastes collected by a municipality within a given area. There are five broad categories of MSW:
Biodegradable waste: food & kitchen waste, green waste, paper (can also be recycled).
Recyclable material: paper, glass, bottles, cans, metals, certain plastics, etc.
Inert waste: construction and demolition waste, dirt, rocks, debris.
Composite wastes: Waste clothing, Tetra Paks, Waste plastics such as toys.
Domestic hazardous waste & toxic waste: medication, paints, chemicals, light bulbs, fluorescent tubes, spray cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries, shoe
WASTE DISPOSAL
2.4 Waste Generation And Collection
In Mauritius waste collection is undertaken by the local authorities which consist of 5 municipalities for urban areas and 4 district councils for rural regions. More recent figures indicate that close to 800 tonnes of waste is collected daily and this figure is set to increase to 1000 tonnes daily in the coming years.
The following is a break up of the sources of waste by tonnage.
Trade and Industry: 150 tonnes/ day
Domestic waste : 600 tonnes/ day
Hotels : 50 tonnes/ day
It has been estimated that, on average, each person generates 0.6 kg of waste daily.
Whereas an average family generates 800 kg per year.
(Solid Waste Unit ,Ministry of Local Government)
Type of Waste Percentage of Waste
Table 2 -Tonnage of Waste -Mare Chicose Landfill for Year 2007 to 2009
From the graph it can be concluded that the generation on waste is being kept increase.
Metal cans: It is estimated that 28 million metal cans are imported annually and this is set to increase at a rate of 5.7% yearly.
2.4.1 HOTEL WASTE GENARATION
Each hotel room generates an estimated 9.2 kg of waste per day (Wisnu 1998b). In Indonesia, per capita waste generation rates were 0.65-0.83 kg/day in large cities, 0.55-0.63 kg/day in medium cities and 0.47-0.5 kg/day in small towns
(Jindal et al., 1998). Therefore, the amount of waste generate per hotel room is over ten times the amount of waste generated per day .From both study it was concluded that 80% of waste is organic
2.4.2 Waste Disposal
The authorised dumps are found at:
(1) Poudre D’Or
(2) Mt St Pierre
(3) Riche Fond
(4) Solferino
(5) La Martiniere
An unspecified number of unauthorised dumps exist throughout the island. Though illegal dumping takes place at these sites, the authorities turn a blind eye because of the lack of appropriate structures to deal with all the wastes generated on the island.
The present method of waste disposal cannot continue for long as the dumps are overflowing with heterogeneous waste and open dumps have obvious disadvantages like the emission of air pollutants and odours, contamination of the water table with seepage and contamination of aquatic resources like rivers and the lagoon.
The Roche Bois dump also situated close to the shore receives domestic, commercial and industrial waste from the Port Louis area. About 100 tonnes of solid waste are discharged daily at the site and then incinerated. The adjoining lagoon is subsequently polluted with all types of solid waste, it also a receptacle for sewage and industrial waste discharge.
2.5 Waste Management
Waste management’ shall mean “the collection, transport, recovery and disposal of waste, including the supervision of such operations and aftercare of disposal sites”
However the newer concepts of ‘Waste management’ talk about ‘Reduce, Reuse and Recycle of waste’ over and above waste disposa1.
2.5.1Waste Minimization Approaches to Hotel Waste
The Waste Hierarchy is a list of approaches to managing waste, arranged in order of
importance. Below is a common graphical representation of the Hierarchy, with the least preferred option for managing waste, Recovery, located at the right end and the most preferred option, Reduction, located at the beginning left.
WASTE MINIMIZAT10N APPRAOCHES
Waste Minimization Techniques Delivered by Hotel
2.5.1.1 Reduction
Reduction is the topmost approach in the hierarchy of waste management. It is perhaps the most important element of the waste hierarchy and also the one which presents the toughest challenges. According to the book “Waste Treatment and Disposal”, reduction “is the strategy that waste production from commercial consumption should be reduced. It concerns the consumption and purchasing of longer lasting products, and products which are likely to result in less waste when they are used. Examples of waste reduction are: buying by bulk, and using alternatives.
2.5.1.2 Reuse
This is the second most important approach in the hierarchy of waste management. Reuse is the collection and reuse of materials, for example cleaning and reuse of glass bottles.” Reuse is a more effective use of resources. Many of these products can be reused instead of being disposed of to landfill Many waste products have the potential to be reused enabling purchasing cost savings at the facility, as well as decreasing waste management cost. The approach of reusing products can create changes in attitudes towards disposable products. Examples of products that can be reuse are: used tyres, glass and plastic bottles, scrap paper, and plastic bags.
2.5.1.3 Recovery
This is the third and final approach in the hierarchy of waste management.
It includes two types of waste recovery, which are recycling and composting. According to the book “Waste Treatment and Disposal”, “(1) Recycling. The potential to recycle material from waste is high, Recycling: reprocessing of a discarded waste material to make it suitable for subsequent re-use either for its original form or for other purposes
Recycling is beneficial in two ways: it reduces the inputs and reduces the amount of waste produced for disposal.Finally on recycling we can save transport vehicles ,maintenance cost ,fuel cost
In Mauritius, figures for 2000 show that only 15 820 tonnes of waste per year was being recycled instead of 100,000 tonnes (Min. of Env. & N.D.U-2003).
2.6 Benefits of Waste Minimization
The benefits of the implementation of waste minimization at the hotel whether small ,medium or large facility are as follows:
1. Less waste generation will be produced due to the implementation of waste minimization programs in hotels and the support of tourist visitors and employees. As a result, the market trends, which attract and motivate tourists to visit increases since the environmental quality is maintained. More tourist will be attracted
2. Giving back to the community and showing environmentally friendly concerns also enhances the outlook of the hotel’s public image. Being socially responsible shows how much the business cares about the outside elements that makes the business successful, and not just about profits
3. Having an environmental focus of the hotel’s operations creates a market niche separating that particular hotel from its competitors, whom are not eco-friendly. An environmental focus is relatively new in the hotel industry.
5. Increasing profits result since an abundant amount of money purchasing new products which the facility could have been using the reusable products instead and paying less for waste disposal.
2.7 Difficulties of Waste Minimization
Just as there are many benefits of waste minimization, there are indeed many difficulties.
1. Although waste reduction, reuse and recovery have become an integral part of many hotel management plans, space limitations and finance often make this process problematic for some facilities.
2. Limited knowledge and training can be strenuous for managers to discipline their employees in carrying out these environmentally friendly practices. Lack of control over these behaviors can be quite demanding.
3 At the smaller hotels, the costs outweigh the benefits leaving the facility with no incentive to carry out this sustainable way of operating. Environmental awareness is growing at a slow rate.
2.7 Tourism: Solid waste generation and impacts
Hotel activities tend to produce large amount of solid wastes; waste paper, stationery and ink cartridges from the administrative offices and staff quarters; old furniture equipments from guest rooms; food scraps, broken glassware and other solid waste from the kitchen, bar and restaurants; newspapers and magazines from the front desk, waste vegetation from greenscaping and out of use equipments from the maintenance department.
The tourism industry can have positive impacts for a country. For example: increase of national profit, enhancement of the country’s global image, bringing in investors and improved infrastructure. On the other hand, negative effects are also felt; environmental degradation and pollution, resource depletion and damage to marine ecosystem.
2.8 Importance of a good Solid Waste Management
Waste is unsightly, malodorous and unaesthetic, polluting land, air and water, clogging drainage systems, posing serious public health risks, and restricting potential land use (Pernia,1992 ).Improper SWM can result in pollution and health risks and waste, if not disposed of properly can become a nuisance and a health hazard.Decomposing waste harbor disease vectors, attracts vermin and help the proliferation of rodents and rats (national state of
Allegro Papgayo hotel in Costa Rica was closed because of bad and unsustainable waste management practices which lead to ocean pollution in the surroundings and bad smelling (“Costa Rica’s Occidental Grand Papagayo to close?”,2008). A good SWM is essential and should emphasize on environmental protection and health
2.9 Approach to a Sustainable and Integrated Solid Waste Management
At present, more and more hotels are implementing sustainable practices to reduce tourism impacts on the environment by using water, energy and other materials efficiently. These are termed as “ecogreen” hotels. This reduces cost for waste disposal and increased profits. In Mauritius some hotels like Oberoi Hotel and Le Plantation using recycles items and one restaurant from Le Plantation Hotel is made of all recycles materials like all plates ,glasses ,chairs ,tables and so on .Another example is that At Amelia Island Plantation, Amelia Island, FL, more than 5.5 tons of waste is collected for recycling each week.
2.9.1 Energy recovery
Treating waste thermally WTE with heat recovery can help to supply a clean and trustworthy energy under the form of heat and power. This can contribute to saving energy (Pavlas, et al., 2009). One example is Payatas, whereby electricity is produced from methane gas (Serrona, Yu, 2009). Energy recovery is a very sustainable solution to Plastic Solid Waste since plastics have a high calorific content and embodied energy. Cement kilns and fluidized beds are utilized to recover energy from PSW (S.M. Al-Salem et al., 2009).
2.9.2 Composting
Composting is a natural process that turns organic material into a dark rich substance. This substance, called compost, is a wonderful conditioner for soil. It is the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste to produce a stable product such as soil conditioners and growing material for plants. Composting can save money for transfer of waste to landfill
Composting is found to be the best way to deal with organic types of waste generated (Narayana, 2009). In fact, for solid waste which have a high moisture content and low calorific value, for example: food wastes and greenscaping wastes, aerobic composting is the best method for managing this waste . ( Narayana, 2009).
2.9.3 WASTE REDUCTION
Refillable amenity dispensers can replace soap, lotion, shampoo and conditioner bottles in hotel guest rooms. In Food and Beverage they can purchase large tin butter and refilling in small porcelain pot rather than to buy very small butter with smaller plastic container They can use Beverage Dispenser rather than can .They reduce waste, slash operating costs and save time. Housekeeping managers save staff time when they buy highly concentrated cleaning supplies.
Engineering managers cut waste and increase productivity when they switch from incandescent lights to fluorescent or LED bulbs. Fluorescent bulbs last five times as long as incandescents and LED’s operate twenty-five times longer.
Modular mattresses allow hotels to replace just the mattress tops, not the rest of the units. They extend the seven-year average life of hotel mattresses by five to ten years.
Hotel restaurants reduce waste by using washable table cloths and dinnerware, reusable coffee filters and by providing condiments in bulk dispensers. Hotels can eliminate bottled water waste by using filtered water.
There are many more waste prevention strategies that hotels could deploy, such as: eliminating unrequested newspapers; requiring documents to be printed on both sides of the page and with a smaller font and margins; asking hotel suppliers to reduce excess packaging; and having staff use permanent mugs and cups, rather than disposables. The old furniture and the bed with the bed sheet can be donated to the infirmary institutions for reused and at the same time their CSR increases.
Recycling
Products with minimal packaging can be ordered.
Do grass cycling with the grass from the lawn.
Stop providing disposable mugs for example, buy company mugs.
Buy durable towels, napkins, etc.
Encourage the guests to return the reusable products.
Introduce the waste prevention programme to the guests. (ecogreenhotel, 2009).
2.9.5 . Environmental Management Systems
Environmental management systems (EMSs) provide a framework that can help
organizations incorporate tools such as cleaner production. EMSs involve the achievement of environmental goals through the management of environmental aspects in a consistent way. Environmental goals ,policies ,measurable objectives are set by the organisation and achieved through the control of operations. Waste minimization can be an Environmental Policy and objective set is less than 2% of Solid Waste Generation or Zero Waste
2.9.6 EIA Guide Line For Proposed Coastal Hotel Projects ,July 2004
In 2008, some 44 EIA licences were granted of which 12 (27% ) were issued to land parcelling and 8 (18% ) were provided to coastal hotels and related works
There is an increase of hotel in our coastal region and an EIA is requires under section 15 of the EPA 2002 for the coastal hotels .Under section 3.7 of the EIA guideline ,July 2004 ,for each impact the section should state steps to avoid or reduce it ,for example ,is as follows :Source ,Type ,Generation ,,Collection and disposal of solid wastes
One EIA report for Proposal for the Construction of new Hotel at Tamarin Medine Ltd had been verified and found that that the following statement has been made
Waste generated from the kitchen and accessory services if not properly managed may cause direct impact on the surrounding .Indirect impacts may be caused by proliferation of rats ,insects and emission of bad smell (EIA Report ,2009 -Ministry of Environment and N.D.U.)
2.9.7 Impact Mitigation Measures
Hotels will be committed to appropriately manage its solid wastes. As much as possible ,solid waste wastes will be sorted for its different components. Biodegradable waste will be composted .Other waste will be kept in sealed bins located in the back house prior being carted away by licensed companies .Measures for waste management to be implemented are as follows :
Sort out wastes at source (glass, paper, biodegradable substances ,metals, cans
Compost garden green waste and kitchen waste
Provide special bin for disposal of batteries ,cartridges ,bulbs etc
(EIA report Tamarin Medine Ltd ,2009)
2.9.8 Environment and Health
Waste is unsightly and malodourous, polluting land, air and water, clogging drainage
systems, posing serious public health risks, and restricting potential land use
The burning of garbage releases smoke and hazardous substances. Leachate from the waste can contaminate soil, surface water and groundwater. Mosquitoes that can carry dengue fever as last year this disease recur. Mosquitoes breed in fresh water from accumulated rainfall in cans and bottles .Disease vectors such as mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches and rodents thrive on solid waste
Workers often do not use safety equipment such as facemasks, ear plugs, gloves and
proper footwear, and there is a need for education about health and safety issues
2.9.9. Economic
Waste recycling can reduce waste disposal costs for local authorities by extending the life of landfills, reducing the need to invest in transport vehicles and equipment, reducing vehicle operation and maintenance costs, and reducing fuel consumption for transporting waste Businesses are provided with cheap raw materials. In Mauritius some hotels are used recycle materials such as the plates make of glasses ,chairs, kitchen waste use for composting and used for gardening .Thus the use of recycled materials reduces the need to import raw materials, meaning that less money is spent on foreign currency.
RESEARCH METHODOLOY
3.1 Research Methods
Information was gathered using a variety of methods to gain a better understanding of the situation, issues, perspectives and priorities. The primary data will be obtained by applying the following methods namely Interviews , Site Visit for Observations ,Email of Survey Questionnaires to the selected Hotel
The secondary data will be obtained by reviewing the literature obtaining from the goggle scholar ,University of Mauritius Library Search ,Publications ,,Magazine Articles and Resent News .Some information will also be obtained from the www.lexpress.mu -Newspaper L’Express
3.2 Document and Literature Review
Literature concerning solid waste management in hotel industry was reviewed. Documents were collected from various sources such as universities, industry associations, foreign agencies, government institutions ,AHRIM ,Books ,Magazine Articles ,Publications ,Present News ,research scholar using goggle and statistic office ,Ministry of Environment and National Development Unit ,Ministry Of Local Government ,Solid Waste Unit
3.3Interviews
Interviews will be conducted with the Small ,Medium and Large Hotels , To learn about the Hotel Solid Waste Management (HSWM) program, I will interview staff mainly the Maintenance Manager ,Quality Assurance Manager , Health and Safety Officer ,the Head of Restaurant ,Chef Cook ,Food and Beverage Manager ,Executive Housekeeper from those selected hotel
Successive conversations with the staffs will be helpful for gaining a better understanding of the issues that emerged. An initial set of questions will be prepared as per our Survey Questionnaire Appendix I in advance and additional questions were asked as the interviews will be conducted. This site visit interview will be appropriate for our mini project
According to Tourism Welfare Fund Authority and AHRIM the following hotels are classified as
HOTEL SIZE
ROOM RANGE
NO OF HOTELS FROM LIST
SAMPLE SIZE
SMALL
1-50
61
61
MEDIUM
50 – 100
34
61
LARGE
>100

The Importance Of Sustainability In Hotels

Human activities over the past centuries have affected the earths ecosystem. Today, the negative consequences of human actions can be noticed everywhere. Being one of the larger industries in the world, the hospitality industry is an important contributor to these problems.
In this report, I’ll be focusing on what impacts humans have on the eco-system. Defining what sustainability truly is. How hotels can benefit from practising sustainability and what they could do to be sustainable with references.
Human Impacts on the Planet
To understand the magnitude of human impacts on the environment, economies, cultures and society, we must first understand the contributions of the travel and tourism sectors. Travel and tourism is one of the largest industries in the world, which is responsible for creating jobs, increasing a country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), generating revenue worldwide and many more. It comes with positive and negative effects. “In 2008, there were 922 million international tourist arrivals with tourism receipts of US$944 billion [8].” “It is estimated that the global travel and tourism industry contributed 9.6 per cent of global GDP and 7.9 per cent of worldwide employment in 2008 [9].” Tourism and travel is also a vector of climate change, accounting for approximately 5 per cent of global carbon dioxide emissions.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Our human footprint on earth is disrupting the biogeochemical cycle that has remained unchanged for millions of years. Lavish cities built on deserts irresponsibly waste our limited water supply and fragment habitats. Hotels wasting huge amounts of energy, water and food after being built upon habitats that contain life necessary to the biogeochemical cycle such as photoautotrophs and other primary producers. Excessive amounts of food are both consumed and wasted beyond our human needs. Another consequence of human activity is the changing climate. Human activity has caused increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases, which have led to increases in air and ocean temperatures, and global sea levels.
As our planet’s natural resources become depleted, man is urged to become more responsible in their usage of non-renewable resources and look for other renewable resources either in the form of energy, water or raw materials.
What is Sustainability?
UNWTO’s definition of sustainability is:
Sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development, and a suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability [9].
In simple terms, sustainability means: things can keep going, can sustain themselves, can continue into the future and go on forever. From a human perspective, sustainability for our planet means that it can continue to do what it was designed to do; provide fresh air, clean water, produce food and have a high quality of life. Unsustainability means that it cannot and that is where we are at now.
There are four basic principles to follow to achieve sustainability. These could be seen as the ‘care’ instructions for our planet.
Reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and heavy metals.
Reduce our dependence on synthetic chemicals that persist in nature.
Reduce our destruction of nature.
Ensure we are not stopping people globally on meeting their needs.
Demand for the earth services: air, water and food increases as the population increases and living standards rise. But the earth’s ability to provide these services is declining because of the way we are living. In our search for prosperity, growth and success, we are destroying the system that we as humans are completely dependent on, nature. We humans have become a threat to our own way of life. The earth is a system and everything is connected, society, environment and economy. To live sustainably, we need to follow the four ‘care’ instructions and apply them to everything we do at home and at work.
Sustainable operation in hospitality can be defined as “a hospitality operation that manages its resources in such a way that social, economic and environmental benefits are maximised in order to meet the need of the present generation while protecting and enhancing opportunities for future generations [2].”
Many hotels today have recognised the negative effects their business activities have had on the environment and have taken steps to minimise or prevent those impacts from happening.
Today, the term ‘green hotels’ describes “hotels that achieve to be more environmentally friendly through the efficient use of energy, water, and materials while providing quality services [10].” Green hotels conserve and preserve by saving water, reducing energy use, and reducing solid waste. “They have seen benefits such as reduced costs and liabilities, high return and low-risk investments, increased profits, and positive cash flows [10].” Identifying these benefits and incentives has allowed the popularity of green hotels to grow.
Using the Orchard Garden Hotel, San Francisco, as an example, what is so different about this hotel? Why is it ‘green’? The answer truly is that it’s green from the inside out. The concrete of the basement, and all the walls and floors have recycled contents in them. The carpet backing is 100 per cent recycled. The drapes, the sheets, curtains and bed spreads in the hotel are washable. This is very important because they do not have to use chemicals to keep them clean. The wood that Orchard Garden uses throughout the hotel is actually Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified maple and all the guestroom furniture is made out of that material. The beautiful wood panelling that you could see in the restaurant, lobby and hallway is actually recycled particle board. Another unique feature of the hotel is the key card management control system. Simply by slotting the key in a switch right by the front door in the guestroom will enable all the light switches, air-conditioning and heating. Orchard Garden also encourages their staff to implement green business practices. These are the things that you can truly do and it shows that it does not necessary cost more money to go green. (For more information, refer to case study, page 18)
Why Should Hotels Practise Sustainability?
Hotels, resorts, motels, hostels and other forms of accommodation are the largest sector of the travel and tourism industry, and it has been shown that hotels have the greatest negative impact on the environment compared to other commercial establishments.
Implementing good environmental practices in hotel operations, including using biological resources more sustainably, can result in positive business benefits as well as make an important contribution to biodiversity conservation. Key business benefits include:
Appealing to engaged consumers
Tourists are increasingly motivated by sustainability and contributions to biodiversity conservation, as well as healthier environments and products.
Reducing costs
Good biodiversity practices can actually lower a hotel’s operating costs, by reducing expenses for resource procurement, usage and disposal.
Improving the quality of the destination
Destinations rich in biodiversity are attractive places, appeal to quality customers, and offer scope for biodiversity-based recreational activities.
Improving employee productivity and sense of responsibility to the environment
Employees are often strongly motivated by actions to enhance biodiversity; such motivation helps to increase employee productivity and loyalty, and can reduce staff turnover.
Securing a hotel’s license to operate
Implementing good practices for biodiversity demonstrates that a hotel cares about the environment and runs a responsible business, and can lead to increased support from government, staff and local communities.
Attracting investment from socially responsible investors
Investors want to be sure that their funds are invested in businesses that have good environmental records.
Energy and Water Consumption, and Waste Created in the Hospitality Industry
Hotels are one of the largest consumers of energy, which provide guests with high levels of comfort, services, facilities and amenities.
On average, America’s 47,000 hotels spend $2,196 per available room each year on energy. This represents about 6 per cent of all operating costs. Through a strategic approach to energy efficiency, a 10 per cent reduction in energy consumption would have the same financial effect as increasing the average daily room rate by $0.62 in limited-service hotels and by $1.35 in full-service hotels [2].
Hotels are aware of their costly consumption of non-renewable energy, huge generation of wastes and excessive use of water, and are taking measures to be greener.
“According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, there are 47,000 hotels that spend $2,196 per available room each year on energy which represents about 6 per cent of all operating costs [2].” Utilities make up 20 per cent of the average US hotel’s operating costs – a huge percentage with a major impact on the bottom line and the environment. Inefficient use of lights, heating and air conditioning is one of the major culprits in this waste of resources.
Solid waste generated by hotels comes in many sizes and forms. “Wastes from 25 hotels were examined. The statistics showed that from 1991-1993 the hotel waste consisted of 46% food waste, 25.3% paper, 11.7% cardboard, 6.7% plastics, 5.6% glass, and 4.5% metals [10].” This gives a clear indication of the various forms of waste that a small number of hotels can be produced in a city.
“It is estimated that by 2010, water use will increase to approximately 475 gallons per day for each room in high luxury facilities [10].” This will continue to put more stress on an already stressed environment. The use of water will always be a vital part of the guest’s experience. However, hotels must take the initiative to inform guests of the impacts their actions would have on the environment.
Energy Conservation
Hotels can have large, costly energy requirements, especially in areas for cooling, heating, lighting and others. There are various alternatives and ways to conserve energy such as:
Solar Power
The application of the sun’s rays can be used for natural lighting, heating and capturing electricity through solar panels.
Wind Power
Wind turbines capture the kinetic energy stored in the wind, which is then converted into electricity, very similar to those used in farms.
Hydropower
Hydropower is electrical energy that is generated by using the flow of water through a turbine with a generator.
Geothermal Power
Geothermal power is energy that is gained by heat stored beneath the surface of the earth. Pumps bringing heat from beneath our feet can be used to directly heat hotels and other buildings or used as a source of power that drives steam turbines to produce electricity.
Hotels worldwide are recognising the benefits of energy conservation and are undertaking projects to tap onto these benefits, and doing their part to save the environment. Choices made when purchasing equipment can have a major impact on the hotel’s operating expenses and on the environment; therefore, it is important that efficiency be considered before purchasing energy intensive equipment.
For example, the Solar Valley Micro-E Hotel, Dezhou City, eastern China, is the world’s largest solar-powered hotel. It has thousands of permanent solar panels and solar heat pipe collectors to harvest the energy from the sun, and stores enough energy to sustain 70 per cent of its needs.
The Hyatt Regency International Hotel in New Zealand understood that guests often left appliances and heating and cooling systems on when they were out of their rooms. The hotel developed a project to link energy use with room occupancy. Now when a guest leaves the room, all energy appliances shut down, with the exception of refrigerators, alarm clocks, and other essential appliances. The project costs were $16,000, while the payback period was only 14 months, with savings of $14,000 annually [10].
About 40 per cent of the Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise’s electricity needs are met by wind and hydro electricity. Since 1999, they have been using ‘green power’ derived from sources such as wind, hydro and biomass. They produce little or no greenhouse gas emissions and have minimal environmental impacts.
The Sheraton Auckland Hotel and Towers realised that the daily washing of sheets, towels, flannels, tablecloths, and other linens accounted for 35% of the energy consumed in the laundry process, while drying consumed 65%. The hotel simply changed the temperature of the wash from 85 degrees Celsius to 65 degrees Celsius. This change saved $2,000 in energy costs in the first 3 months alone, and the linens came out just as clean. This project, in addition to reducing energy costs, reduced the use of washing chemicals and decreased pollution of the hotel wastewater. Also, allowing the hotel guests the option of having linens washed every other day rather than daily can significantly assist in energy and water conservation [10].
A hotel can have thousands of individual light bulbs and may use 30 per cent of its total electricity. Lighting is the second largest energy consumption system in a hotel and presents one of the best opportunities for energy savings by doing some simple upgrades. By making upgrades in guest rooms, common areas and behind-the-scenes areas, a hotel can see immediate, consistent savings with no impact on the overall guest experience.
Ways to save electricity:
Replacing traditional incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs can reduce maintenance and cut lighting costs. CFLs last many times longer and use five times lesser energy than a traditional light bulb. “A compact fluorescent light used in place of an incandescent light that is left on continuously for 12 months, all 8,760 hours of the year, will pay for itself in less than one year [10].”
Install motion sensors or key-activating systems in rooms. With such a system the room lights will always be off when unoccupied, without inconveniencing the guest.
When upgrading lighting systems in common areas, consider installing new control systems to manage lighting in large areas. Computerised lighting controls will allow hotel operators to provide the ideal level of lighting based on the time of day, event or situation. This will prevent unnecessarily high lighting levels or unneeded lighting.
Hotels should educate their staff to switch off lights and turn down heating or air-conditioning when rooms are unused. Simple actions like closing the drapes during the summer months can save the hotel money in air-conditioning costs.
Install films on windows, which will lower heating and cooling loads. Window films can also reduce the glare in guestrooms.
Use proper insulation and reflective roof coverings. This can save in heating and cooling costs.
Purchase appliances, which are ‘Energy Star’ certified wherever possible.
In laundry areas, remove old washing machines and replace them with both energy and water conserving models.
Use natural daylight in lobby, bar and restaurant for as much as possible. Consider installing skylights.
Exterior lighting can be used as a design element and can have dramatic effects. However, consider adding timers, which would switch off the lights at times like 3am, when no one is around to impress.
Install solar water heating systems for heated pools. Use covers to cover hot tubs and pools when the areas are closed, this will reduce evaporation.
Exit signs, such as LED, when installed throughout a building can save hundreds or even thousands of dollars in energy and maintenance costs.
Use an energy management system (EMS), which is designed to control the mechanical equipment in the hotel, thereby saving utilities such as gas and electricity. This system determines when air-conditioning or heating can be switched on/off or up/down. As soon as the guest enters the room, his room key card is inserted in a slot behind the door. Electricity for the light and the air-conditioner will now be activated. As soon as the guest leaves the room the utilities will be automatically switched off. The energy consumption of the hotel can be monitored by comparing reports generated by the energy management system and the front office. For example, if occupancy levels are not high the energy consumption should be lower and visa versa.
In kitchens, use smaller convection ovens to replace oversized conventional ovens.
If available, schedule an energy audit with the local energy provider or energy auditor.
Water Conservation
Water conservation is just as important as energy conservation. Fresh clean water is one of the most valuable commodity on earth. Using improved technologies hotels can deliver equal or better services to guests using less water. From a guest’s perspective, the use of water is a vital part of his or her experience. Any water restrictions would result in guests being unhappy and so maintaining adequate water comfort must be central to all water management strategies.
Ways to save water:
Start a linen reuse programme for towels and sheets in all guest rooms. Giving the option to guests to choose whether or not they want to reuse their towels and sheets, which can save huge amounts of water and reduce chemical wastage.
Laundry washers, which use final rinse water for prewashing of the next load of laundry.
Install low-flow showerheads and sink aerators. 2.5 gallons per minute (GPM) showerheads and 1.5 GPM aerators are recommended for water savings and guest satisfaction respectively. The latest generation of sink taps is equipped with infrared sensors that automatically turn off when a person walks away or when the allotted quantity per wash has been delivered.
Install low-flow toilets or toilet-tank fill diverters. “The THC Rotorua Hotel in New Zealand had urinals that flushed automatically every nine minutes. Each flush used 10 liters of water. This added up to 66 litres per hour, regardless of whether the urinals had been used or not. The total consumption for three urinals was 4,740 daily [2].” After realising the huge water cost, the hotel installed detectors that could sense when someone is using the urinals, and allow flushing to occur after being used. This greatly reduced the water usage from 66 litres per hour to 40 litres during the day and 20 litres in the night.
For gardens, watering should take place either early in the morning or later in the day to reduce the possibility of evaporation in hot weather. Switch to drought resistant plants. Replace mowed landscaping with artificial ground cover or native ground cover.
Pool covers will reduce evaporation and have the added advantage of reducing heat loss in cooler climates.
To reduce water use, consider rainwater harvesting and/or a greywater system. Properties investing in fountains and water features should turn off appliances at night and consider the use of greywater.
In kitchens, use a food-thawing machine instead of running water over foods for faster thawing.
Water conservation urges hotels to use improved practices that will reduce and enhance the beneficial use of water, addressing the technical and human side of water management issues. For example,
The Houston-based Green Hotels Association observed water use in the San Antonio-based La Quinta Inn. Through a one-month period, the hotel showed an average of 100 gallons of water being used per guest per billing period. The chain totaled more than a billion gallons in the first nine months in 1996. La Quinta Inn then installed low-flow showerheads and aerating faucets in each room, resulting in a saving of $1.50 per room per month. Replacing all toilets with ultra-flow toilets at a cost of $3,250 showed a payback in 2.1 years and annual water saving of 180,000 gallons per year [10].
Waste Reduction
The hospitality industry creates tons and tons of waste each year due to its mass facilities, amenities and services provided to their guests. To give an indication of the size of waste created,
The European Union produces 1.3 billion tons of waste each year. In other words, 3.5 tons of refuse and liquid or solid waste per European citizen, nearly a third of this food waste for which the food service industry has a responsibility. Another 40 – 45 million tons of this huge mountain of waste is classed as hazardous, or particularly dangerous [2].
In response to current trends, hotel owners and operators are analyzing ways to make changes in operations to cut waste disposal costs, protect the environment and increase guest loyalty. A few proactive hotel corporations have mandated hotel environmental programmes such as water and energy efficiency and more recently, waste reduction and recycling.
Ways to reduce waste:
To increase guest involvement, place recycling instructions in guest rooms and locate recycling collection containers in convenient locations in convention halls and public areas throughout the hotel. Always place a trash container along side of the recycling container in public areas to avoid trash being thrown in the recycling bin.
Buy guest amenity and office products that contain recycled material. Provide amenities such as shower caps, shoe wipes on request.
Shred office paper and use it to package shipments.
Decrease the number of hard copies of documents by establishing a central filing system to store documents.
Use recycled, unbleached and chlorine-free paper products, and try to minimise the amount of paper used by staff and guests. Print with soy-based inks, which are less harmful to the environment.
Purchase vacuum cleaners with reusable bags versus disposables ones.
Reduce the need for pesticide applications in guest rooms and employee work areas by removing food containers, garbage and recycling containers daily; clean employee break rooms daily to remove crumbs and spills; and report cracks around doors and windows to the engineering department for repairs to prevent crawling pests from entering.
Re-dye stained bath towels and washcloths for reuse as pool towels and cleaning cloths. Re-dye linens and carpet to match remodeled decor. Re-dye tablecloths and napkins to match new color schemes when remodeling; reuse worn table linens as cleaning rags or remake into aprons, laundry bags, mattress covers.
Provide reusable items such as cloth napkins, glass cups, ceramic dishes, etc. with all food and beverage services. Just by using glass or plastic coasters can reduce cocktail napkin waste, and by providing mugs for coffee instead of disposable cups can play a large part in conserving the environment.
Purchase refrigerators, freezers, and coolers which are CFC-free.
Donate leftover food to a local non-profit organisation. Consider using a compost bin.
Purchase cleaning products with less hazardous constituents. Use a hazardous chemical containment pan to prevent leaching of unused chemicals.
Donate leftover guest amenities, old furniture and appliances to charities.
Refinish and reupholster damaged and dated furniture.
Use dry, concentrated dishwasher chemicals in dispensers to reduce chemical spills and waste.
Most guests are pleased to see the use of products made from recycled materials, energy efficient light bulbs, low-flow showerheads and recycling programmes in hotels and restaurants that they patronise. Hotel managers report that most guests are willing to participate in the hotel’s recycling efforts.
No matter how well planned the hotel’s waste reduction and recycling initiatives may be, they probably won’t succeed without the support of the hotel department managers and staff. Successful hotel recycling programmes require employee involvement, training and recognition.
Involve all employees in the recycling programme. They are already disposing of waste as they perform their daily jobs. Recycling is simply disposing of job related waste in a different container from the one used for trash. Hotels should seek their ideas in organising the recycling programme and for methods of collecting and storing the materials. Employees are more likely to support a programme that they understand and have helped design.
Case Study
The Orchard Garden Hotel
Location:
466 Bush Street, San Francisco, California 94108
Management Company:
Portfolio Hotels & Resorts, LLC
Number of Guests Rooms:
86 rooms
Awards and Certifications:
San Francisco Green Business
Green Seal Certified – Silver
LEED certified – U.S. Green Building Council
Best Organic Restaurant in San Francisco British Airway’s Tourism
Located in the heart of San Francisco, the Orchard Garden Hotel is near the Financial District, Union Square, and the Chinatown gate. At 10 stories, the 56,000-square-foot building includes 86 guestrooms and a 56-seat restaurant and bar. The hotel opened in 2006, and in 2007, it became the third hotel in the U.S. and the fourth hotel in the world to earn LEED certification from the U.S. Green Building Council.
Among the Orchard Garden’s most innovative features is the key card. After allowing guests into their room, the card becomes a powerful energy-management system. Guests activate the room’s lighting and mechanical systems by inserting the card into a slot near the door. When they leave the room, they remove the card from the box, turning off all systems except for one outlet, which can be used to charge laptops or cell phones. The system, which cost about $37,000 to install, was anticipated to save nearly 20 per cent in energy costs, paying for itself in two years.
Since the building is located in an urban centre, multiple public-transit lines stop within walking distance of the hotel. The hotel also features bicycle stalls for both employees and guests, and employees who cycle to work are welcome to use a guestroom shower.
High levels of insulation reduce sound transmission between rooms while improving energy efficiency. More than 80 per cent of all regularly occupied spaces are day lit, reducing the need for electric lighting, and a roof terrace strengthens visitors’ sense of connection to the natural environment.
The project team selected materials for their recycled content, regional origin, and low chemical emissions. Materials used in the project include concrete made with ‘flyash’ in place of some of the cement, wood certified to Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) standards, and low-emitting carpeting made with recycled content. During the construction process, the project team diverted 77 per cent of all waste, by weight, from the landfill.
The entire hotel is designated tobacco-free. Housekeeping staff use green cleaning products, and all fabrics, selected for their low chemical emissions, are machine-washed to avoid the use of dry-cleaning chemicals. Bins in each room encourage guests to recycle, and the hotel uses recycled paper and soy-based inks for their printed materials. Thanks to these and other strategies, the hotel has been recognised by the San Francisco Green Business Programme and certified according to Green Seal’s standard for lodging properties.
Conclusion
For a hotel to change its traditional ways of operating and to accept sustainability will take time. Being sustainable is not costly and does not really have a slow payback rate. A hotel can start its journey in becoming ‘green’ by implementing simple changes, policies and services such as providing your guests with bicycles, walking maps to encourage them to do something that is more environmentally friendly and healthy. Creating an incentive programme to encourage your staff to participate in and improve upon environmentally friendly practices. Replacing a simple incandescent light bulb with a CFL. Coming up with creative ways to reward hotel guests for being green. One great example is Crowne Plaza Copenhagen Towers “offers a free meal to guests who generate 10 watt hours of electricity on the gym bicycle [12].” These are only a few examples of what hotels could do, while some steps may be small, none are insignificant.
If we can follow the four basic principles (page 4) to achieve sustainability, we can work together to be sustainable. We will all have a better quality of life, we will waste less, we will pollute less and we will create more things we value in society while improving our planet’s chance of providing us with the very things we need to survive.
 

Hilton Hotels Challenges Faced

Hilton Hotel, Reading hotel facilitates a very homely atmosphere which invites people to live in their own houses. It is just four minutes away from Reading’s historical city centre, The Thames River and the renowned shopping centre. This hotel is located on the Kennet Island Development and has walking distance to Madejski Stadium. This hotel is close to the Reading train station. And it hardly takes twenty-five minutes to reach Heathrow airport. This is very convenient for the customers.
Hilton Hotel Reading provides spacious, air-conditioned rooms which have large units. This hotel is decorated and attracts large number of the tourist. It also provides wired and wireless internet access for their customers. They have the latest audio-visual technology. A large customer service desk and comfortable Hilton beds.
Dinner in a fabulous Larder Restaurant, which provides a mixture of domestic and inter-continental dishes which persuades both modern and traditional dishes and finishing the delicious meal with a cocktail in the tranquil bar K.Tone . There is a flattering twenty-four living well health club characterising Living well by precor gym equipment, swimming pool indoor as well as out door, sauna and a dance studio for various fitness classes. Customers can celebrate or have business occasions at the Hilton Reading Hotel which has eight large meeting rooms and a large ballroom which can cater up to four hundred guests.
Literature review:
Hilton hotel Reading is just few minutes away from Reading station and twenty five minutes away from the Heathrow Airport. www.hilton.co.uk/reading. Hilton hotel is a service industry and in the service.
In a service industry customers are of great importance. Without the customers the organisations don’t work. Online banking has become a very important technological development not only for business but also for general public.
Food and beverages of Hilton Hotel is branded and of very good quality. They higher people who perfectionists in their jobs. Their standard is highly maintained. But as it is said nobody is perfect. There are some problems faced by the food and beverages of Hilton hotel Reading. There are some customer complaints for the food and beverages staff of Hilton hotel, reading. Hilton Hotel Reading has an emerging problem and complaints.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

The positive impact of the complaints on the staff
The staffs try their level best to provide best services to customers but due to some mistakes committed by them, customer’s complaint. Customers have full rights to complaint as they are paying for their stay and the facilities. If they are not satisfied about spending their money at good place they have to give feedbacks. The feedbacks of the customers help to analyse the staff performance. The complaint’s of customers helps the hotel to understand that what went wrong and what can be done so that these complaints are not repeated.Nita Umashankar, Raji Srinivasan, and Dustin Hindman Journal of Service Research, May 2011; vol. 14, 2: pp. 164-179. First published on March 7, 2011
Hilton hotel take keen interest in solving the problems of the customers. Customer satisfaction is the basic objective. Hilton Takes the complaints positively and puts in their best so that the mistakes are not repeated again. As per the interview of a manager, who said that if they won’t have complaints how they will proceed? And criticism is very important because they always cannot be perfect. Without having complaints they cannot know about the problems in the staff. They cannot maintain their standard. As per the information the staff has always been trained if there are complaints from the customers. http://www.tripadvisor.co.uk/hilton
www.hilton.com
International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 25, Issue 1, March 2006, Pages 69-90
Osman M. Karatepe
Negative impacts of the complain
Staff of Hilton Hotel reading is highly qualified. They pay keen attention towards satisfying their customers. When there are complaints about their services in food and beverage they feel very bad and loose their self-confidence. They get demotivated. They are afraid to face their managers. In this fear they perform even more badly and sometimes even leave the job out of frustration. There is lot of pressure on them so that they provide good services to the customer in this pressure they make even more mistakes. The staff members are scared of getting fired from their work. They loose their attention and sometimes with this fear even of loosing their job they get stressed. Due to stress they have tensions which lead to illness and low performance at work, absenteeism, less participation at work.
ceo@work911.com
Difference between Complaints and Requests
Requests: Request is when the customer politely orders for a service. For which he/she has paid.
Complaints: Even after requesting a service for which the customer has already paid, doesn’t get a good response then there is a complaint of dissatisfaction. The disappointment to the customer lead them to complaint.
What measures have to be taken by the manager to solve the problem
The staff members get demoralized when they hear about the complaints from their manager. It is very inappropriate to disclose the facts in front of the staff. As per the Manager of Hilton Hotel, Reading the staff has to be tackled carefully because they are the jewels of the company. They cannot be thrown away by the hotel. Instead of that the term diplomacy is brought into practice with the help of which the food staff and beverages staff can be handled. Recruiting is not easy they value their staff and will put full efforts to train them as per the customer requirements.
How can you motivate your employees in a Service industry?
To support your employee he/she have to be given a pay-raise. He must feel vital. Manager should make him understand his significance in the company. In a hotel fabrication which is a service industry customers are very significant. They recruit the best people to hand round customers. “A practical theory of motivation applied to the hotels”
Having meeting, seminars, incentives, motivational trips, get-together planners , organising events. Employees should be given training, education apparatus, minimalism of task and both inherited cerebral and substantial competence.
“Give me enough medals and I’ll win any war”
Napoleon Bonaparte
Darren Lee-Ross (Lecturer in tourism and hospitality management; South Cross University)
Levels of employee motivation
Path of an member of staff actions: It relates to those behaviours which the individual chooses to execute
The level of endeavour: How firm the individual is enthusiastic to work
The level of determination: It refers to the individual’s readiness to follow the behaviour in spite of barriers
Motivation theories
Maslow’s theory
Self Actualisation: achieving the basic goal of a person’s life.
Esteem: The self confidence of the person. Of motivation applied to the hotels
Belongingness/love: Attainment of love from friends, family
Safety: the security of life. Security of employment
Physiological needs: Food, clothing and shelter.
Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor
Theory X
According to theory X, the employees are satisfied with whatever they have. They don’t like to contribute in meetings. The only work for what they are paid and have no interest after their working hours are over. They don’t participate in the business meetings. They obey the boss, if the boss says stand the employees stand if they say sit then they sit. This is a traditional theory. Obey the boss and never speak anything in front of him. Boss is always right. So the employees never bothered to interfere in companies’ matter they were pleased with whatever they get. Employees depend upon the boss to take decisions. And follow the instructions given by them. The boss is very dominating in theory X. And the employee has to follow his instruction or else he/she will be removed from job. So the employees are passive without any interest and happiness to work.
Theory Y
According to theory Y, the employees are not satisfied they crave for more and more. They love to participate in the meetings. The employees are very innovative. They come up with new ideas and share it with the top level management for the progress of the company. They work than hours, they have hunger of success. The employees are very enthusiastic and are always willing to help and participate. Employees love to take responsibilities, they like when the manager shows trust in them. This modern theory where an employee can speak in front of the high authorities. He can share his views unlike theory Y. The boss doesn’t dominate the employees he lets them free and guides them for the responsibility handed over to them. Such employees are bothered about the companies well being. They love to serve for the company. They have great chances of getting promoted because they are very flexible and are very loyal with the business or the company. They are always appreciated by their managers and promoted.
Taylor’s theory of scientific management
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 – 1917) motivating the employee increasing the remuneration of the employee. Workers or employees don’t like working so the managers have to have supervision and split their work. They should be trained properly and should have good environment for working. If the pay scale is increased workers work with enthusiasm.
Mayo’s
Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949) believed that employees are not only concerned about money but about social needs. He considered that workers having feelings and like to be noticed.
Mayo concluded that
Better communication between the employees and employers.
Involvement of the employees in making decision
Working in groups.
http://tutor2u.net/business/gcse/people_motivation_theories.htm
Importance of motivation to an employee
Service industry recruits qualified people. The key of an organisation’s success is its employees. If the employee’s are motivated they work with enthusiasm and that is good for the company’s welfare. So it is very important to motivate employees. If the employees are satisfied, customers will be satisfied. If the customers are satisfied company is satisfied.
Management style being followed at Hilton Group
Hilton Hotel is a part of a very big corporation of Hilton group. It follows civilization of a Multi National Company. The Staffs at the hotel are well qualified and highly experienced employees and from this time forth, the management style being adopted by the managers in the hotel is Laissez-Faire. The manager delegates the work to the staff and he sets the time and responsibility of completing the task success on the employees. The manager keeps on supervise and advising the staff whenever it is required but he himself does not take the decision. This method motivates the employee. The workers here are dedicated towards their work as they find an surroundings where they see their individual and specialized enlargement. The staff here gets more of job and proficient contentment as he not only learns by taking the accountability but has also being salaried when he completes the task on time.
Management Structure theories
The management structure of an organisation can assist or put obstruction in the advancement towards achieving the long term objective. The organisations can attain their business aim by examining their needs and then corresponding them with the suitable management structure. The management structure plays a major role in fascinating the staffs and maintains long term growth. It also helps in getting better the decision making performance. The three main types of management structure are Matrix, Functional and Divisional Structure, (Small Business, 2011).
Functional Structure: This structure is generally formed by considering the purpose of each part of organisation and then groups them accordingly. In this type of structure, for example, there could be a marketing department, a food and services department, home services, Security, etc. This structure is good when the organisation is smaller in size, as the department will be able to rely on the experience and knowledge of its staff and will be able to support itself. But, the disadvantage of functional management structure is that, the harmonization and communiqué between different section can become difficult and thus leading to miscommunication or trouble when more than one department is involved in completing the task, (Small Business, 2011-04-29).
Divisional Structure:
Generally, the organisations which are overweight in size and operate at different locations or they have separate organisations but beneath one umbrella group to handle diverse market areas, use this type of management structure. In case of warmth industry, like we have taken Hilton Hotel, which has a variety of twigs at diverse location, they can’t rely on central office for every decision. In this case, each hotel follows their own strategies, as each of them may be administrating in different business marketplace and may be facing different confront. The prevalent advantage of this arrangement is that, the decisions are made quickly and are more detailed towards the needs of that particular hotel. But, the difficulty is the statement is self-conscious as the employees of different divisions are not working together, (Small Business, 2011).
Matrix Structure: This type of management structure is a mix of both functional and divisional structure. This is generally used in multinational companies or organisations which has presence in various part of globe. This structure allows the advantages of functional as well as divisional structure. But the biggest drawback here is that, it creates power struggle as most of the areas of organisation has dual management. The functional manager and the divisional manager at a time holding same area thus causing confusion and tensions at times, (Small Business, 2011).
Management Structure in Hilton Reading Hotel
Hilton Hotel, Reading is a part of ” Hilton HOTELS” group which has process in around 90 nation. Being part of such a big corporation, it was classically not possible for the top executives to design a functional or matrix management structure. Henceforth, they chose the Divisional management structure to give liberty to each of the hotels in force at different geological locations and also to make decision making procedure easier. The Hilton Hotel thus follows divisional management structure where each hotel is accountable for its business. This has given more sovereignty to the managers in taking the decisions based on the ground and day today state of affairs. This has also kept the staff and the mangers at the hotel level more work acquaint you with and stimulated towards the task.
Globalization and its effects on Hospitality Industry
Globalization leads to more reciprocally supporting world financial system and thus it becomes a major driving factor in the hospitality and tourism industry. The people of one nation itinerant to other parts of the world and vice versa have given a chance for the hotel industry to tap this occasion. Cultural diversity is one of the belongings of the globalization. And bearing in mind various chances which have come due to globalization, management has become aware of this occurrence while deciding the intended plans for their corporation. It’s the effect of globalization only, that you can get any continental food in any benchmark hotel. It’s easier to find diverse varieties of foods while visiting a hotel these days than it was few years ago. Now the industry has adopted itself and has developed its business as well which not only comprise the forces and products but the organisation as a whole, which further consists of management and the labour force.
Benefits to Hotel Industry
Globalization has benefitted the hotel industry. The customers are from different countries coming and living in Hilton. Globalization has developed relationships with the customers globally.
Methodology:
In order to obtain sufficient amount of information about Hilton Reading hospitality and service industry number of methods have to be followed. There are two methods which relate to the research methodology which are as follows:-
Primary search :
The primary research consists of personal interviews and questionnaires. There was a questionnaire conducted and the detailed information of the interview is as follows:
Male customers 56% and female customers 44%
Ages of the customers was from
20-25 years of age 10%
25-40 years of age 60%
40 and above years of age 30% and the rest age group people are not extraverts.
Businessman 60% , Retired 20% , Professional 20%
Have you ever been to Hilton Reading? Yes____ No____
How was your experience? Good____ Bad____ Don’t know____
If your experience was good then please give the reason to it…………….
If your experience was bad then please give a reason to it…………
Will ever go back to Hilton for a stay? Yes____ No____
If yes please give the reason for the stay………..
If no please give the reason for not staying…………..
Will you recommend your friend to Hilton Reading? Yes____No____
How many stars will give to the staff of Reading Hilton? ___%
Do you have any complaints about the hotel? yes___ No____
If you have any complaints please fill in the complaints……………
How was the food of Hilton Reading? Good____ Bad____ Don’t know___
How well maintained is the Hilton Building is? Good____ Bad___ Don’t know____
How much will you grade for cleanliness? Good____ Bad ____ Don’t know___
Did you feel like home? Yes___ No___
How comfortable where the beds? Good___ Bad___ Don’t know____
How was the staff behaviour at Hilton Reading? Good ___Bad ___ Don’t know__
Did you find the staff friendly? Yes___ no ___
2) Secondary search:
The secondary research was conducted as to support the primary research. The research or investigation also depends on resources which were drawn from published materials such as prior studies, e-journals, bank reports and websites.
Time Table of work
Duration
Steps taken
Week 1
Reading the topic and understanding what is necessary.
Week 2-3
Choosing the topic and sending the proposal
Week 4-5
Aim of the study and objectives of the company
Week 6
Literature review, methodology data collection
Week 7
Analysing the data collected.
Week 8
Rough draft of assignment and corrections made by the lecturer.
Week 9
Correcting mistakes and Final submission.
Conclusion
The complaints of the customers have both negative effects and positive effects on the employees or staff members. The positive effects to company is they will be able to correct their mistakes. But it is not good to have customer complaints it ruin the brand image of the company. People think ten times before going to the hotel. If there are complaints the hotel industry has to pay attention and give proper reply to their complaints. They should be instant. Hilton hotel has to maintain its standard by reducing the complaints. Due to complaints hotel loose their loyalty with the customers. In order for customers to be loyal they have to minimise their complaints. When a customer files a complaint the employers have to be very careful about discussing it with the staff. This can demoralize the staff. Managers/ employers have to be very careful in dealing with employees. He should motivate them to do better. He should find out why the employee made a mistake and such a mistake that the customer had to complaint about it. Food and beverages have to be of high standard. If any mistakes in these areas the customers can sue the company. The issue is about handling the positive and negative aspects of complaints on the employees. It is very much known to the employer and if the problem of de-motivation arises the employees loose their self confidence and keep repeating their mistakes. And sometimes they even leave the job. This can cost a fortune to the company if their entire employee keeps leaving the job. The manager has to be polite enough and not aggressive. He should train the employees again and start give awards to the employees who work will. In Hilton Reading this procedure has been followed. As per the interview of an employee it was said that Hilton has always been good to their employees. They have been faithful and have always realised their importance. Recruiting and training is not an easy task. So the old employees already know the welfare and standard of the company Hilton doesn’t want to loose their employees. So to conclude the manager should keep things calm and be tactful and make the employees work well under their guidance.
Recommendation
After study and investigate on the guidance and organization styles and its arrangement, following proposal has been not compulsory:
The Hotel management needs to be supportive towards the employees.
The employees should be given a chance to interact often with the management to reduce the miscommunication.
The consumers should be given more educational varied surroundings, to make their stay more relaxing and give them comfortable feeling.
 

Business Analytics and its Influence on Accor Hotels Brand

Introduction

Some form of analytics is known since the beginning of times. Its first usage was noted thousands of years ago where prehistoric tribespeople would place marks into wooden sticks and bones to keep track of trading activities. They would then compare these sticks to carry out rudimental calculations, enabling them to predict how long their food supplies would last (Cooper, 2012). Analytics has been used throughout centuries in various ways. However, lately due to rapid development of technology analytics has reshaped the face of business.

A tremendous amount of content generated by consumers by social media just as by any other means continues to grow and impact the hospitality industry

 (Dumbill, 2013). The job of so-called business analytics is to analyses external as well as internal content, pick out useful information in such a way that it will help the business to make more informed decisions (Tetlock, Saar-Tsechansky and Macskassy, 2007).

This proposal will examine how Big data, and analytics has developed in past centuries as well as an attempt will be made to gain insight of how crucial analytics is for businesses of 21st century in relation to the guess experience. This piece of work will start with Aims and Objectives of the proposal followed by Literature Review which will focus on gaining insight of constantly changing face of analytics and its influence on the world of business. With this done, the proposal will move onwards to talk about the methodology of the project as well as ethical aspects of the study will be considered.

Aims

The aim of this dissertation is to asses the influence of analytics on hospitality Industry, especially the hotels.

Objectives

1.  To Identify the key benefits analytics might bring to ‘The Guess Experience’ In relation to AccorHotels Brand

2.   To Evaluate whether Big Data gathered by AccorHotels is influential enough to improve the business model.

3.  To Measure the role that data analytics has played in the success of AccorHotels brand.

4. To Test if customer satisfaction can be influenced if a business knows more about a customer in advance.

Literature Review

Business analytics starts with a ‘dataset’ which is a simple collection of information.  In this instance, it can be anything from information about people, location to complex calculations (Bartlett, 2013). These datasets are stored in a Database which must be stored somewhere once it grows too big to be stored on a local computer (Bartlett, 2013). From this point onwards newly, developed technologies are used such as ‘computer clouds’ which is a hardware that stores all the data and allows remote access when needed and ‘Data warehousing’ which Is a collection of a variety of databases ready for analysis to pick out information that matter (Negash,2004).With Rapid development of business analytics and access to nearly unlimited amounts of data, data warehouses have grown so big with data sets being so large and complex that a new term was introduced to describe them, known as: Big data,a term which is gaining a lot of popularity due to its rapid growth and importance. Data within the big data is so big that software systems are hardly able to process these data sets at all (Isson and Harriott, 2013).  Isson and Harriott (2013, p. 61) also mentions term little data which according to them is everything else that is not labelled as big data. These types of data describe smaller datasets which help businesses to keep track of their customers and their buying habits or whatever else might be of interest for a given business type. In simple words, Analytics is a process of finding useful information within large date sets that are very likely to have a lot of data which is not going to be used. (Stubbs, 2011).

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Analytics, business analytics and business intelligence are the three terms in business literature that are often related to one another. Analytics itself, can be definite as a process which involved the use of various techniques such as visualization graphs, data mining and programming to explore, visualize and discover trends and patterns which help to make informed decisions for a business (Stubbs, 2011). An easy example of the use of analytics in a hospitality industry would be knowing preferences of regular hotel guests. For example: Preference of a high floor quiet room, or a room near a gym etc.

There are different types of analytics and these need to be organized to understand their uses. The Institute of Operations Research and Management Sciences suggest for grouping these types of analytics into three types presented below:

Table 1.1 Types of Analytics

Types of Analytics

Definition

 

 

 

Descriptive

Predictive

 

 

Prescriptive

The use of simple statistical methods that describe the dataset. For example: An age bar chart which visualises the age of hotel guests based on the day of the week.

An application of statistical software which identifies predictive variables and then uses them to build advanced models which are likely to identify terns and relationships amongst the data

An application of decision models to make the best use of allocable resources. For example: A small business might have limited advertising budget to target customers. Linear programming models can be used to optimally allocate the budget to various advertising media.

(Reference)

Table 1.2 represents the purpose and mythologies for each type of analytic mentioned above. Table 1.2 also presents the difference between analytics and business analytics. Whilst the first one is strictly focused on generating useful information from large data sets, business analytics goes a step further and leverages analytics to create a competitive advantage over other businesses using the data. (reference)

1.2 Analytics and its purpose

Types of Analytics

Purpose

 

Examples of Methodologies

 

Descriptive

Predictive

 

 

Prescriptive

To identify trends in high volume databases.

To build models which will predict and identify coming tendencies

To allocate available resources in best possible way but also to make prepare for coming tendencies.

Descriptive statistics such as mean, median and mode. As well as, measures such as standard deviation.

Statistical methods such as multiple regression and ANOVA.

Operations research methodologies

(reference)

Business Intelligence is a collection of various procedures and technologies which picks out and transforms relevant data into something useful for organizations. Whilst some say that business intelligence is a broad subject that included analytics and business analytics (Negash, 2004). Others say that it mainly focuses on collecting, storing and exploring businesses for information useful to decision-making and planning (Negash, 2004). BI seeks to answer questions such as what is happening at the moment and where, but it also goes further and helps to decide what actions should be undertaken based on prior experience. Business Analytics (BA) on the other hand, can answer question such as why something is happening and what will happen next.  Summarizing the general idea behind types of analysis BA includes reporting results just like BI but it seeks further to explain why these results have occurred.

1.3 The Characteristics of different types of analytics

Characteristics

Analytics

Business Analytics

Business Intelligence

Uses descriptive analytics as a main source of analysis

Uses predictive analytics as a main source of analytics

Uses prescriptive analytics as a main source of analysis

Mixture of all types of analytics

Business oriented

Focuses on sustaining the data

Requires focus of improving business value and performance

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Maybe

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No (Only historically)

No (Only Historically)

No

Yes

Yes

No

 

 

 

 

(reference)

All the data types mentioned above are used in every industry including hospitality, each of the types has uses in different situations. Especially in 2019 where Social Media has experienced a rapid growth. In 2004 Facebook was at the top of social networks with over 1 million users, by 2011 its population was being compared to that of a country and today its population is counted in billions. With other social medias just as close. All the status updates, pictures and video added by people on their social media becomes public information, including their demographics, likes and dislikes and so on. This information can then be analyzed in many ways. For example, social media data can be analyzed to reveal the proportion of social media users that enjoy a meal at a time of the day depending on location. This type of data could be used for any business in hospitality sector. For example, an international restaurant might offer different menus in different regions based on these findings. (Whitler, 2018). The colossal growth of social media and content generated by consumers has played a major role in the development of analytics as without content there would be nothing to analyze.

Studying data from social media and other content that is user generated has attracted a lot of attention in the field of analytics for the value that it has. For example, research has demonstrated that online reviews are used to predict product quality (Oh, 1999). Furthermore, it has been found that online news postings have enough of linguistic content that it can effectively predict a firms earnings and stock returns (Bae, 2016).Recently, Ghose and Ipeirotis has used consumer generated content and reviewer characteristics to calculate the usefulness the economic impact of online hotel product reviews. Furthermore, Abraha’s et al has developed a technique to detect vehicle defects using end user discussion forums. Moreover, it has been proved that product development systems can be developed based on mining of consumer generated content in combination with other external data (Paksoy, Özceylan and Weber, 2012).

Kimberly Whitler from Forbes magazine has recently interviewed Wes Nichols the former CEO of Market Share. During the interview Kimberly has asked Wes Nichols to describe the changes that introduction of analytics has brought to businesses. According to Wes Nichols the biggest change has occurred in analytics being a ‘nice to have’ a decade ago to be a ‘must have’ in todays market. Whilst years ago, firms have used analytics in a way which was tangential whilst now it’s a firm’s core strategy for further development (Lewis, 1985). Whilst before, analytics didn’t really matter now businesses that don’t develop a competency in analytics are more than likely to lose their market share to those firms that do. According to statistics (Whitler, 2018). There is currently more devices connected to internet than there are users which is creating enormous amount of data available just waiting to be harnessed by firms, and the ones that do it first will gain the most.

In Hospitality industry businesses use analytics in a variety of situations. In hotel industry, predictive analytics helps to create an individual image of a customer which can help a hotel to tail its services to meet the needs of the individual. Providing person specific services helps to improve guess experience as well as business revenue at the same time (Leavitt, 2013).

According to the research, predictive analytics can be used in any area of hotel operations. Analytics is useful in any art of the business with perishable inventory but also where there is a difference between when the purchase is made and consumed which describes a wide range of services such as restaurants, rooms, spas, conference rooms and so on (Gray and Pauwels, 2016).

Large Hotel brands such as AccorHotels which operates in over 100 countries, with more than 4,200 hotels, over 250,000 employees and is operating in 26 different segments of hotel market gathers so much information on daily bases, that when used correctly can give a huge competitive advantage. For example, if these is a guess in one of the hotels in Germany with very specific requirements such as specific type of pillow, when visiting a different hotel later, this type of information can be used to prepare the room in advance according to the persons needs making it beneficial for both the customer and the company. Nevertheless, such a hotel brands can use predictive analytics to promote a specific range of additional services depending on various factors such as time of the year, the type of concert that is being held nearby and many more (Gray and Pauwels, 2016). Hotels that utilize the data and have the knowledge of knowing who will visit hotel in certain moment in time and have knowledge of their demographics, likes and interest can effectively predict how to promote their additional services suitably as well as adjust the price to match the customer type.

With all the benefits that analytics bring to businesses also comes the difficulties, one of the biggest challenges that business in hospitality industry face are silos. The Silo mentality is a mindset where individual departments do not wish to share information with others in the same company (Forsten-Astikainen and Heilmann, 2014). An example of this on a large scale would be one of the hotels in the AccorBrand not sharing information with another hotel of the same brand for any reason which might work in the benefit of the hotel itself but against a common interest of the brand. As mentioned above, the hospitality sector industry has access to large amount of data. However, historically there has been a lack of co-ordination amongst hotels within the same group chain as they are more likely to compete against each other rather than help one another.

Methodology

Data collection

As the project is still on the way, methods of data collection are still likely to change. However, various data collection methods are considered. For example, one of the very likely scenarios is the use of Expedia.com which was chosen because it is one of the largest online travel agencies with more than 16 Million monthly visitors. Furthermore, expedia.com is a good source for review analysis as a user is obligated to make at least one transaction through the website to be allowed to write the review which heavily eliminates bias data. Others form of analysis will include interviews conducted with the management team of various hotels as well as first-hand experiences of an employees. Besides, this study will have access to some of the internal data from certain hotels which has already been granted.

Method of analysis

As part of Data analysis will include raw data in form of text, several steps will have to be included in the analysis. These would be: preprocessing, of the data, classification of the data, statistical analysis, as well data visualization and conducting interviews. The first two steps of analysis mentioned above are crucial to establish the validity of the data, as uncleaned data would possibly give incorrect results of the analysis itself. Additional methods of preventing corruption of the data will include misspelling correction. The aim of identification will be to classify guess experience related words as well as non-guess.

Limitations

One of the limitations of this study might be the complexity of the guest experience, as everyone has different values and believes which could have an affect on individual expectations of a guess. Furthermore, as the study will involve external sources which in this case will be guest view as well as internal data from the managers perspective it has been proven that there is a difference among what managers believe to be important and what guests believe is important in selection and evaluation of accommodation. (Reference 5)

Ethics

All the data used in this dissertation, will be used from sources which are accessible for public. Furthermore, the participants of interviews will take part completely voluntary, individuals will be informed about possibility to eave or withdraw from the interview at any time, if an individual will wish he will remain anonymous for the rest of the project. Furthermore, nobody will be harmed during the analysis as well as no private data will be released without permission.

References

Cooper, A. (2012). Analytics Series. 1st ed. Bolton: The University of Bolton.

Tetlock, P., Saar-Tsechansky, M. and Macskassy, S. (2007). More than Words: Quantifying Language to Measure Firms’ Fundamentals. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Dumbill, E. (2013). A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think: An Interview with the Authors of Big Data. Big Data, 1(2), pp.73-77.Dumbill, E. (2013). A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think: An Interview with the Authors of Big Data. Big Data,

Bartlett, R. (2013) A Practitioner’s Guide to Business Analytics . McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Negash, S. (2004) “Business Intelligence.” Communications of the Association of Information Systems

Isson, J.P., Harriott, J.S. (2013) Win with Advanced Business Analytics . John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

Stubbs, E. (2011) The Value of Business Analytics . John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

Whitler, K. (2018). Are You Ready For The New Data And Analytics World Order?. [online] Forbes.com. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/kimberlywhitler/2017/08/17/are-you-ready-for-the-new-data-and-analytics-world-order/#41582c02418c [Accessed 15 May 2019].

Oh, H. (1999). Service quality, customer satisfaction, and customer value: A holistic perspective. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 18(1), pp.67-82.

Bae, S. (2016). An examination of motivation, satisfaction, attachment, and loyalty using structural equation modeling. International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 30(4).

Ghose, A. and Ipeirotis, P. (2011). Estimating the Helpfulness and Economic Impact of Product Reviews: Mining Text and Reviewer Characteristics. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering.

Lewis, R. (1985). Predicting Hotel Choice. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly.

Abrahams, A., Jiao, J., Wang, G. and Fan, W. (2012). Vehicle defect discovery from social media. Decision Support Systems.

Paksoy, T., Özceylan, E. and Weber, G. (2012). Profit oriented supply chain network optimization. Central European Journal of Operations Research, 21(2).

Leavitt, N. (2013). Bringing big analytics to the masses. Computer, 46(1).

Gray, K. and Pauwels, K. (2016). Data, Analytics and Decisions: How thinking like a scientist can help you make better decisions. Research World, 2016(56).

Forsten-Astikainen, R. and Heilmann, P. (2014). Breaking Down Organizational Silos – Competences and Courage. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2014(1).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

Analysing Recruitment Strategies of Brunt Hotels

Brunt Hotels, owns more than 30 hotels throughout the United Kingdom. They recently acquired a small hotel chain headquartered in France. Brunt’s chief executive decided that half of the new hotels in France would be retained and rebranded as part of the Brunt Hotels Group. The other half will be sold. This will support Brunt’s strategic objective of growing the organization slowly to make sure that new ventures are well supported and opened on time and on budget.
The organization has decided to use an ethnocentric approach and send some of their existing UK-based managers to France to lead the changeover of the new hotels and then manage them after they re-open. If this new overseas venture is successful, Brunt may decide to acquire other small hotel groups in other European countries.
The organization has never owned hotels outside the UK before, and has hired a team of independent management consultants to advise them on how to proceed. The hotel management asked you if they should look only internal candidates who are parent country nationals or recruit host country nationals.
The point of a recruitment and selection procedure is to make sure that the best and most suitable candidate is recognized and recruited. The aim of the recruitment and selection procedure is to provide a structure for managing recruitment and selection inside the workplace, in a professional, efficient and fair way, ensuring that the best possible candidate will be selected for the job. This structure will further ensure that no unlawful discrimination occurs throughout the recruitment and selection process and that equality of opportunity is an essential part of the procedure. Any recruitment of family, friends or close associates must be confirmed and reviewed through the appropriate procedures. There should be a methodical and reliable search process and the selection process should be valid. Integrity must be given consideration in recruitment and promotion of employees. Ethics is a bottom-line matter in how managers carry out their responsibilities and how they will train, reward and promote the best employees. Those employees will, in turn, assist to ensure that the company has the most effective and efficient work force promising to achieve its business goals.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

In our case, the organization has decided to use an ethnocentric approach and send some of their already existing managers from the UK to France to lead the new hotels and manage them after the re-open. However, the hotel management should hire new employees from the host country in order to complete all the positions in the hotel. The organization as for the recruitment of the new workforce will have to think about several factors concerning ethical and legal obligations. An ethical dilemma arises in our situation and this dilemma is: to send employees from the UK or to keep the previous employees of the hotel or to hire new employees and if they keep or hire employees, will be the appropriate ones. To send managers from UK to lead the hotels is not completely wrong, because they already know the philosophy of the organization but is unethical as for the previous employees of the hotels who will probably lose their jobs. Under “The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act 1986” every employee must have the same opportunity for the job. If the management wishes to keep the ethical procedures, the best solution is to follow the recruitment procedures as for the new staff and interview the previous ones and after the selection of the best qualified persons to send them for a short period to UK to work in the belonging hotels. With this process the new employees will be introduced to the organizations philosophy and policies which will assist after to a better communication with the managers from UK. This approach will also help the managers to maintain confidence and trust among the new employees.
The management has also to consider and to prevent some other ethical and legal issues that might arise. Such issues are:

Sex discrimination which anyone can face in the workplace should be prevented. Management in recruitment procedures should be free of prejudice and discrimination because all have the same human rights and opportunities.
Racial harassment is a very common unethical issue in the workplace and has to do with any verbal or physical act which is based on a person’s color, physical characteristics, country of origin and nationality. Management should not influenced from all these and should treat to all the candidates equal.
The hiring, training or promoting candidates based on favoritism should be prevented because friendships and relatives are the ones who cause managers the most problems.
Equity and Justice: employees should be treated fairly from the management and not abused or exploited. Justice is concerned with preventing the abuse of power.
Respect for People: employees should be treated within the workplace as individuals with rights to be pleased and defended. Respect empowers others to assert their rights and to attain their potential.

The Code of Conduct is based on ethics, values and behaviors outlined in the Code of Ethics which consists of policies, rules that identify the specific actions or procedures appropriate to employees for a range of specific ethical issues. The objectives of the Code are to: assist staff in dealing with ethical issues in ways that reflect the values and standards, provide staff with guidance in ethically unclear situations and encourage staff to do the right think.
Appraise the value of the selection interview and the interview techniques
The purpose of interview provides the opportunity for two-way communication and interaction to determine fit between candidate and employer. By the interview the first impression is made and the impression is based on personal appearance, articulation, eye contact, personality and handshake.
Interviews are a vital element of the recruitment process for almost all the organizations. Their principle is to give the selector an opportunity to assess the candidates and to reveal their abilities and personality. The interview gives the employer the opportunity to assess them and to make sure that the organization and the job are right for the candidate. Interview structure improves the reliability and validity of the selection interview and entails standardization of processes, including question selection and response evaluation.
The selection process for the majority of organizations follows a common subject: Application and CVs are received and candidates are short-listed and invited for interview. The interview format can vary and may contain an assessment centre or tests. Some companies are satisfied after one interview, while others will want to recollect additional shortlist of applicants for more. In case that the interview is successful at the final stage, an official job offer is sent to candidate, the interview format is usually determined by the nature of the company, but there are various standard formats. Employers can avoid hiring mistakes by spending a little more time preparing for the interview in advance. The process of selecting the correct person for the right position through an interview should be followed by several standardized procedures:

Pre interview preparation is the first step and concerns the preparation of the interviewer as for the job requirements and what are the required skills for the position. The interviewer should also have company information available for the candidates and detailed information about the candidates. Review applications in advance to be familiar with the applicant’s background and to recognize gaps in the information or areas which need special attention. Applications include personal data such as: age, family status etc. and candidate’s qualifications such as: experiences, languages, diplomas etc.
During the interview, the interviewer has the first contact with the candidate and makes the first impression. He should give details for the organization, and give a general description of the job. At this point, the candidate should have enough information to make a opening determination as to whether he/she is interested in the job. Throughout the interview, the interviewer ask questions that are broad, open-ended, objective, job-related, clear, direct, , meaningful, understood and related to gather as more information from the candidate as possible. He should use questions to force the applicant to tell him what he needs to know to compare the applicant to his ideal applicant profile. Ask for examples whenever appropriate. The interviewer should be open and honest and tell the candidate what to expect in the hiring process. The interviewer should tell to the candidates what the company’s expectations are as for the duties, experience expected, career advancement etc and show them where they would fit into the company.
The next step for the interviewer is to insure that a common ground have concluded with the candidate. Ask the candidate if he/she has any questions and at the end of the interview be friendly and honest and inform him/her if you are interested and give special attention to not give false encouragement.
After the interview the interviewer should take time to add details to his notes while the information is still fresh and to prepare the information for the next candidate.
The last step is to discuss the candidates’ reactions and answers and rate them as potential employees. The interviewer should make a decision by comparing applicants to his ideal applicant profile. Communicate your decision to the selected applicant as well as to those who are not selected.

By following this process, the interviewer can decide more easily which of the candidates are the most suitable for the job.
There are several techniques that the interviewer can use which will help him to get as more information as possible:

Closed questions: A closed question can be answered with a single word or a short phrase as well as with a yes or no. closed questions gives you fact, they are easy and quick to answer and help the interviewer to keep the control of the conversation. For example: ‘How old are you?’,’ Do you have previous experience in the hospitality industry?’, ‘Where do you live?’
Open questions: An open question is probable to receive a long answer. These questions require from a person to reflect on upon, a particular point in his own way. For example: ‘What you did in your last position?’, ‘Why I should consider you for this position?’
Probing questions: ask for more detailed and specific explanations of a candidates work experience, knowledge, skills and competencies. Probing questions are, in essence, follow up questions that ask for further information, ask for the person expand on what she has said, or request the person to go deeper. Probing questions can be helpful in increasing understanding, while a great number of people need to be encouraged to go beyond what they have said to help someone understand their deeper feelings and opinions.
Play-back questions: checks if the interviewers have understood of what a candidate has said by playing back.
Hypothetical questions: putting a hypothetical situation to candidates and asking how they would response.

Advantages of an interview
Top Management
Middle Management
Office / Administrative

The interview enables a face-to-face meet to take place which will help the interviewer to make an evaluation of how the candidate might fit in the organization and what they would be like to work with.
The interviewer can describe the job and the organization by providing the candidate more detailed information.
Give the interviewer the opportunity to ask probing questions about the candidate’s experience, knowledge, skills and competencies.
Provide the candidates the opportunity to ask his/her questions about the position and clarify issues.
More than one interviewer can assess the candidates, if it is necessary.

Disadvantages of an interview

The interview process relies on the skills and the abilities of the interviewer to make the interview successful but usually many people do not have the abilities needed for interviewing.
There is a possibility that the interviewer will not succeed to assess directly competence in carrying out the several tasks that are included for the position.
fter the end of the interview, the interviewer can be lead to subjective judgments.

Assess the different interview types
There are various different types of interviews. An interviewer should has a familiarity with one or more of the situations described below. When an interviewer schedules an interview, he should try to get as much information about the candidate who will be meeting. It is unusual to have only one interview prior to a job offer. Most employers will evaluate a candidate many times to be sure that the possible employee will fit into the company culture.
Face-to-Face Interview

The mass of the interviews are face-to-face and the most common is a one-on-one conversation.
The candidate should pay great attention to the person who asking questions and keep an eye contact, listen and respond once a question has been asked.
The candidate should aim to establish a link with the interviewer and show him that his/her qualifications will help the company.

Panel/Committee Interview

In this type of interview is more than one interviewer may perform in this part of the selection process. This is the chance for the candidate to put his/her presentation skills on display.
In these pre designed standard questions ranging overall aspects of the job are asked. They focus directly on elements of person specification.
The candidate the time that his is responding to a question should keep eye contact with the panel member who asked the question.

Behavioral Interview

This type of interview concerns the past behavior of the candidate and is the best predictor of your future actions. These kinds of questions may be asked in any interview: panel, one-on-one, telephone.
If the interviewer asks behavior-oriented questions, he is no longer asking hypothetical questions but the behavior-oriented questions must be answered based on facts.
Through a behavioral question, the interviewer is looking for results, not just an activity list. He is listening for names, places, dates, results and especially what the candidate’s role was in achieving that result.

Case Interview

In several interviews the interviewer may ask from the candidate to demonstrate his problem-solving skills. The interviewer will outline a situation or provide the candidate with a case study and ask him to prepare a plan that deals with the problem.
The interviewers are looking for how the candidate applies his knowledge and skills to a real-life situation.
The candidate before answer the case interview question should prepare himself to ask the interviewer many questions for informational purposes
The more the candidate is able to analyze and divide the case study, the more he will likely impress his interviewer.

Telephone Interview

Many companies conduct interviews through telephone to narrow a field of candidates. Telephone interviews may also be used as a pre- interview for candidates who live far away from the job site.
In this kind of interview is important for the candidate to treat as he/she would in a face-to-face connection.
The candidate should be focused on the conversation and listen to the questions carefully before he answers.

Group Interview

A group interview is planned to expose the leadership potential of prospective managers and employees who will be dealing with customers.
The preferred applicants are gathered together in an informal, discussion type interview. A topic is introduced and the interviewer will start off the discussion.
The aim of the group interview is to see how the candidate interact with others and how he/she use his/her knowledge to influence others.

Lunch/Dinner Interview

The same rules apply at a meal as those in an office.
The candidates can use the interview to develop common ground with his/her interviewer.

Stress Interview

In this interview the interviewer deliberately creates stress to see how an applicant operates in stress situation. The stress interview is usually an on purpose attempt to see how the candidate handles him/herself under pressure.
The interviewer may be argumentative or sarcastic, or may keep you waiting. The candidate must calmly answer each question.
The interviewer may also to stay silent during the questioning and this may be an attempt to unnerve the candidate.

 

Value Chain of Hilton and Marriott Hotels

Im writing this assignment to give a complete idea about the business model of Value Chain and how can be applied into the hospitality industry which is a modern industry in fast growth with many challenges.
In fact hospitality is something started about 100 years ago and is in constant progress. This business model will help us to understand how value can be added to a company in order to involve more customers interested in a touristic products and generate more revenue. In the first part I will introduce the Value chain and its activities followed from cost advantage, differentiation and how important is the technology. After small description of two hospitality worldwide company I’m going to apply the value chain to the hotel industry to understand how takes action in the hotels with some example and comparison between the two company and how is evolving the idea of “add value”.
Value Chain – Definition and its components
According to Wright (2004), Value Chain is a traditional manner of departmentalising stages of the business process. The value chain highlights the importance of the operational manager being involved in all aspects of the process, from suppliers right trough the customer. With the value chain approach functional boundaries are ignored and in many organisations its now accepted that the operations manager has to control the whole process from buying in goods and services to the final stage of satisfying the customer. Marketing, accounting, human resources are not showing up in the value chain, but the operational manager has to be interesting and to be involved in these internal functions of the organisation as well. (Wright and Race 2004)
Information technology is changing the way companies operates.
According to Porter (1985), cost leadership and product differentiation can be pursued simultaneously only under rare conditions.
If organisations are to achieve competitive advantage by delivering value to customers, managers need to understand which activities the undertake are especially important in creating that value and which are not (Johnson et all 2008) . The value chain concept is important to understand this describing the categories of activities within and around an organisation, which together create a product or service”. The concept was developed by Michael Porter with his book “competitive advantage 1985” where the idea of value chain is based on the processe view of organisations, the idea of seeing a manufacturing or service organisation as system, made up of subsystems each with inputs, transformation process and outputs which involve the acquisition and consumption of resources (money, equipment, labour, land, buildings, management and administration).
The primary value chain activities are:

Logistics/ Inbound:the distribution of manufacturing after the raw materials are received and warehoused.
Operations: the transformation process of inputs into services and finish products.
Logistics/ Outbound: The warehousing and distribution of the finished goods.
Marketing and sales: Placing the product on the market generating sales reaching the right people interested to buy it
Service: The tool used to offer the product on the market and the service offered after the product is sold (customer service)

This Primary Activities are supported by:

The infrastructure of the firm: organisational structure, control system, company culture etc.
Human resource management: employee recruiting, hiring, training, development and compensation.
Technology development: technologies to support the value chain activity
Procurement: purchasing input such as materials, supplies, and equipments. (http://www.netmba.com/strategy/value-chain/)

“The firm’s margin or profit then depends on its effectiveness in performing these activities efficiently, so that the amount that the customer is willing to pay for the products exceeds the cost of the activities in the value chain. It is in these activities that a firm has the opportunity to generate superior value. A competitive advantage may be achieved by reconfiguring the value chain to provide lower cost or better differentiation”. (http://www.netmba.com/strategy/value-chain/)
External efficiency is measured by customer satisfaction and by market share. To achieve customer satisfaction the company requires, and is depends on, the timely received goods and its services to specification by external suppliers. Is very important to have a good communication, and teamwork between suppliers at one end, and the customer at the other end of the value chain. (Wright and Race 2004)
Cost Advantage and Value Chain
A firm maybe create a cost advantage either by reducing the cost of individual value chain activities, or by reconfiguring the value chain. Once the value chain is defined, a cost analysis can be performed by assessing the costs of the value chain activities. The cost obtained from the accounting report may need to be modified in order to allocate them properly to the value creating activity.
Porter identified 10 cost drivers realting to the value chain activities:
A firm develops a cost advantage by controlling these drivers better than do the competition.
A cost advantage also can be pursued by reconfiguring the value chain. Reconfiguration means structural changes such a new production process, new distribution channels, or a different sales approach. For example FedEx structurally redefined express freight service by acquiring its own planes and implementing a hub and spoke system.( http://www.netmba.com/strategy/value-chain/)
Differentiation and Value Chain
A differentiation advantage can arise from any part of the value chain. For example procurements of inputs that are unique and widely available for competitors can create differentiation, as can distributor channels that offers high service levels. A differentiation advantage may be achieved by changing individual value chan activities to increase uniqueness in the final product, or by reconfiguring the value chain.
Porter identified several drivers of uniqueness:

Policies and decision
Linkages among activities
Timing
Location
Interrelationships
Learning
Integration
Scale (eg better service as a result of large scale)
Institutional factors

Most of these also serve a cost drivers. There are several ways which a firm can reconfigure its value chain in order to create uniqueness. (http://www.netmba.com/strategy/value-chain/)
Technologies and the Value Chain
The changes in technologies can impact the competitive advantage changing and making possible new configuration of value chain. Many technologies are used in both primary value activities and support activities:
Hospitality Company Hilton and Marriott and Value Chain Analysis
In order to compare value chain activities and how can be added value to a company, I small description, history and value of Marriott and Hilton Hotels.
Hilton Worldwide
Is the leading global hospitality company, spanning the lodging sector from luxurious full-service hotels and resorts to extended-stay suites and mid-priced hotels. For over 90 years Hilton has been offering business and leisure travellers the finest in accommodations, service, amenities and value. Company dedicated for the tradition of providing exceptional guest experience across its global brands distributed over a total of more than 3400 hotels in 79 countries. “The new corporate and Hilton Hhonors branding enable our individual hotel brands to further build their distinctive identities while also communication their common connections and the strong value proposition of the Hhonors program” said Paul Brown, President of Hilton’s Global Brands and commercial services.
Marriott international
Marriott’s brands are leading in customer satisfaction and owner and franchisee preferences. Exceptional amenities. Attentive guest guest care. In-depth local knowledge set industry standards around the world.
Marriott International has become the world’s leading lodging company, not only through its diverse portfolio of global brands, but also by training and engaging the best employees (300.000) to delivery the best service and create “Guest engagement”. About 3000 hotels (managed or owned) in over 66 countries with luxurious brands such us Bulgari, Ritz Carlton and JW Marriott. “The core values established by the Marrriott family over 80 years ago have served our company well and will continue to guide our growth into the future. Foremost of these core values is the enduring belief that our associates ar our greatest assets”. Marriott focus its success on the Marriott experience providing opportunities for employees. Marriott Rewards is the reward program which is a kind of world hotel club for Marriott’s hotels.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

As we can see, two very big hospitality companies operating worldwide are constantly trying to add value to their products. In the service industry and especially in the hotel industry, the value is added and created from the people inputs of time, knowledge, equipments and systems to serve the hotel guests and customers. Customers in these companies can be also employees from the same organisation. The more value is created, the more people will be ready to pay the price for the service or product and the more they will keep on buying from the same company.The decisions to differentiate the products offered from the two companies are crucial to add value and persuase the potential customer to the right choice.
According to Hilton and Marriott websites, Hilton is generating most of its revenue using the web reservation system while the main Marriott income (about 40%) is generated from Marriott’s members.
This good example is showing how two very similar products are offered on the market and are seen with different value. According to a small survive, 8 out of 10 people that never staid before in one of this two hotels, and using internet to book a room, wood book a Hilton property. The same survive offered to world travellers that staid at many Hotels managed from Hilton and Marriott (7 out of 10) is more oriented to Marriott hotel for the quality of service.
If for example one of these two company would come up with a new technological and advanced system for online reservations, that customers would like use for its innovation, easy and fast to use and secure (credit cards details), with new futures (text confirmation, priority check in, express check out, dinner reservations and amenities), for sure the margin of value is enhanced and until the competitors is studying a better system, the customer will like to use this new system.
Value chain analysis
To understand and find out where we can create value we need to use a Value Chain Analysis.
The first step for the analysis is the Activity Analysis:
where all the activities to serve the customer and to deliver the service are analysed.
In this step of activities analysis we are going to collect as much information as we can from all the people involved within the organisation such us guest, employees, suppliers, business partners, travel agents and tour operators. This stage will also involve the way to recruit people with the right skills that will deliver the best service. How to keep the team motivated and informed about the performance. In the case of these featured company the KPI system (Key Performance Indicator) has been introduced to control the standard of performance that will help to get feedback from the guest to enhance the guest engagement.
To conduct the Value Chain Analysis are needed up to three years of annual repors to understand and analyse how the costing of the activities are changing and whether they are in unison with the competitive strategi of the firm. To gain knowledge about the core competence of the company, we can have a look at the company and competitor websites and SWOT analysis of both companies can be done to understand the key strengths and weaknesses of the company and how different are the firms from the direct competitor. (http://www.coursework4you.co.uk/)
Value analysis
After few activities are identified we list the “Value Factors” which is the kind of service that the customer value in the way the activity is conducted.
If we analyse for instance a telephone order placed to the room service departement, the customer will value a quick answer to his/her call, a good an polite manner, efficient taking of order details with fast and knowledgeable answering of questions and a quick resolution to any problems that arise during the order. Delivering a professional service, the customer will like the correct solution based on the good options and up to date alternatives.
This analysis will give us what needs to be done or changed to provide a great value for each Value factor.
Evaluate changes and Plan for Action
With the Value Analysis, we will generate so many ideas for increasing the value that we are going to deliver to customers.
Value Chain in the Hotel Industry
The primary activities in the Hotel industry:
Starting from the Inbound Logistics where we have all the contracts with supplier that are delivering the food and beverage, providing laundry service and other services; Back of the house storage and distribution within the hotel’s departments and inventory control and stock requisitions.
The Operations are represented from all the procedures and processes that, with the support from all the advanced equipments and tools, will produce goods and service to offer on the market.
Outbound Logistics in the hotel can be the way the services and final products are offered and distributed to the different outlets and different guests.
Marketing and Sales: all the activities that are trying to get customers and people interested in the hotel for rooms, conferences, restaurants but also the promotion of the hotel with advertise and pricing considering the competitors
Service in the hotel industry is crucial for its succes. The quality of service is created with a certain number of employees in proportion with the hotel capability and with the respective training. A good service will enhance the product’s value and will be crucial for the guest that will have to chose in which of the many hotels to stay. An example can be made between the company Hilton and Marriott where both can offer the same guest room, the same equipment in the room, same facilities with different price; probably the price for Hilton is more competitive but the service offered will be not at the same level as a Marriott hotel. The same room at the Marriott hotel with a nice presentation of the hotel services from the reception staff will probably an added value and the travellers will be more likely to go back where a better service is offered if the price is not much higher (value for money).
Support activities in the Hotel industry
The Procurement in the hotel can be the facilities offered to guest, the building, and the equipment that will support all the operations to make easy and smoothly the service.
Technology Development is very important within the hospitality as it is a modern industry in constantly growth where new technologies are needed to save time and work smarter. The Propriety Management System is the most important to take into consideration which is the software to manage all the operations and share all the information with all the hotel departments in real time. The innovation and the technology are developing the hotel industry.
The Firm Infrastructure is represented from the management team with the long term planning, the quality management , public affairs, finance and accounting.
Conclusions
All the primary activities of the Value Chain are used to increase the “Margin of Value” and the support activities have special role for the success. As we can see in the above analysis, in this complex industry there is a very high amount of operations and procedures within all these activities all with the same role to reach the customer and delivery a good service. There is also al lot of effort to increase this margin from all the hotel departments. In the Hospitality all the process are linked and if a small activity is generating problems, will effect the efficiency and the quality of all the other processes. Therefore is importan the Value Chain Analysis to get ideas and find out what can be done at operational level to add value to the product and service offered. This analysis will help the operations director to understand how he can achieve the fixed objectives.
Recommendations
Studying and researching for the value chain and how value can be added to a business, helped me to understand that generally when hospitality properties are making something new to add value is very likely to find it on their websites. As it is usually some ideas that could come from the customer’s satisfactions survey or from employees feedback, and therefore is good to listen the employees working in direct contact to the customers to understand in which direction to move and how value service can be offered to a valued customer. In fact most even if the managers have the important role to direct the company, key factor for the value chain is the mix of all the ideas coming from the employees which is undertaken in some workplace.
Bibliography

Hubert Schmitz – Value Chain analysis for policy-makers and practitioners, 2005, International labour organisation
Porter, M. E. – Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, 1985, New York: Free Press
Wright N. & Race P. – The Management of service Operations, second edition 2004, Thomson
Johnson G. et all – Exploring corporate strategy, eight edition, 2008, FT Prentice Hall
Porter, M. E. – The competitive advantage of nations,1990, New York: Free Press.
Denney G. et all – Hotel Management and Operations, fourth edition, 2007, Wiley

Websites

http://www.netmba.com/strategy/value-chain/
http://www.marriottdevelopment.com/
http://www.hiltonworldwide.com/aboutus/index.htm
http://www.hiltonworldwide.com/landing/ww_announcement.htm
http://www.coursework4you.co.uk/essays-and-dissertations/value-chain-analysis.php
http://www.marriott.com/corporateinfo/culture/coreValuesCulture.mi

 

A Strategic Review of the People Management Issues in Capital Hotels and Conference Centres (CHCC)

INTRODUCTION
Capital Hotels & Conference Centres (CHCC) is a medium-sized international business that owns and operates 50 hotels and conference centres mainly in the UK and Western Europe. The company strategy has shifted to targeting only 4-star hotels lately in capital cities such as Toulouse, Bangalore, Bangkok, Bucharest and Shanghai and getting away from their 3-star venues and hotels going forward replacing the owners with a British General Manager.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

This report aims to analyse the factors that are likely to be contributing to the people management problem in CHCC. First, this report will discuss issues related to low business growth, then examine the challenges that this organisation has faced with the Graduate Development Program and finally move to identify the issues related to managers ‘ engagement, development and turnover. As a member of HBS hospitality & tourism consultancy services, a strategic review of the people management issues must be carried out for the apparent growth of the business analysing the CHCC acquisitions strategy and financial performance.
LOW GROWTH
As analysed from the Nampak business case study by Smedley (2011) A Lot of Bottle, where the business was cost-focused and traditional manufacturing without considering people’s savings. The Managing Director of the company Nampak, Eric Collins says, “The mindset has traditionally been that labour is cheap- so you invest in machinery and processes, you don’t invest in people”. CHCC is also a cost-focused company where, the company views their staff as a cost instead of viewing them as an investment.
Another issue prevailing here in CHCC is that CEO (ex-chef) aimed to create hotels for good quality restaurant to attract local diners in addition to hotel and conference guests.  The hotels lack the operational excellence required by the hotel targets in order to deliver at par excellent guest experience.
The fierce competition and lack of quality in service leading to a slower growth rate in comparison with the similar hotels and conference businesses. As viewed in the case study by Karson and Murphy (2013) on attracting local guests to resort food and beverage operations: The case of the Orlando Resort and Spa. Restaurant owners needs to understand the foundations of marketing strategy in order to identify their most profitable consumer base and the strategies needed to capture their patronage. The National Restaurant Association (2007) defines marketing strategy as consisting “of the major decision you must make about the segment of a market, which one or ones you can profit by addressing, how to position your products and services in that market, and why that market should buy your products and services.”
CHCC have replaced the owners with the British General Manager and seconded a Head of F&B and other Heads of the department from the UK. As suggested by Chung (2011) Developing your global know-how. ‘Global experience is considered imperative for career success, especially in the sales and marketing function’ regarding the relocation of the staffs or executives. Because it causes failure to adapt to a different culture, lack of competency and lack of communication skills resulting in a slower organic growth in the company as managers are not satisfied with their jobs.
Due to the acquisition, the turnover or the organic growth rate of hotel was less (around 60 million pounds) as compared to the competitors which are making 61 to 63 million per year. (1% to 3% more). As the study suggested by Amorós and Dalmau (2012). The Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions on Brand value in the Hotel Sector during the economic crisis in Spain says that, Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As) was the solution for many businesses to deal with the crisis, viewed by businesses as an efficient and fast way to gain market share, expand into new markets and acquire new brand. But making an M&A does not warranty that the new firm will succeed in every objective. It’s hard to meet all the stakeholder challenges. All researchers and media reports claim that most mergers fail, approximately 70% of acquisitions fail to achieve their expected value. Consequently, mergers and acquisitions sometimes end up destroying rather than creating value to companies.
The location of the company also acts as a factor of low growth here, as it is based in Reading, Berkshire which is a small town in England surrounding the countryside ideally not good for a business hub as it is famous for its medieval period. As suggested by Klein (2004) Corporate Headquarters Site Selection, the headquarters location is an important part of the company’s image and role for its shareholders and consumers as well and is a basic component of its market position and how its products are perceived by the customers.
THE GRADUATE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
The problem here is with the Graduate Development Scheme set up by the Personnel Manager for recruiting the graduates, most of whom were only British. It was unsuitable and most of the graduates left within few months for better pay and benefits as company lacked management and training development centres for the graduates neither the managers have any selection nor recruitment skills. According to the HR director Stevens J Sainte-Rose (Coca-Cola, 2008) for external appointments “You always have to have a fresh perspective and fresh thinking”. The Monitoring, Validation and Assessment process is missing from CHCC managers here to understand the needs of the staff to have training objectives for better strategic planning for the company.
A survey from the Coca-Cola (2008) Caught by the Fizz, brand commitment showed that marketing staff thought that more time was spent purchasing the talent to fill the positions rather than cultivating the talent. There was a running pilot programme to assess the training and development and evaluate the advancement strategies that would check whether people identified as highflyers were ready for promotion.
CHCC has failed to adapt the functioning of The International Assignment Cycle (Harzing and Christensen,2004) which closely follows the Recruitment and Selection process involving internal and external consultants, followed by the Hiring and Preparation of workers, by providing them with training to adapt to the Expatriation in another country followed by the Repatriation, enabling them to return and adjust back in the company. 
The concern added here is that, the Head Housekeeper and Public Relations and Publicity Manager are women and as a female, they could have some issues such as job discrimination, irregular working hours or perhaps the level of skills required in the hospitality industry. As said by Weyer (2007) explaining about the persistence of the glass ceiling for women leaders Gender inequality remains in leadership positions, even with lower-level women’s visibility 20 years later.
Also viewed from the case study by Menicucci et al. (2019) on Does gender matter for hotel performance? As gender diversity in the workplace is perceived both as a social and ethical imperative (Kelan, 2008; McCabe, Ingram, & Dato‐on, 2006). Given the evolution of women’s participation in the global labour market, it is noteworthy that a growing number of women hold leadership positions previously controlled by men. Female employees often find it difficult to compete with their male counterparts due to various visible and invisible obstacles and barriers (e.g., marriage, motherhood, sexism and stereotyping). For instance, this issue is heightened when the functional aspects of hospitality management include long working hours and high levels of flexibility (Pinar, McCuddy, Birkan, & Kozak, 2011).
The issue here is that the Personnel Manager and Training Manager have been internally promoted from the F&B department and are now reporting to the Finance and Administration Manager. As the Finance and Administration Director’s job description indicated by the Princeton-Blairstown Centre (PBC) is a 108-year-old, 501(c)(3) non-profit organization notes that its role is responsible for the organization’s accounting, financial reporting, budgeting, tax compliance, investments, insurance, talent management and audit functions. The position ensures appropriate controls and procedures of the financial and accounting process are in place and is also responsible for managing the organization’s operational, talent management and IT structures. That’s why they are better suited to strategic decision-making and operations that improve the performance programming and capacity building of the organisation, therefore not really people oriented.
SATISFACTION, DEVELOPMENT and TURNOVER of MANAGERS
Middle managers moving on to better jobs as they have received very little management training or development despite the fact the company was holding an open course management programmes for the managers. According to Dr Cole (2016) CIPD report about Training Line Managers says, There is a terrible confluence of pressures on middle managers to ensure that workers provide a truly high-quality service to service users, meet the organization’s needs in terms of results, performance details, be transparent to department heads, look at the team’s care and confinement to protect them in that sense. Therefore, it is important to provide training and development programmes for additional experience, understanding, structured work and thinking for them to take away good institutional memory as they go on to find better jobs.
In order to take away the institutional memory when the managers or staff leave, as seen from the Coca-Cola (2008) Caught by the fizz case study, Managers deal with an unforeseen problem, counselling, training sessions, personality development and feedback, and 360-degree analysis. When participants leave the centre, detailed feedback is given from both a marketing manager and an SHL (Saville and Holdsworth Limited) an international company conducting personality, behavioural and skill testing providing individual solutions coaches that relate to their current development programmes.
One of the recruitment choices for middle managers was to second them to global hotels and bring them back to senior positions, but
25 per cent left early due to unhappiness
35 per cent fell short of GM’s goals and
30 per cent left within one year because of the lack of cross-culture training programs, language barriers, culture differences, lack of communication skills, lack of competency and political instability provided to them by CHCC.
According to a report by Prokesch (2007) How GE teaches teams to lead change says that the reasons for the foster growth of the company have been:

Team training through an opportunity for managers to reach consensus on the obstacles to progress.
Participants are encouraged to understand both hard barriers (organisational structure, skills and resources) and soft barriers (how the leadership team members act and spend their time individually and collectively).
Managing the present and building the future is everlasting leadership.
Create a common language of transition.
The programme was not an academic exercise; it was intended to establish an action plan for the company.

According to the research conducted by Deery and Jago (2015) on Revisiting Talent Management, work life balance and retention strategies says that, employees who left for another company did so because they were given career progress or because they were confronted by other hotels offering better terms of employment. While greater opportunities for training and development are very important to retain staff. Karatepe (2013b) says that work engagement as a motivator will help retain talented employees through training empowerment and rewards.
CONCLUSION
After analysing the case study, the factors responsible for the cause of the problems was mainly the lack of training and development programs by the company. The root cause was having this business run by a Britisher instead of hiring a local Manager from the target countries as they were expanding towards Asia in order to understand and get familiarised with the local culture, people and language.
CHCC lacked recruitment and selection training due to which many graduates left their jobs as they were not given any feedback, motivation, incentives or rewards for good performance along with better pay and benefits.
The aim of the CEO who was an ex-chef had no experience in CRM (customer relationship management), was not updated with new technology and advancement and lacked experience for the current role. His aim was to create a hotel for good quality restaurant and attract locals for the business but he seems to lack  skills , and  does not appear to be well equipped with the staff management recruitment and operational qualities in order to meet the hotel targets to deliver excellent guest experience.
The company can benefit immensely from a proper marketing team to handle internal and external promotions of the company. The company was not updated, and Head of the Departments was following the old-fashioned recruitment policies as they were not agile thinkers and lacked efficiency and effectiveness in delivering the services with their team.
They lacked staff satisfaction and retention due to which many graduates moved on for better jobs. As the success tagline stated by Chiemelie (2019) Bacardi Martini UK “Family and people focus culture”. CHCC needs to effectively develop a set of organisational values to communicate, direct and reward, and use appropriate training and recruitment to enhance the match between potential and current staff and the needs of a value-based organisation.
REFERENCES
“A lot of bottle (human resource management at Nampak)”, 2011, Human Resource Management International Digest, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 213-219. Available at : https://www-emerald-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/insight/content/doi/10.1108/hrmid.2011.04419faa.004/full/html
Amorós Arteaga, L., Dalmau Maria Rosselló, J. (2012). The Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions on Brand value in the Hotel Sector during the economic crisis in Spain. A case study of NH Hoteles & Hesperia. Department of Marketing. Available at : http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:538335/FULLTEXT01.pdf
“Caught by the fizz”, 2008, People Management, [Online], vol. 14, no. 16, pp. 24. Available at: http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=84826f88-b40a-43c1-a04e-45f6539cc15b%40sdc-v-sessmgr01&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=34014326&db=bth
Chiemelie, I. (2019). High Performance Working in Aspect Capital UK and Bacardi-Martini – Iloka Benneth Chiemelie, Ugboma Christian. [online] Ilokabenneth.blogspot.com. Available at: https://ilokabenneth.blogspot.com/2013/11/high-performance-working-in-aspect.html
CIPD (2018) ‘Performance Management: an introduction. [Editorial] CIPD. 29 September,2018. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/fundamentals/people/performance/factsheet
Clarke, M. 2017, “Building employability through graduate development programmes”, Personnel Review, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 792-808. Available at :https://www-emerald-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/insight/content/doi/10.1108/PR-12-2015-0321/full/html
“Developing your global know-how”, 2011, Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1-16. Available at: https://www-emerald-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/insight/content/doi/10.1108/dlo.2011.08125faa.005/full/html
Deery, M. & Jago, L. 2015, “Revisiting talent management, work-life balance and retention strategies”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 453-472. Available at: https://www-emerald-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJCHM-12-2013-0538/full/html
Director of Finance and Administration Job Description. About Princeton-Blairstown Center. Available at: https://lnj.memberclicks.net/assets/docs/princeton%20blairstown-%20director%20of%20finance%20%20administration.pdf
Harzing, A., Christensen, C. (2004). Expatriate Failure: Time to Abandon the Concept? Career Development International. Vol 9. No 7. Pp 616-626.
Karson, K. and Murphy, K.S., 2013. Attracting local guests to resort food and beverage operations: The case of the Orlando Resort and Spa. Journal of foodservice business research, 16(4), pp.391-406. Available at : https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15378020.2013.824279
Karatepe, O.M. (2013b), “High-performance work practices and hotel employee performance: the mediation of work engagement”, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 32 March, pp. 132-140. Available at: https://www-emerald-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJCHM-12-2013-0538/full/html
Kelan, E. K. (2008). The discursive construction of gender in contemporary management literature. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(2), 427– 455. Available at:  https://doi-org.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/10.1007/s10551‐007‐9505‐2
Klein, M. (2004) ‘Corporate Headquarters Site Selection’. More Business than Real Estate.  Available at: https://www.tradeandindustrydev.com/industry/manufacturing/corporate-headquarters-site-selection-441
Lewis, P. (2006), “The quest for invisibility: female entrepreneurs and the masculine norm of entrepreneurship”, Gender, Work and Organisation, Vol. 13 No. 5, pp. 453‐69. Available at: https://onlinelibrary-wiley-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/doi/full/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2006.00317.x
Menicucci, E., Paolucci, G. and Paoloni, N., 2019. Does gender matter for hotel performance? Evidence from the Italian hospitality industry. International Journal of Tourism Research. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jtr.2286
Mooney, S. & Ryan, I. 2009, “A woman’s place in hotel management: upstairs or downstairs?”, Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 195-210. Available at : https://www-emerald-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/insight/content/doi/10.1108/17542410910950877/full/html
National Restaurant Association. 2007. Restaurant marketing, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15378020.2013.824279
Pinar, M., McCuddy, M., Birkan, I., & Kozak, M. (2011). Gender diversity in the hospitality industry: An empirical study in Turkey. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(1), 73– 81. Available at:  https://doi-org.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/10.1016/j.ijhm.2010.06.007
Prokesch, S. 2012, “How GE teaches teams to lead change”, IEEE Engineering Management Review, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 31-41. Available at : https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/document/6379399/metrics#metrics
Weyer, B. (2007), “Twenty years later: explaining the persistence of the glass ceiling for women leaders”, Women in Management Review, Vol. 22 No. 6, pp. 482‐96. Available at: https://www-emerald-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/insight/content/doi/10.1108/09649420710778718/full/html