Human Resource Management of H&M

This is a case study on H&M, from a Strategic Human Resource Management perspective, based on publicly available details of H&M, which has been analyzed and presented within the context of the perspective. This case study was prepared to meet the requirements of an academic exercise.
H&M was established in Vasteras, Sweden in 1947 by Erling Persson. H&M sell clothes and cosmetics in around 2,000 stores around the world operates in 37 countries and has 76,000 employees all working to the same philosophy: to bring you fashion and quality at the best price. H&M is a hugely successful multinational company. The success of H&M is primarily based on the business model of entire design being done internally and centrally, manufacturing totally outsourced, but quality ensured and local retailing with hired places, local staff and local shop managers empowered to take decisions. The success, business growth and expansion plans were possible because H&M have formatted their HR strategy in line with the corporate strategy. As evident from their Annual Report (2008), when they expand into new markets they do not lose sight of their core values. They have succeeded to manage all components of HRM effectively to ensure that core values are upheld in all parts, regardless of country and cultural differences. Their strategic and coherent approach in recognizing that the organization’s most valued assets are the people working there,

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INTRODUCTION & COMPANY STRATEGY:
Hennes & Mauritz (H&M) was established in Vasteras, Sweden in 1947 by Erling Persson. H&M offers fashion and quality at the best price and offers fashion for women, men, teenagers and children. The collections are created centrally by around 100 in-house designers together with buyers and pattern makers. H&M also sells own-brand cosmetics, accessories and footwear. The stores are refreshed daily with new fashion items. In Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Germany and Austria H&M offers fashion by Internet and catalogue sales. H&M does not own any factories, but instead buys its goods from around 700 independent suppliers, primarily in Asia and Europe. H&M has about 16 production offices around the world, mainly in Asia and Europe. The turnover in 2009 was SEK 118,697 million. H&M primarily operates in Europe, North America and Asia, and have around 2,000 stores spread over in 37 countries. The company is headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden. H&M has grown significantly since its beginnings in 1947 and at the end of the financial year had around 76,000 employees. The average number of employees in the Group, converted to fulltime positions, was 53,476 (53,430), of which 4,874 (4,924) are employed in Sweden. Around 79 percent of the employees were women and 21 percent were men. Women held 77 percent of the positions of responsibility within the company, such as store managers and country managers (AR2 2009).
H&M’s strategy is to offer fashion and quality at the best price. H&M’s annual report (AR1 2009) emphasizes that “quality” relates to both. H&M’s products exceeding customer expectations, and also customers being satisfied with the company itself. The report states “Taking responsibility for how our operations affect people and the environment is also an essential prerequisite for H&M’s continued profitability and growth.”
H&M is driven by strong values such as commercial mindset, simplicity, constant improvement, cost consciousness and entrepreneurship states in annual report (2009:13).
The World of H&M (H&M 2010)
Long-term strategic plan & goals of H&M
H&M which is in the fashion retail industry. H&M has stores in 37 different countries and employs over 76,000 people. The business concept of H&M is very clear. It is offering to clients qualitative fashion clothing for low price. The company has its own team of designers, its own interior designer team, its own production factories, production partners and team for purchasing other brands’ production. It usually stock up H&M cosmetics supply, making sure that those products will be cheaper than in other stores.
Long term objectives are strategic plans company make for future five years. These objectives are set in seven key areas- productivity, profitability, competition, employee development, employee relations, technological leadership and public responsibility and show were company wants to be when they are achieved. Long term objectives have to be motivating, flexible, measurable, suitable, understandable, realistic and acceptable by employees.
Three main strategic goals for H&M for the next five years would be linked with profitability, competition and technological leadership. H&M has reported a rise in sales and profits and sales for the three months to 31 August. Net profit for the third quarter of 2009 rose 4.1% to 3.46bn Swedish crowns from 3.33bn crowns last year. Sales, excluding sales tax, increased by 13% to 23.6bn crowns. So first LTO is to maintain financial stability H&M has achieved. H&M plans to increase sales revenues by 20% and earnings per share by 30% till 2015.
Secondly as main strategy of H&M is expansion, LTO in competition is to increase number of stores by 10% to 15% every year. Today H&M has as 1840 stores up from 1618 at the same time last year. New stores will be open in the cities H&M already has stores and also in completely new markets.
In the Annual Report (2008:7), H&M, CEO Rolf Ericsson states that the long term goal is to “Make fashion available to everyone, give the customer a fashion experience that strengthens H&M brand”. They also state the goal of a 10-15% increase in the number of stores every year, which would be funded internally (2009). The aim to increase sales in existing stores, while focusing on quality and continued high profitability.
How does H&M want to get there?
To execute its strategy H&M focuses on 3 main aspects of its business concept in the annual report of 2009.

Price, which is controlled by limiting the number of middlemen, buying in large volumes, relying on its in-depth, extensive expertise within the design, fashion, and textile industries, buying the right merchandise from the right production markets, being cost-conscious at all levels and maintaining effective distribution procedures.
Design: Products are designed in-house and production is completely outsourced.
Quality: Central emphasis on quality with extensive testing and ensuring least environment damage.
Merger and Acquisitions: Acquisitions (like FaBric Scandinavian, the Swedish design company), and Design Collaborations (collaboration with Mathew Williamson) are adopted.

SWOT Analysis
(S)trengths – One of the main reasons for H&M’s popularity is because of its trendy items for such a low price. This store offers quality clothing at department store prices which is rare for many retailers today. Strength for this company is their overall delivery time. It only takes 12 weeks to get an item from the design to its retail state which is very impressive for a worldwide, low price retailer. The average for retailers is usually about 6 months which is double the time that H&M uses. They also manage to keep the stores brands fresh with guest designers coming in for different lines in the store. Some of these have been Madonna and Robert Cavalli. They also keep the prices affordable by using very few middlemen and buy large volumes cost consciously. But with these strengths come weaknesses as well.
(W)eaknesses – One of the strengths I mentioned above can also be a weakness for this company. Buying large volumes means that there is no real guarantee that all the items will be sold. This means that they’re already low prices may have to be lowered in order to make room for the next collection. This means that if these items are not sold in time, then the company will have to pay more for extra storage for the items not sold. Another weakness could be its wide range of customers this brand provides for. The range is for men between the ages of 18-45. This is not including the children’s clothing and maternity wear and the huge wide range of different styles they provide depending on what store you go into. This can be difficult to manage especially in a vertical company because there is no real focus on a target customer and gets more expensive to provide machinery for all these different groups of people. But with these huge leaps there are many opportunities for this company flourish.
(O)pportunities – One good opportunity would be for H&M is to have matching clothes for mothers and children. I think this would be a good opportunity because there are also maternity wear and children’s clothes and I think that it would appeal to a larger crowd. They would like to dress their children like them in the same styles.
(T)hreats – since H&M is a brand that is very unique it has very few threats as far as retail chains go. One of these stores would have to be the clothing chain called ZARA. This is a store that also has fairly reasonable prices but is most famous for its rapid delivery time. It only takes two weeks for the design to make it into retail stores. Even with H&M’s time which is 50% faster than most retailers, cannot even compete with that time. The second threat to H&M is Gap just because of their quality at reasonable prices and their wide range of people they reach as well with their vertical company as well. There is a market for babies as well as men and women
Human Resources
H&M’s corporate strategy is to expand on a continuing basis, and as a consequence, employee strength also increases continuously. The growth target is 10-15 percent new stores each year, which means that 6,000 -7,000 new jobs each year. Their staff is spread across approximately 37 countries and come from different cultural backgrounds. Their strategy is to recruit locally whenever a new store opens as stated in the annual report (2008).
The main area for which H&M may have clearly articulated policies are listed below. The policy areas are based on the categorization by Armstrong (2006).
Overall Policy and Values: H&M’s website indicates that their objective is to be a good employer, including in those countries whose laws and regulations fall short of their own requirements. To quote the Head of HR “In order to meet people’s expectations of H&M as an attractive employer, the company develops global guide lines on diversity, equal rights and against discrimination” (AR1 2008).At H&M, HR activities are guided by a fundamental respect for the individual. This applies to every aspect from fair wages, working hours and freedom of association to the opportunity for growth and development within the company. This also indicates that the company has specific policies for areas such as Equal opportunity, Managing diversity, and Employee development, Health and Safety, among others.
Employee Relations and Voice:
H&M has an open door policy granting all employees the right and the opportunity to discuss any work-related issue directly with management (AR1 2008). They also support their employees’ right and ability to organize and to decide who should represent them in the workplace (AR1 2008). H&M has positive experience of open and constructive dialogue with the trade unions and they welcome such relations wherever they operate. They consider such cooperation to be essential if they are to become even better. Examples of collaboration on staffing issues include their agreement with UNI (Union Network International) and the work they do with the EWC (European Works Council).

Promotion: In the annual report of H&M (2008:34) the Head of HR quoted “Internal recruitment and job rotation enable the company to grow quickly”. This statement indicates that H&M has policies related to promotion.
Employee Development: To quote Mr. Par Darj, Head of HR at H&M “I tell employees, if you do not grow neither will H&M” (AR1 2008:34). This indicates that policies exist for this area.
Rewards: According to the annual report (2008) H&M focuses on rewarding people by providing more opportunities and responsibilities, and not through a promotions and job titles. This indicates that H&M has policies for this area.

Other areas with clearly defined policies might exist, but these are not evident from available sources.
Organization Behaviour and Structure
Structure: Corporate management is based at H&M’s head office in Stockholm. Stockholm is also where the main departments for design and buying, finance, accounts, expansion, interior design and display, advertising, communications, IR, HR, logistics, security, IT and CSR and environment are located.
H&M has around 16 country offices that are responsible for the various departments in each sales country. H&M also has around 16 production offices which take care of contacts with the approximately 700 independent suppliers that H&M works with. There are nine production offices in Europe, eleven in Asia and one in Africa.
Behaviour: H&M operates in 37 countries and has a work force belonging to these 37 countries because they recruit locally. H&M’s espoused values are stated to be the foundation for a multinational company in a multi cultural market where great respect is paid to the individual.
Interviews with the CEO and Head of HR in the annual report indicate a participative culture where “everyone is made to feel like a part of the company’s success” (AR1 2008:34). Par Darj (Head of HR) stated in the annual report the key word for continual growth is responsibility and commitment. We have committed employees and we are prepared to delegate responsibility at every level. The company encourages what it calls the “The H&M spirit” employees committed to their work and prepared to take on new challenges, common sense, hard work and team spirit are encouraged. All their operations are typified by an essential respect for the individual; including reasonable wages, reasonable hours, and opportunity to grow, and develop within the company (AR1 2008). Quotes from employees about the organizational climate indicate that the values above are “values in use”. These quotes can be found on the career section and in the annual report of H&M.
Based on this information; the prevalent culture appears to be primarily “task oriented” (Schein 1985). Such a culture can support H&M HR related strategies and policies (like Open door, job rotation, freedom of association etc.). They also have a significant impact on HR aspects; Recruitment needs to focus on finding candidates with the right fit to the organizational culture irrespective of local culture, facilitating expatriation of experienced staff when new stores are opened, facilitating rewards schemes aligned with organizational culture, enabling HRD that can empower employees to take on new challenges and work in new teams.
At H&M, a lot of importance is given to personality development and for opportunity for the employees to grow within the organization. Various practices empowering the employees; like a Shop Manger being allowed to take independent decisions, and managing the business like an entrepreneur etc. are designed to increase employee loyalty and commitment to the organization and are great motivators (AR1 2008). The HR strategy for employee motivation; total reward with emphasis on Intrinsic Motivation (Armstrong 2006), has been proven, to be directly related to forming the success of the organization. All their operations are typified by an essential respect for the individual; including reasonable wages, reasonable hours, opportunity to grow and develop within the company (AR1 2008) The prevailing organizational culture at H&M encourages team work, supports effective leadership and provides adequate growth opportunity for employees. These HR strategic initiatives in turn make significant contributions to the organizational goals of continuing growth and profitability.
Organization Culture
H&M’s strong corporate culture – the spirit of H&M – has existed ever since the days of H&M’s founder, Erling Persson. This strong culture is of great value and is a contributory factor to H&M’s successes over the years.
The spirit of H&M: The spirit of H&M is based on a number of values that describe in simple terms how we want to work. These are in turn based on our business concept, fashion and quality at the best price. The fundamental values behind the spirit of H&M are among other things common sense and own initiative. H&M provide room for people to make their own decisions and take responsibility, and co-workers get regular feedback on their performance. An important part of H&M’s culture is to delegate responsibilities to the stores. Strong commitment and involvement are important, and co-workers are encouraged to take their own initiatives within a defined framework. Creativity and job satisfaction increase when there is a good working environment. Co-workers’ commitment makes a major contribution to H&M’s successes. H&M believe in the abilities of the individual and encourage co-workers to develop further. Respect for the individual is a fundamental value at H&M. This applies to everything from fair pay, reasonable working hours and freedom of association to the opportunity to grow and develop with the company. Job rotation is common at H&M. In the stores, for example, duties may vary between the cash desk, fitting rooms, unpacking, display and follow-up of advertising and campaigns. Working in the store provides very important experience and is a way of getting to know H&M from its very foundation. Attracting and retaining skilled staff is important for H&M’s success therefore H&M work constantly on skills development and all training is carried out within H&M. However, the biggest knowledge gain is made through active learning on the job.
Information System
H&M has employee-scheduling system to improve its use of staff resources and maximise time spent by staff on the shop floor.
The Swedish clothing company implemented. 30,000 employees swipe in and out with smartcards at the beginning and end of their shifts. The system reduced administration by recording shifts electronically and helped improve sales by scheduling shifts to coincide with the busiest times in stores.
The scheduling application is linked to H&M’s human resources and payroll systems, which lets the retailer control staff costs more accurately.
The Workforce Management application from software supplier Work Place Systems will be hosted at a data centre in Stockholm.
Motivation at H&M
H&M is a flat organization, which might give the impression that it’s hard to move up within H&M, the organization is constantly evolving and is growing fast, thus providing more opportunities to its employees. Employees are motivated by providing new challenges; in another department, another role or, another country. H&M encourages employees to try many different roles within their organization stated in annual report part 1 and 2 (2008).
H&M recruitment advertisements indicate possibilities like: working abroad, furthering education and learning new things. Their websites promotes that many in management today, actually started on the shop floor. H&M also provides a comprehensive benefits package. H&M fulfils employee aspirations by providing opportunities to take more responsibilities.
Individual development versus organisational development.
H&M’s annual report (AR1 2008) and website (Careers website), emphasize that working at H&M is about commitment, both from the individual and the organization. H&M’s Head of HR emphasizes that organization can grow only if the individuals grow. H&M won’t make a career plans for their employees, but will provide them with tools to go as far as they possibly can on their own.
This indicates that at H&M, individuals are expected to drive their own development, within the framework that the organization provides. The organization appears to facilitate and promote cross-functional and cross-boundary development opportunities for individuals, which is aligned with their own development and growth strategies.
To quote Pär Darj, (Head of HR), “We have committed employees and we are prepared to delegate responsibility at every level. I tell employees, if you do not grow neither will H&M”, (AR1 2008:34). This indicates that H&M treats individual development and organizational development as tightly linked areas.
Selection & Recruitment
The HR strategy, which is closely aligned with the organizational strategy to achieve continuing growth and profitability, envisages recruitment of people every year to run the new stores scheduled to be opened. For example, as per their Annual report (AR1 2008), about 6000 – 7000 employees are to be recruited during this financial year, to meet the requirements of the 225 new stores being opened worldwide. The planning and recruitment is based on the HR policy to recruit locally when a new store is opened. Future employees are evaluated and chosen according to certain criteria practiced by H&M and based on the company’s culture.
They look for people with personality who can perform well within the culture, growth and motivational framework provided at H&M. Par Darj, Head of HR stated, At H&M, great grades and all the university credits in the world are no guarantee of a job or a fast-track career. Of course, we do welcome those things, but what we are really looking for, more than anything, is people with the right personality. This is based on the belief that one can always gather skills as you go along, but personality and attitude can’t be taught. Either you’ve got it or you don’t. One of the most important things we look for is drive (AR1 2008). H&M values personal qualities much more than formal qualifications. Since H&M is a fast company and the tempo is always high, they need employees who are self-driven and capable of well direct communication. Hence H&M recruits people who like responsibility and decision-making also it indicates that a love of fashion combined with a focus on sales is perceived as an advantage. These appear to form the basis for H&Ms recruitment requirements (and person specifications), programmes and drive its selection processes.
At H&M selection interview approach is usually face to face and mostly “structured situational based” According to Armstrong (2006) In a situational based interview the focus in on a number of situation or incidents in which behaviour can be regarded as being particularly suggestive of succeeding performance. This is followed by panel interviews and aptitude/work sample tests. It appears that candidates are filtered at each stage of the process in H&M.
Sources of candidates:
Internal Recruitment: This is their first choice for a new job opening. External recruitment is considered only if no internal options are available.
External recruitment: Potential recruits (minimum age is 16 years) are encouraged to apply directly to the local store, from the careers website. H&M does not offer summer jobs or work experience placements. Buying is centralized in Stockholm, and so is the recruitment for the same.
H&M recruits locally to its new stores (AR1 2008).
Organisational learning and management development in H&M.
The average numbers of training days per employee in 2008 are, 10 for new sales staff, 1 for existing sales staff and 5 for existing management positions. H&M usually conducts all training in-house (classroom, stores and one to one), written and produced by H&M staff. External training has been considered for some areas like buying. E-learning has also been initiated for a few subjects (AR 2008).
However, indications are that H&M today focuses more on on-the-job, just- in time, hands on learning. For example, when they opened their first H&M store in Japan, locally recruited employees were sent to Norway and Germany for gaining experience in existing operations. Also, during the sales intensive opening phase of a new store, colleagues from other countries are brought in temporarily (AR 2008). The head of HR quoted in annual report (2008:34) “As an employee of H&M, you can be an entrepreneur and you will be given responsibility early on”. H&M claims to provide structured opportunities for on-the-job, hands on and work place based training.
To summarize, it appears that H&M focuses on experiential Self-directed learning today as defined by Armstrong (2006), however, they are moving towards incorporating a blended approach with including simulation and e-learning.
Ensuring Learning and Development opportunities for its employees is an integral part of the HR strategy at H&M (AR1 2008), and these essential ingredients contribute significantly to the success of the organization. Human Resource Development is a continuing process at H&M, the new recruits being sent to already existing shops for gaining valuable experience, experienced employees being brought to new shops to support the new local recruits during the intensive opening period activity etc. This is critical to the process of organizational learning and helps them climb the learning curve faster. Keeping employees highly motivated is essential to the success of H&M, due to the nature of its business of dealing in high fashion consumer goods. The various concepts that can be adopted to increase performance (like job satisfaction as a reward management tool) are very effectively employed and as the employees themselves state, they are happy to be there and every day is a challenge (AR1 2009). Expectancy Theory, which states that if individuals feel that the outcome of learning is likely to benefit them, they will be more inclined to prove it (Armstrong 2006) has been proven on the shop floors of H&M.
The HR practice of giving responsibility to the employees early on in their career, treating them as entrepreneurs rather than just employees is a definite and positive step towards their development. Considering the employees as capable of shaping its results and improving it in big and small ways and is key to H&M’s approach to learning and development.
Reward Management
The reward management process of H&M and its potential influence on human resource management.
H&M’s careers website indicates that the company offers a comprehensive benefits package, which includes staff discounts, incentive bonuses, company sick pay, private health care & a pension scheme. Share options are not provided. The head of HR, indicates that they do not consider titles and pay structures as motivational tools. Opportunities to fulfil an employee’s aspirations by wanting more responsibility, as a means of getting on with in the organization quickly, are provided. Apart from these, as stated by different categories of employees on the careers site and the annual report, the main reward is the job satisfaction they derive.
Thus, H&M appears to provide a total reward framework, with greater emphasis on relational rewards even though transactional rewards are provided (Armstrong 2006). H&Ms reward management is consistent with other HR areas, including organizational culture, recruitment/selection etc. and is also in sync with the overall HR strategy of “open doors”, “job rotation” etc. which is essential to fulfil H&Ms strategy of fast growth.
H&M has implemented the concept of Total Reward Management very successfully. Apart from the financial compensation, job satisfaction as a reward has motivated the employees to perform and contribute their maximum to ensure customer satisfaction and business success through increased sales. This is evident in the statements by the employees from various levels on the H&M website. As a stated policy, there is more emphasis on personality development through delegated authority in the decision making process and greater autonomy to local elements of the organizational structure. Being a multinational company with employees of different cultures, this decentralized decision making process and empowerment of employees have proven direct impact on the success of H&M (AR1 2008) Various techniques associated with basic motivation have been given more importance and priority than the extrinsic aspects. Work environment related parameters like leadership, employee voice, recognition, achievement etc. have been built in to the HR policy and practiced to leverage the critical business goals of continuing growth and increased profitability.
Performance Management
H&M has adopted a strategic and integrated approach to achieve organizational success through improved performance of its employees. H&M employees have been told that the growth of the employees and the organization are closely linked (AR1 2008). The practice of Shop Managers going through a process of reviewing that day’s business with their subordinates on a daily basis is part of the performance management activity. This underlines the fact that H&M has recognized the importance of such a practice, and built in that process by which managers and their subordinates work together, agree on what needs to be done and how it is done. They are able to plan, prioritize and develop their sales team in a customer-focused environment (AR1 2008). At H&M a shop manager is in charge of the daily running of the store like running their own business. The HR strategy of delegating authority for managing the shop’s activities is a key factor contributing to the success of the organization.
Managing Diversity in teams and groups
H&M is expanding its business to open new shops in countries where they are currently not present. By their HR policy and procedures, when a new shop is opened the staff recruited locally. They also have the practice of job rotation and movement of employees from one location to another based on internal recruitment (promotions). This brings together people of different cultural back grounds together in the same team, and successfully managing such a team is crucial to the success of the organization. The HR strategy is, not to have very rigid procedures, and the corporate culture of respect to the individual. As stated in their Annual Report (AR1 2008), the HR strategy ensure the following:
1. In order to meet people’s expectations of H&M as an attractive employer, company develops global guide lines on diversity, equal rights and against discrimination.
2. H&M’s objective is to be a good employer, including in those countries whose laws and regulations fall short of their own requirements. The whole of their activity is shaped by a fundamental respect for the individual. This applies to every aspect from fair wages, working hours and freedom of association to the opportunity for growth and development within the company (AR1, 2008).
3. H&M has positive experience of open and constructive dialogue with the trade unions and they welcome such relations wherever they operate. They consider that cooperation is essential if they are to become even better. Examples of collaboration on staffing issues include their agreement with UNI (Union Network International) and the work they do with the EWC (European Works Council). (AR 2008)
H&Ms success in executing their strategy of continuous international growth and expansion, while maintaining its Swedish organizational culture, indicates that its HR practices have contributed to the successful management of diversity in teams and groups.
Recommendations & Conclusion
Issue and challenge at H&M could be: nurturing and maintaining a balanced relationship with employees. Line managers may need good awareness of their reporters’ aspirations, to enable motivation by providing responsibilities and opportunities al
 

Importance of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM)

The importance of Strategic Human Resource Management in organization: According to my understanding during the lecture period Human Resource Management Strategy as a central philosophy of the way that people in the organization are managed and the translation of this into HR policies and practices. To be affective, policies and practices need to be integrated so that they make a coherent whole that is integrated with the business or organizational strategy (Torrington and Hall)
Strategic Human Resource Management is the vital factor for an organization to achieve its strategic goals as it has increased in importance since 1980’s by considering the following factors which are discussed below:
Globalization is the current phenomenon of the world which has integrated all the business environments under one umbrella where Strategic Human Resource Management in only way to show the business what is the actual goals of that business. By its activities business organization can overcome global needs as SHRM learns organizations to sort out what is their positions and where they want to go in global business arena.
Government rules and regulations which are the important issues for organizations, because it affects the organizations, business activities, through its own policy and procedures. An organization which can be overcome these issues through its strategic Human Resource policy, because organizations prepare its staffs, employees, stakeholders to be aware regarding these issues and do accordingly.
Knowledge and research based activities have impacted the organization dramatically in today’s world, where Strategic Human Resource management helps the organization to nursing their Human Resource management accurately as well as make ready them to overcome future goals.
Labour unions which is the combined activities of Labours in the business that has affected the business strategic activities vigorously, but in this place, Strategic Human Resource Management gives treatments to them to be proactive and taking initiatives regarding labour’s demand and benefits which help the organization to meet up the staffs problems. (According to my own understanding)
1.2 The purpose and contribution of Strategic Human Resource Management activities in an organization: Case Study ASDA
ASDA is one of the reputed retailer companies of WAL-MART which was formed in 1965 by a group of farmers from Yorkshire and its activities are still mainly based in the north of Britain. It expanded south in 70’s and 80’s , in 1989 buying rival change Gateways Superstores which is offering shoppers everything from Frank furthers to Diamond rings. ASDA is the second largest food seller that operates 370 stores from where primarily sell groceries and apparel, also the stores which are situated in different parts of the UK sell CDs, books, DVD’s, House wear financial services, take away meal etc.

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The Strategic Human Resource Management of ASDA which has developed its overall activities, because every year ASDA recruits 10,000 workers, 10,000 permanent staffs to work as little as 10 weeks a year. ASDA always targeted people over 50 and it has already employed 22,000 people aged over 50. For managing their SHRM ASDA’s employees trainings is the highest in the market. Every year they recruit fresh trainee employee to build a proactive team for the management. (http://www.allbusiness.com/retail-treade/4297631-1.html)
As the part of SHRM management ASDA follows following structures of management:
ASDA

Corporate level Business level Operational level
Board of Directors All regional managers Line managers
Chief executive officer(CEO) Line Supervisors etc.
Country Directors
Chairman
Chief Financial Officer (CFO)
Chief Technical Officer(CTO)

Divisional Head
By this structure ASDA monitored and supervised all the activities while they ensure the power and position of that structure by its unique policy. For managing Strategic Human Resource Management ASDA assists organization to meet the needs of their employees in the best way they can, so that company goals can be promoted. It also managing people proactively, because it requires planning ways for ASDA to meet the needs of its employees, thinking ahead and also helping the employees to meet the needs of the organization. This process changes the outlook and affects the way things are done at this business site, in others words it help to integrate modern ideas and models into the traditional Human Resource practices to come up with better solutions which not only benefit the employees, but the organization. It helps the organization from the hiring of employees, to the training, assessment and discipline [http://www.mba-tutorials.com/human-resource-management/487-shrm-strategic-human-resource-management.html]
For proper employee management by ASDA it has affected the organization significantly, because ASDA be aware about the employees career and development resulting reducing time frame of recruitment and selection process, retention staff in the organization, creates the productivity of the employee by developing training programs. It also arranges career programs for the employee which builds the employees loyalty towards ASDA which gives them unique efforts to fight with competitors in the market.
Strategic Human Resource Management is the process of Human resource Management for a long period of time which helps organization to achieve its long term goals. As a part of these activities ASDA maintains high standard of Human Resource Management through its unfair and competitive employees selection, motivation and training which given ASDA to be almost a market leader in the UK super market. It has established companies overall growth, revenue and satisfaction of stakeholders. (According to my understanding during the class period)
From the ASDA business site it is viewed that it has announced plans to create 9000 jobs in the UK through a mixture of new stores (20+new stores + extensions to existing stores), product range extensions in terms of non-food selling space named ‘ASDA living’ and others business expansion like home shopping, online shopping via-ASDA direct.
It sounds like an ambitious growth plan, although ASDA needs to keep growing quickly just to maintain its relative market share, where ASDA planed 179000 employees employ in the year. [http://tutor2u.net/blog/index.php/business-studies/comments/asd-goes-for-growth/]
President and CEO of Wal-Mart International, Dong McMillan thanked Andy Clarke for his leadership role in the development of the ASDA business during his times as president and CEO and in other roles during his 16 year career at the retailer ”I am extremely proud of the management team at ASDA and the contribution that each of our nearly 170,000 colleagues makes every to serve our customer. We are very well positioned to continue to win in the UK market” [http://your.asda.com/2010/4/12]
From the discussion above it has been found that ASDA has been serve the customer promptly through their proactive management team which has impacted ASDA to improve its business growth revenue which attracts stakeholders such as employees, customers, suppliers, government, local community and competitors etc. Nowadays ASDA stakeholders feel confident as they invest as they could. Therefore, as a global company ASDA which is maintain its SHRM policies resulting to achieve overall growth of its business.
Conclusion
As a part of HRM development ASDA has been taking more initiatives in its operation, because every year ASDA recruited highly educated trainee officer in their organization. As well as they arranges graduate programmes for hunting talents to their organization. Moreover, they provide training for improving the skills of employees and prepared them to perform duties for next designation. There are so many others programs which has been conducted by ASDA such as communication with all levels of employees, stakeholders etc. Therefore, the HRM management of ASDA has got success in its operation by which organization achieves its strategic goals.
Human Resource Planning
2.1 The business factors that underpin human resource planning and the human resource requirements in an organization:
Tesco is considered as one of the Britain’s biggest and most profitable super market chain and according to the website of Tesco which states that “is the darling-of the City”.
Tesco PLC which is an overseas retailer that principal activity is retailing and associated activities in the UK, China, Czech Republic, Hungary, the republic of Ireland, India, Japan, Malaysia, Poland etc.
The main activity of the company is that of retailing, retailing service and financial services, retailing services which includes the company’s online shopping channels, Tesco.com, Tesco.direct, Tesco personal finance (TPF) and dunhumby which is consumer research business.
Tesco is 2nd largest super market in Europe and 4th largest in the World operates 2318 stores in twelve countries around the world and employs 326,000 people. According to Terry Lehy Tesco is market leader in six out of twelve countries it operates in with its largest stores not in Bristol or Birmingham but in Budapest. It operates 1878 stores in the UK, 261 stores in Europe and 179 stores across Asia and plans to open 184 stores worldwide over the next year.
In the UK there are 83 Tesco extra stores, 4447 Tesco super store, 161 Tesco Metro stores, 277 Tesco express stores and 910 recently acquired T & S stores to be converted. [http://www.corporatewatch.org.uk/?lid=252]
Recently Tesco has started business in petroleum named Tesco petroleum as well as it operates Tesco finance and Tesco CNG conversion. Every Tesco involve with so many accusation, joint venture, merger etc. locally and internally. As a part of these expansion activities Tesco maintains high standard of quality staff that have facilitated Tesco to operate its business successfully. However, the business factors that underpins the Human Resource of Tesco which are given below:
Human Resource planning is the term use to describe how companies ensure that their staffs are the right staff to do the jobs. Sub topics include planning for staff retention, planning for candidate search, training and skills analysis and much more.
Tesco has to consider some external factors such as supply and demand, labour market, image/goodwill, PESTEL, unemployment rate, housing, childcare, competitors, spouse/partner career, location etc. and internal factors such as recruitment policy, HR planning, size of the farm, cost of recruitment, travel time, recognition, temporary part time employees, work culture, growth and expansion, timeliness. [http://www.enotes.com/business/q-and-a/human-resource-planning-crutial-process-an-172645]
All part of these factors influence the Tesco in case of expanding its business locally and globally, but Human Resource management overtake these factors by its unique features such as training, motivating, recruiting, learning, coaching etc.
World is changing rapidly, where all the business organization has come to the global umbrella. Every year Tesco has to do so many accusation, mergers and joint ventures all over the world to fulfil the global needs of customers, but for these expanded business activities it requires thousands and thousands skilled employees who have proper local and global knowledge to handle the business swiftly.
For example, recently Tesco has started its operation in Asian countries while it requires some skilled people who have local knowledge of Asia, in terms of Asian Language, religion, culture, political and ethical matter. There also need a country director who has capability to lead the business in Asia with his strong hand. He must be well-known about Asian labour market, culture, political and legal situation as well as he should be capable enough to understand language of every people of that country. Manpower is the vital factor for Tesco to operate its business in Asia as it wants to penetrate the whole Asian market chronologically within next couple of years. As part of its activities they should be required to reserve some staffs to employ them in proper expansion. Furthermore, they should be needed for hiring some skilled employees from local organization to overcome competitive market in that environment. Tesco also should be considered employ some local employees by lower cost where they could be given the company better opportunity.
Expansion the business outlets which is the continuous process of ASDA as it tries to increase its outlets locally and globally every year, but for expanding its business HRM is the vital issue, because it ensures the overall expansion activities. As a part of that activities ASDA would be required to take following initiatives:

Recruiting highly educated employees as a fresh trainee officer.
Hiring highly experienced employees from others similar organization.
Recruiting staff to adapt with new environment.
Giving promotions to tolerate the new business outlets.
Recruiting highly experience CEO or Country Director specially for global expansion.

Therefore, the requirement of Human Resource is very important issue for Tesco to expand its business locally and globally. So, it should be aware about HR management through proper selection, recruiting, motivation, communications, trainings etc.
Development of a human resource plan and its contribution on the meeting of organizations objectives as well as purpose of human resource management policies and impact of regulatory requirements on this policies in organization
Human Resource development plan for an organization is the important issue to on how the organizations are managing their activities well in the market, this includes following steps:

Job analysis which identifies a job regarding specific roles and responsibilities and abilities, skills, qualifications need to perform the jobs successfully.
Human Resource planning which is the initiative through which an organization tries to ensure right number of qualified people in the right jobs at the right times.
Employee recruitment that is the way for seeking and attracting a pool of applicants from which qualified candidates can be selected for the organizations against of that job vacancy.
Employees selections which involves offer the employee for recruitments from the available candidates applied for this job.
Performance appraisal that is associated with identifying how well employees are performing their jobs, communicating that information to the employees and taking initiative for measurement their performance by their activities, i.e. arranging promotion for good performance.
Training and development which help employees learn how to perform their jobs, improve their performance and prepare themselves for more senior positions.
Career planning and development by which organization identifies employees career goals, possible future job opportunities and personal improvement by which it is ensured qualified employees are available when needed.
Employee motivation which is the vital factor for any organization which focuses to make employees productive and lower rates of absenteeism and turnover.
Every year Tesco collects so many bi-data from different sources from qualified applicant from which they select some people for recruitments. After recruiting they arrange training for fit themselves for their assign jobs. They also motivate staff by giving incentives, bonus, refreshment leave for motivation of employees, resulting a good employees structure for Tesco to implement its strategic goals.

Human Resource plan for an organization is the curse of action by which organization can manage its Human Resources efficiently and effectively by which achieve the organizations objectives. The role of Human Resource functions is explained by the key objectives to be achieved. The following diagram shows the role of Human Resources which is helped to organizational objectives.
Human resource plan can be contributed the organization for meeting its objectives by following ways:

It strengthens human resource structures which helps organization to utilize all of the efforts of human resource into the organization resulting to achieve strategic goals.
It keeps balance between management of employees & management of financial resources which brings results for the organization.
It helps organization to create skilled employment by which organization could expand its business locally & globally.

These activities help organization to involving acquisition, merger & joint venture etc. in the own country as well as for operating business in the international countries.
It ensures good practices for employees employment policies such as promotions, retention, rewards, punishments, health & safety rules & regulations which ensure the loyalty of employees towards the organization resulting to achieve organizational goals by these joint efforts.
Tesco, making a human resource plan to set up a highly skilled person in the branch as a manager by whom it monitored & implemented all of the activities in the operations levels. As a result, a lot of outlets which are giving service to customers resulting to achieve good turnovers which make sure the overall goals of tesco.[ According to my own research & company websites of tesco]
Purpose of human resource management policies in the organization is important factors that ensures the right, rules & regulations of employees for doing works in the organization.
Impact of regulatory requirements on human resource policies confirms the right of employees & employers. These policies focus to ensure the best practices of human resource management & achieve organizational goals by employing them. Human resource policies revive all the rights of employees by which the inspire to invest all of the merits & talents to the organization resulting to achieve of company’s long term goals. These policies include getting best employees in the company paying employees all benefits , ensuring training, ensuring compliance to regulation, implement fair, safe & equitable work environments, sustaining its performing employees & non- profit human resources.
All the policies mentioned above have unique features of its own by which organization can implement all of its strategic goals.
For example, Tesco, the largest superstore in UK which is assuring high standard products & services for customers through its performing team members while it reserves some rights for employees in the organization which has been sustained each employee management. According to part of that policies, Tesco maintains minimum national wages for employees, fixing up highly pay rates for its skilled employees where the arrange some training programmes, graduate programme, motivation, coaching, face to face discussion which has built its to make relationship with its employees. It also always aware about the health & safety policies of its employees as it ensures some free medical treatment, health & hygiene training for its employees for ensuring these policies. Tesco nowadays sustainable situation on human resource management. For proper human resource management gives Tesco power to bargain with customers, compete with rivals in price war, making bondage with its stake holders.
In an organization regulatory policies ensure discipline of organization because it limits it into its system as well as employees in their organizational activities. More over into increases the loyalties of employees towards employers resulting to achieve organizational goals. Furthermore, it teaches employees to be motivated, dedicative, energetic into their duties as well as ensures their present lives, future lives & family lives easier & happy. The important matter to consider that these factors protected everyone in the organizations from the discriminations in terms of age, sex, ethnic groups, dis ability etc. while it ensures equal opportunities for all levels of employees & making good relationship between employer & employees.
For example-When Tesco recruits people the meets these regulatory factors in their recruitment process as they make criteria for those people who are vulnerable for our society such as dis able, ethnic groups as well as they prioritize all levels of employees with their equal opportunities policies. In Tesco superstore who is working they do not know what is their origin of country, but they only know that they are the members of Tesco team which makes it very confident towards its staff management.
Reviewing Human Resource Management
4.1,4.2,4.3 : Impact of Organizational structure, culture and effectiveness on Human Resource Management: Organizational structure and Human Resource Management practices are two special factors involved in corporate entrepreneurship which achieve organizational goals. By selecting and implementing the appropriate structure and practices, Human Resource professional can systematically foster and facilities innovation and entrepreneurship within the organization. The more that new and different entrepreneurial activities are needed, the more that complete structural arrangement as well as policy and procedures flexibility are needed.
Proper organization structure is important for company to function effectively. Communicating clear paths of responsibility is key for a company to meet the needs the future growth as well as help in streaming the organization. The following diagram which shows the organizational structure for a company.
[http://www.edrawsoft.com/Human-Resource-Organizational-Chart.php]
There are some important points which are essential for the structure of an organization which is given below:
Organizational Chart: Organizational chart which is the ideal manner for mapping the organization. It is an instrument for assessing personnel and managing the work force effectively. An organization which needs to visualize the company’s structure in order to find out the role of each employee plays in the Human Resource chain.
Human Resource Software: Human Resource Software which assist management of Human Resources to take decisions for the following matter:

Succession Planning
Organizational development
Human Resource management
Corporate re-organization
Efficient management of resources.

An organizational chart is specialized tool used by Human Resources professionals to be able to get a solid picture of the organization. An organizational chart is generally deployed in situation when management wants to identify areas throughout the enterprise that present opportunities for downscaling also known as down sighing.
Organizational culture is the workplace environment formulated from the interaction of the employees in the work environment. It is defined by all of the life experiences, strengths, weakness, education, up-bringing and so forth of the employees, while executive leaders play a great role in defining organizational culture by their actions and leadership, all employees contribute to the organizational culture. [http://humanresources.about.com]
Organizational culture and its environment factors in which organization exist determines the way of managing the organization(Saffold,1988:547).The relationship between Organisational Culture and Human Resources practices can be explained as follows:
When the member of organization i.e. employees, understand and internationalized the organizational culture which can be said as the way things are done around here, it will enable for employee to choose strategy and behaviour that fit with their personality as well as with the main routines of organization activities.
Human Resource Management policies which directly influence and are influenced by Corporate Culture, also significantly impact supply chain members. That is, Human Resource decisions are important because when firms hire personnel that meld with their company culture, these actions enhance shared social knowledge and increase consistency between employee and firm goals (Wilkens &Ouchi 1983), shared social knowledge guides employees in making the right decision when confronted with novel situation(Weitz and Jap 1995). [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi-qua3705/is-2002o1/ai-n9060287/]
Organizational effectiveness depends on having the right people in the right jobs at the right time to meet rapidly changing organizational requirements. Right people can be obtained by reforming the role of Human Resource function.
According to Bratton, J&Gold.J(2003),Human Resource Management is defined as a Strategic approach to managing employment relations which emphasizes that leveraging peoples’ capabilities is critical to achieving sustainable competitive advantage, this being achieved through a distinctive set of integrated employment policies, programmes and practices.
According to this definition there is seen that Human Resource management should not merely handle recruitment, pay and discharging, but also should maximize the use of an organization human Resources in a most strategic levels.
Stuffing, training, compensation and performance management are basically important tools in the Human resources practices that shape the organizations role in satisfying the needs of its stakeholders. Team work among lower levels of staff and the management should be created and maintained to assisting various angles that would deem necessary in eliminating, communication breakdown and foster better relationship among workers. The management should emphasize a good corporate culture in order to develop employees and create a positive and conducive work environment.
In the summarization of Human Resource management there should have aim to capture ‘the people element’ of what an organization is hoping to achieve in the medium to long term, ensuring the following things:

It has the right people in place.
It has the right mix of skills.
Employees display the right attitude and behaviours, and
Employees are developed in the right way.

An organization which wants to achieve its goals it has to think before regarding the following Human Resource related issues in the organization:

Work force planning issues.
Succession planning.
Workforce skills plan.
Employment equity plans.
Black economic empowerment initiatives.
Motivation and fair treatment issues.
Pay levels designed to recruit, retain and motivate people.
The co-ordination of approaches to pay and grading across the organization to create alignment and potential unequal pay claims.
A grading and remuneration system which is seen as fair and giving proper reward for contributions made.
Wider employment issues which impact on staff recruitment, retention, motivation etc.

A consistent performance management framework which is designed to meet the needs of all sectors of the organization including its people. [http://ezinearticles.com/?human-resource-management-and-organizational-effectivenessandid=2844811]
Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of human resources management in an organization
Human Resource Management is the essential part of an organization as it ensures the strategic goals of organization. The effectiveness of Human Resource management could be improved by the following ways-

Recruiting and hiring highly educated and skilled employees for the organization.
Training and development of Human Resource plan for the organization.
Appraising the performance of employees for preparing them for performing jobs in the higher rank.
Motivating employees by giving incentives, bonus, rewards etc.
Strengthen communication among all levels of employees.
Maintaining regulator factors for employees such as health and safety, pension, promotion etc.
Maintaining equal opportunities system into the management.
Forming different committee to monitor and supervised the employees roles and regulations such as compensation committee, audit committee, ethic committee etc.
Ensuring job rotation and job analysis for each employee at different department.
Doing job enrichment for employees.

 

Human Trafficking in Post-Soviet States

Abstract: This inquiry seeks to establish the reasons for increased human trafficking after the fall of communism in former Soviet Union states. With the collapse of the Soviet regime, post-communist states observed a rapid increase of a trafficked persons. This increase is due to an array of factors, predominately the collapse of the current economic system and the dissolution of social programs. This paper explores these economic causes, as well the rise of informal economies and crime syndicates, routes, roles of prostitution, and victim demographics. It also identifies inadequacies with the absence of enforcement at the local and international level.
Keywords:
Eastern
Europe, human trafficking, illicit commodities, prostitution, Soviet Union
On November 23, 1989, the Berlin Wall fell to the hands of crowds of people, synonymous with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the fall of communism. Yet, as the ‘free’ world rejoiced in the ruins, the economic and socioeconomic factors involved in a post-communist transition led to a drastic increase in human trafficking. This demise of the socialist system occurred at the same time as the mass globalized breakdown of borders and social control. Coupled with an absence of a functional legal system, the emergence of black and gray markets, and lack of anti-trafficking efforts even decades later; modern slavery rose from the ashes in former communist states and continues to dominate the region.

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Overview
Slavery
is no longer sanctioned anywhere in the world, yet according to the U.S. State
Department (2014), an estimated 600,000 to 800,000 are trafficked every year;
moreover, there are 20 million victims of human trafficking worldwide that have
yet to be identified. According to S.X. Zhang’s Beyond the ‘Natasha’ Story – a critique of current research on sex
trafficking (2009, 179), over the
past 15 years human trafficking has gained wide attention, but with convoluted
policy definitions, little has been done to stem the tide of mass enslavement
worldwide. Although synonymous with sex industry, there are many facets to
human trafficking to include labor, trafficking of men and boys, and other
types of exploitation. The enormous size of the former USSR, together with the
lack of state controls over its citizens, allowed human trafficking to go
unchecked after the fall of Soviet communism.
Steven
Hook and John Spanier in American Foreign
Policy since World War II (2016, 26-27), explain that the USSR lacks
natural borders such as oceans or mountain, resulting in a vulnerability to
invasions from several directions. In such, Russia continually had to expand,
quelling continual rebellions and attacks from outside forces. Additionally,
according to Louise Shelly’s The Trade in
People in the Former Soviet Union (2003, 231-232), the illegal movement of
people could not have occurred in the former Soviet Union states, as the borders
were tightly sealed by individuals guarding perimeters, ports and airports. An
internal passport system ensured all citizens were registered with the police,
and employment was strictly controlled by the state. Moreover, individuals
without state sanctioned employment were strictly persecuted.
With
the sudden collapse of communism, these protections disappeared almost
overnight. Large scale immigration occurred through Russia from most, if not
all, territories that border former USSR states, most notably from Ukraine and
Moldova; all wanting to move through Western Europe to numerous places around
the world. Without adequate border protections, there was little done to stem
the tide of migrants. Soon, tales of success and opportunities flooded across
the borders as fast as migrants could cross them, with a significant number not
being illegitimate.
Smuggling vs. Trafficking
Although this
paper focuses on trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation, the
difference between smuggling and trafficking should be noted as these terms are
somewhat convoluted. There is a fundamental difference between human smuggling
and human trafficking. Louise Shelly (2003, 237-238) reiterates that both
trafficking and smuggling result in the mistreatment of individuals across
borders; yet smuggling is the voluntary contract that persons enter in order to
be moved across borders. The U.S. State Department (2014) describes human
trafficking as the movement of persons with the intent of committing commercial
sex acts, or to subject individuals to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt
bondage, or slavery. 
Smuggling is sometimes referred to as ‘facilitated migration’ which involves violations of states’ sovereignty laws. In many cases, these potential migrants sign some formal or informal contract with the intent of a destination abroad, in many cases in hopes for either work or a better life. Sadly, in the majority of cases, the smuggler will subject the individual to much worse conditions as previously advertised. Although there is a consensual relationship between the smuggler and victim, make no mistake, significant human rights violations have occurred. In contrast, in human trafficking, there is no consensual relationship. Trafficking routinely involves deception, coercion, abduction, fraud, debt bondage and abuses of power. Often, there are numerous threats of violence or even use of said violence (Shelly, 2003, 238). So, in a sense, trafficking and smuggling comes down to intent on the side of the facilitator, and in most cases there is a wide swath of gray area between the two and deception on many levels.
Economic Factors
The main
achievement of Soviet Communism was egalitarianism. According to Vladamir
Papava in Marxist Points of View on the
Soviet Communist System (1995, 29) this Marxist-Leninist ideology ensured
not only equality of income, but consistent income. Yet, as the Soviet Union boasted
free education, medical and low unemployment rates compared to their capitalist
counterparts, much of the population was still divided as more than 40 million
of its citizens lived in poverty. Moreover, the dissolution of the Soviet Union
brought economic uncertainty. John Round and Colin Williams in Coping with the social costs of
‘transition’: Everyday life in the post-soviet Russian and Ukraine (2010)
explain the effects of the breakdown of these social programs after the
disbanding of the Soviet Union. The move from a socialist system to the market
system had devastating effects on the society and economic livelihood of its constituents.
Many were left without work or wages and, combined with these newly independent
states, unable to fulfill their previous welfare promises. Additionally, hyper-inflation
eradicated savings and pensions, causing many to live below subsistence
minimums.          
At
the end of the Soviet period, many women were educated and nearly fully
employed with Marxist ideology resting on equality of both men and women. At
the height of communism, women were viewed not as sexual objects but encouraged
to be part of the working class, due to of equal access to education and
socialized healthcare. Although excluded from positions within the Party
itself, women were an integral part of society and the workforce. Yet, with the
fall of communism, this ideological commitment to the equality of women
vanished. Social economic planning disappeared nearly overnight and the
economic transitions removed a majority of the social safety nets that directly
targeted the poor, especially women. Billions of dollars left the country and
many businesses were privatized causing the legacy of full employment for women
to vanish; yet, not relieving them of their financial responsibility (Shelly,
2003, 232-233). 
The
privatization of businesses did not fully assisted in the rise of significant
unemployment, as bureaucratic red tape was placed in front of benefit claimants
and even lower levels of unemployment benefits reflected the lack of resilience
in the economy. From 1991 to 1993, the average wage was reduced by half and low
pay became common for jobs within the state sector; moreover, once prominent
positions such as teachers, medical staff, and state bureaucrats wages were subsequently
reduced as well (Shelly, 2003, 234). According to Lehmann and Terrell in The Ukrainian Labor Market in Transition:
Evidence from a New Panel Data Set (2006), by the mid-nineties almost 10%
of wages were delayed at least a month, while some went unpaid altogether. At first,
many individuals continued to work in the same profession in hopes to see some
payment recommence; yet, as these wages continued to be unpaid, people were
forced to find alternative work for less pay.
Compounding
the problem of low income was the failing social protectionist systems. As time
passed, requirements for social programs increased and numbers of those receiving
benefits decreased. By the mid-nineties only 9 percent of the Russians and Ukrainians
were entitled to medical benefits (Lehmann and Terrell, 2006, 197) and 33
percent of the Russians were living well below the subsistence figures
(Braithwaite, 1997). Eventually, benefit amounts would became so low, it was
not worth the time trying to obtain them. Housing was another issue, as the
state passed on repairs to the individual, evicting those unable to
collectively pay for repairs. High prices for goods and services increased,
leading to the beginnings of informal economies in post-Soviet Union states
(Round et al, 2008).
Informal Economies
With the collapse
of Soviet style communism and the transitioning to the market economy legalized
shadow parasitism immediately replaced the economic methods of management.
Attempting to develop shadow enterprises and legalize all forms of economic
methods, black and gray markets stimulated individual labor activities and
movements of labor (Papava, 1995, 29).
Informal
economic behavior was not a new spectacle during Soviet Union Era, as access to
goods and services for nominal items, such as car repair or a pressure cooker, required
a lengthy wait. As Round and Williams (2006, 185-192) explain, there was little
to buy in shops, charging people for informal services to bypass shortages
which rose in the post-Soviet life as the economy ground to a halt. This, in
turn, started the development of a network of favors to be called upon for
future use. Moreover, with the introduction of market-style economies to the
Soviet Block, the monetization of these behaviors was introduced. Such
practices occur the world over, the difference between post-Soviet countries is
their importance to everyday life. Many of these activities had little or no
illegal implication to them including teachers instructing English to rich patrons
after school hours, selling domestically grown food, or childcare and cleaning
(Papava, 1995, 29). None the less, these practices were used as a coping
mechanism for economic marginalization and were slowly accepted as part of
normal society.
Employers
soon tolerated such practices, believing that if they did not, it would result
in the loss of staff. It was accepted that managers would be operating their
own scheme, turning a blind eye or playing with the figures they report to the
state. In fact, employers used a number of strategies to ensure profitability.
Commonly involving paying a certain percentage of payment in cash or
circumventing payroll taxes; but, also a massive system of bribes with state
officials ensuring longevity of their contracts historically funded with state
funds (Round and Williams, 2006, 187). These networks led to the Russian
proverb of, “It is better to have 100 friends, than 100 rubles.”
These
networks, connections and ‘friends’ became important in everyday life. In fact,
they were arguably of greater importance since these informal economies
survived the economic transition much better than traditional economies. Moreover,
as these black market economies became more prevalent after the fall the USSR,
as they were already an integral part of society for quite some time (Rodgers
et al, 2008, 189). In the remote area of Magadan, Russia, little of the state
resources from Moscow ever made it to the far north east. Coping practices were
enacted, mainly in the domestic growing of food to ensure survival through the
winter. Establishing networks was essential for the regions livelihood, and the
expansion of the areas own trade routes were developed.
As
markets for these corrupt systems expanded, a globalization of black market
practices stretched with it. No longer were they limited to an extra pint of
vodka or a few grams of cheese. According to Louise Shelly’s Crime and Corruption: Enduring Problems of
Post-Soviet Development (2003) this corruption expanded to almost all
reaches of both the domestic and government life within the Soviet Union; peaking
with the economic development of Russia. Soon, World Bank and IMF finance
transfers never reached their targets, either diverted internally or
transferred to offshore accounts. Both capital flight and money laundering not
only deprived Russia of any possibility of investing in any type of
infrastructure; it limited former Soviet Union states’ ability to maintain the
quality of their own social service institutions, further compounding the
corruption and black market issues.
Globalized Crime Syndicates
Eventually, a
system of front companies, trust agreements, and other vehicles to hide wealth
materialized. The corrupt and criminalized elite of the soviet successor states
were the major beneficiaries of the globalized economy. Moreover, this allowed
post-Soviet organized criminals to become major players in international
organized crime. In fact, they acquired notoriety because of such a diversity
of activities, global reach of their operations, links to network of organized
crime groups tied by former communist states, and the sheer volume of their
activity and goods that were smuggled back and forth. Initially involving the
weapons trade and massive money laundering, many of these criminal enterprises
expanded to a full range of illicit activities from many regions in both Europe
and Asia.
In
the Far East, post-Soviet criminal organizations initially traded in natural
resources such as fish and timber as state oversight was limited. This
eventually led to a partnership between criminal organizations with Japan, the
Koreas, China and Vietnam that expanded from natural resources to drugs,
weapons, and eventually human trafficking. Drug trafficking became prevalent
because of proximity to, and former contacts with Afghanistan. This would
eventually lead to large scale human trafficking from the Indian subcontinent,
Afghanistan and Pakistan into to Western Europe. Many of those trafficked initially
though just Russia and the Ukraine, but eventually all former Soviet states and
then European states were involved in the criminal organizations. These
networks would expand and continue to be an enduring issue worldwide.
Traffickers
and smugglers linked internationally, allowing them to enforce their contracts
across borders regardless on their legitimacy. Individuals were unable to run
from their agreements, and in the case of post-Soviet crime groups, often having
their families threatened with retaliation. Traffickers used a variety of
techniques to avoid detection, encouraging rapid communications with the use of
encoded phone conversations and encrypted email. In fact, as technology has
improved, the means of exporting people has improved along with it (Shelly,
2003, 222-224).
According
to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and NEXUS Institute joint
publication titles Traffickers and
Trafficking: Challenges in researching human trafficker and trafficking
operations (2014, 28-29), the term ‘trafficking’ is a huge category
covering an enormous range of characteristics. Depending on the national and
cultural settings, some traffickers may be individual entrepreneurs, sophisticated
organized crime syndicate, or just opportunistic amateur criminal organizations
trading in persons as well as other illicit commodities. Moreover, there are
actors on the periphery of trafficking who are not normally categorizes as
traffickers. For example, lawyers, tax consultants, financier or investors,
accountant, travel guides and companions, visa/passport/border officials,
corrupt public officials, nightclub owners, brothel operators, etc. Any persons
involved in aspects of human trafficking are just a chain in a link.
Transit and Routes
Mapping changed after
1990 in Eastern Europe, and in regards to trafficking, made it a more difficult
task to track. According to Nicole Lindstrom in Regional Sec Trafficking in the Balkans: Transnational Networks in an
Enlarged Europe (2004), measuring the volume, scope, and patterns of human
trafficking is extremely difficult as traffickers are very flexible and can
quickly make minor changes to routes, changes in supply and demand, or evading enforcement
measures.  Moreover, in the 1990’s there
was also conflicts arising in Yugoslavian states. Chris Corrin’s Transitional Road for Traffic: Analyzing
Trafficking in Women from and Through Central and Eastern Europe (2005,
549-551) points out that trafficking went unobserved due to mass movement
transitions for other reasons. New borders were erected through succession, region
autonomy by minorities and movement of people for reasons ranging from:
‘voluntary’ mass exodus to ‘ethnic cleansing’ and forced assimilation through
means of military entities. Yet, this movement because of military conflict, generating
new routes for trafficking in women as former Yugoslavian states became the new
destination for prostitutes; whereas the demand originated from military and
international staff.
Out of this, two major trafficking patterns emerged: one originating from Moldova, Romania and Ukraine through the northern routes of Romania, Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. The second route is identified through Kosovo, Albania, Macedonia and Montenegro to Italy and then onward to other Western European countries. Additionally, the smuggling in young men for sexual purposes primarily involves Iran, Iraq and Tunisia, passing through Eastern then Western European countries (Corrin, 2005, 550-551).
Trafficking flows within Europe showed patterns of continuity and change as sex markets expanded. According to the International Organization for Migration’s Journey of Jeopardy: A Review of Research on trafficking in Women and Children in Europe (2002, 26-27) in some areas, law enforcement activities or political circumstance reinforced controls in other areas. Additionally, some flows of immigration took advantage of the geographical proximity of both source and destination countries such as Greece, Italy, and the Scandinavian countries from the Baltic countries. Moreover, other immigration flows are more far-reaching such as Russian and Ukrainian women, who are trafficked to more than 40 countries. Additionally, almost 75% of all women from former Soviet Union countries end up in either Western Europe or the United States, even to this day.
Preferred routes were dependent on visa requirements, length of porosity of borders, links among trafficking networks, and effectiveness of law enforcement efforts. Women are normally taken across borders in groups using a combination of legal and illegal channels. Over the years, documentation is becoming increasingly more available as markets for trafficking have increased (IOM, 2002, 29).
Victims and Recruitment
In general,
victims of human trafficking tend to be those of marginalized groups such as
the unemployed, homeless, prostitutes and orphans. Yet, according to Yuliya
Tverdova in Human Trafficking in Russian
and Other Post-Soviet States (2011, 336-337) those from the former Soviet states
differed. Although those from the Eastern European states still resided in desperate
economic situations, many also had college degrees. The two major explanations
for this are that post-communist economic transition affected all levels of
social groups including the highly educated; little knowledge of life outside
of the Soviet Union was unknown. Due to these isolationist policies of the
communist states, the view Western Europe countries changed from ‘evil’ to that
of economic prosperity.          
Historically, women have been trafficked that same way for decades, with former Soviet states being no different. Brice De Ruyver and Kristof Van Impe in Trafficking in Women Through Poland: Analysis of the Phenomenon, Causes of Transmigration and Proposals to Tackle the Problem (2001) explain that women were typically recruited through deceptive measures, and led to believe that traveling and working abroad could result in earning large amounts of money in a short amount of time. In some cases, the incentive of marriage could result in a different life or lifestyle. Recruitment differed depending on the trafficker and the nature of the organization. Larger scale organizations tended to have semi-legal fronts which used systematized recruiting efforts such as newspapers and employment agencies, whereas small scale organizations use more informal methods.
The most common recruitment methods uses deceptive job offers which range from domestic work to dancers made through advertisements, employment agencies or model agencies. Although there is widespread rumor of forced recruitment and kidnappings, in reality, less than 10% of those trafficked were forced. Moreover, there have been indications of Russian gangs using fake marriage agencies to target women for recruitment as a legitimate foundation for cross border trafficking. Additionally, there have been reports of people just outright buying people, having them delivered by their relatives (OMI, 2002, 30-33).
Demographic wise, according to Oguzhan Demir and James Finckenauer’s Sex Trafficking Around the World: Victims of Sex Trafficking in Turkey: Characteristics, Motivations, and Dynamics (2010, 59-60), in general younger women and children were more likely be targeted, as they are the easiest to be exploited and levels out around the age of 25. Children are more likely to be exploited than older women in regards sexual exploitation. A study by the IOM (2002) looked at seven major European Union countries, coming to the conclusion that in many cases, trafficking in children was likely higher from families with alcoholic parents, parents with health problems, and families with authoritarian characters. This is in addition to financial and educational inequalities across the board, as almost 75% of those trafficked came from poor families abroad.
Survivors of human trafficking were often threatened by the traffickers themselves, but also faced rejection by their families and communities for their involvement. Regardless of their condemnation and trauma of former trafficked individuals, many made multiple attempts to find work abroad. In many cases, the few that did escape force prostitution or bondage returned home, only to face the same conditions and lack of prospects that led those to look for work outside their country in the first place. Even those who do escape, little is done to the traffickers themselves, because of the compartmentalization nature of trafficking. Moreover, relief groups and organizations are drastically underfunded; offering only limited and temporary financial support, medical and psychological services, or legal assistance. Without the means for legal or temporary residency, a job, residence, or financial help, many have no other place to turn than back to the traffickers themselves (Tverdova, 2011, 338).
Counter-Trafficking Efforts
Today, it is
accepted that Russia and most of its former Soviet satellite states have a serious
trafficking problems. Lauren McCarthy in Beyond
Corruption: An Assessment of Russian Law Enforcement’s Fight Against Human
Trafficking (2009, 8-12) explains that human trafficking has turned into an
exhibition of transnational organized crime. Of all the reasons for the poor
performance, corruption continues top the list; yet, not the reason for lack of
enforcement.
Human trafficking is a difficult crime to investigate, as it remains hidden from view. Although the victims cross sovereign borders, in many cases, law enforcement agencies cannot. Additionally, victims knowingly cross borders illegally, and are hesitant to provide information for fear of reprisal or admittance of guilt. Even if information is provided by the victims, for the information to cross borders it must use time consuming and cumbersome bureaucracy. Additionally, in the case of Russia, law enforcement personnel have been known to enrich themselves and protect their jobs rather than to protect the public. Corruption has been identified as a major factor; with protection money and free use of the prostitutes as just two of the modes that traffickers use to circumvent laws. Additionally, these trafficking syndicates routinely use bribed government officials for travel paperwork
Moreover, the entire system of promotions within law enforcement organizations comes into play. Since promotions, and sometimes even employment, is based on statistics; law enforcement members tend to only take cases they know will end in convictions. Moreover, in many cases, trafficking is only identified while investigating another crime, causing issue of primacy in regards to which organization leads the investigation. In the case of more than one organization, there is little or no incentive to follow a case through by those not ultimately getting credit. Additionally, evidence shared between organizations has caused numerous issues once the crimes go to trial. Trafficking is a crime composed of many elements, each which can appear as its own standalone crime, and decisions as to who investigates are almost always in question.
Issues in Defining Trafficking
According to Scharie
Tavcer in The Trafficking of Women for
Sexual Exploitation: The Situation from the Republic of Moldova to Western
Europe (2006) trafficking does not occur in a vacuum and is the result of a
series of consecutive acts and circumstances involving a wide range of actors. Trafficking
has been defined differently depending on state, region, and even non-government
agency. While some countries have specific laws targeting trafficking, others
consider it part of some other charge.
Some states regard trafficking as a human rights violation against women, only prosecuting for elements of fraud from the paperwork involved or illegal entry. Others are unable to separate trafficking and prostitution. However, when this is compounded with both a migration issue and a difference in ideology when comparted to different states, there seems to be a variety of results. Some even perceive the state as the victim as opposed the trafficked women, while others are prosecuted with crimes against prostitution, which in some cases, is not illegal. In the case of prostitution, these different practices among countries make it all more the difficult when regulation practices are combined with international protocol measures, cross border agreements, or even the vast definitions of trafficking. Some countries see trafficking as merely an organized crime issue.
In terms a common unified definition of trafficking, it has yet to be agreed upon. While a majority accept the United Nations Convention and subsequent Protocol[1] definition of human trafficking; lacking is a unified mandate. Moreover, many of the actual portrayals of trafficking in the aforementioned conventions are either outdated or non-responsive to actual current trafficking strategies. Different agencies match their definition of trafficking to match their goals. Yet without a unified meaning, varying definitions between both government, agencies, and even prevention and information campaigns has led to a lack of prosecutable structure.
Conclusion
Today in the 21st
century human trafficking remains immensely more profitable than any other
illicit commodity. According to Siddharth Kara in Supply and Demand: Human Trafficking in the Global Economy (2011),
today’s trafficked person sell for the global weighted average of $420 US
dollars, and can generate between 300 to 500 percent in annual return on
investment. Furthermore, in terms of risk, laws against human trafficking have
relatively short prison sentences and little or no monetary penalties. Although
there are few legal disincentives for human trafficking, there remains the
supply side of trafficking, especially in former Soviet Union states. The same
factors which enable the crime syndicates in the first place are still embodied
in society. Factors such as poverty, lawlessness, social instability, military
conflict, environmental disaster, corruption, and acute bias of the female
gender have only encouraged the trafficking process and numbers.
Until the heavy corruption that both Russia and other former USSR states is dealt with or a unification of both ideology and law against trafficking including all parts involved, little will be done to stem the tide of this illicit commodity tied to slavery. Strategies that are normally used to combat illicit commodities cannot be used against trafficking, as a systematic government sanctioning of the flooding of markets, carries a certain moral dilemma. Until the global community establishes legal norms against trafficking or applies pressure on countries and industries that are known to promote it, little will be done.
Moreover,
the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR),
estimated the movement of somewhere between 700,000 and 1.2 million persons to
EU countries in 2015, with an estimate of 3 million projected to make the trip
in 2016. Believing that all of these people are in need of asylum or from war
torn countries is naive at best. Various organizations will be using this ‘open
arms’ policy as just another measure for movement of trafficked individuals.
With few safeguards, measures, or screening operations; incidents like this
will only further exasperate the issue of human trafficking issue, as it again
is places on the back burner for some other social cause. With this, fewer
resources will be expended in its enforcement and society will continue to turn
a blind eye.
References
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Christ. (2005). Transitional Road for Traffic: Analyzing Trafficking in Women
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Lauren. (2009). Beyond Corruption: an Assessment of Russian Law Enforcement’s Fight
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Peter, Round, John, and Williams, Colin. (2008). Everyday tactics and spaces of
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Everyday life in the post-Soviet Russia and Ukraine. European Urban and Regional Studies 17(2): pp 183-196.
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Louise. (2003). Crime and Corruption: Enduring Problems of Post-Soviet
Development. Demokratizatsiya 11(3): pp 110-114.
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Louise. (2003). The Trade in People in and From the Former Soviet Union. Crime, Law & Social Change 40:
231-249.
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Scharie. (2006). The Trafficking of Women for Sexual Exploitation: The
Situation from the Republic of Moldova to Western Europe. Police Practice and Research 7(2): pp 135-147.
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[1] Protocol to
Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Person, Especially Women and
Children. Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational
Organized Crime
 

Impact Made By Human Resource Management Practices Commerce Essay

The best human resource practices are always concentrated on knowledge management. In recent years, Knowledge Management has emerged as one of the prime concerns of human resource Management Performance of organizations is the focus of intensive research efforts. How well an organization performs its mission and accomplishes its goals of program service delivery is the measure of all things. Administrative capacity is a major component of this performance. Administrative capacity, which is, a resource-based view of an organization, focuses on factors that are actually within the power of the organization to change. Improving administrative capacity and, especially, improving those aspects of capacity that deal with human capital, offer the most promise for peak performance.

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The importance of HRM has increased these days as the organization’s objectives can only be achieved with the co-operation of the people working in the organization. Human Resource Management is the heart and essence of being a HR manager, the nearest analogy to the human body. HRM is not the brain, the controller, nor only just a limb, a member, nor yet the bloodstream – the energizing force. It is the nervous system – the line channel, inherent in the whole body and intimately connected with every movement.
The human resource department should arrange for training not only of new employees but also of old employees to update their knowledge in the use of latest techniques of production. Training is also provided to the existing employees to prepare them for promotion to higher posts. Training and development of personnel is a follow up of selection. It is the duty of management to train each employee properly to develop technical skills for the job for which he has been employed and also to develop him for the higher jobs in the organization which will also lead to achieve organizations long term goals and objectives.
2.0 A BRIEF REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Selection and organisation effectives
There has been a growing interest in establishing that selection procedure and the human capital attracted by an organisation have an impact on organisation level out come such as profitability and productivity studies have also attempted to so what combinations of human resource intervention, as well as other organizational input have such impact .early approaches that examined the impact of selection decision practices at the organizational level did so in isolation of other human resource (HR) functions (eg:- Terpstra and Rozell 1993) these studies were soon replaced by studies looking at the effect of multiple HR functions (Huseild 1995)and specific combinations of functions, sometimes thought to represent ‘high -performance work system'(Becker and huselid)
(I) it is not productive to consider HR functions or human capital in other aspect of the organization or even of the society in which the organization function. Most representative of this position is the work of (Lepak and Snell 2002)who describe configuration of HR activities that are most often associated with particular types employment modes (i.e. Knowledge-based, Job-based, contract work, and alliance or partnership)
(II) Successful organisation or system must have human capital (knowledge, skills, and abilities) the social capital (process, technology, and databases) to be successful. Firm must have developed practice that motivates people. This resource-based view (wright et al.2001 a) and a more theoretical view of firm performance, strategy, and the role of human resources appear to be the direction in which this area of the study is now headed. Finally,(wright et al 2005) show that HR practice are strongly related to future performance assumption that HR practice cause organisation performance rather then the reverse, or that both are caused by some external variable.
(The oxford handbook of HRM Peter Boxall, John Purcell, Patrick Wright; page303)
2.2 Tanning and organisation effectives
The training is seen as a key instrument in the implementation of HRM policies and practices, particularly those involving culture change and the necessity of introducing new working practice. Of equal importance in the training process is the recognition of individual needs. These may, however, clash with organisation needs, and it is crucial to harmonise these demands, to the mutual benefit of both parties. The first most vital step in a Human resource development plan is to analyse the training needs of the organisation in relation to its strategy. And equal these with the needs of the individuals within it. Proposals were then made as to how this might be effected, including the use of various forms of analysis job requirements and personal performance. A choice of methods was then outlined, which fell into the basic categories of on- the -job and off-the-job training, followed by the equally important consideration of who was to deliver the training. . (Ian Beardwell Holden HRM contemporary approach page: 326 chapters 8)
Example 3
British companies seemed to be taking training more seriously (saggers 1994).the price water house cranfield project surveys indicate that training and staff development is the leading issue for most personal department across Europe, including the uk (Brewster and Hegewisch, 1993).
This growing awareness of the importance of training over the past decade was also supported by reports that employers were spending more in aggregate terms on training activities (Training Agency, 1989) however, the measurement of training expenditure is still controversial, and those figures that do exist are open to question, interpretation and political manipulation (Finegoal, 1991; Ryan, 1991)
Theories of training are based on theories of learning since training effectiveness is measured by the extent to which the individuals concerned learn what they need to know, can do what they need to do ,and adopt the behaviours intended; i.e. the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Cognitive learning, related to the understanding and use of new concepts (knowledge), may be contrasted with behavioural learning related to the physical ability to act (skill). welford (1968:12-13)who defined skill as combination of factors resulting in ‘competent, expert, rapid and accurate performance’, regarded this is equally applicable to manual operations and mental activities.welford’s (1968,1976)work demonstrates how actions are selected and coordinated at different levels of skilled performance and the conditions of practice and training that facilities the acquisition and the involving
(1) A cognitive phase of understanding the nature of the task and how it should be
Performed
(2) An associative phase involving in puts linked more directly to appropriate actions
And reduced interference from outside demands: and finally
(3) An autonomous phase when actions are ‘automatic’ requiring no conscious
Control.
(The oxford handbook of HRM Peter Boxall, John Purcell, Patrick Wright; page329)
Organization functioning consists of 3 broad identified events – inputs – transformational process – outputs. How are inputs converted to outputs depends on the functioning of the organization.
The core finding of organization goal-setting is that under certain conditions, specific, difficult goals lead to higher levels of performance than easy goals or vague goals (Locke and Latham, 1990). One of the most frequently cited conditions necessary for the goal-performance relationship is that employee must possess the requisite commitment to achieving the organizations goal. In short, no motivational effects will occur from goal-setting, if there is no commitment to the goal.
Example 1
Human resource management practices of Bangladesh Orion infusion limited (Oil). oil is a highly professionally managed organizations .a team of skilled professionals has been dedicating their efforts in order to achieve the corporate Objectives. (Annual report Orion infusion lid financial year 2005-2006)
‘Goal commitment represents an employee’s attachment to or determination to reach a goal (Locke, Latham, and Erez, 1988), embodying both the strength of one’s intention to zzreach a goal and the unwillingness to abandon or lower a goal over time. Two reviews (Hollenbeck and Klein, 1987; Locke, Latham, and Erez, 1989) highlight the central importance of goal commitment in the goal-setting process. (Locke and Latham 1990) point out that organization goal commitment’s impact on the goal-setting process is reduced when goal conflict is present. However, the few research studies dealing with goal conflict have evidenced consistent results. In addition only one study (Locke, Smith, Erez, Chah, and Schaffer, 1994) directly measured organizations goal conflict among employees.’
Example 2
IBM starts by understanding key workforce performance challenges identifying the Leading human resources practices used to overcome these challenges and helping Companies improve their own human capital management (IBM.com/bcs/Human capital)
ANALYSIS
Yes, HRM practices such as staff selectivity and training can have a positive impact on firm’s performance and use of effective HRM policies will lead to organizations goals and objectives.
“The main objective of staff selection is to attract people with multidimensional skills and experience that suits the present and future org strategies with a new prospective to lead the company where it will infuse fresh blood at all levels and to develop an org culture that attracts competent people to the company and to search or head hunt people whose skills fit the companies values”
Erik Vettor, “A process by which an organisation ensures hat it has the right number and kinds of people at the right place, at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will aid the organization in achieving its overall objectives”
(Employee Resourcing Stephen Taylor 1998)
Example 4
Intel Technologies India conveys that”at Intel, a manager’s main job is to take care of his employee’s career development”
Selection process is the system of functions and devices adopted to ascertain whether the candidate’s specifications are matching with the job requirement. It is the process of identifying right employee at the right time. Selection involves three distinct but not mutually exclusive stages – recruitment, selection and placement
Hiring process can be successful if someone should have the authority to hire with high standards of the personnel should be established against which a candidate can be compared e.g… Job description or job specifications also sufficient number of applicants from who required number of employees can be selected.
Example 5
Infosys company technologies – it is role based organisation, i.e. every position is defined in terms of skills – attitude – based competencies.
Combining human resource practices with a focus on the achievement of organizational goals and objectives can have a substantial effect on the ultimate success of the organization. Resource-based theory posits that competitive advantage and the implementation of plans is highly dependent upon an organization’s basic inputs, including its human capital (Wernerfelt, 1984; Barney, 1991; Boxall, 1996). Research on strategic human resource management (SHRM) offers empirical support that this relationship enhances productivity (Fitz-Enz, 1994; Delery and Doty, 1996; Ulrich, 1997).
Example 6
Microsoft company how the businesses that are run with common goods and vision make money for their investors and employees. Microsoft has done for its employees. And how well the HRM have been able to align the work culture to the business strategy to achieve goals and objective.
“Impact of human resource management practices on nursing home performance” by
(Kent V. Rondeau and Terry H. Wager) reports on empirical findings from research that examines the relationship between HRM practices, workplace climate and perceptions of organizational performance, in a large sample of Canadian nursing homes.
In the healthcare industry, as in most other service industries, the interaction between patients and healthcare service providers (professionals and other employees) is an integral part of the service process (Conway & Willcocks 1997, Benbassat & Taragin 1998). HCOs should be encouraged to take the role of the patient into consideration in the healthcare service process, and in order to achieve high quality service (White 1999) respond to patients’ needs and expectations. Another issue that is likely to challenge HCO management is the central role played by employees in SQ achievement. White (1995) reported cooperation between employees and managers as the key to providing high quality care, because it can compensate for the constraints imposed by cost containment and managed care. In pursuit of this objective, management might seek to implement progressive HRM practices that encourage service oriented behaviour and show concern for employees’ organisational and personal needs.
Furthermore, knowing how employees perceive HRM practices may shed light on how customers service process (Schneider & Bowen 1985). Indeed, a study (Mallak, Lyth, Olson, Ulshafer & Sardone 2003) that was undertaken in two hospitals (a main hospital and a satellite hospital in the USA) showed a positive and significant correlation between employee job satisfaction and patient satisfaction. Service oriented logic is demonstrated by alignment between the service concept and employee perception. In contemporary progressive institutions this can be done by shaping practices in a way that emphasises service orientation and creates a climate for service (Schneider & Chung 1996) as well as adopting HRM practices that employees perceive as positive and considerate (Schneider & Bowen 1993, Gilson, Palmer & Schneider 2005). It is likely that such institutions will be reflected in employees’ attitudes and behaviour, which will be demonstrated in the way employees serve their customers. This potential added value of HRM practices lies in their ability to create a foundation for a work environment that encourages SQ in service organisations, given that quality and productivity in such organisations depend, to a great extent, on employee behaviour (Zerbe, Dobni & Harel 1998).
Example 7
Across 590 firms in the us progressive HRM practice, including selectivity in Staffing, training and incentive compensation are positively related to perceptual measures of organization performance, these effects were similar in profit and none profit organizations.
Some studies that were conducted in service organisations corroborated the proposition of a positive relationship between employees’ perceptions of HRM practices and customers’ rating of organisational effectiveness (Schneider & Bowen 1993, Schneider & Chung 1996). The HRM practices that were chosen to be examined in this study are: leadership and supervision; training; compensation; promotion and career development; and feedback and recognition. These practices were chosen for three main reasons. First, these HRM practices are consistent with the universalistic view (e.g., Pfeffer 1994). Because they are approach oriented, some High Performance Work Practices (HPWP) enhances organisational performance and is appropriate for all firms (Tzafrir 2006). And according to the universalistic perspective, organisations from different sectors, across industries, and through different time periods are likely to benefit by using these HPWP (Delery & Doty 1996). Second, these practices could be valuable in achieving SQ for two reasons: (1) by providing the required knowledge for high quality service provision, and (2) through enhancing employee motivation to provide customers with high quality service. Last, the chosen HRM practices are related to the dimension of employees’ trust in their managers (Mayer, Davis & Schoorman 1995).
Employees in organisations that are characterised by high levels of service view the organisational leadership as putting a strong emphasis on meeting customer needs and delivering excellence in service through clearly stated goals and objectives (Pugh, et al. 2002). Leadership and supervision may contribute to SQ in two ways. Initially, from the knowledge based aspect, managers, by being responsive to employees’ questions and concerns and providing them with the information necessary to promote high quality service, can enhance the quality of service given by employees (Schneider & Bowen 1985, Boselie & van der Wiele 2002). And secondly, from the motivational based aspect, the way managers treat staff affects employees’ feelings of being valued, thereby affecting their morale and motivation to act according to the managers’ expectations.
Training is also a recognised essential component of high performance work systems. From the knowledge perspective, such service workers should be trained to identify and resolve problems, to promote changes in work methods and to take responsibility for quality. Adequate training enables the generation of a work force that is multi skilled, adaptable to rapid changes and has wide conceptual knowledge of the production system (Pfeffer 1998). From the motivational perspective, it is reasonable that employees would feel valued by the organisation that chooses to invest in their professional development. Positive perceptions of training are associated with employees’ perceptions of the organisation as having a strong service orientation (Schneider & Bowen 1993).
Example 8
NASSCOM (National Association of Software and Services Companies), the Indian IT corporate training market is expected to yield approximately £80 million within the year of 2010 (Naukhri, 2007). Nevertheless, Singh, (2004), argues that many organisations in India still view Training and Development as only a need-based activity and treat as an expensive activity to frequently invest in. Hence, views about Training and Development activities are thus divided in Indian organisations which indicate both differences and similarity of perceptions of Indian and UK firms towards such activities.
Compensation is another important facet of organisational success. First, it is a concern of equity and fairness. Employees whom expend more efforts and creativity in doing their job and see that their results benefit the employer will expect remuneration in exchange for their efforts. If employees do not receive any appreciable return, it is reasonable to expect that they will stop trying. Second, contingent compensation serves as a motivational tool, because employees know that they will share in the results of their work (Pfeffer 1998). Therefore, a compensation system based on excellence will result in increased employee performance (Boselie & van der Wiele 2002). Internal equity of compensation was found to be related to employees’ perceptions of the organisation as having a strong service orientation (Schneider & Bowen 1993).
“More recent empirical study on HRM practices (Lee & Lee, 2007) ‘business performance, namely training and development, teamwork, compensation/incentives, HR planning, performance appraisal, and employee security help improve firms’ business performance including employee’s productivity, product quality and firm’s flexibility. This study reveals that three items of HRM practices influence business performance: training and development, compensation/incentives, and HR planning. However, some other researches also show that certain HRM practices have significant relationship with operational (employee’s productivity and firm’s flexibility) and quality performance outcomes (Chang and Chen, 2002; Ahmad and Schroeder, 2003; Kuo, 2004 Sang, 2005). These research evidence shows that effective HRM practices can have positive impact on business performance”.
Using data from 197 Taiwanese high-tech firms Chang and Chen (2002) conducted a comprehensive study to evaluate the links between HRM practices and firm performance. This study reveals that HRM practices including training and development, teamwork, benefits, human resource planning, and performance appraisal have significant effect on employee productivity. This study also found benefits and human resource planning have negative relationship with Employee turnover.
To generalize the efficacy of seven HRM practices by Pfeffer (1998) Ahmad and Schroeder’s (2003) found the seven HRM practices such as employment security, selective hiring, use of teams and decentralization, Compensation/incentive contingent on performance; extensive training, status difference and sharing information have significant relationship with operational performance. Kuo (2004) adopted 11 HRM practices found that employment Security, team working and incentive compensation are regarded as three of the main practices for impacting hospital performance.
Example 9
Malaysian private business organization really not practicing HRM into their business (Chew, 2005). It is unclear on how to change the mindset of the Malaysian business organization practicing HRM into their businesses. In order to understand what influence business performance as well we must first find out the HRM practices that are (International Journal of Business and Management June, 2009)
Influencing business performance. Therefore, it is replicated with references to the HRM practices related research in developed countries. In this study six factors have identified and they are training and development, teamwork, compensation/incentives, HR planning, performance appraisal, and employee security.
HRM as a means of achieving management objectives – at least in enterprises which have recognized, or have been compelled to recognize, the utilization of the human resource in achieving competitive edge – becomes clear from an examination of four important goals of effective HRM. HRM is closely linked to motivation, leadership and work behaviour. An enterprise’s policies and practices in these areas have an impact on whether HRM contributes to achieving management goals.
The second is the goal of commitment, which involves identification of the type of
Commitment sought e.g. attitudinal, behavioural. Commitment could be to the organization, to the job, to career advancement. Commitment could be seen as acceptance of enterprise values and goals, and could be reflected in behaviour which seeks to further these goals. Thus: “The theoretical proposition is therefore that organizational commitment, Combined with job related behavioural commitment will result in high employee Satisfaction, high performance.
The third is the goal of flexibility and adaptability, which in essence means the ability to manage change and innovation and to respond rapidly to market demands and changes. Employees at all levels display high organizational commitment, high trust and high levels of intrinsic motivation.” Measures to achieve flexibility would include training, work organization, multi-skilling and removal of narrow job classifications.
The fourth goal of HRM is the goal of quality. This assumes the existence of policies and practices to recruit develop and retain skilled and adaptable staff, and the formulation of agreed performance goals and performance measures. To these goals could be added two broader goals – building a unified organizational culture and achieving competitive advantage through the productive use of human resources.
Example 10
Performance measurement systems help underperforming companies improve performance. The utility company Arizona Public Service used a performance measurement system to rebound from dismal financial results. 
Example 11
HRM of organisations turns around of Selfridges
Selfridges’s story is one when human resource management has played a vital rule
Delivering high performance enabling the company to emerge in the late 1990s as
An expanding and very successful up market retail department store.
(Sue Hutchinson by tom Redman, Adrian Wilkinson)
Example 12
North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services to assess the effectiveness of the support provided by the state of North Carolina (NC) to county departments. Since prior research tended to focus on high performance, benchmark organizations, and private sector businesses (the 1996 Delery and Dory survey replicated here was administered to bankers), this study tests for the presence of strategic human resource practices in an ordinary, public organization setting.
Example 13
This study comprehensively evaluated the links between human resource management (HRM) practices and firm performance of Taiwan’s high-tech firms. Using data from Hsinchu science-based industrial park, the study found that HRM practices such as training & development, teamwork, benefits, human resource planning and performance appraisal have significant effect on employee productivity. In addition, benefits and human resource planning are negatively related to employee turnover this study also shows that competitive strategies, such as cost strategy and differentiation strategy, have revealed moderating effects on the relationship between HRM practices and firm performance.(Ian Beardwell Holden HRM contemporary approach )
6.0 CONCLUSION
Management scholars and practitioners alike have become increasingly interested in learning more about the ability of certain ‘progressive’ or ‘high-performance’ human resource management (HRM) practices to enhance organizational effectiveness. There is growing evidence to suggest that the contribution of various HRM practices to impact firm performance may be synergistic in effect yet contingent on a number of contextual factors, including workplace climate. A contingency theory perspective suggests that in order to be effective, HMR policies and practices must be consistent with other aspects of the organization, including its environment to achieve its best performance.
For motivation and incentives to work, they first must be tied to a goal. An organization must employ needs assessment and human resource development strategies in pursuit of its vision or mission. Needs assessment (of where an organization wants to go) and human resources development (of those who are to get it there) focus on the specific organizational and individual needs whose satisfaction will lead to enhanced productivity? The vision and path for fulfilling these tasks are derived from strategic planning and put into practical perspective through the use of macro-tools such as Total Quality Management (at the group-level) and management by objectives at the individual-level which will lead to achieving organization goals.
Based on the above analysis would like to conclude with confirming that an effective HRM practice which includes a proper training, staffing can improve the organizations work force quality to take the organization to the next level which will make the organization achieve its goals.  

Should the Government be Blamed for the Increase in Human Trafficking?

What is human trafficking and where does it happen? Human trafficking is ‘the business of helping people to enter a country illegally and forcing them to work there for very little money because they have no rights’ (Macmillan Dictionary, 2010). Practically, it happens all over the world. Below is a true story of one of the human trafficking victims who survived.

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I don’t know who my parents are. As a child I remember being cold all the time. I was abandoned and raped when I was 12. Two years later I was sold off and forced to marry. My husband would get drunk, he beat me and raped me, he’d fire bullets which passed just by my head or my feet. I took the gun and shot him in the foot. I was 15. I didn’t want to kill him, just hurt him as he had hurt me. I’m more of a Buddhist now, and I try to be reasonable. But when I see rapists I see red. I’m not perfect. My husband sold me to a brothel. I had to accept five or six clients a day. Once a client called me and another girl; he said he was with just one other man. In fact, there were 20 of them; they treated us so badly I wanted revenge. I wanted to kill the man who called us. Then I thought his family would suffer, so I left him alone (Follain, 2005).
In the TIP Reports of 2004 all the way through 2006, it was stated that about 600,000 to 800,000 victims are reported to be trafficked across international borders each year. According to International Labor Organization in year 2005, about 32 billion profits were made by the human trafficking industry (Polaris Project, 2009). Victims can be trafficked in many ways. Scam, force and enforcement are several ways how victims can be trafficked (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, 2010).There are so many factors that can contribute to human trafficking. Among them are the ineffective anti-trafficking legislation, ineffective government enforcement, lack of education, poverty and many more (Caritas.org, n.d.). The list can go on and on but the main question is who should be blamed for the rise in human trafficking? Abraham Lincoln once said, ‘If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong’ (Better World Quotes, 2010).
Even though many people agree that many agents play a role in combating human trafficking, the government should be solely blamed for the rise in human trafficking as they play the biggest role in contributing to the rise of this issue.
Firstly, lack of government enforcement causes an increase in human trafficking. Government has weak implementation of anti-trafficking laws especially in countries like India. For example, the Nepal’s 2008 Human Trafficking and Transportation (Control) Act has not successfully decreased the rate of human trafficking. According to Shyam Kumar Pokharel, the managing director of Samrakshak Samuha Nepal, this weak implementation of law has led the traffickers to operate without difficulty. There were many times traffickers were caught but only few of them were found guilty. This shows the weak implementation of law had not help to decrease the number of traffickers at all. Besides that, the government also practices non intervention in the immigration procedure and identification of traffickers. Most of the times the NGOs were the one who lend a helping hand instead of the government. There are many cases that were not reported. Up to the year 2010, only 123 cases were reported. These cases are only a portion of the actual number of cases of human trafficking (IRIN, 2010).
In addition, law enforcement is also often vulnerable by many like official indifferences. For example, in Thailand, the police do not want to acknowledge migrants who were mistreated by traffickers as trafficking victims. There was a case in April 2008 whereby 57 Burmese who were supposed to be trafficked into Thailand got suffocated in a container. The police denied the fact that they are trafficking victims instead stated that they are illegal immigrants. On the other hand, the United Nation classifies trafficking victims as “anyone who is transported for purposes of exploitation” (Head, 2008). Furthermore, another reason for the increase in human trafficking is because criminals are gaining authority and law enforcement people are becoming more corrupt making it difficult to end human trafficking (Hughes, 2001). Law enforcement is vulnerable by conspiracy with traffickers, lacking regulatory devices and failure to prosecute public officials involved in trafficking. Law enforcement also tends to have excessive controls over victims as they put their needs first hence causing victims unwilling to be a witness. This just shifts the control from the traffickers to the law enforcement officials (Lin et. al, n.d.). Hence, it can be concluded that lack of government enforcement causes an increase in human trafficking.
Secondly, lack of suitable and successful legislation on trafficking also contributes to the increase in human trafficking. Most of the countries had legislation that cannot counter attack the rise in this issue. The legislation in most countries does not take legal action directly on people convicted for human trafficking crime. Most of the time, the legislators take this issue lightly. Even when trafficking cases are very apparent, the traffickers might not be prosecuted for the crime of trafficking but for lighter punishment like prostitution or pimping. Besides that, existing trafficking laws are only confined to sexual exploitation and not other types of slavery. Next, governments focus too much on how to punish others but less on how to prevent this issue from rising (Lin et. al, n.d.). An example of an ineffective legislation is the Trafficking Victims Protection Act or TVPA. TVPA is the only national anti-trafficking law. One weakness about this law is that it only punishes those who can be verified guilty in the court that is those who are involved in force, coercion or scam. However, the traffickers can easily cover up this wrong doings and it would be a difficult task to prove these traffickers guilty. Besides that, this process might take months or even a few years. A trafficking victim does not have the capability to fight the case. With this, the TVPA seems meaningless as it could not really help the trafficking victims nor punish the traffickers (Brannon, 2010).
In addition, trafficked victims and not the traffickers were given cruel punishment. This happens because of the ineffective judicial system. Instead of helping those victims, the authorities mistreat the victims by locking them up in jail. Thus the authorities do not treat them as victims but as criminals. Da’s family is a good proof of this case. Da’s father had become one of the trafficking victims who were tricked to work in Bangkok. Da’s mother had to pay a large amount of money to get him back. Da and her mother went and beg. However, not long after that police picked them up and sent them to jail pending for their transfer back to Cambodia (Bjork and Chalk, 2009). On the other hand, the traffickers are well protected and are not punished for their wrongs. Occasionally, sex trafficking victims were sent back to their country of origin after being arrested in brothel raids. Then, they will have to face embarrassment as many people will look down on them (Tiefenbrun, 2002). Hence, the government should be blamed for ineffective anti-trafficking legislation.
Thirdly, the situation in the country of origin also leads to human trafficking. One of the main causes of human trafficking is poverty. More than half of the citizens survive only on US$ 1 per day in places where victims stayed (Getu, 2006). Many victims of human trafficking came from poor country where they live in poverty. Then, the next question asked is who is responsible for causing poverty. Governments are the ones to be blamed as they refuse to acknowledge poverty (Huckstep, 2009-2010). Although these trafficking victims knew that they are going to be underpaid by private enterprise, these victims who live in poverty are still attracted to the pay. This is because they know that this pay is better than continuing to live in poverty in their own country. Besides that, there are some governments that persuade their citizens to work abroad. In order to pay back the international debts, countries like Philippine had developed a program called the Philippine Labor Export Program to persuade their citizens to work abroad for the in-flow of overseas income even though the work is hazardous (Oxman-Martinez et. al, 2000).
Furthermore, government’s poor ruling politically, socially and economically also contributes to the increase of human trafficking. This causes countries to be prone to become a source of trafficking victims even if laws are carried out properly (Ghosh, 2008). Besides that, many children, even those as young as two years old are trafficked and exploited from Bangladesh, Pakistan, in South Asia and Africa and countries in the East Africa as camel jockeys in the Gulf states. These children have no bright future because they do not have useful skills or teachings and they are physically and psychologically traumatized for a very long time (U.S. Department of State, 2005). Some of the victims of trafficking want to find for a better education but they were tricked and became victims of human trafficking. Thus, in terms of education, government is also responsible for the lack of education as some governments do not do much to improve the education in their countries. Governments should be more engaged in and come out with positive ways to tackle the lack of education as it can cause human trafficking, eventually. Thus, governments are to be blamed for causing the country to be in a poor state and more citizens become victims of human trafficking.
Fourthly, the lack of unity between governments and other institutions is also one of the causes for the rise in this issue. Since there is a lack of national anti-trafficking plans, most of these plans are developed within the perspective of each individual agency’s mission. Eventually, plans are poorly developed as they are not based on a higher level supervision (Langberg, 2010). National structures were established by South Eastern Europe and there is a noticeable progress made. However, the national structures that are established did not mean human trafficking was combated successfully. Combating human trafficking is initiated by the local NGO’s then only it was supported by international and intergovernmental organizations. The purpose of this structure is to shift the duty to governments but instead governments take over the NGO’s that was administrating the programs (Trafficking in Human Beings in South Eastern Europe, 2004).
In addition, there is also a lack of government programs and funding with other institutions. For example, in Romania, the government does not give much assistance with anti-trafficking NGOs and did not assigned funding for NGOs to provide services and carry out programs for human trafficking victims after National Agency against Trafficking in Persons (NAATIP) became an assistant agency of the National Police under the Ministry of Interior (Embassy of the United States Bucharest Romania, 2010). There are different definitions by the government and NGO that causes a gap between them. Government defines human trafficking according to United Nation but the NGO defines trafficking based on the result only. In order to prove this, we can look at the different statistics of human trafficking by NGO’s and governments (Piper, 2005). According to International Justice Mission, an NGO who claim to cooperate with the government to combat human trafficking, almost 2 million children are exploited in the commercial sex trade (International Justice Mission, n.d.). However, this contradicts with the statistics given by the U.S. Department of State in 2005 that stated 1 million children are exploited in the commercial sex trade (Polaris Project, 2009). Based on the difference in statistic, we can say that NGO and governments have different definition of human trafficking. Hence, it can be concluded that lack of government’s cooperation with other institutions also increases the number of human trafficking cases.
However, there are some people who think that the media should be blamed for the increase in human trafficking as well. Newspapers, television and radio are examples of media that play a vital role in educating the public on human trafficking. Gradually, the Internet also can play a role in tackling this issue. The media can highlight the rise of this issue and how it affects everybody. Conversely, ‘media coverage is weak in many parts of the world’ (UN.Gift, 2006). There is no wide media’s exposure on human trafficking issue on an international level and the coverage is somewhat inadequate (Bruckert and Parent, 2002). The media should give a report that is reliable and fair. They should also help to inform and increase the understanding of the public on the advantages, disadvantages and the perils of human trafficking (Lin et. al, n.d.). In America, the media was also one of the mediums for human trafficking. Newspapers, radios and especially the Internet gave false advertisements and false job opportunities in order to tricked American citizens to become victims of human trafficking. The media was also used to support and promote demand for marketable sexual services (International Human Rights Law Institute DePaul University College of Law, 2005).
At the same time, private enterprise should also be blamed for the increase in human trafficking. Private enterprise should take part of the blame because 2.5 million out of 9.8 million abused by private sectors, are victims of human trafficking. Private sectors had made a lot of profits from trafficked victims and majority of the profit comes from industrialized countries (Belser et. al, 2005). Besides that, there are times when the employers fail to work in the same mind with organizations to combat human trafficking. For example, an employer’s organization had started a program in Kunming City, China to motivate employers to go against exploitation of workers and human trafficking. This program also motivates employers to monitor themselves through anti-trafficking network especially in sectors where human trafficking is more obvious. However, employers seem to be neglecting this use or fail to see the importance of this issue to their work. There are some employers who refuse to join in trainings. Furthermore, employer’s demand contradicts with this program organized by the employer’s organization (International Labour Organization, n.d.). Thus, private enterprise should also blamed and not just solely the government.
Many people blame the media for the increase in human trafficking. One thing that many people are unaware of is that many media are possessed by governments. A study was done in 97 countries and it was found that most of the media firms are possessed by the governments especially in broadcasting. Government’s ownership is supposed to bring exposure of information like traditions which might not be provided by private enterprise (Djankov et. al, 2001). However, if the media is one of the mediums for human trafficking, this shows that the governments have weak ownership over the media. This all goes back to square one that is governments are the one to be blamed. Eventually governments are causing an increase in human trafficking.
Besides that, many people also blame the private enterprise for the increase human trafficking but people should consider the responsibilities of the government in controlling the private enterprise. In actual fact, government should be blamed for they have not set strict rules and regulations. This is especially true in Japan where criminal organizations, like Yakusa, control the victims, more so sex trafficking victims, as law enforcer care less about them. This shows that governments are not paying attention to human trafficking and at the same time denying it. ‘Thus, trafficked women and children who are part of the Japanese sex trade are outside the reach of the law and anyone else who can save them from a fate that is dependent exclusively upon the whims of organized criminal elements’ (The International Human Rights Law Institute DePaul University College of Law, 2001). Thus, the government should be blamed for not implementing strict rules and regulations to prevent human trafficking.
In addition, it was also said that labor inspection is government’s responsibility. One of the main obstacles in labor inspection is the government’s support in terms of financial. The budget allocation for labor inspection is very minimal and it is so little that there is nothing that can be done with that amount of money. Thus, it is said that weak labor inspection is directly affected by the government. When labor inspection is inefficient, it will also be hard to tackle human trafficking as well (Richthofen, 2002).
On the whole, the lack of government enforcement in human trafficking, the lack of suitable and successful legislation on human trafficking, the situation in the country of origin and also the lack of cooperation between governments with other institutions causes an increase in human trafficking. Thus, the misconception of people about why the media and private enterprise should be blamed for human trafficking should be cleared.
In conclusion, governments should solely be blamed for the increase in human trafficking as governments are one of the main contributors to the rise in this issue. Human trafficking can be combated if the government has proper governance. In order to solve this issue, governments, non-governmental organizations, private enterprise, media and local communities should work hand in hand as one-side approach would not be effective. Martin Luther King Jr., an American black leader and a Nobel Prize winner in 1964, stated that ‘Freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed’ (Proverbia.net, 2009).
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Human Trafficking & Human Smuggling

Nearly all countries in the world face the challenge of human trafficking and human smuggling whether as a country of transit, origin or destinations for the victims (Jac-Kucharski, 2012). Human trafficking and human smuggling have become a global problem of recent. The investigative agencies within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) approximated that 600000 to 800000 people are trafficked and smuggled annually across the international borders (Department of State, 2006). Additionally; the estimation shows that a significant number of people are trafficked and smuggled within the boundaries of their country. The United States is the final destination country for the trafficked, according to the US Department of State (Department of State, 2006). There are various reasons why people carry out human trafficking and human smuggling. Some of the reasons include labor and sexual exploitation among others (Tena, 2010).

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Most of the victims are enticed with false promises from their homes and instead enforced into activities such as prostitution, forced labor and domestic servitude to name but a few (Jac- Kucharski, 2012). Additionally, politicians have become part and parcel in the discussion of such activities as a result of the nature of the phenomenon (Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 2013). The non-profit organization and government agencies have had the responsibility to deal with the victims of such actions. Due to the similarities between the two crimes, both have been confused by the public. What are the differences between human trafficking and human smuggling? What are the measures taken by DHS to stop or mitigate both crimes?
Differences between human trafficking and human smuggling
Human trafficking and human smuggling are different activities in the United States, and these terms cannot be interchanged. Human trafficking is a grave human rights violation and a serious crime that revolves around exploitation of people. Human trafficking can be defined as sex trafficking in the sense that commercial sex activities are forcefully induced, coercion, fraud or rather a state in which the victims who are forcibly persuaded in such acts are below 18-years old (Jakobsson & Kotsadam, 2013). Additionally, it can be defined as harboring, recruiting, transporting, providing or obtaining an individual for hard labor activities forcefully, or through fraud or coercion for objection to involuntary slavery, debt bondage or peonage (Tripp & Mcmahon, 2016).
On the other hand, human smuggling revolves around the transportation of people and can be defined as the act of importing individuals into a country through careful avoidance of immigration laws (Jac-Kucharski, 2012). Such activities include importing illegal aliens into the country and harboring unlawful aliens illegally in the country. Moreover, in some situations, smuggling may involve rape, murder or assault either sexually of physically (Department of State, 2006).
Measures established by the Department of Homeland Security to stop or mitigate both crimes
The investigative agencies in the Department of Homeland Security in the United States which are responsible for curbing human smuggling and human trafficking include the Customs Enforcement (ICE) and U.S. Immigration (Tena, 2010). The ICE cooperates within its law implementation partners in fighting the global infrastructure that is involved in human trafficking and smuggling (ICE, 2013). The ICE achieves this mission by using its experts and authorities, disrobing away profit incentives and assets, cooperating with foreign partners and the United States for the purpose of attacking worldwide network as well as working with global non-governmental organizations for the identification, rescuing and providing assistance to the smuggling victims.
The ICE agency has embarked on the determined strategy in fighting human smuggling and trafficking. For instance, the ICE is pursuing investigations which are intelligence-driven for the purpose of targeting large-scale human smuggling organizations irrespective of their location of operations (ICE, 2013). There is specifically located emphasis on the smuggling rings that helps in posing the risk of the national security, threaten lives and engage in violence, extortion, hostage-taking, and abuse.
Additionally, there is proper coordination between the ICE and partners at U.S. Customs and Border Protection for the purpose of ensuring hostile investigations and prosecution of the smuggling cases along the country borders. Moreover, the ICE is targeting all the links that are associated with smuggling activities past the direct smugglers (ICE, 2014). Precisely, the ICE aims at targeting the foreign organizers and recruiters, the fake document dealers and transportation, and employment networks who gain from the alien smuggling in the United States. Besides, the ICE aims at pursuing the legislation to raise the penalties beside organized smugglers and offer further criminal offenses to ensure enhancement of discoursing spotters who help criminals in smuggling aliens and contraband (ICE, 2014).
The ICE discovered that for successful investigations and prosecuting traffickers, the victims must be steady and free from intimidation and fear to be real witnesses (Tena, 2010). There is equality in the placement of value on the identification and the salvage of victims and the traffickers’ prosecution. The ICE has many security duty victim’s or witness’s coordinators who cooperate with the NGOs for the purpose of providing victim services (Tripp & Mcmahon, 2016). Moreover, the short-term immigration relief is given to the certified trafficking victims in continued presence status form.
The ICE has developed practical initiatives that aim at criticizing the infrastructure that provides support to the smuggling organizations and the assets acquired from the criminal activities. Such activities include snatching vehicles, goods, currency and armaments among others (ICE, 2014). This initiative has played a significant role in fighting human trafficking and smuggling.
The ICE has issued the Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act, which is one of the tools used in fighting human trafficking and smuggling, a notice to the owners of properties that have been recognized to be used in facilitating the human trafficking and smuggling aliens (Jac-Kucharski, 2012). This tool is very significant in the sense that various managers do not take into account the acceleration of criminal acts on their personal properties or the company’s resources.

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The secretary of the Department of Homeland Security made an announcement about the proposals to the Customs Enforcement and immigration during the annual meeting. The annual meeting was held at the White House by the President’s Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Human Trafficking (ICE, 2013). Some of the proposals made included the extension of the period of the significant immigration description for the people who are not citizens of the United States. Additionally, they would give vital constancy as well as better support to the victims of human trafficking and smuggling as they carry out further investigations of the traffickers. This is part of the victim-centered approach of the department in fighting against human trafficking.
In 2010, The Department Homeland Security came up with the Blue Campaign to act as the voice of the unified Department in fighting human trafficking and smuggling (DHS, n.d). The Blue Campaign came up with a resolution that there be human trafficking awareness training in cooperated into the major training courses at the institutions such as the Federal Law Enforcing Training Centers (DHS, n.d). This could be substantial because a greater percentage of federal law enforcement agencies who participate in Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers (FLETC) acquire skills and tools that help in curbing the human trafficking and smuggling and respond accordingly (DHS, n.d).
On a daily basis, the employees of the DHS search for the pointers and causes of human trafficking during their line of duty. Also, the employees of the ICE carry out investigations on human trafficking cases as well as providing support to the victims through the victim awareness programs (Jac-Kucharski, 2012). Besides, the employees in the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agency cooperate with the airline workers to curb human trafficking through the use of the Blue Lightning Initiative (CBP, n.d). Additionally, the airline personnel together with the support of the agencies make sure that products and properties acquired through forced labor from foreign countries do not find their way in the United States supply chain.
The citizenship and the Immigration agencies perform their duty of ensuring that the qualified victims of trafficking who are not citizens of the United States have accessibility to needed immigration qualifications for the trafficking victims (Jac-Kucharski, 2012). Moreover, the Blue Campaign ensures there is the empowerment of communities for the purpose of curbing human trafficking and smuggling through the formation of partnerships, coming up with public awareness, creation, and dissemination of resources and free tool which are used countrywide in curbing human trafficking and smuggling (DHS, n.d).
In conclusion, human trafficking, and human smuggling is a global issue which calls for every country to participate in the fighting process. The countries should come up with more measures that can be used to do away with human trafficking and smuggling completely. For that reason, different agencies and tools should be put in place worldwide to be used in fighting human trafficking and smuggling.
References

Jac-Kucharski, A. (2012). The Determinants of Human Trafficking: A US Case Study. International Migration, 50(6), 150-165. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00777.x
Jakobsson, N., & Kotsadam, A. (2013). The law and economics of international sex slavery: Prostitution laws and trafficking for sexual exploitation. European Journal of Law and Economics, 35(1), 87-107. doi:10.1007/s10657-011-9232-0
United States Customs & Border Protection Agency, (n.d). Blue Lightning Initiative. Retrieved January 24, 2017, from https://www.cbp.gov/border-security/human-trafficking/blue-lightning
United States Department of Homeland Security. (n.d.). Blue Campaign. Retrieved January 18, 2017, from https://www.dhs.gov/blue-campaign
United States Department of State, (2006). Factsheet: Distinctions between human smuggling and human trafficking. Retrieved December 16, 2016, from http://www.state.gov/m/ds/hstcenter/90434.htm
United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement, (2013). Human trafficking and smuggling. Retrieved January 16, 2017, from https://www.ice.gov/factsheets/human-trafficking
United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement, (2014). ERO Annual Report: FY 2013 ICE immigration removals. Retrieved January 23, 2017, from https://www.ice.gov/doclib/about/offices/ero/pdf/2013-ice-immigration-removals.pdf
Tena, M. (2010, September 30). Modern day slavery in the U.S.-Mexican territory: Human trafficking at the border. Retrieved January 18, 2017, from http://catcher.sandiego.edu/items/peacestudies/Border_Brief_FINAL_BW_oct4_10.pdf
Tripp, T. M., & Mcmahon-howard, J. (2016). Perception vs. reality: The relationship between organized crime and human trafficking in metropolitan Atlanta. American Journal of Criminal Justice: AJCJ, 41(4), 732-764. doi:10.1007/s12103-015-9315-5

Human Trafficking in Syria: Policy Recommendations

Executive Summary
Human trafficking has been on the rise in the recent past. Many people are confirmed lost through different ways. Among the leading countries in the human trade is Syria. There are reported cases in the country of citizens being abducted and subjected to inhuman activities such as forced prostitution and early marriages. Syria is known for the increasing civil wars for the past few years. The government and some criminal groups such as ISIS have been in conflicts, which has made it possible for thriving of human trafficking. The war has also led to many citizens fleeing for their lives hence becoming refugees in their country. Others have fled to European countries for a better living.[1]Woman and children are the primary victims. There are various forms which trafficking occurs. Some women are abducted in the checkpoints while some are lured with promises of better lives in the neighboring countries. They end up being victims of sexual assault. To stop the issue, there should be sound policies which should aim in eliminating the causes of the problem rather than accommodating the refugees.

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Problem: Human trafficking in Syria
Currently,
Syria is experiencing the highest level of humanitarian conflict in the world.
There is an approximation of about 12 million individuals need humanitarian
services. 7.6 million Citizens of Syria are considered to be internally
displaced since the offset of ongoing civil clashes. The country is also
experiencing a high number of refugees because of the constant civic conflicts.
The wars are affecting mostly women and children. These populations are
considered more vulnerable to the crisis than men. Women and girls, primarily
in the refugee camps and irrespective of their origin, have high chances of
being trafficked through some forms such as sexual exploitation, enforcement
into early marriages, psychological torture resulting from the wars which seem
to be endless, and also being overwhelmed by the economic fighting. People also
try to seek refuge in the neighboring countries finding their way onto Europe.
The victims are migrated in the neighboring countries such as Lebanon where
they are subjected to misery. They are forced to prostitution and also early
marriages affecting their growth and development as well as subjection to
physical torture. For example, back in 2016, 75 Syrian women were forced into
sexual slavery, the largest human trafficking network ever uncovered in
Lebanon. [2]
Factors facilitating human trafficking
To
develop sound policies in eliminating the problem, there is need to understand
the factors which have facilitated human trafficking. The growing refugee rate
is one of the factors. As the civil war continues in Syria, the number of
displaced increases. [3]The
refugees are forced to seek refuge in the neighboring countries such as Jordan
and Lebanon. The commotion and the psychological pressure makes the refugees
become lured easily for trafficking. There is also no legal forum in the
government where the refugees can air their grievances.
 The Syrian government is negligent towards its
refugees. Amidst the confusion and desperation, human traffickers take
advantage of the desperate refugees and promise them a good life in neighboring
countries. However, it dawns on the refugees later that they are trafficked to
other nations to be used as sexual tools and forced marriages. Hence, the
refugee crisis is one of the factors leading to the increased human
trafficking.
War
is another factor that is increasing human trafficking. Some fighters are
taking hostages and using them in facilitating the human trafficking trade.
Women are involved in prostitution while children are reported to be forced
into early marriages. Wars have also increased the displacement of people
making them vulnerable to human trafficking. Before the war emancipated in
Syria, there was a perfect life in the country. The state secularism also
ensured that Syrian women had some freedom in the society. There was a certain
level of personal liberty given to women.[4]
However,
in the current war era, women and children feel the highest degree of effects
of war. They are the primary targets of both the state and pro-nation forces,
as well as the armored forces which are against the national authority.[5] Such
groups include Islamic State of Iraq Sham (ISIS). Women are prone to sexual
assault, psychological and physical harassment, torture, and deprivation of
their human rights. The absence of men as they flee to the battleground leaves
them being open to abuse during the house-to-house raids conducted by the rival
groups.
Another
means through which women and children are prone to trafficking and sexual
harassment is when fleeing for their safety.[6] Men
are mainly engaged in fighting in different areas. It leaves women to flee for
their lives to avoid harassment during the households’ raids. However, escaping
from the war does not mean that they have fled from violence. They have to pass
through militias controlled areas. In some cases, they also have to negotiate
in the checkpoints increasing the chances for rape and sexual assaults. Also,
the human trafficking individuals are in these checkpoints, which make it easy
for them to have victims of their choice for trading. Moreover, unscrupulous
housing owners and local charity organizations sometimes abuse their legitimacy
which results in exploitation of women who cannot pay their rent. They expect
to have some sexual intercourse in return. Some also organize with the local
human traffickers and give out information regarding the ladies present in the
land for some cash.
There
is need to develop sound policies which should ensure elimination of the
problem. Some of the policies that should be implemented are as follows.
Policy one
There should be sound policies put in place to curb the problem. One of the policy is reducing the demand for the human as sex tools. The plan may seem complicated to implement. However, the states should follow the law of demand which should ensure that the demand and supply for sexual satisfaction diminishes. One way to make sure that there is no demand is establishing laws which are against any form of sexual assault. The victims of human trafficking are taken in the neighboring countries such as Lebanon and Iraq. The governments of these nations should implement laws which are against sex workers and prostitution. Buying of Sex should also be prohibited in these countries which will ensure that the demand for sex is eliminated. Human traders will incur losses on the trade since the services resulting from the trade are no longer needed. [7]Also, there should be sound wage systems which should ensure that no children or weak women supply any labor ion the companies. It is because some kids are subjected to child labor in some production companies. If there is a sound system which ensures that employment providers are approved by the government, then the demand for children will reduce which will in return, eliminate human trafficking. Employers will adopt other means of labor production to avoid experiencing the close part of the law.
Policy Two
Another
policy which should be implemented to ensure elimination of human trafficking is
the stabilization of the Syrian government. The increasing rate of refugees and
the civil conflicts are the primary reason why human trafficking has thrived in
Syria. War results in the central government are diverting its attention from
protecting human rights to fighting for the interests of some few individuals
in power. If there is a stable government in Syria, human rights should be
protected since the government would receive some pressures from the UN to
protect the human rights.[8] However,
as the wars heighten in the country, the state government is not able to
provide security to its citizens but rather fight against the illegal militias.
There is need to eliminate the cause of the civil wars to stabilize the Syrian
government. A primary cause of the war is the thirst for power as some
autocratic families have been in authority for decades. The United Nations
should ensure that Syria adopts a new constitution which outlines the maximum
years for one to be in authority. The democratic rights of the Syrian citizens
should also be protected which will ensure that correct procedures to ascend to
power are followed. The United Nations should keep in watch of the Syrian
activities till the government becomes stable. It will help ion providing some
social services such as security and protection of human rights. If the rights
of the vulnerable are protected, there are small chances of women and children
becoming the victims of human trafficking.
Policy Three
Another
policy which should be implemented is the provision of some social services and
real working environments. Resources in Syria have also contributed in the
political conflicts in the country. It is because each fighting party wants to
protect its interests and have a share of the vast resources in the country.
Also, some women are lured with promises of better lives in the neighboring
states which make them exchange their daughters for some small amount of cash.
It shows how poverty in these regions contributes to the growing human trade.
Improving the economic conditions in these areas will ensure that citizens have
better living standards which will lure them off from selling their daughters.
They will not fall into the trap of selling their daughters for better lives
since they will have the essential living commodities. Also, there should be
sufficient provision of some services such as security. The refugees flee from
their sources to other areas due to fear of losing their lives. Severe
household attacks by the illegal militia groups have made many citizens,
especially women and children flee in search of secure places. On the process
of searching for security, they are forced to cross on the bandit’s territories
which expose them in sexual assault. Hence, if the social services are provided
to the people of Syria, they would not be moving in a disorganized manner which
would reduce chances for attacks.
Pros and cons of the above policies
The
above policies have some benefits which can be met when implemented. Curbing
the target market of human traffickers will not only apply in the Middle East
countries but will involve a large section of the human trafficking regions.
The human trade includes many countries with almost same destination. Hence, if
the market is dismantled, the traders will have no place to exchange hence
stopping the trade. The advantage of this method is that it will not involve
any conflicts with the civic groups since the governments will introduce laws
and some harsh punishments which the citizens will fear breaking. However, the
policy has a disadvantage in that the traders will have to implement some other
means for survival. The operators rely much on the trade which leaves them with
no other business. Hence, the government will have to devise another way of
accommodating the traders. 
The
policy of government stabilization is much effective in that the Syrian
government will help in the elimination of illegal militia groups. The UN
together with the Syrian government will take part in fighting and eliminate
the local groups which are involved in the human trade. If the government is
stable, there will be other advantages which include protection of human rights
and the rise of stable states. However, the policy has some disadvantage in
that there may be the death of many lives which can result from the fact that
the militia groups will instill some resistance in giving up their power. Some
of these organizations such as ISIS are deeply rooted in these regions. They
also know all the hideouts in case an attack against them is declared. It can
result in the death of many civilians as war ensues between the rivals.
The
policy of providing the citizens with some social services is principal in the
sense that the government will have cut some cost of providing these services.
Instead, the fund which would be used in providing these services in future
would be utilized for other services. The regions will be opened up for
international trade. The global village might shift its attention to these
areas which may attract other investors. The primary cause of conflict between
the militia groups and the government is the protection of power and some
resources. These areas are rich in resources which remain unutilized due to
conflicts. Hence, if the areas are at peace and working opportunities are
provided, they may attract the foreign investors who will invest in these areas
hence opening up for international trade.
Best Policy and Recommendation
Among
these policies, the most efficient are the elimination of target market for
human traffickers. The strategy is effective because the governments in the
target markets will only implement some laws against sex trade and forced
labor. In return, sex buyers will fear the effects of the law which will reduce
the demand for human trafficking. Governments should implement laws which
forbid selling and buying of sex in all countries. The policy will need fewer
efforts since the governments will aim at implementing the laws hence reducing
demand for human traffickers. Similarly, there will be no bloodshed in the
implementation of the policy since the laws of demand will apply which will
eliminate human trafficking.
Human trafficking in Syria is one of the global challenges which has attracted the attention of the international human rights agencies. There has been a lot of kidnapping in the region which exposes the victims in some humanitarian crisis such as exposure to sexual assault. The perpetrators of the crime have formed a long link in almost every corner of the world. The refugees and the prisoners, specifically women of war are more prone to the trade than men. There is need to fight the trade starting from the ground and not just to accommodate the refugees. Sound policies should be implemented which will ensure that the problem is eliminated in the society. Among these strategies include stabilizing the Syrian government, disrupting the target market of human trafficking as well as promoting an efficient economic working environment. The best policy should focus on having the least adverse outcomes upon its implementation. The UN has a significant role to play in ensuring that human trafficking is eliminated from the society.Bibliography
Arhin, Antonela. “A Diaspora Approach To Understanding Human Trafficking For Labor Exploitation”. Journal of Human Trafficking 2, no. 1 (2016): 78-98. Chassman, Alyssa, and Alyssa Chassman. “Sex Trafficking And Hidden War On Women: The Neglected Phenomenon Of Syrian Civil War”. International Women’s Initiative. Last modified 2017. Accessed April 9, 2017. https://www.internationalwomensinitiative.org/news/2016/4/7/sex-trafficking-and-hidden-war-on-women-the-neglected-phenomenon-of-syrian-civil-war. Fenton, Siobhan. “Thousands Of Child Refugees Have Arrived In The UK. And Hundreds Of Them Are Missing”. The Independent. Last modified 2017. Accessed April 9, 2017. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/hundreds-of-child-refugees-missing-syria-alan-kurdi-aylan-theresa-may-have-vanished-since-arriving-a7222456.html. Last modified 2017. Accessed April 9, 2017. http://freedomfund.org/wp-content/uploads/Lebanon-Report-FINAL-8April16.pdf. Louw, Lee-Ann, and Hendrik Johannes Lubbe. “Threats To Security Posed By ISIS In Syria: A Human Security Approach”. Journal of Human Security 13, no. 1 (2017).Shaheen, Kareem. “Dozens Of Syrians Forced Into Sexual Slavery In Derelict Lebanese House”. The Guardian. Last modified 2017. Accessed April 9, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/apr/30/syrians-forced-sexual-slavery-lebanon. “Syria”. U.S. Department Of State. Last modified 2017. Accessed April 9, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243543.htm. “Theresa May’s Speech To The UN General Assembly – GOV.UK”. Gov.Uk. Last modified 2017. Accessed April 9, 2017. https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/theresa-mays-speech-to-the-un-general-assembly. Turner, Ian. “Human Rights, Positive Obligations, And Measures To Prevent Human Trafficking In The United Kingdom”. Journal of Human Trafficking 1, no. 4 (2015): 296-317.West, Amanda. “Child Trafficking And Child Welfare”. Journal of Human Trafficking (2016): 1-11.

[1] Alyssa Chassman and Alyssa Chassman,
“Sex Trafficking And Hidden War On Women: The Neglected Phenomenon Of
Syrian Civil War”, International Women’s Initiative
[2]
[3] Lee-Ann Louw and Hendrik Johannes Lubbe,
“Threats To Security Posed By ISIS In Syria: A Human Security
Approach”, Journal of Human Security 13, no. 1 (2017).
[4] Alyssa Chassman and Alyssa Chassman,
“Sex Trafficking And Hidden War On Women: The Neglected Phenomenon Of
Syrian Civil War”, International Women’s Initiative
[5] Lee-Ann Louw and Hendrik Johannes Lubbe,
“Threats To Security Posed By ISIS In Syria: A Human Security
Approach”, Journal of Human Security 13, no. 1 (2017).
[6] Amanda West, “Child Trafficking And
Child Welfare”, Journal of Human Trafficking (2016): 1-11.
[7] Ian Turner, “Human Rights, Positive
Obligations, And Measures To Prevent Human Trafficking In The United
Kingdom”, Journal of Human Trafficking 1, no. 4 (2015): 296-317.
[8] Ian Turner, “Human Rights, Positive
Obligations, And Measures To Prevent Human Trafficking In The United
Kingdom”, Journal of Human Trafficking 1, no. 4 (2015): 296-317.
 

Endocrine System Of Human Body Health And Social Care Essay

Endocrine system is defined as the network of the glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream, (Papalia E. Diane &Sally Wendkos, 1985). This means that the hormone of the human body are the chemicals that are responsible to influence the rate or direction of activity in the distant target organs by speeding up or inhibiting the growth of the cells in those organs.

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The nervous system is not the only biological system that governing the behavior of human, (Baxter, J.D.& Funder, W.J1979). But rather both the central and the peripheral nervous system work closely with the endocrine system, a series ductless gland that secrete the hormones directly into the bloodstream. Hormones are very active in the maintenance of the homeostasis, the proper balance in the body internal state.
Thus, both the autonomic nervous system and proper balance in the body internal state. Thus, both the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system work together to achieve the equilibrium, (Baxter, J. D, &Funder, W.J 1979). The crucial coordinator of both systems is the hypothalamus, which provides the mechanism by which the brain exerts control over the endocrine system and by which the endocrine system exerts control over the brain. For instance, the brain causes the release of the hormones that affect the body tissue, and as result of the testosterone on the shape of the larynx thereby causing the deeper voices in males. Conversely, hormones may be permanently alter the brain cells are organized and the ability of the estrogen to alter cells in the hypothalamus that governing adult sexual behavior.
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Description of the Endocrine System and it Rated Functions
The endocrine gland as members of the orchestra, the conductor would be the pituitary, which are the master gland. This gland has two subdivisions the anterior pituitary, which is made of same embryological tissue as the throat and it is the true endocrine organ of the human system (Axelrod, J.&T.D. Reisine, 1984). And the anterior pituitary secretes large number of hormones. The hypothalamus controls the release of the hormones by the means of the hormone releasing factor.
The endocrine system is made up of the various hormones, which performed different function as part of the human body over a given period of time. These include the following:
Adrenal gland:
The adrenal gland contained the aldosterone or androstenedione hormone which functions as an excretion of sodium and potassium. It also helped in the growth of pubic and underarm hair of the human and it promotes the sex derive over a given period of time.
The medulla contained cortisone and the epinephrine hormones which performed the function of removing the metabolic substance in the body. And this hormone also enhanced the body to be able response the stress and how to manage the stress situation in everyday life of human.
Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus gland contained the releasing hormones of the human body that control the anterior pituitary hormone secretion.
The kidney gland contained the rennin hormone which controls the aldosterone secretion, and it also controlled the blood pressure of the human.
The pancreas gland: it contained the insulin hormones that regulate the waste substance in the human body. (That is the metabolism substance).
The pituitary gland is another vital gland that contained two glands namely the anterior gland which is made up with the andermocotropic hormones, which controlled the adrenal cortex. It also contained the growth hormones that enhanced human growth and its responsible to the removal of metabolism substance in human.
The testes gland contained the testosterone hormone that performed the function of maturation of the male reproductive system that is it responsible for sperm production, secondary sex characteristic and the sex drive of the human.
The thyroid gland is made up with the thyroxins that are responsible for the energy metabolism, body growth and the development of the individuals.
Digestive system
According to Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, digestive system is the breaking down of food particles into smaller substance which can easily be absorbed by the bloodstream. The endocrine system contained an hormone which is made up of the insulin (Cahill, G.F&McDevitt, H. O. 1981), that helped to break down the sugary substance in the human body and the rennin also act on the protein food substance and convert it into smaller particles which passes down to the smaller intestines and these are excreted by the endocrine secretion organ which in the stomach and the intestine secrete a number of hormones that enhanced in the body regulation of human.
Excretion system
Excretion system is defined as the process of removing the metabolic or waste materials from the body, (Alexander, E. 1986). The endocrine system contained Aldosterone and Androstenedione hormones that helped to excrete the metabolic or waste materials from the human body.
The cortisone hormone of the endocrine system also enhanced in the excretion of the waste metabolic substance. For instance the pancreas of the endocrine system gland helped in the regulation of metabolism substance in the human body.
Respiration system
The respiration system is considered as the three separated but related functions that is the ventilation, the gas exchange that occurred in between the blood and the other tissues of the human body, and the oxygen utilization by the tissues energy reaction of the cell respiration, (Anderson, E. 1977).
Nervous system
The nervous system is divided into two parts namely, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. (Andreasen, N.C, 1988) defined the nervous system that is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous systems control crucial nerves that arise from the brain and the spinal cord. The nervous system is composed of the two principal’s type of cells that is the neurons and the neuroglia. The endocrine system and nervous system work together to achieve the equilibrium of the body. Neurons are the basic structural and the functional units of nervous system
This system are specialized to respond to the physical and the chemical stimuli conduct electrochemical impulses and releases specific chemical regulation and it is also performed a function of strong memory thinking and controlling muscles and glands.
Neuroglia are supportive cell in the nervous system that helped the function of the neuroglia are about five times more abundant than neurons and it have limited mitotic abilities than the brain, that is the brain that occur in adult are usually composed of the neuroglia than the neurons, (Van De Graft, M. Kent, 1985-1995).
Muscular system
Skeletal muscles are arranged base it functional groups that are adaptive in causing particular movement within each muscles the fibers are arranged in a specific pattern that provides specific functional capabilities. The skeletal muscles constitutes it own body system and accounts for approximately 40%nof the body weight over 600nindividual muscles make up the skeletal muscles.
Conditions and Causes Associated with the Endocrine
The condition that is associated with the endocrine is the “glandular problem” this is the situation where the thyroid glands are said to underactive and this normally prevents the person from “burning up” food. The endocrine influence of the obesity supposedly resulted from a condition over which the individual has no control and it also result in glandular fever.
Another conditions associated with the endocrine system is the Addison’s Syndrome. This is inadequate secretion of corticosteroid hormones by the adrenal glands, and sometimes this happens as a result of tuberculosis infection.
The third condition of endocrine system is amenorrhea. The primary amenorrhea is the situation where the menstrual fail appear in female during the puberty. It is normal cause by the absence of the ovaries. The secondary amenorrhea is a situation where the menstrual period stop after establishment of puberty) may be caused by disorders of the hypothalamus, deficiency of ovarian, pituitary, or thyroid hormones, mental disturbance, depression, anorexia nervosa, or a major change of surrounding or circumstances.
Another condition associated with the endocrine system is the polycystic ovarian syndrome. This is the hormone disorder characterized by incomplete development of Graafian follicles in the ovary due to inadequate secretion of luteinizing hormone; the follicles fail to ovulate and remain as multiple cysts distending the ovary. Sometime, the imbalance of the hormone result in obesity, hirsute and acne and the woman is infertile due to lack of ovulation.
Cushing syndrome is condition where there is excess amount of cortico-steriod hormone in the body.
Effect
The Addison’s syndrome include weakness, loss of energy, low blood pressure and also pigmentation of the human skin.
The primary and the secondary amenorrhea results in nervousness; irritability, emotional disturbances, headache and depression. And it affect some women for about 10 das prior to menstruation.
The Cushing’s syndrome results in weight gain, reddening of the face and neck, excess growth of the body and facial hair, raised blood pressure, loss of mineral from the bones and raised blood glucose levels and sometimes mental disturbances .
Preventions
Prevention of the glandular fever includes the following.
Wash hands regularly, particularly after sneezing or coughing.
Avoid kissing
Avoid sharing personal items
Avoid eating and drinking share food
The prevention of Addison’s is by formerly fatal, and such disease is now treatable by replacement of hormone therapy.
The prevention of primary amenorrhea and the secondary amenorrhea is also done by the replacement of therapy with associated increase in risk of breast cancer.
The treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome can be controlled by the administration of the appropriate hormone in the body system.
Evaluation
Endocrine system is the vital system in humanity that enhance the body part, endocrine system is in charge of the body processes that take place in the gradually way such as the cell growth. It usually processes like breathing and the body movement of human are controlled by the nervous system. However, the nervous system and the endocrine system are separate and it usually work together to help the body system function effectively and efficiently, (Andreasen, N.C. 1988). The endocrine system is made up of gland and hormones.
The hormone of the body are the body messengers which helps to transfer and instruction information from one set of cells to another. Different hormones move through the bloodstream and each hormones are designed to affect a certain cells of the body. The gland of the endocrine system is a group of cells that produces and secretes or give off, a chemicals. The gland of the body removes or selects the waste materials in the human body such waste materials include the sweat and salivary glands release secretion in the skin and in the mouth. The endocrine system is a vital glands simply because it enhanced in the reproduction system of humans.
Conclusion
In the nutshell, endocrine system is most important system in the human system that helped the body system to function effectively and efficiently. The endocrine system is a complex group of glands that helps to control the reproduction system of human, the metabolism, growth and the development through a substance called the hormones of the human being. This system controls the way human being respond to their surrounding and it provides the proper amount of energy that the human body needs to be able to function well, (Papalia, E. Diane &Sally, W. 1985).
In some cases, the glands of the endocrine systems are impaired and this can result in “the imbalance of hormone”. The imbalance of hormone or condition of endocrine system can affect the health of the individuals in various ways and some of this endocrine conditions are vary serious. These imbalance hormone or endocrine system conditions are the growth disorder, the menopause, hormone abuse, the glandular problem, the Addison’s, Cushing’s polycystic ovarian, pituitary disorder, diabetes and among others.
 

Qantas Airlines: Human Resources Management

The Qantas Airways is the largest airline in Australia. Its Human Resource Management operates in the company in four major areas, which are business segments, corporate, shared services, development, and learning. This report gives limelight to the Qantas airways HRM and its role in ensuring perfect operations of the company. It further discusses change management and job analysis and design. The company has undergone intensive change management such as cutting of prices and labour costs in order to ensure high productivity, moderation of wages as well as the introduction of flexible structures through a versatile and motivated workforce. Moreover, the HRM is also responsible of ensuring that right people are hired and given necessary training under job analysis and design. However, despite the roles that the company has entrusted the HRM, there have been heightened cases of accidents and strikes from dissatisfied workers alleging that they are paid meagre salaries. This shows a HRM gap in delivering its responsibilities. Therefore, the report further argues that the HRM has failed in its change management and job design and analysis strategy. In order to correct the situation, the report further proposes that the HRM change its training and communication model. As a means to an end, the report discusses some of the implications emerging from the HRM problems and ends with a comprehensive summary.

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Description of Qantas and HRM Activities
The Qantas Airways is Australia’s largest airline. It has a solid history as it began its business years back by transporting passengers and mails. Today, the company has expanded its operations in almost 140 destinations across the globe. It is Australia’s largest employers with around 37,000 employees. The human resource management operates in the company in four major areas, which are business segments, corporate, shared services, and development and learning. Under corporate level, the HRM is responsible for employees’ remuneration as well as benefits, the industrial relations of the airline with its competitors and development of the management. In the business segment level, the HR teams often collaborate with other business segments to ensure successful delivering of strategies that will ensure competitive advantage. Human resource has a major responsibility in the company and under shared services; the HRM is responsible of managing workers records, supporting remuneration and recruitment process and managing employees’ compensation as well as coming up with strategic plans on staff travelling schedules and schemes (Belobaba, Odoni and Barnhart, 2009). Finally, under the learning and development level, the HRM comes up with training programs for employees to help them deliver their work effectively.
HR Functions; Change Management and Job Analysis and Design at the Qantas Airways
Discussion of Two HR functions in the Qantas
Change Management
The Qantas airline was formerly owned by the government hence did not perceive efficiency and profits as its prime goal (Rothkopf, 2009). After its privatisation in 1995, the HRM had to adopt various management practices in order to overcome the company’s external and internal influences.
The HRM in their change management has emphasised on cutting costs and more so reduction of labour costs to guarantee heightened productivity, moderation of wages as well as the introduction of flexible structures through a versatile and motivated workforce (Marks, 2007). Cutting labour costs in the Qantas airways have involved strict measures from the HRM such as reducing wages and salaries through eliminating costly practices (Hernandez, 2011.).
The Qantas airline HRM has undertaken immense changes in order to cope with diverse external and internal factors (Gillen and Morrison, 2005). Various factors led to changes in the HR management such as the need to have more profits in the company and the fact that the company was under government ownership. This means that the airline had maintained its authoritarian hierarchical structure, autocratic form of leadership, and strict procedures and rules (Hughes, 2012).
In addition, the airline has been involved in a major change as far as training is concerned and in 2003, the HRM facilitated in the expansion of the company’s apprenticeship programme (Gunn, 1988). According to Kirkpatrick’s model of learning and training, training helps in ensuring affirmative results (Kearns, 2010).
Job Analysis and Design
Job design and analysis is the cornerstone of the Qantas HRM. Job analysis can be viewed as the hub of all human resource management activities that are needed for effective organizational functioning (Berman et al, 2009). Under job analysis, the HRM is responsible for planning, recruitment, selection, placement, and induction of workers (Berman et al, 2009). The procedures that are often supported by job analysis process include personnel selection, training, job evaluation as well as performance appraisal (Berman et al, 2009). In addition, the process of job analysis supports the Qantas organizational strategy in dealing with market competition and talent crisis. According to human resource theory, strategic HRM focuses on connecting all HR functions with organizational goals (Rothwell and Benscoter, 2012).
The Qantas airline HRM in the process of job analysis determines various training needs of workers. Moreover, in job analysis process, the HRM determines on some of the things that affect behaviour in the company.
After job analysis process, the next step is job design, which aims at outlining and organising duties, responsibilities, as well as tasks in a single unit in order to achieve particular objectives. Job design in the Qantas airways is essential in enabling effective feedback. In addition, training is an imperative part in job design in order to make sure that employees are conscious of their work demands. Training encompasses leadership training to employee orientation (Aulenbach, 2007). Development and training plays an imperative role in ensuring success of a company. Today, most organisations view training as an imperative role of human resource (Price, 2011). From research conducted, it is apparent that most organizations such as the Qantas airways are spending a lot of money on training with a belief that it will consequently give them a competitive advantage in both global and local market (Jackson, Schuler and Werner, 2011). According to human resource theory (Bacon et al, 2009), workers need maximum support from human resource function. In that case, the Qantas airways offer training to staff in order to motivate them as well as ensure competitive advantage in the company. Frances (2009) avows that training is imperative in ensuring imperative piloting skills. In 2009, the company opened approximately $10 million staff training centres in an effort to build on economies of scale.The HRM through job design help the workforce to make vital adjustments.
Problems and Implications Faced by Qantas
Although the two major basic functions of HRM is to ensure successful change management and job analysis and design, the Qantas airline has undergone through various challenges in these two areas. The HRM in their change management focused on cutting costs such as labour costs in order to increase productivity, ensure moderate workers’ salary and introduce flexible structures. However, they have failed in ensuring effective and non-biased change management. This is because, workers recently have been complaining of being paid meagre salaries and even gone for strikes. Under change management, they should have ensured successful remuneration of employees. However, it is embarrassing to note that a reputable company like Qantas with such successful change management strategy has failed to take care of its employees. The unsolved salary issues have caused employee outcry and various scandals in the company. The pilots have been protesting over meagre salaries and the union workers have continued to demonstrate over pay inequality arguing they are paid 25% less than their equals in Victoria (Hernandez, 2012). In a survey that was conducted in 2012, on three thousand Qantas employees, the workers expressed dissatisfaction with the management of the company mostly the HRM (McDonald, 2012). Serious staff challenges have continued threatening the company yet up to now the HRM is still reluctant to come up with a new change management model such as ADKAR model that will cater for the interests of workers and allow the company to focus activities on particular business results (Hiatt, 2006).
Under Job analysis and design, it is apparent that the HRM made immense mistakes in choosing the right candidates. Despite heavy training programs that the HRM has invested in during job analysis and design process, it is only in 2008 that the company was involved in an in-flight incident, which caused serious injuries to passengers and death of 129 passengers due to specious commands (Frances, 2009). In addition, it is apparent that training has not had a positive impact in the company since in 2006, the Qantas Airways pilots failed to monitor their position hence ended up to the wrong runway. Moreover, in 2009, the company’s pilots failed to acknowledge and decided to overshoot their destinations by 150 miles (Frances, 2009). Frances (2009) alleges that captains in the company are not competent enough as they lacked knowledge on use of stick shaker and stall recovery thus causing serious accidents. It is hence clear that the HRM department leaves a lot to be desired as incidences have continued to intensify despite the company’s change management and job design and analysis strategy (Louise, 2011). With such a successful airline company, it is apparent that its HRM is ineffectual and has only led to losses than success. The company asserts that it is committed fully to developing its people, yet they do not seem to know how they can forge a beneficial relationship with its staff. There has been a lot of change in the company including cutting of costs, developing training programs, outsourcing working rules and regulations, collaborating with the unions yet the situation seem to be moving from bad to worse. It is apparent that the HRM has been incompetent in hiring the right personnel and dealing with employees.
Implications to Stakeholders
Various stakeholders include trade unions, government, shareholders, customers, community, business partners, employees, the media, and non-governmental organisations. They all have a major influence on the company’s performance and its strategy. The media coverage on wrong decisions in the Qantas have affected negatively on the company’s image. The problems discussed obviously imply that the HRM, shareholders, and business partners have been reluctant in solving the current crisis hence affecting the performance of the company. Because of the accidents reported, most consumers are not keen on using Qantas airline hence affecting profitability (BBC News, 2012). Additionally, the challenges in the company have also affected employees and consumers on grounds that they have lost confidence with the running of the company (Sandilands, 2011).
The looming disagreement between Qantas and its pilots shows clearly that the HRM and business partners have failed in ensuring they contribute in effective management of the company. In addition, the Non-governmental organisations have failed in conflict resolution between the Qantas and its employees. It is apparent that the HRM, business partners, and non-governmental organisations involved have failed in coming up with rational solutions to ensure such current disputes do not develop into a major crisis. Instead of the company’s CEO, Alan Joyce holding productive talks, he has been busy making provocative comments in numerous heated exchanges. For instance, he condemned union members on issues regarding wages arguing that their talks and protests were baseless (Bamber, 2011). The union leaders in return criticised senior managers and accused them of tarnishing the brand image of the company while they were awarding themselves hefty salaries. This hence implies that the community as well as Union members have lost confidence on the company’s stakeholders and this in return has led to bad publicity and reduced profitability. Consequently, the media has given a wide coverage on the company’s latest controversies meaning that it is benefiting financially because of the developing story.
It is upsetting to see Qantas’ employees go on strike due to poor management issues in a company owned by various stakeholders. The shareholders, business partners, the HRM, CEO, and Nongovernmental Organisations have a major role to play in ensuring issues in the company are resolved and the company goes back to its initial profitable situation. Therefore, they need to sit down and come up with a rational plan towards improvement (Bamber, 2011).
Action plan and Recommendations
With the increasing incidences, there is hence a need to come up with an action plan. First, all the stakeholders must meet to discuss on ways to solve the recent crisis. In the meeting, there will be change of communication and training model to more rational models that are employee oriented. The HRM will carry out the process and engage other stakeholders to give ideas on how salary and training issues ought to be handled. The change process will take place from 1st to 28th November in the company’s boardroom. To carry out the process, the employees will be interviewed in order to show some of the areas they would need change. The entire company’s workforce and managers will be given information concerning the changed plan.
The recent problems involving HRM function has caused the company to suffer financially. The Qantas airline in their website asserts that, “Qantas is committed to providing meaningful jobs with competitive salaries and superior benefits” (Qantas, n.d). However, they have failed in fulfilling their promise as the strikes reported tell a different story. In addition, they allege that they “provide targeted, quality training to the Qantas group and assists in the development of skills” (Qantas, n.d). However, the accidents reported show a major gap in their training strategy. The HRM should revisit their training and communication model and make a change on it. It is time the company moved out of a market approach change strategy that only focus on making profits and focus on employee oriented approach that consider the interests of workers. With an effective training model, there will be workshop and focus group sessions where employees air their grievances and come up with solutions to their problems (Frances, 2009). In addition, effective HRM communication should contribute successfully to teamwork, learning, innovation, safety, and productivity (Krizan et al, 2010). Moreover, the HRM should invest heavily on their pilot candidates and ensure that they get the right training. Coming up with a HR strategic oriented communication model is important in guaranteeing that employees are at par with requirements and needs of the company. This will help in discussing paramount issues affecting the running of the company. Once there is fit between communication and training model in relation to the role of the HRM, the next step should be to come up with a tactical plan on how the HR will be managing their roles to ensure there are no more scandals. The HR needs to be involved fully in daily operations of the company to ensure alignment with needs of the employees. Moreover, the HRM should come up with performance management plan, which is imperative in following up on the performance of the staff members.
The HRM should also be transparent in its strategy. This means that the company’s operational and strategic agenda should be communicated clearly to workers and must be accepted. This will ensure employees’ needs are met and there are no operational challenges. In addition, its mission should be shared with other shareholders to make sure they are on the right path to correcting the image of the company.
Today’s HR models recognise on the fact that people do not leave their issues at home when they are going to work. For the company to be successful, it should focus on the needs of the workers whether personal or professional. This will motivate the workers to deliver quality work. In that case, there will be less accidents and remuneration problems in the company (Frances, 2009). In addition, in training sessions, the HR should focus on changing staff members’ attitude towards work and teach them on how to have a positive attitude. This will help in motivating workers and encouraging them to air their grievances through dialogue.
Conclusion
Similar to other managers in an organisation, HRM has various functions. The HRM ensure successful change management and right people are hired in various ranks. However, the HRM has failed, as there have been increased cases of strikes from discontented workers. Additionally, there have been numerous accidents reported in the company. To avoid such incidences in the future, it is important for the company to change its communication and training model. In addition, they should be transparent in their operations and involve other stakeholders to ensure they are trending on the right path. This will help in reducing accidents and strikes from dissatisfied employees.
 

Human Rights And Freedom In Modern Society

The question of human rights is not a new phenomenon in modern societies. It has always dominated the foundations of modern democracy since 17th century. The discovery of the concept of human rights has contributed to formation of many social and political movements. Many social philosophers have grappled with and discussed the meaning, scope and general application of human rights. Thomas Paine is one of those philosophers, who discussed the rights of human beings in defending the principles of French revolutions (Fink 41). This concept was further developed by Locke, who was preoccupied with the idea of liberalism, following the introduction of English revolutions (Fink 43). As described by Fink, Locke was of the opinion that all human beings have a right to life and ownership of property, an argument that led to introduction and implementation of liberalism political system that left a great human impact in North American and French political revolutions (46). Fink further explains that the liberalism continued to expand with the social and scientific developments in Europe and North America (Fink 69).

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China is dominated by authoritarian governance that is characterized by dictatorship and abuse of human rights (Yang 18). The country does not hold elections for national leaders and it lacks freedom of worship. In addition, the country lacks freedom of the press, whereby the media and the internet are heavily censored (Yang 21). Furthermore, the government does not tolerate any form of opposition and criticism towards the leadership (Sen 21).
On one hand, power can be used negatively by leaders to opress, manipulate and control people under their leadership, while on the other hand, it can used constructively to foster democracy and country’s socio- economic empowerment (Panu, SY309, 2011). Power has been used to create social identities and political movements, whereby a great number of political philosophies are based theoretical and practical frameworks of human rights, freedom of the press and freedom of religion (Panu, SY309, 2011). In addition, power and knowledge are two inseparable concepts because power is a useful tool in the understanding and application of knowledge (Panu, SY309, 2011).
President Obama’s observations about China clearly show the lack of freedom and the domineering political oppression faced by the people of China as a result of the authoritarian governance, despite the country’s economic growth. He points out that China’s authoritarian governance contradicts values of the basic human rights and reiterates the need for Chinese government to promote the ideals of democracy based on the values of Western liberalism. Western liberalism system of governance allows the citizens to engage freely on issues affecting them in relation to governance. Its main strategy is not simply to repress dissent, desire or behavior but to promote the citizen’s engagement with social, political and democratization process (Panu, SY309, 2011).
According to Merton, Western Liberalism is based on capitalist values originating from the American culture that promotes individualism, universalism, materialism and achievement (38). China’s explosive economic growth has been attributed to introduction of capitalism in 1978, whereby the government aimed at eradicating poverty by abolishing communalism and embracing Western culture and modernization for the citizens to work hard in the belief that “getting rich is glorious.” However, the China’s governing authorities have refused to embrace Western form of governance by holding on to power and denying citizens their human rights and freedom of expression (Yang 28).
Stepan observes that the concept of freedom has been used both negatively and positively; arguing that in the positive sense, freedom is characterized by absence of coercion or unconstrained decisions (34). Furthermore, freedom should involve making decisions without being controlled by any form of external power or authority (Panu, SY309, 2011). Freedom in a liberal government is where citizens are allowed to make their decisions about normal conducts without being coerced by governing authorities. This disqualifies China from the list of liberal governments because decisions are made by government for citizens to implement without questioning (Panu, SY309, 2011). Furthermore, anyone opposing government policies in China is severely punished.
By and large, the theoretical applications of power relations imply that power can be contested and resisted. Resistance of power is based on people’s perception and reactions to different rules, whereby in liberal societies like the U.S, public demonstrations, political activism and political struggles are allowed and accepted within the law (Stepan 34 ).Resistance to power in such countries can be done through the media discourses, public debates and political representations (Panu, SY309, 2011). Nevertheless, in countries characterized by authoritarian governance like China, resistance to power is viewed as a crime and it is totally unacceptable (Yang 28). Sen argues that democracy is a universal value but a contested concept, applied differently in various contexts (Sen 17). For a country like China to become democratic, it needs to undergo radical social transformation and reforms.
Conclusion
In conclusion, democracy is based on respect for human rights, freedom of press and access to information. In the U.S, it is based on liberalism, allowing the citizens to make decisions without the interference of state or authority figures. Liberal democracies embrace press release, public discourse and political struggle as a way of contesting power for their citizens. On the contrary, non-liberal countries like China view any attempt to resist power as a crime that is punishable by law. This calls for need for human rights activists and international organizations that embrace democracy to seek the way forward in creation of democratic governance for countries dominated by authoritarian leadership like China.