Is Any Version of the Identity Theory of Mind Acceptable?

Identity theory argues that the mind is identical to the brain and that mental events are identical to brain events, ultimately the theory enlightens materialism in that everything is physical and to further precision it enlightens material monism in believing that only material substances and their states exist (K. T. Maslin, 2007, 65). To some extent it exemplifies physicalism that humans are fully material beings that can be explained using ideally complete physics which it is essential to point out do not currently exist. The theory in summary states that when we experience something in our minds it will be identical to an event in the brain, for example pain will be experienced at the same time as the firing of c-fibres in the brain (Gareth Southwell, 2009, In this essay I will further discuss the different versions of the identity theory such as type-type and token-token. And I will prove that despite strengths such as explaining why changes in the brain through injury or otherwise accompany alterations in the mental functioning no version of the identity theory of mind are ultimately acceptable due to its inability to explain the locations of thoughts or emotions, the subconscious or conscious states, the qualia of experiences or the intentional mental states with further critique by the American philosopher Kripke.

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There are two types of identity theory and the first one I will discuss is the type-type identity theory. This theory believes that any given mental state will be identical to a brain state (K. T. Maslin, 2009, 68). This theory tries to identify the connection of mental phenomena with physical processes in the brain. This theory utilises the discoveries of science as identical with the possible connections of mental states with brain states, it states that the discovery of water as an element of oxygen and hydrogen as well as the identification of physical phenomena such as lightning with the pattern of electrical discharges it can connect the experience and feeling of pain with the physical process in the brain and central nervous system of the firing of C-fibres. The extension of this theory places impetus on reductionism. This is where it is argued that the meanings of different mental and physical phrases exactly match at their core concepts. This can be explained in terms of water and H20, two groups of phenomena that appear numerically contrasting turn out to be one set of existents and not two. Ultimately they state that mental and physical concepts will turn out to be a single type of property described by two different terminologies. They believe the true nature of phenomena can be provided by the base to which it is reduced for example pain can be reduced to the behaviour of neurons in the central nervous system.
The second type of identity theory is the token-token identity theory. This believes there are individual differences in people and animals for brain and mental states (K. T. Maslin, 2007, 70). It states that while token mental states are identical to token physical states in different individuals they may be different types of states, for example pain may result in c-fibre stimulation in one individual and z-fibre stimulation in another (Dr Crawford, 2009, 3). I personally think that this theory tries to explain the differences in individuals minds in extension of the pain example I believe this theory tries to explain the different threshold in pain for different individuals, whilst it still may be the same mental thought and brain reactions it takes some people more whilst others less pain to trigger the stimulation of their corresponding fibres whether it be c, x or y.
Firstly I will discuss the strengths of these theories in explaining that the mind is ultimately the brain. Firstly it is a simple theory, with fewer assumptions and only requiring to explain the physical it makes itself more preferable and leaves less loopholes open for critique. It also removes the mind body interaction problem, whereas before there was a requirement to explain the mental to physical causation the theory states that the mental is the physical so it only requires the physical to physical causation to be rationalised and not the non-physical with the physical. Another strength is provided by scientific discovery in the use of PET or MRI scans that show that specific areas of the brain “light up” during specific mental functions, some of these connections were identified by Borca and Wernicke over a hundred years before the creation of these state-of-the-art scanning techniques, this displays the connection between mental and brain states (K. T. Maslin, 2007, 70). However probably the most powerful of all strengths to the identity theories is the ability to explain why changes in the brain due to injury, disease, illness or otherwise results in the alteration of mental functioning. The same happens along the evolutionary scale where increases in brain sizes resulted in the increase of intellectual capacity. Because the mind is the brain when the brain is modified the mind is modified (K. T. Maslin, 2007, 66).
There were some earlier objections to this theory as well where critiques stated that because mental states are different to brain states analytically they must be different but theorists quickly dismissed this stating that “the non-synonymy of expressions flanking an identity sign does not automatically rule out the truth of the identity claim” in other words just because the expressions or terms are different doesn’t meant they cannot possibly have the same identity. To take this further the theorists state that it all depends on what you are referring to, underneath the different vocabulary the facts relate to a single reality. The example of the morning and evening stars supports this idea that while the vocabulary and specifically adjectives used to describe the star differ they ultimately refer to the same thing the planet Venus. This can also be applied to the lack of knowledge as dismissible critique using Smarts concept stating that you may know about one thing but nothing about another doesn’t mean they cannot possibly be the same, for example you may know about water but not recognise the compound of H20 but this doesn’t mean they are not the one and single entity (K. T. Maslin, 2007, 74).
The strengths identified in the collective identity theories show some serious connections identified and supporting evidence presented in proving the mind is identical with the brain. However I believe there are some serious and unsurpassable flaws in the arguments of the identity theorists that result in its ultimate demise. Firstly, the issue of the mental and the spatial arises (K. T. Maslin, 2007, 74). Whilst it is easy through the use of scanning, the location of brain processes can be easily identified during various tasks it is almost impossible to identify the location of a thought or emotion, in other words mental states are different to brain processes.. Secondly, there is a weakness in the connection between mental states and brain processes on the subconscious level (K. T. Maslin, 2007, 76), to extend this we mean that things like the natural functioning of the nervous system as well as any other system in your body such as digestion or breathing, these all have brain states that tell the body what to do however they do not have any connectable mental state because we do not think about them in any way. This shows that some things only have physical properties and hence not everything has a mental and a brain state fundamentally disagreeing with the identity theory. Thirdly is the issue of qualia which means the quality of a conscious experience (K. T. Maslin, 2007, 79). Whilst we may know what part of the brain there is activity in during a particular mental state there is no way we can access the qualia of that experience, for example if we had a pain we can identify this by the firing of c-fibres in our brain state but there is no way we could identify where that pain is, this means that while we experience thoughts and sensations they must exist in other forms than just physical properties of brain states and processes. One day science may be able to identify the qualia of an experience but at the moment we can only identify the mechanical process and cannot explain mentality or consciousness. Another critique of the identity theories emphasises the importance of dreams, beliefs, desires and many more intentional states that do not exist, they possess a representational content and the theorists believe that brain states are fully mechanical processes in brain states that cannot posses any representational content, this requires the drawing of the conclusion that brain states cannot be identical with intentional mental states (K. T. Maslin, 2007, 80). The final main critique of all identity theories is due to Saul Kripke who used Descartes sixth mediation as inspiration for his argument in stating that because we can genuinely imagine mental states without brain states then they are not identical at all, what something may look like is not essential to its being but its inner constitution is for example something may be a clear liquid in appearance but it may have as much chance in being vodka as it is water the only way to identify it is to reduce it to its inner constitution H20 (K. T. Maslin, 2007, 90 and J. J. C. Smart, 2000, The mere possibility of occurrence of mental states without the connecting brain states means they cannot be identical. Ultimately there is a lot of physical to mental approaches and connection that cannot be disproved in the same way they cannot be approved and this draws the conclusion that you ‘cannot discover the truth about reality on the basis of what one does and does not know’ (K. T. Maslin, 2007, 67).
In conclusion despite all the strengths of the identity theories such as the discoveries of science with PET and MRI scans and the explanation of changes in the brain resulting in changes in mental functioning ultimately the weakness in locating or explaining thoughts, emotions, dreams, desires, the subconscious or any qualia of experience, representational or otherwise, mean its mechanical approach ceases to advance and that is why I believe the mind is not the brain.

Crawford, Dr Sean. 2009. Lecture Notes Week 3: Mind Brain Identity Theories, University of Manchester: Blackboard.
Maslin, Keith T. 2007. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind, Second Edition, Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Gareth Southwell, 2009, “Identity Theory”,


Annotated Bibliography: Doctoral Identity

Annotated Bibliography: Doctoral Identity

Baker, V. L., & Pifer, M. J. (2011). The role of relationships in the transition from doctor to independent scholar. Studies in Continuing Education, 33(1), 5-17. 2010.515569

In this article, the authors discuss how students are learning how to transition from a doctoral student to becoming a recognized scholar.  Based on my reading there is a process that students in the US must follow when pursuing their doctoral degree. When pursuing your degree, you must follow three stages, that allow you to seek an identity that will make you more of a professional when becoming a scholar.  When completing a degree for the doctoral program, students must complete their course work, complete and pass exams, and then complete the process of their dissertation.  Another stage is based on the student experience when completing their doctoral degree and developing their own identity through school.

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In the article, there was a study done with students whose majors at Valley University, were in business and education.  The study was based on students who were pursuing their doctoral degree, the researcher used the theoretical framework which included the socio-cultural perspective of how student learned.  He result of the study found that most student who went through the transition process at a profession level, found themselves learning additional skills that lead to new relationship with other students in the program.  The research did have some weaknesses that did not include the characteristic of the student who were pursuing their doctoral degree.  The study also did not include a diverse population of students.  The study also had some strengths that used the integrated approach on how social-cultural backgrounds influenced the changes student had to go through when pursuing their doctoral degree.

However, based on research it is has been argued that when it comes to understanding the relationship between how a person learns, can be based on how prepared they are to continue their education.  When a person prepares for the future as a professional, they should concentrate on understanding how theory and research works together, when you are in the transitioning process of furthering your education.  There are some great recommendations when going through the transitioning phase, that is the ability as a student to become a more independent person who wants to become a great scholar.

Gardner, S. K. (2009). Conceptualizing success in doctoral education:  Perspectives of faculty in seven disciplines. The Review of Higher Education, 32(3), 383-406.

In this article, the authors talk about how important it is to be successful when doing an education-based research based on the concerns of all the students who do not complete their doctoral degree.  Research studies how found various factors that contribute to a person being successful when they are continuing their education, which focuses on the student characteristics of their test scores and grades.  A person’s grades and scores help influence how a person can be successful in completing their doctoral degree.  There are many factors that helps a student be successful on the structural process and characteristics at a different perspective.  Most scholars have analyzed some of the concepts of the student being successful based on all aspects of becoming a success in the doctoral program.

Gardner has revelations that help him present a study that analyze the success of person who is in the completing the doctoral program.  The study included 38 staff members that were from the research department. The focus of the study included an overview of literature that other researchers could use when they do their own study.  The research did discuss some methods and summary that included some implications on the policies and practices of the doctoral program.  There was a hypothesis that was used in the study that focused on how disciplinary context and cultural could help student understand how they can be successful in obtaining their doctoral degree.  The doctoral program was examined by using multiple approaches that focused on how universities used disciplinary diversity for completing the program.  The programs that were included in the study were the English department, computer science department, and other departments throughout the universities in America.

Most of the studies found that there was a clear distinction for disciplinary constructions of the student being successful from the departments include on the study.  Researchers found that the department policy would allow completion rates of the students to be included in them being successful.  There is evidence that the procedure that were used when admitting students and the expectation for them to be successful when entering the doctoral program.  The weakness of the study focused on the evaluation of the doctoral program when it came to prestige and elite learning throughout universities in the United States. As a result, the study did not provide a full picture of the education process was set up in the United States.

The strengths of the research did provide an understanding in contrasting a student’s identity and their characteristics when pursuing a doctoral education.  Most cultures use various discipline on their learning experience at the doctoral level.  Individuals who do research in the future, must include new students in program and allow them to participate in their expectations of the program.  Faculty members must help the student make sure that they follow the correct guidelines when completing course work and the expectations of becoming a great scholar.

Smith, A. E., & Hatmaker, D. M. (2014). Knowing, Doing, and Becoming: Professional Identity

Construction Among Public Affairs Doctoral Students. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 20(4), 545-5647

In this article, the authors talk about how important it is to be successful when doing an education-based research based on the concerns of all the students who do not complete their doctoral degree.  Research studies how found various factors that contribute to a person being successful when they are continuing their education, which focuses on the student characteristics of their test scores and grades.  A person’s grades and scores help influence how a person can be successful in completing their doctoral degree.  There are many factors that helps a student be successful on the structural process and characteristics at a different perspective.  Most scholars have analyzed some of the concepts of the student being successful based on all aspects of becoming a success in the doctoral program.

Gardner has revelations that help him present a study that analyze the success of person who is in the completing the doctoral program.  The study included 38 staff members that were from the research department.  The focus of the study included an overview of literature that other researchers could use when they do their own study.  The research did discuss some methods and summary that included some implications on the policies and practices of the doctoral program.  There was a hypothesis that was used in the study that focused on how disciplinary context and cultural could help student understand how they can be successful in obtaining their doctoral degree.  The doctoral program was examined by using multiple approaches that focused on how universities used disciplinary diversity for completing the program.  The programs that were included in the study were the English department, computer science department, and other departments throughout the universities in America.

Most of the studies found that there was a clear distinction for disciplinary constructions of the student being successful from the departments include on the study.  Researchers found that the department policy would allow completion rates of the students to be included in them being successful.  There is evidence that the procedure that were used when admitting students and the expectation for them to be successful when entering the doctoral program.  The weakness of the study focused on the evaluation of the doctoral program when it came to prestige and elite learning throughout universities in the United States. As a result, the study did not provide a full picture of the education process was set up in the United States.

The strengths of the research did provide an understanding in contrasting a student’s identity and their characteristics when pursuing a doctoral education.  Most cultures use various discipline on their learning experience at the doctoral level.  Individuals who do research in the future, must include new students in program and allow them to participate in their expectations of the program.  Faculty members must help the student make sure that they follow the correct guidelines when completing course work and the expectations of becoming a great scholar.


Author, A., Author, A., & Author, A. (2014). The article title is in sentence case. Journal of APA Style, 42, 74-89. doi: 48.1516.2342

Author, A., Author, A., & Author, A. (2014). The article title is in sentence case: If there is no DOI include the journal home page in the reference. Journal of APA Style, 42, 74-89. Retrieved from

Author, A. (2014). Book titles are in italics and still in sentence case. City: Publisher.

Author, A. (2014, March). Articles from a magazine or newspaper. Psychology Today, 39, 32-49.


John Lockes Theory Of Personal Identity Philosophy Essay

“For should the soul of a prince, carrying with it the consciousness of the prince’s past life, enter and inform the body of a cobbler, as soon as deserted by his own soul, everyone sees he would be the same person with the prince, ” accountable only for the prince’s actions; but who would say it was the same man?”
In this example Locke shows that the human body is not necessary in personal identity since you could have the same person in two different bodies. Since the physical body cannot maintain personal identity, Locke comes to the conclusion that it must be the psychological aspect of humanity that retains personal identity.
It is at this point that the emphasis of identity is placed on the psychological rather than the physical aspect of life as stated in Locke’s second book: “This may show us wherein personal identity consists: not in the identity of substance, but… in the identity of consciousness”3 Locke’s next point was to differentiate between a “man” and a “person.” He uses the example of a rational talking parrot and compares it to an organism with the same shape as a human being though; it is unable to “engage in rational discourse.”1 This thought experiment is used by Locke to demonstrate that rationality is not an essential part of a man. Since rational discourse was not a necessary part of man. Locke expressed identity using something else. Thus, Locke finally narrowed down the integral part of personal identity to consciousness. Locke’s definition of conscious is as follows: “Consciousness is both a necessary and a sufficient condition for a morally vital sense of personal identity.”3 Locke describes the essence of self as being their consciousness, which he states as something distinguishable for every thinking thing. This consciousness is described as the “sameness of a rational being.” The unique characteristic of consciousness is that allows it to retain personal identity is that it can “be extended backwards to any past action or thought.” It is this characteristic that Locke uses to explain his theory of personal identity. Locke also disagrees with the Cartesian view of the soul, which held that a man’s soul was of an entirely different essence than his body, focusing more on the connectedness of the same conscious thought. Therefore, Locke reaches the conclusion that personal identity can only be achieved through psychological continuity. As a result of this, psychological continuity relies only on the being’s ability to consciously look back on their previous existence and be able to distinguish between conscious thought and memory. This distinction is extremely important to because Locke is frequently ambiguous when dealing with both terms. When he refers to conscious memory, he implies that it represents the consciousness of a past experience. Conscious thought, on the other hand, involves perceiving that one perceives. Locke explains that when we “will” anything, we are always conscious of it. Psychological continuity, as Locke describes it, also insinuates that a person who exists at one time is indistinguishable with a person who exists at a second time only if the first person remembers some past experience that connects the second person to the second time. Therefore, Locke’s definition of personal identity centers around the continuity of the consciousness, which is able to relate past and present memories and retain some sense of self awareness.

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Now that I have explained and given an analysis of Locke’s theory of personal identity, I will now evaluate the validity of Locke’s theory by proving that his account of personal identity is incorrect. Locke’s arguments contain flaws from their conception. I have a great difficulty with Locke’s statement of self-conscious awareness as the main constituent of personal identity since intrinsically that consciousness is available only to each unique ‘self.’ Due to this dilemma, third party juries will be subject to error in many cases. In order to further explain this point, I will divide my argument into two questions; what does personal identity consist of and how can one tell a person is the same? First, since Locke defined personal identity as a person’s consciousness, I will use that as my basis for this argument. Thus, since we can only tell a person through their physical aspect, it becomes impossible to distinguish if someone else’s consciousness resides in the person you are looking at. An example would be if a person robbed a bank but wasn’t conscious of the fact that he performed the act in the first place. According to Locke, the man should be free of all charges since he wasn’t the same person who robbed the bank. This however is preposterous if in a courtroom there is evidence of that person robbing the bank, the only exception being if the person could prove they lost consciousness throughout the event. Another error found within Locke’s argument centers around the fact that even though a person can switch bodies, it is the consciousness that determines the identity of the bodies. Thus it is clear that while Locke’s statements seem perfectly rational in theory, practically though, they have no weight. Another flaw found in Locke’s argument, is in how he leaves out particular cases where his theory of psychological continuity cannot apply. First however, I must define the distinction between ‘person’ and ‘man.’ Locke defines ‘man’ as a living body of some particular shape. A person, on the other hand, is “an intelligent thinking being that can know itself as itself the same thinking thing in different times and places.”4An example of this would be humans who remain in vegetative conditions and show no mental faculties whatsoever. According to Locke’s description of personal identity these human beings are not considered “persons” since nothing can be discovered from their past in order for that individual to define their psychological identity. Locke’s argument between ‘man’ and ‘person’ becomes too controversial since the definition of both terms can never truly be settled. In conclusion, after providing examples to counterclaim Locke’s argument that personal identity originates from psychological continuity it is clear that Locke’s view on identity is too flawed to be correct when defining identity for each person.
William, Uzgalis. “John Locke > The Immateriality of the Soul and Personal Identity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (accessed October 13, 2010).
Locke, John. “Of Identity and Diversity.” In Essay Concerning Human Understanding Volume Two. 1690. Reprint, Toronto: Dover Publications, 2005. 517-518.
John, Locke. “Of Identity and Diversity.” In Essay Concerning Human Understanding Volume Two. 1690. Reprint, Toronto: Dover Publications, 2005. 514.
John, Locke. “Of Identity and Diversity.” In Essay Concerning Human Understanding Volume Two. 1690. Reprint, Toronto: Dover Publications, 2005. 515.
Uzgalis, William. “John Locke > The Immateriality of the Soul and Personal Identity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (accessed October 13, 2010).
Locke, John. “Of Identity and Diversity.” In Essay Concerning Human Understanding Volume Two. 1690. Reprint, Toronto: Dover Publications, 2005. 517-518.
Locke, John. “Of Identity and Diversity.” In Essay Concerning Human Understanding Volume Two. 1690. Reprint, Toronto: Dover Publications, 2005. 514.
Locke, John. “Of Identity and Diversity.” In Essay Concerning Human Understanding Volume Two. 1690. Reprint, Toronto: Dover Publications, 2005. 515.

Hegel and the Problem with Identity

In G.W.F Hegel’s Philosophy of Mind, he discusses human
awareness and how they develop a sense of an exclusive identity. However, he
also believes that one’s identity is reliant on others in that they can
determine whether they are an individual. This essay will examine Hegel’s
explanation of the phenomenon where the identities of oneself and others
interact in regards to rights in the civil society and the state, and argue
that how this could be invalidated in terms of narcissism, and why one is never
really free in the eyes of other systems.

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Hegel starts off by discussing the consciousness and the ego, which is defined as the recognizing of objects and the identity of the mind respectively, meaning that the two tend to interact with each other to make a mind (413-415, 142-145). This is because the conscious mind with an ego provides the person an existence which is implied to be identical with everyone else (Hegel 416-417, 145-146). Hegel argues that the ego provides the human some sort of certainty about their identity, in which it arguably provides them the truth in who they are (413-416, 142-145). This certainty is seen in three forms, one being self-consciousness which is arguably the self-identity of a person who are able to define themselves (Hegel 424, 152-153).
The self-consciousness is formed from the sense-consciousness, which is when a person views something as outside of themselves: this means that an individual can see something, like an apple for example, and say what it is (Hegel 418-424, 147-153). The consciousness then becomes mindful of the thing and experiences it as an external object, allowing it to pass on to the intellect where it gains knowledge of that thing (Hegel 418-424, 147-153). However, according to Hegel, what distinguishes regular consciousness from self-consciousness is when the ego understands itself and recognizes it as an “I”; in other words, the person gains an identity (423-424, 151-153).  It is able to want things while cancelling out anything external which goes against the identity, which means that the person’s ego develops its own identity that differs from others (Hegel 423-429, 151-157).
Hegel believes that in terms of freedom of the mind, there has to be a universal self-consciousness in which a person is only a self-identifying individual if others see them as one; this means that a person’s awareness is reliant on others (436-437, 162-164). He gives the example of the master and the bondsman where the latter views the former as their focus, in which two self-consciousnesses that oppose each other must battle for dominance so that equality can occur: implying the universal self-consciousness exists in a world where one looks as if it is dominant over the individual one because another person is needed for it to be recognized (Hegel 430-437, 157-164). It is also implied that the master needs the bondsman to recognize him as its ruler for his identity to remain when Hegel states: “On the one hand, this relationship is a community of need and of care of its satisfaction, since the means of mastery, the bondsman, must likewise be maintained of his life” (434, 160). Therefore, the self-consciousness is universal because it depends on everyone in all sorts of relationships to recognize each other as an individual being (Hegel 423-429, 151-157; 434, 160; 436-437, 162-164). He then argues that reason becomes a part of the mind in that it is able to come up with its own thoughts, but also make decisions that are universal, which possibly means that it considers others (Hegel 436-439, 162-164). Rationality then is considered to be both subjective and objective, in which it makes the person’s mind not only acknowledge themselves, but others as well (Hegel 436-439, 162-164).
Hegel also discusses the free will and the neutral: the free will is defined as something that is individual to the person but conformed to a number of areas such as the State, possibly meaning that the person and their mind is not as free as one would think; and the neutral will is implied to be what the free will is subjected to since it arguably operates with other particular people and their autonomies (484-487, 217-219). He discusses how one’s autonomy is divided into personal needs that make them an individual and the needs of the whole, meaning that the free will is not only conditional to the one person (Hegel 483-487, 217-219). Hegel points out that there are conditions called laws that the will must follow, in that the neutral will and consciousness puts out through a number of institutions such as laws; this shows that the individual has freedom as long as they follow them (483-487, 217-219). For example, when it comes to property the person forces their will onto the object; however, contracts between them and another person enforces the transfer of these properties from one to another, which demonstrates how one can freely obtain and get rid of them as long as they are regulated (Hegel 487-495, 219-221). Rights can be legal in that while they may belong to a person naturally, if they violate another person’s will, then they are viewed as either crimes or fraud (Hegel 496-502, 222-223). This is an example of how the individual will is subject to the neutral will because all people but must respect the rights of others legally or they will be punished (Hegel 483-487, 217-219; 496-502, 222-223).
The common will, according to Hegel, is needed because it essentially regulates all individual wills into behaving in a certain manner; this is because humankind is built on protecting freedom, but things must be restrained in order to do so (483-487, 217-219; 502, 223). So, the person must obey the law of the people, and internalize their subjective will; this passage possibly means that people are free to think what they want whether it is good or bad, however they must act in an objective manner so that they do not potentially cause chaos (Hegel 502-503, 223-224).
This is further explained by Hegel
when he claims that freedom requires right and is governed by law (529, 232).
This is seen with the civilian public, where the individual mind becomes
connected with others (Hegel 523, 230). Hegel claims that laws are universal
official rights, so that possibly means that everyone has to follow them since
they are basically legal obligations (496-502, 222-223; 529, 232-233). Laws can
be arguably subjective in the matter that people can freely think whatever they
want about them because they are outside of them and some see them as bad,
which demonstrates their identity can develop its own thoughts about the law
(Hegel 423-429, 151-157; 529-530, 232-233). However, the person’s autonomy is
subject to the laws because it only affects the abstract will, meaning it
arguably leaves out things that are objective from the ethical mind: so these
laws are also objective because the individual and their will must obey them
(Hegel 423-429, 151-157; 483-487, 217-219; 529-530, 232-233).
Hegel argues that this idea of right creates the principle that laws cannot be broken and must be objective: this is because there needs to be a determination of what is right (530-531, 233-234). This leads to laws being enforced by outer institutions such as the judicial network which protects abstract rights, which arguably means that one is able to choose without infringing on another’s will; meaning abstruse rights only focus on the individual’s freedom (Hegel 423-429, 151-157; 486-487, 218-219; 496-502, 222-223; 529-532, 232-235). The court and jury needs proof in order to convict the criminal because the individual has that right: this demonstrates how the universal recognizes the individual because they arguably decide if the person is free or not through this evidence; this determines if the person is worth to be an individual (Hegel 423-429, 151-157; 529-532, 232-235).
This is the same with the policing
and corporate systems which oversees and regulates the citizens and their needs
to avoid commotion; this shows that in order to be viewed as an individual,
these institutions are needed either to protect their rights or allow them to
pursue their interests (Hegel 423-429, 151-157; 533-534, 235-236). In regards
to businesses, which are defined as professional organizations; they are
required for people to be viewed as individuals in a universal context because
without them, they are not able to do their own work or interest if there is no
organization that provides it, meaning that others are needed to recognize
their shared worth (Hegel 423-429, 151-157; 534, 235-236). Therefore, civilian
society is needed for humans to be seen as individuals because these
institutions require the self-conscious person to interact with others and do
their obligations in order to be free to do what they want; if they do not and
violate the rights of others, it will be taken away from them (Hegel 423-429,
151-157; 483-487, 217-219; 496-503, 222-224; 529-534, 232-236).
Then there is the state, which is
universally self-conscious in itself because it brings together individuals in
order in a world that everyone must acknowledge each other rationally (Hegel
436-439, 162-164; 535-536, 236). It does this partially by providing a
constitution, where the individual and the civilian world combine: this is because
everyone is classified as equal through controlled neutral freedoms that makes
them more concerned about how they treat others (Hegel 537-539, 236-239). In
terms of equality and being free, Hegel claims that the state takes freedoms
that could detriment other people’s wills and use laws that come from the mind
of the people to make sure their freedoms are not infringed upon: not only does
this show how rights must be regulated, but also demonstrates why people must
be recognized as individuals by others because it is the people who determine
how one should live (423-429, 151-157; 483-487, 217-219; 496-502, 222-223;
539-540, 237-240). The constitution is separated into different governmental
authorities such as the executive, and argues there is a monarch who controls
and unifies the state (Hegel 541-542, 240-242). Hegel also argues that nations
have to interact with each other through law, which governs peace between them;
this is a prime example of the self-conscious individual and their autonomy, and
the will of everyone: a nation is one living being, but in order to survive, it
needs alliances with other nations (436-437, 162-164; 547, 245-246). The
civilian world is regulated by the state as the police force and the judiciary,
as well as business, are regulated by the government: this demonstrates that
civilian society needs to be controlled and that people need to be noticed as
an individual by the state because if they acted towards their own interests,
this would cause freedom to be overridden by unruliness in and possibly by
these institutions which could cause imbalances within and problems with other
states – everyone must work together in order to be free individuals (Hegel
423-429, 151-157; 533-534, 235-236; 543-547, 242-246; 550-552, 249-256).
However, I argue Hegel is somewhat
wrong in needing others to recognize one’s autonomy in that people may either
be unaffected by the public self-conscious and do not need them, or could lose
most of their freedoms because of the state’s limitations on them (423-429,
151-157; 436-437, 162-164; 543-547, 242-246; 550-552, 249-256). While I do
think that institutions and laws are necessary for regulating how one uses
their autonomy, I believe that the state is still capable of ending up like
civil society by creating more inequalities towards its citizens: for example,
a narcissistic monarch may not recognize anyone’s freedom but their own, such
as refusing to work with other nations if it does not suit their needs and
disregard the rights of their citizens by using the law and constitution to
their own benefit (Hegel 483-487, 217-219; 496-502, 222-223; 543-547, 242-246;
550-552, 249-256). Narcissism can arguably cause the ego to only view their
identity and rights, without regard to others: this could cause them to violate
laws because they would feel that they are above them (Hegel 483-487, 217-219;
496-502, 222-223; 543-547, 242-246; 550-552, 249-256). It would go against
Hegel’s argument that the state provides equality and freedom because the ruler
would not be concerned about trying to make everyone equal under the law, only
how to make it work for themselves (423-429, 151-157; 483-487, 217-219;
496-502, 222-223; 539-540, 237-240). While others may recognize the ruler as so
like with the master and the servant, it is not necessarily required if the
master is narcissistic and believes they are the most powerful anyway (Hegel
430-437, 157-164).
Furthermore, if the self-conscious
person requires others in order for their identity to be recognized, then they
were arguably never free to begin with (Hegel 423-429, 151-157). If that were
true, then it would mean the individual would have to conform to the either the
civilian society or the state no matter what, in the fear that their rights
would be taken away if they did not (Hegel 423-429, 151-157; 543-547, 242-246;
550-552, 249-256). For example, state laws can arguably affect the person’s
identity in a detrimental way, such as bans on sexual orientation, which means
that both the identity and the autonomy of the person is limited to the point
that they can no longer exercise their freedoms, compromising who they are as
an individual while creating injustice in the same state that is trying to
prevent it (Hegel 423-429, 151-157; 543-547, 242-246; 550-552, 249-256). This
means that the freedom of the people can arguably cause someone to not be
recognized as an individual (Hegel 423-429, 151-157; 543-547, 242-246; 550-552,
A possible objection is that people
who truly believe they are free can be recognized as individuals because Hegel
claims that the state and its laws exist not just to limit individual freedoms,
but only to regulate them from overriding other freedoms (423-429, 151-157;
543-547, 242-246; 550-552, 249-256). One example is the police, which arguably
serves to regulate the public from creating complications, demonstrating that
it is not the state that takes away individual freedom, but it is actually
other people that do so, meaning these institutions are needed for people to
explore their freedoms without having them impeded on (Hegel 483-487, 217-219;
496-502, 222-223; 533-534, 235-236; 543-547, 242-246; 550-552, 249-256). In
terms of the identity, one can still be who they are even if the law is against
them: for example, Hegel could argue that one can still be a homosexual in
their minds as long as they do not practice it in public, so they are sexually
free in terms of their identity (423-429, 151-157; 543-547, 242-246; 550-552,
249-256). As for a narcissistic person or monarch, Hegel could argue that it
needs people to recognize their self-obsession: it is similar to the master and
slave in that the citizens need to recognize their rules in order to see them
as one because the self-obsessed individual needs people to prolong their
satisfaction (423-429, 151-157; 483-487, 217-219; 496-502, 222-223; 539-540,
However, I think that is wrong
because I believe that freedoms need to be practiced in public in order to be
viewed as a self-identifying person – the individual would still be limited
because the person would be hiding their will and thoughts in secret, which
would mean that no one is really recognizing them for who they are (Hegel
423-429, 151-157; 483-487, 217-219; 543-547, 242-246; 550-552, 249-256). It
would be like being an actor: they are playing a part in public but could be
totally different in private, so the universal public would only be seeing one
side to them (Hegel 423-429, 151-157; 483-487, 217-219; 543-547, 242-246;
550-552, 249-256). If the state, civil society and their rules cause the
individual to hide their identity, then the other is only recognizing a falsity
(Hegel 423-429, 151-157; 483-487, 217-219; 543-547, 242-246; 550-552, 249-256).
Furthermore, I do not think that narcissism needs to be acknowledged by others
and their institutions because people who experience it would arguably not care
for it (Hegel 423-429, 151-157; 483-487, 217-219; 543-547, 242-246; 550-552,
249-256). Although I do admit they may need a few select people to reaffirm
their obsession, I do not think they would really recognize that the
institutions are supposed to provide freedom for them, they would think that
they are already free and that they exist to benefit them (Hegel 423-429,
151-157; 483-487, 217-219; 543-547, 242-246; 550-552, 249-256). This would mean
they would think that people do not follow the laws for the universal will, but
that it exists to serve them (Hegel 423-429, 151-157; 483-487, 217-219;
543-547, 242-246; 550-552, 249-256).
Therefore, I think that Hegel’s argument on people needing to be affirmed as individuals by other civilians, as well as the territory, is not fully correct. It fails to see how people can actually become less free because of rules, as well as those who are not necessarily affected by them as well.
Hegel, G.W.F. Philosophy of Mind. Translated by W. Wallace and A.V. Miller, Oxford University Press, 2010.

Depictions of Dissociative Identity Disorder: Kevin Wendell Crumb

Definition of Disorder

One of the characters of the movie trilogy (Unbreakable, Split, and Glass) has dissociative identity disorder. He looks rather impressive: his personality split into more than twenty identities. Some of his identities are women wearing women’s clothes. A little boy is another his identity. These identities comprise a specific community striving to protect the host identity. The main goal of this paper is to tell about the disorder from this movie trilogy and to describe its nursing process.

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In the trilogy, there are three main characters: Kevin Wendell Crumb, David Dunn, and Elijah Price. They all have superpowers. Dunn is almost invincible and has exceptional strength. His Achilles heel is water as he almost drowned in a swimming pool when he was a boy. Elijah Price calls himself “Mr. Glass” as his bones are fragile, and he had a lot of fractures. Price cannot have a normal life because of this illness. Price’s physical disability is offset by his outstanding intelligence. Price is fond of comics, and he suggested that there should be his opposite, a man with exceptional physical strength. Price develops the theory on comics under which comics prepare people for an arrival of a superhero.

Kevin Wendell Crumb is the most contradictory character of the film. He is shown in the second and third parts of the trilogy, but film Split is devoted to him completely. He has twenty three different personalities: they represent people of different ages, opinions, and even body chemistry. For an example, one of his personalities suffers from diabetes, and she has to inject insulin to maintain her blood sugar. Cholesterol also changes depending on a personality that “gains light”, i.e. takes control of Crumb’s body. This episode is shown in Split and Glass. There is the twenty-fourth personality called the Beast. This personality is a murder and a savage cannibal obsessed with an idea to kill all people who have not come through unbearable suffering. These people do not deserve to live in his opinion. All personalities, except for the Beast, are called the Horde. Members of the Horde communicate with each other and strive to protect Kevin, the natural owner of the body.

In the last film of the trilogy, Glass, Crumb and Dunn enter the final battle as they pursue opposite goals: the former wants to prove his power, and the latter strives to save humanity. In Glass, the external organization represented by psychiatrist Ellie Staple strives to embed an idea of the impossibility of existence of superheroes and superhuman powers. After the battle between the Beast and David Dunn, all three characters were killed.

The main goal of the current paper is to study a disorder that can be observed in this movie trilogy. Kevin Wendell Crumb obviously has dissociative identity disorder. Thus, this paper is devoted to this disorder using the example of Kevin Crumb. This disorder is rare among psychological disorders: around 1% of the population exhibit the symptoms of this disorder (“Dissociative Identity Disorder”, n.d.).

A personality of a person suffering from dissociative identity disorder is split into two or more identities taking control of him from time to time. There is a lack of connection between different personalities within an individual. A person suffering from this disorder does not feel the sense of identity. Dissociative identity disorder can be interpreted as a coping tool (“Dissociative Identity Disorder”, n.d.). A person protects himself from dangerous and painful situations through switching to another personality: as a result, the individual avoids pain and pain-related emotions.

Dissociative identity disorder was called multiple personality disorder before 1994 (“Dissociative Identity Disorder”, 2019). It was renamed as the new name facilitates the understanding of this disorder. The phrase “multiple personality disorder” is mainly associated with the emergence and growth of new personalities, and it is not exactly true in case of this disorder. Dissociative identity disorder refers to the decay and splintering of a host personality. In many countries, dissociative identity disorder is not considered a disorder: it represents a part of specific rituals (Frothingham, 2018).

The actual causes of dissociative identity disorder are still unknown (“Dissociative Identity Disorder”, n.d.). This disorder is probably a psychological reaction of a person to stresses, traumas, and emotional distress. 99% of people exhibiting symptoms of dissociative identity disorder told stories of personal tragedies like maltreatment, emotional neglect, or domestic violence (“Dissociative Identity Disorder”, n.d.). The majority of these people went through traumatic events at the age of six or under. These traumatic events not obligatory include physical or sexual abuse: if parents neglect their child, he is at risk of dissociative identity disorder.

In the studied movies, Split and Glass, the episodes of Kevin’s childhood are shown. A spectator learns that Kevin’s father left his family. He did not mean to leave his wife and son forever, but he died in the train accident. Secondly, Kevin’s mother maltreated the boy: she yelled at him and even beat him. Kevin was afraid of his mother. The obsession of the Beast with the sanctity of traumas and severe painful experience is obviously associated with a tough parenting style of Kevin’s mother: Kevin was exposed to domestic violence, and he got sure that only people who came through traumatic events deserved to live. The Beast found that Casey Cooke deserved to live as he noticed scars on her body. It was the reason why he released the girl in the second part of the trilogy, Split.

Signs and Symptoms of Disorder

The main consequence of dissociative identity disorder represents its main symptom (“Dissociative Identity Disorder”, n.d.). An individual does not look like a whole person. There is no guarantee that a person suffering from this disorder will give the same answer if somebody asks him his name, age, or hobbies several times per day. Every personality has his own characteristics: name, race, gender, age, preferences, beliefs, and so on.

These personalities are not obligatory real people (“Dissociative Identity Disorder”, n.d.). Sometimes these identities are animals. In the case of Kevin Crumb, there was no mention of the origin of other personalities, but it seems reasonable that every personality occurs for a certain reason. Additional identities are usually not mature, but they reflect a certain sense of a host identity.

For an example, Hedwig is a nine-year-old boy. He takes control of Kevin’s body as Kevin did not have a happy childhood. This personality is an embodiment of Kevin’s desire to perceive the world for what it is. Patricia, another Kevin’s personality, is an adult prudent woman. Patricia is like a representative of the will of the Horde, the multitude of Kevin’s personalities. She strives to protect Kevin and to achieve recognition by the society. The Beast, the vaguest personality, symbolizes Kevin’s fears and pain he was forced to go through. It refers to his natural desire to follow the rule “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth”. Mother’s maltreatment towards Kevin made him recognize violence as an inseparable part of living. Only people who overcame the same problems have the right to live from the Beast’s perspective as it is the only one way to survive.

The process of transition between personalities can take different amount of time: it takes days, minutes, or even seconds in different cases (“Dissociative Identity Disorder”, n.d.). A psychiatrist can call different personalities: they can react to an external call. In the second and third parts of the trilogy, Split and Glass, psychiatrists communicated with separate Kevin’s personalities when they needed. Even Casey Cooke learned how to call Kevin; although, he was the weakest personality. However, even psychiatrists cannot control all Kevin’s identities.

The identities within an individual have different relationships with people. They may even have the opinion on other personalities (Frothingham, 2018). Every identity has unique physical characteristics: one of Kevin’s personalities needs insulin shots. Other personalities may have, for instance, a limp or poor eyesight. In other words, a body modifies itself for every identity.

The most common symptoms of dissociative identity disorder include dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, and blurred identity (Frothingham, 2018). Amnesia typical for this psychological disorder is more than just forgetfulness. Great pieces of memory associated with different people, events, and emotions disappear. People suffering from dissociative identity disorder often forget information associated with traumas they went through. Sometimes they even forget some information about themselves (“Dissociative disorders”, n.d.). Periods of amnesia occur regularly and may last days, weeks, or months. Dissociative amnesia differs from medical amnesia as episodes of dissociative amnesia are usually short, and all memories come back completely.

The symptom of dissociative fugue refers to periods of memory loss associated with the inability to recall a personal identity (Frothingham, 2018). People experiencing a state of dissociative fugue may go to a new location and start a new life as they do not remember where they lived and who they were earlier. The main difference between dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue is that a person forgets events and other people in the former case and cannot recall anything about himself in the latter case (Frothingham, 2018).

The symptom of blurred identity implies a feeling that somebody else possesses one’s body (Frothingham, 2018). A host identity does not always feel the presence of other personalities (“Dissociative Identity Disorder”, n.d.). However, when he realizes that he shares his body with other identities, he usually describes this feeling as “being a passenger in their body rather than the driver” (“Dissociative Identity Disorder”, n.d.). It means that people suffering from dissociative identity disorder feel themselves locked in their bodies like in a cage. They do not know how to dispose of their own bodies.

In the case of the studied movies, Kevin Crumb realizes the presence of other identities in his body in films Split and Glass. He knows their names and, moreover, can deliver messages to them. Kevin Crumb does not remember what happens when other identities take control of Kevin’s body: these episodes can be interpreted as dissociative amnesia. Kevin does not exhibit any signs of dissociative fugue: all his identities know where Kevin lives and who he is.

Headache, time loss, trances, and derealization are other symptoms of dissociative identity disorder. The latter symptom is related to the feeling that the external world is unreal (“Dissociative Identity Disorder, n.d.”). Kevin seems to experience headaches when one personality replaces another. The host personality does not experience time losses: he knows that his life does not stop when other personalities get light. When identities switch, Kevin goes into trance, but the process does not take much time. However, when the Beast takes control of the body, transition between identities takes more time. Kevin obviously experiences derealization: he explores the world through separate identities. That is the reason why Kevin agreed with arguments of Elijah Price based on the relations of comics so fast in the third part of the trilogy.

Nursing Assessment

This stage is of great importance for the overall nursing process (Toney-Butler, & Unison-Pace, 2019). Nursing assessment includes collection and analysis of all data relevant to the patient. The nurse has to apply critical thinking skills at this stage in order to make up a suitable plan of care. Information gathered by the nurse should describe physiological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual aspects of an individual. At this stage, a healthcare specialist determines normal and abnormal states of the patient to choose interventions correctly.

The nursing assessment stage is designed for several goals important for the nursing process (Toney-Butler, & Unison-Pace, 2019). The nurse has to maintain documents on main information about the patient like his name, age, possible diagnosis, main complaint, and the source of information. The nurse has to collect information on past medical history. Then the nurse is to find out whether the patient experiences pain. If he does, a healthcare professional is supposed to determine its location and to estimate its severity according to a pain scale. The nurse has to detect patient’s allergies and prescribed medications. The nurse should take care of patient’s belongings: they can be sent to safe storage or home. The nurse has to inform the patient, his family, and caregivers on their rights, liabilities, and admission and discharge goals. Then the nurse identifies whether mobility aids is required. The nurse has to estimate the patient according to the Morse Fall Risk Scale. This scale indicates a risk for the patient’s fall (“What Is the Morse Fall Risk Scale”, n.d.). The nurse has to carry out psychosocial assessment: at this stage, a healthcare specialist finds out what type of control and monitoring is preferable for the patient. At this stage, the nurse also assesses patient’s psychological state: possible signs of depression, agitation, thoughts of suicide, hallucinations, or substance abuse. Then the nurse should perform nutritional analysis of the patient. It includes monitoring of appetite, changes in the weight, and a probable nutritional counseling in the case of a low body mass index. The next stage of nursing assessment pertains to analysis of vitals like body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation rate. Then the nurse has to get handoff information from other departments if it is available.

At this stage of assessment, the nurse collects data through history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests (Toney-Butler, & Unison-Pace, 2019). The stage of collecting patient’s history includes interviews with the patients and analysis of past medical history. At this stage, the nurse identifies whether the patient experiences pain and describes pain with the use of specific signs like restlessness, groaning, vomiting, patching, lowered interest in regular activities, and others.

Then the nurse proceeds with psychosocial assessment (Toney-Butler, & Unison-Pace, 2019). The nurse identifies psychological symptoms and spiritual needs at this stage. A healthcare specialist can apply various strategies to identify even subtle and rare symptoms.

The nurse should be an attentive listener as patient’s symptoms can manifest themselves in details. The nurse is recommended to tell appropriate observations to facilitate conversations. The nurse is to be empathetic. In this case, the patient will probably be more honest as he will be sure that the nurse will accept everything he tells. The nurse also can share a humor to support and to cheer the patient up. The nurse is supposed to give hope to the patient as it will increase the effectiveness of treatment and a probability of a good outcome. The nurse should understand the meaning of physical contact for the patient during interviews. Some people have a positive attitude towards it, and the nurse may touch the patient if it represents a source of comfort for him. A healthcare specialist can keep therapeutic silence to monitor any signs of discomfort. The patient should be kept informed about the ongoing course of treatment, its findings, and the necessity of specific tests to reduce his level of anxiety. The nurse has to keep conversations in a clear manner in order to get relevant information on patient’s mental health. The nurse should identify the main sources of discomfort for the patient during conversations as they may indicate probable medical conditions. The nurse can achieve self-disclosure of the patient to build up a relationship of trust and respect. The nurse has to confront the patient to discuss contradictions in the patient’s history or misconduct. The nurse estimates cultural competency of the patient like his ethnic origin, religious practices, emotional reactions, and others.

The physical examination stage consists of two parts: initial and secondary assessments. The first part includes collection of data on patient’s vitals and general parameters like an overall health state, a body habitus, and others. The second part of the physical examination implies detailed assessment of different body systems and a mental status. This stage may last different time. Then the nurse decides what tests should be performed on the base of the patient’s history and physical examination.

In the case of Kevin Crumb, the most useful part of nurse assessment is psychosocial assessment (“Psychosocial Assessment: A Nursing Perspective”, 2017). At this stage, the nurse analyzes the psychiatric/psychological history of the patient. In this case, the nurse could acquaint himself/herself with records of Karen Fletcher or Ellie Staple if they are available. Kevin did not take any pills voluntarily, but he could be forced to take antianxiety drugs in the hospital in film Glass. Then the nurse assesses previous substance abuse in order to estimate violence risk. This part would be especially important for Kevin as one of Kevin’s personalities poses a threat to other people. The nurse has to collect information on all personalities of the patient to assess Kevin’s mental state correctly.

The next step of psychosocial assessment is analysis of family history. Kevin’s mother could also suffer from some psychological disorder. This circumstance would help to explain Kevin’s dissociative identity disorder. Then the nurse analyzes patient’s employment and educational history. If the patient has a job, his colleagues and supervisor may tell something about him. If the patient has a college education, the nurse may approach the patient on the base of it. Patient’s school history can be useful in the same way as the patient’s job is. Maybe patient’s classmates or teachers can say something about him when he was a child. The nurse also should find out whether the patient has legal problems.

Then the nurse analyzes patient’s developmental history (“Psychosocial Assessment: A Nursing Perspective”, 2017). At this stage, the healthcare specialist would learn about family problems of Kevin like desertion by his father, maltreatment, and domestic violence. The boy faced these problems at a very young age, and, therefore, they could lead to serious consequences.

The following part of psychosocial assessment is spiritual analysis. The nurse identifies the patient’s religious affiliation and the role of the religion in his life. In this particular case, the Horde adheres to a specific concept of sanctity that can be associated with some religious ideas.

Then the nurse turns to cultural values of the patient. One of Kevin’s identities is fond of fashion. This feature probably has some psychological meaning. Moreover, other Kevin’s identities have specific characteristics reflecting their different beliefs and views. This part of analysis is aggravated by the fact that all Kevin’s identities are immature (“Dissociative Identity Disorder”, n.d.). It means that they represent only fragments of Kevin’s initial personality, and it might be difficult to find a connection between views and ideas of these personalities and the development of dissociative identity disorder. This step also includes determining interests of all identities.

The nurse may also look for clues through analysis of the patient’s financial position. If the patient is in want of money, his behavior can be probably explained through this need. In the case of Kevin Crumb, the role of money is unclear. Kevin’s life is shown in the second part of the trilogy: he lives in big rooms in a basement, and it seems that he can buy everything he needs.

The following part of psychosocial assessment is mental status examination. The nurse assesses a patient’s mental status at this stage. Patient’s mood, behavior, speech, thought process, impulse control, cognition, attention, memory, visual spatial perception, the executive function, and overall intelligence should be analyzed (“Psychosocial Assessment: A Nursing Perspective”, 2017). The nurse should assess a mental status of all Kevin’s personalities in order to find out why the host personality split exactly into them. A mental state of each personality represents an important characteristic that helps to identify a personality taking control of a body at this point of time. Thus, thorough psychosocial assessment would help to diagnose Kevin’s dissociative identity disorder and to find the probable cause of its emergence.

Problem Identification

Dissociative identity disorder can be clearly identified at the stage of psychosocial assessment. In films Split and Glass, identities replace each other rather quickly. The nurse would notice a rapid change of the patient’s mental state. The healthcare specialist would talk to different identities to make sure that they represent fragments of Kevin’s identity. Then the nurse would find out that one of Kevin’s personalities poses a threat to other people and take steps to minimize it. The idea of rapid flashes of light applied in film Glass turned out to be effective as they cause the change of a personality.

Then the nurse would gather information about Kevin’s life. Information on domestic violence and maltreatment on the part of his mother is a possible key explaining the development of Kevin’s dissociative identity disorder. This information can also explain the purpose of each separate identity and, what is more important, a propensity of violence of the Beast. The latter represents the most evident reflection of the host personality, Kevin’s feelings and fears.

Goals of Treatment

Treatment of dissociative identity disorder can be painful and prolonged (Tracy, 2015). In some cases, the merger of splintered identities is impossible, and patients just look the way to have a normal life. Sometimes a patient with dissociative identity disorder combines all personalities and gets back to normal. However, not all patients are ready to get rid of other personalities as they help to face problems and pain-related events.

There are several goals of dissociative identity disorder treatment (Tracy, 2015). First of all, personalities of a patient should be combined into one well-functioning personality. As it has been already mentioned, one of the most probable causes of dissociative identity disorder is traumatic events that an individual went through at an early age. Thus, reconciliation with painful memories and emotions should be another goal of treatment.

The emergence of other identities can be interpreted as a coping mechanism. In other words, it is a tool through which a patient reacts to external stimuli. Thus, a healthcare specialist has to rebuild patient’s coping mechanisms as he will need to cope with these emotions on his own. The next goal, to restore functionality, is linked to the previous one. The patient will have to live a normal life in all senses: if other identities prevail in the patient’s body, the patient can be detached from the reality. The last goal of dissociative identity disorder treatment is to improve patient’s relationships with other people. It is the last component of a normal life that patients with this disorder intend to return.

In the case of Kevin Crumb, the goals of reconnecting all identities and restoring control of the body to the host personality seem a difficult task. In the second and third parts of the trilogy, there is no mention of the patient’s history: a spectator does not know when dissociative identity disorder emerged and how it developed. However, it is clear that additional personalities capture Kevin’s body almost completely. Kevin takes control of the body very rarely, and he probably forgets how to live in the modern world. There is no guarantee that Kevin’s psyche can be prepared for the merger of all identities.

Plan of Care

The long-term dissociative identity disorder treatment consists of the following components: psychotherapy, hypnotherapy, and adjunctive therapy (“What’s the recommended treatment plan”, n.d.). There is no medication treatment of this disorder. In this case, medications are used to treat disorders and symptoms emerged as a result of dissociative identity disorder. The patient may need these therapies throughout his life.

Nursing Interventions

Nursing intervention plays an important role in treatment of dissociative identity disorder (Baral, 2013). Nurses accompany patients during painful experience and ensure the sense of safety (Varcarolis, 2017, p. 162). As a result, the patient endures procedures better. The nurse has to inform the patients on stress management and the course of treatment. If a patient understands the course of treatment, he will be more likely to cooperate. If the patient is in a crisis, provision of a safe environment is the main goal of the nurse. The nurse also can carry out task-oriented therapy or art therapy to calm the patient down (Varcarolis, 2017, p. 162). The nurse has to accept patient’s negative emotions and to encourage him to make independent decisions.

Outcomes and Evaluations

The assessment of treatment is positive if several conditions are met (Varcarolis, 2017, p. 163). First of all, patient safety is ensured. Secondly, the patient got back to normal. All patient’s conflicts have been resolved. The patient knows how to live and to apply new coping mechanisms. The patient knows how to deal with stress. Therapeutic alliances have been established. The patient with dissociative identity disorder may not reconnect all personalities inside him, but if he is ready for a normal life and knows how to coexist with them and to benefit from their existence, he can live a normal life as well.


Kevin Wendell Crumb represents a clear example of an individual suffering from severe dissociative identity disorder. The so-called Beast is the main reason why Kevin poses a threat to other people. However, all his identities embody different feelings and fears of Kevin. Of course, the case of Kevin is not common: in many cases, symptoms of this disorder are not so devastating.

Not all cases of dissociative identity disorder can be cured. Even if it is possible, a patient is forced to go for therapy for a long time. Some patients do not want to lose other personalities as they help the patients to go through difficult situations and pain-related experiences.

In this paper, dissociative identity disorder and the corresponding nursing process are described. In case of this disorder, the role of a nurse is significant: it can be seen through the section of nursing interventions. A nurse should establish a relationship of trust with a patient to facilitate his treatment.


Baral, S. (2013, April 13). Nursing Care for Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). Retrieved from

Dissociative disorders. (2017, November 17). Retrieved from

Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder): Signs, Symptoms, Treatment. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Dissociative Identity Disorder. (2019, February 22). Retrieved from

Frothingham, S. (2018, June 28). Dissociative Identity Disorder: Symptoms and Treatment. Retrieved from

Psychosocial Assessment: A Nursing Perspective. (2017, October 3). Retrieved from

Toney-Butler, T., & Unison-Pace, W. (2019). Nursing Admission Assessment and Examination. Retrieved 23 September 2019, from

Tracy, N. (2015, May 14). Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) Treatment Challenging. Retrieved from

Varcarolis, E. M. (2017). Essentials of psychiatric mental health nursing: a communication approach to evidence-based care. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

What Is the Morse Fall Risk Scale? (n.d.). Retrieved from

What’s the recommended treatment plan for dissociative identity disorder? (n.d.). Retrieved from


Australia’s National Identity and Wartime Experience

Analytical Response
Analyse, evaluate and compare the language used to represent Australia’s National Identity through wartime experience.
For Australians, their national identity was forged through adversity and struggle. From federation, Australian troops have been involved in all major wars. It is this involvement that has shaped the image of Australians to both Australians and foreigners. Many different works have been represented Australian’s involvement in the First and Second World Wars as well as Vietnam and the Gulf Wars. Two of these works include the films Gallipoli (1981) by Peter Weir, as well as Baz Luhrmann’s Australia (2008). Not only have films represented Australia’s identity, but also books including: Kokoda by Peter FitzSimons and True Blue? On being Australian, edited by Peter Goldsworthy.

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Peter Weir’s Gallipoli (1981) was a film that is like no other. Instead of portraying the Turks soldiers as the enemy, Weir places the British in that position. In fact, in the film, the Turkish are rarely seen. This is completely juxtaposed to other texts written about the Gallipoli campaign of World War One. So one could say that weir’s intent was not to accuse the Turkish as the enemy, but the British. To portray this, weir used many techniques to establish and demonstrate their meaning.
One theme in the film is Australia’s coming of age. This is shown throughout the film but is shown early on through the scene when Uncle Jack is reading by The Jungle Book and how Mowgli has grown up and has to leave his family; the pack of wolves that have raised him all his life. Just as Mowgli, Australia has grown up and no longer has to seek protection from England. In his interview on the special features of Gallipoli (1981), Mel Gibson said “Gallipoli was the birth of a nation…” (Weir, 1981); this idea is also shared by many others including the British Generals at Gallipoli.
“Though many were shot to bits, without hope of recovery, their cheers resounded…They were happy because they knew that they had been tried for the first time and not found wanting.” (Manne, 2007).
Loyalty is a value that Australians hold very dear. Weir links this value and waste of potential that Australia suffered. Weir draws a parallel between Australia’s sporting ability and their loyalty to the war effort, with a recruiter for the Light Horse calling the war “the greatest game of them all” (Weir, 1981). The opening scene shows Archie undertaking his pre-race routine; he then practices the 100 yard dash in record time. This image shows the potential that Archie could have had, yet he is loyal and joins the war effort. Then in the final scene, Archie is in the trenches at Gallipoli when the whistle for them to charge was blown. It shows Archie leaving his most prized items in the trench; his medal and his watch. The medal is symbolises Archie’s potential, what life could have been like and the watch symbolises that Archie’s time has run out and how he is now sacrificing his life for his country; the ultimate sacrifice, the ultimate act of loyalty. Peter FitzSimons also refers to the sacrifice that is made by the diggers in Kokoda.…They died so young. They missed so much. They gave up so much: their hopes; their dreams; their loved ones. They laid down their lives that their friends might live. Greater love hath no man than this. (FitzSimons, 2008)
This next scene depicts Archie running unarmed across the battlefield. This run is metaphorical, and is used again to show the potential of Archie. When Archie is shot, there is a freeze frame which creates the appearance that as though Archie is breasting tape.
Another text that represents the Australian national identity is Baz Luhrmann’s Australia (2008). Australia follows the life of an English aristocrat that travels to Northern Australia in 1939 to force her husband to sell his failing cattle property. However before she arrives, he is murdered for his 1,500 head of cattle. The story then continues on with her taking over ‘Far Away Downs and competing for the Army beef contract. The film continues through the struggles of the outback and then finds the cattle ending up in Darwin and loading the cattle on the ship. It then moves into the segment that provides the war time experience; the bombing of Darwin by the Japanese in 1942.
Courage is the biggest value that is demonstrated inn Luhrmann’s film. After the bombing raid by the Japanese, the drover and Magarri sail across to Mission Island to investigate whether Nullah survived. Though this is not historically correct, the Japanese never actually set foot on Australian soil, the act by the drover and Magarri was courageous because in the film this area was inhabited by two Japanese carrier divisions. The idea of courage as an aspect of the Australian identity is also shared by other composers in their representations of Australian identity. Robert Manne wrote that: “General Birdwood told the writer that he couldn’t sufficiently praise the courage, endurance and soldierly qualities of the Colonials…” (Manne, 2007).
It was the courage shown by all ANZACs on the battlefields of Gallipoli that earned that the title of courageous and it has stuck with Australian’s through to present times. Courage was shown through the struggles that Australian diggers faced in World War Two; especially Kokoda. Alister Grierson’s film Kokoda also focuses on the topic of courage when the Australian diggers held of the advances of the Japanese army. It is commonly accepted that their bravery and courage helped to stop Australia from being invaded Japan.
Through the works of many composers since Australia’s federation, Australia’s national identity has been represented and forged through wartime experience. From World War One to the present time; courage, loyalty and bravery have represented Australians. This has been shown through Australian’s willingness to protect their country and to rather die than surrender the ground they had so dearly fought for. The final aspect and most likely the most important, is Australian’s willingness to pay the ultimate sacrifice.
Barrowclough, A. (2008, November 18). Video Review: Australia,The Movie . Retrieved August 10, 2009, from Times Online:
FitzSimons, P. (2008). Kokoda. Sydney: Hodder Australia.
Grierson, A. (Director). (2006). Kokoda [Motion Picture].
Luhrmann, B. (Director). (2008). Australia [Motion Picture].
Manne, R. (2007). A Turkish Tale. In N. A. Limited, True Blue? On Being Australian (pp. 63-65). Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin.
O’Hara, M. (2008). Australia Study Guide. Melbourne: Australian Teachers of Media.
Weir, P. (Director). (1981). Galliopoli [Motion Picture].
Wikimedia Foundation Inc. (2009, August 1). Gallipoli (1981 film). Retrieved August 11, 2009, from Wikipedia:
Strand connection is English Communications Project
Text sources are Australia, Baz Luhrmann (Director), Gallipoli, Peter Weir (Director), Kokoda, Alister Grierson (Director), Kokoda, Peter FitzSimons and True Blue? On Being Australian (Editor Peter Goldsworthy)
Critical Analysis
The purpose of my response is to record my current understanding of the focus question in the strand: Australia’s national identity as represented by many composers in works about Australia’s wartime experiences.
Reflective Response
Which texts that represent Australia’s national identity through wartime experience had the greatest effect on me?
There are many texts that focus on the topic of an Australian national identity. These range from colonial texts through to contemporary texts like Baz Luhrmann’s Australia (2008) and Peter FitzSimon’s Kokoda (2008). One thing that is commonly mentioned throughout the texts is that Australia’s national identity has been forged by wartime experiences. All but a few of the texts that I studied for this topic had a profound effect on me, whether they are fiction of nonfiction. From Gallipoli to Afghanistan, Australia has played a crucial part in every major world conflict since federation in 1901.
Peter Weir’s movie, Gallipoli (1981) is a good example of a text that represents Australia’s national identity and is a text that has a great impact on me. When Archie signed up to the Australian Imperial Force (AIF), I thought about the potential that is being wasted and then thought about my potential in life, and whether it is being wasted.

The iPhone and my identity as an Apple Consumer

The iPhone and my identity as an Apple Consumer

“First was the mouse. The second was the click wheel. And now, we’re going to bring multi-touch to the market. And each of these revolutionary interfaces has made possible a revolutionary product – the Mac, the iPod and now the iPhone.” These words are said by Steve Jobs, the CEO and co-founder of one of the world’s largest tech companies, Apple. This company has come a long way in terms of the latest technologies. Ever since the first iPhone was launched, Apple never failed to impress their consumers by launching newer versions of the iPhone. I, just like other iPhone users, would keep my eyes out for the latest updates on the new iPhone models. This enthusiasm that I portray makes me wonder, what role am I exactly playing as I continue to buy more Apple products? In this analysis, I will focus on Louis Althusser’s definitions of ideology and his concept of Interpellation to help further explain my identity as an Apple consumer.

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Louis Althusser was an influential philosopher. He believed that we are all ‘unconsciously’ influenced by an ideology that is altered by our own beliefs and ideas (Storey 71). To theorize even further, he introduced three definitions of ideology. First, he argues that ideology is “a system of representations (images, myths, ideas or concepts)” (71). In other words, Althusser believed that ideology was governed by rules that had a political aspect to it. This emphasizes our ‘real’ and ‘imaginary’ relation. Since we live in a world dominated by the upper class, there obviously is an assumption that we idealise them as they seem happier and wealthier. But Althusser proves it differently. In “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes towards an Investigation)”, he states “there is no ideology except by the subject and for the subject” (Althusser, 1970). He clearly means that ideology is imaginary and everyone, including the dominant class, are not aware of it. This creates a notion that ideology does not reflect the actual conditions of the real world but rather the imaginary relationship of us as individuals, to the real world.  His second definition states that ideology is a “material practice” (Storey 78). He believes that ideology is something that we inherit as thoughts or practices and continue to use that ideology in our day to day lives. For example, I am a waitress and I bring a cup of coffee to a customer and I accidentally spill a bit while carrying it. I apologize and become more aware when I carry a cup of coffee henceforth. Now in this example, the imaginary ideology is that I am taught to feel concern for my customer and I end up feeling guilty. The material practice is when I apologize for my mistake. In this way, ideologies shape our thoughts.

Althusser’s third definition is the concept of ‘interpellation’. He argues that ideologies construct “concrete individuals as subjects” (78). These ideologies “hail” or “call us” to be a part of a particular subject position and we are encouraged to accept this position only because it seems ‘natural’ when in reality, it’s just something that we inherited. Althusser uses the example of a policeman calling out to an individual. When called out, the individual is interpellated into a subject position unknowingly as he/she responds (78). This act of hailing the subject is achieved by the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs) which represents school systems, families, churches, technology and other private entities. Althusser implies that these ISAs are fully functioned by ideologies and reinforce different social norms on us as subjects. These ISAs are usually controlled by those in power, that is, the upper class or the ‘elite’. Being a subject can result is two options. One being a subject where you have the freedom to make your own choices or being a subject to a person of higher authority where you do not have enough freedom to take up your own responsibility.

In relation to Althusser’s idea of interpellation, I consider myself in a subject position as an Apple consumer. I got my first ever phone four years ago and it happened to be a Samsung model. I used it for almost a year and then switched to Apple. Ever since I switched, I can never seem to go back to Samsung or any brand as a matter of fact. It’s not just me but even my family has the Apple products from iPhones to the Apple Tv. Now the real question is, how am I interpellated into being an Apple consumer? In my opinion, Apple is the ISA here as it acts as an entity that holds some authority and power. Every year, Apple launches newer versions of the iPhone with extravagant features. For example, Apple suggests that we record our fingerprint in order to unlock our iPhone instead of putting a passcode lock. Not only that, iPhones have a health app installed that keeps track of all your data. Since Apple users have their iPhones or Apple watches with them all the time, the app serves as boon. It records the number of steps you’ve taken and flights of stairs you’ve climbed per day. You can also enter specific data such as your nutrition and sleep analysis. Now as we enjoy such privileges, we don’t realize that Apple has interpellated us into a certain set of expectations which has caused us to accept this specific approach that all our information is stored digitally. In other words, Apple interpellates us into trusting them with our personal information.  Recently, Apple was receiving backlash after admitting to slow down older models of the iphone such as the 6 and 6s. This strategy, I believe, was another way into compelling us to buy newer versions of the iPhone. Like I mentioned before, it is hard for me to switch to another brand as I am used to the iPhone interface. So, this interpellates me into buying the latest model so that it could last for another 4-5 years.

Just as I hold the subject position as a consumer, I do have other identities. The first identity I hold onto is the cultural identity. I am an Indian and I grew up learning the beliefs and ethics of India in order to strive my position as a citizen. Being a daughter would be my second identity. I grew up internalizing the values my parents taught me. As I mentioned before, being a subject means freedom or no freedom. In this case, I do not have much freedom as I have to look up to the ISAs (family and culture) in order to follow the ideologies they teach us.

Overall, Althusser highlights his notion of ideology being our ‘imaginary relationship to the real world’ and a ‘material practice’. The usage of both in our day to day lives suggest that we are unaware of this ideology as we assume it to be natural. His concept of “hailing”, also known as interpellation, is viewed to be subtle as we are encouraged into being a subject to something without even realizing it. This proves my identity as an Apple consumer as I am interpellated into trusting this brand with my personal information hence leading me to buy more products in the future. This makes us commodities when we are subjected to interpellation (Doug). With all this research I wonder, does the ‘i’ in iPhone stand for identity?

Works Cited


Self Identity In Adolescence Verses Childhood Spiritual Development Religion Essay

Raising children in a spiritually oriented family can certainly be an enjoyable and a life long experiences to the parents, however, there are time when it becomes a headache; and non other period is full with such headache and missteps than during adolescence period. The parts of enjoyable blessings are undoubtedly the sense of safety it brings to a family whose root strongly grounded in the words of God. The headaches are the nuisance that arise as children begins to acquire the sense of “self identity” and not regarding parents opinions whereas prior to to this stage, they were going along and following after whatever their parents based their beliefs upon. This paper will be written with intentions of enlightening the readers with these cons and pros in mind. When one put in consideration the faith of the adolescent children from within the congregation or from the family prospective in contrast to rebellious stage they go through at adolescence period, one wonder how they hold on to their faith that their family had nurtured into them and; making one begs to ask the question, “Should the parents continue to help guide them at such period of time when they are likely to rebel and become harder to listen to their parents advice?” of course yes, they are one’s own children and are blessings from God. God expect every parent to love their kids as the way God loves each one of them. All in all, parents just need to be understanding and patient with them as the behaviors developed at these stages will last indefinitely. However, before putting more emphasis on these developmental stages drawn from studies put forth by several well-known psychologists, I, first, would like to start with a personal childhood experience of a friend of mind, whom I came to know during my basic combat training in Fort Jackson, South Carolina; and whom we are stationed together in Camp Robinson, North Little Rock.

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He went further by saying that they were as similar as to the rest of the kids at his neighborhood or school, but evidently the bond that they had, held them closer to the influence of the church. “Therefore, deciding to follow or be saving in Christ was not a choice but something we had to do.,” he said. In the case of Andrew, one is left to believe they had no other choice other than go with the flow. So, as early as the age of five, the two of the best friends would respond to the request of their children’s Sunday school instructors and hope that Christ would be receive in their hearts without having a firm cognitive sense of their prayers. Was there a change in their lives? No, they were just going with the normal activities for the children in the church.
Furthermore, Andrew stated that when they were twelve, after several years later, they would meet for bible study at one of the church leaders’ house, where he would baptize those who decided to be immersed in Christ. Once more, expectations of their parents mandated them it was time for them to step up and be baptized. So, one Sunday evening, Andrew and his friends, along with others in their class, stepped into the water and were baptized. “Were we demonstrating to the world that we were now dead in our sins and transformed into new life in Christ?” he asked interrogatively. “No, we were following the normal routine that was expected of all the church kids that went before us. It was a right of passage into the next level of life in the church. Were we forced or coerced into doing this? No, we decided to take these steps as it was the proper thing to do.”
Andrew confessed that as he grew in his understanding and faith, he came to resent both the actions of the church and home. He perceived the events as irresponsible and meaningless. He felt that he had been misled and was given a false sense of his position in Christ. “I concluded that I was not saved during those early years and I objected to the practice of child evangelism,” he protested. This state of hostility toward his church lasted for about three years during his late teens as he struggled with his own identity and his relationship with God.
Now, Andrew is a married man and Chaplain assistance in the military unit. His wife and he are planning to have children in the nearest future. Therefore, in light of his own spiritual development he is left to wonder how he would measure a child’s spiritual readiness or more explicitly, how would he know when a child is ready to make a decision for Christ and for baptism. It is with such wondering that all parents out there should bear in mind when considering raising their children spiritually oriented family.
Furthermore, my friend’s main experience, to me, sounds as if he was going through some of the stages that famous psychologist had put forth. He sounds as if is seeking some kind of self identity despite the fact that his family has tried to instill a sense of security in him. In this case important that one considers to put some emphasis on the developmental aspects of Piaget and Kornberg. Those of us who went through adolescent stage and the parents who work or live with adolescents know first-hand that they are at once impossible to live with and a joy to have around. Adolescents are full as attitudes such as, critical, combative, and absent-minded; they are also creative, energetic, and impassioned about the world and their place in it. However, research on adolescents development has shown clearly that the surface behaviors of early adolescents provide poor clues as to what is really happening with them; as what they were thinking. At this stage most believe that adolescents children at the age between 14 to 17 as easily prone to be stressful and stormy, , easily give in to the pressure from friends, rebellious toward adults, moody, uncommunicative and unpredictable. Unfortunately, these views are popular myths and have resulted in generations of misunderstanding and inappropriate attention to the needs of 10 to 14 years old.
Early adolescents are rarely perceived as being deeply thinking, caring and paying more attentions to people who are thought to be impressed by love from the older ones. Also, at this level, they are reaching the last developmental stage of classifying themselves as grownups; difficult, serious and individual search for sources of why life is what it is and why there is death. All these ignite the excitement and, hence, become the bases of developing or strengthening their own faith.
In the theory of cognitive development (Table 1), Jean Piaget put forth the intellectual counterpart of biological adaptation to the environment. He said that as we adapt biologically to our environment, so too we adapt intellectually. Through assimilation, accommodation and rejection, the external world is organized and given structure.
Adaptation begins at birth with the exercise of sensory-motor reflexes. Differentiations via reflexes are the initial modifications that are later on significantly enhanced child’s cognitive development. And as far as the child continue growing, the adoption he does eventually become less related to sensory and motor behaviors alone, and may be less clearly seen as adaptations by the untrained eye.
Each successive stage is built upon the one before in an accumulating, orderly, sequential and hierarchical manner. Yet the cognitive structures are developed in an invariant sequence. That is, the course of cognitive development, marked by the development of structures, is the same for all children, although the ages at which they attain particular structures may vary with intelligence and the environmental settings or social settings (Inhalers and Piaget, 1968, p. 154).
Erikson’s theory of psychosocial stages (Table 3), similarly mentioned that a person’s personality develops according to predefined steps that are maturely set. Society is structured in a way that brings in and galvanizes the challenges that come up at these particular times. Each stage presents the individual with a crisis. If a particular crisis is handled well, the outcome is positive. If it is not handled well, the outcome is negative. The resolution of each stage lays the foundation for negotiating the challenges of the next.
Lawrence Kohlberg views the development of morality in terms of moral reasoning (Table 3). The stage of moral reasoning at which people can be placed depends upon the reasoning behind their decisions, not the decisions themselves. He believes that the stages are sequential and that people do not skip stages, although they come and departs from them at different period times.
Furthermore, it is also important to notice the negative outcomes on Spiritual formation. Considering Eriksonian, Piagetian, and Kolbergian theories, James Fowler set out to analyze the process of spiritual development in his description of several stages that occur in the development of faith in a person’s lifetime (Table 4). He called the stage of most adolescence to be mythic-literal faith. This stage is consistent with Piaget’s concrete operational stage and Erikson’s industry vs. inferiority stage. It is at this stage that children develop their sense of position relative to others in the peer group by mastering the academic and social skills. Their individuality is defined by their position in the group. They become less egocentric and begin to understand complex concepts like conservation. The child continues to have difficulties even though he developed in respect to abstract terms such as his or her liberty or his or her freedom. Children entering this level of stage understand the concept of the world on a basic concrete degree.
Fouler mentioned that most adolescents are at synthetic-conventional faith. This stage correlates to Erikson’s identity vs. role confusion stage and a more mature level of Piaget’s concrete operational stage. They establish a feeling of who they think they are and where they think they belong. A strong emphasis is placed on being part of the group. There is an even more desire for changes to take place in order to the fully accepted by the society. Their identification and expression of faith are an extension of their family, their church and their peers.
During childhood, religious beliefs and behaviors are greatly influenced by one’s parents. Children tend to imitate their parents’ beliefs and behaviors. In adolescence, however, there is a change and a questioning of many of these religious beliefs. David deVaus looked at the importance of parental influence in relation to religious values and behavior in Australian teenagers. The results showed that, at least for religious activity (behavior), both parents and peers were about equal in importance. However, when asked who had been most influential in development of their religious feelings, the most common answer was the mother (51 percent), followed by father (42 percent).
According to Fowler it is not until a child reaches the next stage, individuative-reflective faith that individuals begin to assume personal responsibility for their own commitments, life-styles, or beliefs. As this takes place, adolescents are forced to address unavoidable tensions between the person they want to be and what others expect of them. This stage is associated with Erikson’s intimacy vs. isolation and the beginning level of Piaget’s formal operational stage when children begin to develop close interpersonal relationships, showing a willingness to commit to others. They start to cultivate the ability to examine these hypotheses in a developed, matured, scientific manner and can understand, and express their where they stand on moral and ethical matters that demand an ability to use the abstract. They can think about thinking — that is they become aware of the processes whereby they come to hold a particular opinion. They begin to own the beliefs they hold. They are becoming adults.
Also, when considering these developmental ideas, it is important that one understand the implications and the dangers involved. A girl’s body can begin to take on the shape and features of a woman. She can speak with the sophistication associated with adolescence or even adulthood. Social and legal arrangements can permit new freedoms simply because a person reaches a certain age. But until the evolution of meaning becomes interpersonal, there is a very real sense in which the person is not yet an adolescent. If those around her should mistake physiology, calendar age, or verbal ability for psychological age and expect her to function inter-personally, they create a situation which is dangerous for the developing teenager.
In his discussion on the dangers of applying developmental theory to spiritual growth, John Ackerman states that we can make three grave mistakes. First, one may have a tendency to rank individuals according to their development. Second, one may interpret that because he has mentioned them, he knows them. Third, we may take the groupings and define an absolute relationship between psychological and spiritual growth. “We need to know where people are developmentally, but the focus is on God, in the person’s perception of God.” (Layman, 2001, p. 111)
I will venture to say that most churches, mine included, proceed with the expectation that chronological age defines spiritual readiness with respect to issues such as faith commitment and baptism. Within the structure of our institutions we have rituals that are performed, with some regularity, with children entering puberty. The Jewish Bar Mitzvah, Catholic and Lutheran Confirmation, and Baptist and Brethren Baptism are examples of ordinances that the church observes when children have reached their pre-teen years. Tradition dictates that at this age a child is ready to begin the transition to adulthood. They need to begin taking the faith they have been taught since infancy and make it their own. But are the children really ready for such a step? Do they really understand the steps they are taking?
The most common argument I hear in favor of child conversion are based on verses like the following:
Jesus proclaimed, “I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and learned, and revealed them to little children.” (Matt 11:25).
And he said: “Truly I tell you, unless you change and become like little children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.” (Matt 18:3).
Jesus said, “Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these.” (Matt 19:14).
Reasoning that God accepts the faith of a child, parents and teachers do their best to help the child to make these life decisions. But unfortunately, in the well-intentioned adults attempt to ‘hurry up and save the children from eternal damnation,” they have misunderstood the concept Jesus was teaching. Taken in their proper context we see that Jesus’ teachings were pointing not to the childish faith as being the characteristic he was seeking, but to the humility and trust of a child as being the characteristic he was seeking in his followers. This teaching is not for the children but for the adults to follow. When it was time, the disciples came to Jesus and questioned, “Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?”
He called a little child and had him stand among them. And he said: “I tell you the truth, unless you repent and become like little children, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven. Therefore, whoever humbles himself like this child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. And whoever welcomes a little child like this in my name welcomes me. But if anyone causes one of these little ones to sin, it would be better for him to have a large millstone hung around his neck and to be drowned in the depths of the sea.” (Matt 18:1-5).
In each case, where Jesus speaks of the faith of a child he is using this attitude to offset the tendency for his followers to become proud and self-sufficient. One needs to see how helpless we really are without God and how our faith must grow out of one’s trust rather than one’s achievements.
So how then does one assess children’s readiness to make these life changing decisions? One needs to consider each child as an individual and measure their spiritual readiness based upon their understanding of God and all that He had revealed to the child. Faith is a response to a need and if the child does not perceive the reality of the need then there cannot be true faith.
Measuring Spiritual Readiness
I remember when I visited the “Made in the Street,” an orphanage ministry in Nairobi, Kenya, Charles Colton and his wife Sandy, who are missionaries from California, and who happened to be in Nairobi at the time, were holding a workshop with children ministries. The workshop was known as “Let the Children Come to Me.” In this workshop, Colton said “children are free to go to Jesus just like grown-ups. He protested that parents should neither pressure their children into premature professions of faith nor neglect their spiritual formation.”
“Teach parents that they have a responsibility to God in the stewardship of their children’s spiritual development,” said James Namanya, a Ugandan minister of childhood education at Mbale, Uganda who also led the workshop with Charles Colton and his wife Sandy
“The gospel idea of salvation can be expressed in way an older child – a fourth-, fifth- or sixth-grader – can easily understand,” they noted. “Realize children think in literal terms, so avoid figurative language,” they suggested. Colton and Knox advised parents and church leaders to look for signs of readiness in children such as:
Questions; Listen carefully to a child’s questions about spiritual matters. “If the child is asking who the guy was that climbed the mango tree, he’s probably just asking for factual information about Zaccheus,” Colton said. “Just because you know the verse follows about Jesus Christ coming to save that which was lost but willing to seek Him, don’t assume the child is making that leap.” On the other hand, if a child begins to ask serious questions about sin, death and eternity, that could be a sign the Holy Spirit is drawing the child. Explore the level of interest and understanding by asking probing, open-ended questions, not queries that could be answered “yes” or “no.”
Focus. Watch for a child who suddenly becomes focused on religious instruction. Unusual attentiveness in Sunday school or during worship could be a signal a child is ready to make a faith commitment.
Behavioral changes; Anything from a sudden interest in Bible-reading to expressions of guilt over wrongdoing at home could mean God is working in a child’s heart.
Colton said that while some young children genuinely are converted, that is the exception, not the rule. Pastors, teachers and parents can help young children by distinguishing between the natural desire of a child to express love for Jesus and the life-changing decision of receiving him as Lord and Savior.
At another workshop, “Childhood Bible School – A Way Forward,” leaders suggested a combination of small-group sessions, self-guided activities and large-group time for children’s worship. Children life development minister John Hall and children’s worship leader Emmanuel Kennedy from the Euless-area Episcopal Church of Euless said they incorporate lively music with “a lot of hand motions,” drama and secular videos with spiritual applications into their “Adventure Zone” children’s church service. “We make it fun for the kids,” Kennedy said. “Kids tell their parents, ‘I want to go back to that church where they sing, dance and have donuts holes.'”
“We try not to make it like school,” Hall said. “We want it to be fun. We involve the kids in worship. Our goal is to raise up a generation of worshipers. Kids learn by doing. There’s no altar call and no scare tactics. We let the Holy Spirit convict.”
In conclusion, taking the information presented by developmental psychology one might conclude that adolescent children are simply not capable of making a decision for Christ. Maturely speaking, they have not developed the cognitive tools they need to come to this decision. Their thinking processes are still governed by mythical, literal understanding of their environment. They are more interested in fitting into the group than making individual decisions. But this conclusion would be flawed. Indeed, Ackerman states that most adults within the church would possibly fall into this same category.
Rather, when we look more closely at the evidence we come to the conclusion that there is no magical age at which a child suddenly becomes able to understand spiritual matters. It seems quite clear that the only way to assess the spiritual readiness of a child is on an individual basis. And the real problem exists not with the children but the adults who are trying to teach them.
In our sometimes over-zealous attempts to bring children to a decision for Christ we forget what that decision is. First, it is the job of the Holy Spirit to convict the heart of the individual, to open their eyes to the truth, to help them understand the eternal significance of the decision. Only God knows when the time is right but we can watch for the signs to know when to open the Word to these children.
Second, tradition and ritual can be quite meaningful in helping us define our relationship with God, but it cannot create that relationship. Only through teaching and discipleship can a child begin to define his or her own relationship with God. It is through good biblical teaching that the child will understand why he needs the relationship and through godly Christian modeling that the child will understand how he develops that relationship.
In various aspects, this culture has made it very much easier to solve issues regarding the spiritual development of children. They define the quantifiable standard and make the decision easy. They excuse us from the difficult job of working closely with each individual, to assess his or her specific spiritual needs. But in order to achieve the desired result – a life-changing decision for Christ – we must break free from our tradition and begin working to develop the spirituality of children in the only way that is truly effective – individually.
Layman, John., Spiritual Awakening, New York: Albany, 2001
Camp, Ken Parents Advised to Measure Child’s Spiritual Readiness. Internet, 1997
De Vaus, D. A., the Relative Importance of Parents and Peers for Adolescent Religious Orientation: An Australian Study. Adolescence, 1983, 18, 147-158.
Erikson, E., Childhood and Society, New York: Norton, 1963
Fowler, J. W. Stages in Faith, New York: Harper and Row, 1981
Jensen, L. C. Adolescence: Theories, Research, Applications. St. Paul: West, 1985
Kegan, Robert the Evolving Self, Cambridge: Harvard, 1982
Kohlberg, L. Development of Moral Judgment and Moral Action in L. Kohlberg (Ed.), Child Psychology and Childhood Education: A Cognitive-Development View. New York: Longman, 1987, 259-329.
Thibault, J. P., and McKee, J. S. Practical Parenting with Piaget. Young Children. November 1982, 38, 18-27.
Wadsworth, Barry J. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, New York: McKay, 1971
Zondervan, New International Vision for Student, 2002  

Theories on the Existence of Personal Identity

 Through the years, philosophers have contemplated human existence and debated on controversial issues. An example of this is ideas that deal with the mind and body. Some believe the two are separate entities entirely while others believe they are the same. Based off of these thoughts, an idea of one’s self is generated. However, before the idea is formed, one must have an understanding of personal identity. From this, the debate is where the personal identity is located. As stated earlier, some believe personal identity can be found in the body, and, chances are, they will also argue the personal identity will experience little to no change as time passes and the person matures. To contrast, others might say one’s personal identity is in the mind, and it’s composed of the person’s thoughts and experiences.

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 John Locke and Rene Descartes are two of the world’s most renowned philosophers who are notorious for their views on personal identity and its extent of existence. Each of these philosophers tackled the idea of a human’s sense of self, and they concluded the mind and body are separate from each other. However, their philosophies do have disagreements. Descartes way of thinking is one that is centered around thinking. He believed that, ultimately, personal identity stemmed from thinking, and he concluded the mind is non-physical; meaning it is distinct from the body. On the other hand, Locke’s ideas regarded a person’s “self” as being based on the memories a person has and experiences.

 Rene Descartes ideas are widely considered to be the birth of modern philosophy due to rationalist thinking coming from them. One of these ideas, and perhaps the most famous, is evident through his statement, “I think, therefore I am” (schooloflifechannel). This statement would go on to make Descartes one of the most famous philosophers in history, and it became the cornerstone of his philosophical thoughts, including those on personal identity.

 Descartes arrived at this conclusion through meditation. During his meditations, Descartes would think about the essence of his existence and purpose in life. Descartes wanted to disregard his knowledge and all things he considered to be true so that he could start with a clean slate in his new revelations and truths. Many times, he would ask himself, “What am I?” (Descartes, 5). Descartes sought out to understand the “I” he was referring to in the question, and he wondered if he could consider anything to be true since “I” was thinking about it. This idea created a problem for Descartes since he didn’t fully understand the “I”.

 When considering the “I”, Descartes was able to quickly separate the mind and body. This conclusion was reached through a few different thoughts. The first was a thought that came to him “spontaneously and naturally”, and that was the body (Descartes, 4). Descartes acknowledges he has a body when he says he indeed has, “a face, hands, arms” (Descartes, 4). His distinction between the mind and body was made later when he goes on to say he has, “the whole structure of bodily parts that corpses also have” (Descartes, 4). Corpses are dead beings, so what he’s saying in this statement is that the mind is the only thing that separates him from corpses. This is a rather strong argument for Descartes because corpses have body parts, but they do not breathe, experience emotion or felling, or think. Descartes attempts to clear any confusion by calling the physical structure of one’s being “the body”. Because of this thought, Descartes is now able to probe the idea of what separates those who are living from the lifeless beings he referred to earlier.

 Descartes thinking did not stop here. He goes on to say that in addition to his body, he is able to perform actions such as eating and drinking. Descartes argues that, on its own, the body won’t do such things. This idea is supported, once again, through reference to the corpses. Descartes says without compulsions such as these, there is no difference between a living being and a corpse. Building upon this logic, Descartes says, “the soul” is what separates living humans from corpses (Descartes, 4). This soul Descartes refers to can also be called the mind, and Descartes uses this to pinpoint what is responsible for the body’s ability to do such things. To Descartes, actions such as feeling, eating, and moving are powered by the soul, and this is the difference between living and non-living beings. After this, Descartes begins to think more in depth about the soul, and he even begins to consider what it might look like.

 Because he could not know what exactly the soul looked like, Descartes started to focus more on the body. After more meditation, he concluded if it were not for his soul, he would not be able to do anything that defined him. Through his senses, Descartes said his body could deceive him though false perceptions. This argument was justified through the act of dreaming. Descartes said that when he was dreaming, he perceived things he “later realized [he] had not perceived in that way” (Descartes, 5). He meant he would occasionally dream things that he thought actually happened but would later realize they hadn’t happened, and instead he was remembering a dream he had. Using this thought process, Descartes concluded that the body this responsible for performing the five senses, but the soul is what analyzes that information that is brought into the body. This idea is what he deemed was the real meaning of existence, which was if something is able to think, then it does exist.

 John Locke is most famous for giving the world its “first crisp formulation” of personal identity (Shields, 3:05). While there is still ambiguity in Locke’s philosophies on personal identity, it can be argued that they are not as ambiguous as Rene Descartes’. Locke’s ideas put forth a clear idea of personal identity and its origin. He explains the identities of different species such as vegetables, animals, and man. Locke admits there are similarities between each of them, and he says one of these similarities is that the idea that there is “one coherent body” (Locke, Chapter XXVII). From this quote, Locke means there is a body that exists throughout the subject’s life, but he says the difference of these organisms can be found in each one’s “personal identity” (Locke, Chapter XXVII).

 Locke says personal identity is best defined as the thing that “distinguishes from all other thinking things” (Locke Chapter XXVII). Using this definition, Locke argues that due to personal identity, people can be the same over a given period of time, but they can also be experiencing change during this same period. Similar to Descartes philosophy, Locke says, “consciousness always accompanies thinking” (Locke Chapter XXVII). Locke believed memory was the essential factor of the mind that connects “the different parts of our lives” (BBC Radio, 0:57). Contrary to Descartes, Locke’s ideas emphasized the mind and its properties, and this established the idea of the mind being a separate entity from the body.

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 Locke is famed for his memory theory. He strongly believed memories played a crucial aspect in one’s personal identity. He believed this to the point where he said that if he lost “the memory of some parts of life, beyond a possibility of retrieving them,” he would be a completely different person (Locke, Chapter XXVII). This idea is known as Locke’s memory theory, and it is potentially the most debated idea of Locke’s philosophies. Locke believed if a person committed a crime, but could not remember committing the crime, then they should not be held accountable for such actions. Locke’s theory suggests the “man” or the “body” committed the crime, but the “person” did not. He justifies this because he says the body would remain the same, but the person, or mind, is constantly changing, which means the person who committed the crime is no longer in the body. Because of this, he says the one who committed the crime should not be punished.

 Descartes and Locke were both able to agree that the mind and body are separate entities. Descartes approached this by examining his own existence while Locke searched into the part of us that makes us unique, the mind. How Locke defines personal identity shows that he and Descartes believe the idea that “thinking constitutes consciousness”. Again, this provides more evidence towards their belief that the mind and body are distinct from each other. Thinking originates from the mind but physical aspects of humans are of the body. Even though they both agreed in the separation of the mind and body, Locke thought the mind was more self-sufficient than Descartes did.

 I believe, at first glance, it is very probable to agree with Locke’s philosophy. People are different from others because of experiences and their memories from those experiences. It is almost impossible to be the same person without those two things. Just as Locke stated, a person’s memories are not always accurate, and there can be fallacies. Since memories aren’t always accurate, it can be argued one’s personal identity is inaccurate. In addition to this, Locke credits too much power to the mind.

 Descartes’ philosophy says senses are taken through the body, and once this happens, the soul analyzes the senses. Where there are fallacies in Locke’s argument, Descartes’ philosophy has the ability to counterargue them. For example, many suffer from diseases or accidents to the brain that cause memory loss or even irrational behavior. Such scenarios are acknowledged through Descartes’ ideas. Because of weaknesses and strengths in both arguments, the best definition and explanation of one’s self is when both philosophies are combined together as one. 

 As stated earlier, where there are weaknesses in one argument, there are strengths in the other. What unites the two is the thought that thinking constitutes consciousness. Locke’s belief of memories effecting personal identity does have flaws, but through Descartes philosophies, the flaws are corrected. While memories can be inaccurate, the inaccuracy is what makes every individual unique. This is most evident in an event that two people experience but remember differently. The way the event is remembered is what makes them who they are today. Independent thinking, meaning their own memories of events, is what’s responsible for personal identity. Therefore, Descartes ideas on thinking is what makes the memories significant, and they’re what make up one’s personal identity because of memories and thoughts; however, Locke’s ideas of memories is equally important in the make up of self as well.

Works Cited

BBCradiofour. “John Locke on Personal Identity.” YouTube, YouTube, 19 Jan. 2015,–qSIYDedF5e5Vn_vHRr2_e%2B.

Descartes, Rene. Meditations on First Philosophy, in the version by Jonathan Bennett presented at

Edmond, David & Walburton, Nigel with Christopher Shields. Philosophy Bites. Podcast retrieved from Shields_on_Personal_Identity.mp3?c_id=1779526&expiration=1517901598&hwt=902e67fe0c7ff0813983709e85162a5c

John Locke: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding,

schooloflifechannel. “PHILOSOPHY – René Descartes.” YouTube, YouTube, 11 Sept. 2015,

An Analysis of Chiyo’s Journey Finding her Identity In “Memoirs of a Geisha”

Finding One’s True Self:

 An Analysis of Chiyo’s Journey Finding her Identity In “Memoirs of a Geisha” by Arthur Golden

Most people wear makeup to enhance, modify, or obscure their natural look; that is the purpose of makeup. The Geisha population in “Memoirs of a Geisha” have more than a surface level relationship with makeup. Makeup to them is crucial and not only externally changes them but internally as well. A geisha putting on makeup is comparable to Peter Parker transforming into his alter superhero ego except it takes hours. When they do it, they assume a whole new identity. Their makeup is almost impenetrable, like a shield. The girl under the makeup conceals her true identity and creates a deception as people will perceive them from what they see but what they are seeing is a facade made up of white makeup and red lipstick. “Memoirs of a Geisha” by Arthur Golden is a story about a young girl named Chiyo who grows up in a poor village only to find herself becoming one of the most popular geisha’s. She serves as a servant in an okiya (a geisha home) only to soon be taken under the wing of Mameha who trains her to be a successful geisha like Mameha is herself. Chiyo faces many hardships and obstacles, one of them being her own identity crisis. Through her long journey, she finds herself questioning her place in the world and who she really is. In “Memoirs of a Geisha”, Arthur Golden demonstrates the significance of identity through Chiyo’s journey as she embarks becoming a Geisha. Throughout the novel, Golden uses the imagery and symbolism of water and makeup, which allows readers to identify Chiyo’s personal struggles as she endures through the hardships of transforming from Chiyo, the poor girl into Sayuri, the geisha.

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    Golden frequently uses the imagery of water to exemplify the complexity of Chiyo’s identity. Chiyo is noticed for her unusual blue-grey eyes which many believe signifies she has a lot of water in her personality as she is constantly told she “has a great deal of water” (32) in her personality. This represents her honest and truthful nature which contrasts with the artificial and deceptive world of the Geisha. In the Japanese Buddhist tradition, it is said water is one of the five elements that make up the fabric of the universe and personalities of every person. Like water shifting to fit the shape of a container, people with a lot of water in their personality have a tendency towards adaptability and flexibility. Therefore, when the characters in the book comment on the amount of water Sayuri has in her personality, they link her to these traits. Chiyo recognizes these attributes she attains: “Those of us with water in our personalities don’t pick where we’ll flow to. All we can do is flow where the landscape of our lives carries us,” (89). She notes that she cannot keep her life under control, who she is and where she goes will change under the given circumstances and all she can do is let it flow. Through the hardships Chiyo endures like being targeted by Hatsumomo, she does not take action but stays quiet as it is her nature to believe things will work out, “I knew I was trapped in the web Hatsumomo had spun for me. I could do nothing but wait,” (91). Golden using the imagery of water to present Chiyo’s personality enables the readers to understand Chiyo better as it will be easier to comprehend her adaptability and reaction towards given situations. As a little girl, Chiyo is known to have a lot of water but as she matures and becomes a geisha, her name changing to Sayuri does not just signify the birth of another Geisha but a rebirth of a young girl. As Chiyo becomes Sayuri, she learns to control the water and balance her personality: “My new name came from ‘sa’ meaning ‘together’, ‘yu’ from the zodiac sign for the hen-in order to balance other elements in my personality- and ‘ri’ meaning understanding,” (160).

Through the symbolism of makeup, Golden portrays Chiyo’s transformation into Sayuri as the makeup creates a facade for the young girl. Makeup is a crucial part of a Geisha’s life. It enables them to present themselves perfectly as a piece of art as they entertain the rich men. The white face mimics porcelain skin and the red lips symbolize everything a man wants. That is why Chiyo becomes a different person when she is transforming into her Geisha self. She is not Chiyo anymore but Sayuri, “Only when she sits before her mirror to apply her makeup with care does she become a geisha. And I don’t mean that this is when she begins to look like one. This is one she begins to think like one too,” (115). This passage enables readers to identify the change between Chiyo and Sayuri as Sayuri comes to life once the makeup is all set. Along with the appearance, the thoughts change as well. This young girl is not just a normal girl anymore but an elegant and poise entertainer, she should be thinking like one too. While these beautiful artifices conceal the geishas’ actual appearances, geisha must also conceal their desires, true feelings, and inner self so that they can shift their personalities in order to please or amuse their male clients: “Makeup alone won’t be enough to change Chiyo into something beautiful,” (62). From this quote, it can be seen that the speaker is referring to an internal change. Makeup is the first stop to the deception of beauty but along with the makeup, the willingness to change and to conceal their true feelings is essential in a successful geisha’s life. Through the use of makeup, Golden encourages readers to understand how the geisha’s really feel under their white masks and to understand the duality they attain as they have two different personalities: one with makeup and one without. The facade makeup can create for one’s self can be seen in Hatsumomo’s character. Hatsumomo’s beauty paved the way for her success however she was hiding her cruelness under all the makeup until her inner ugliness slowly becomes obvious even to her clients: “A tree may look as beautiful as ever; but when you notice the insects infesting it, and the tips of the branches that are brown from disease, even the trunk seems to lose some of its magnificence,” (324).

In “Memoirs of a Geisha”, Arthur Golden portrays Chiyo’s journey to finding her true self through the imagery of water and the symbolism of makeup. Through the imagery of water, Golden displays Chiyo’s personality as she is often compared to water. Water is adaptable, always flows and will take the shape of any area it is put in, alike Chiyo who is a young girl that will excel and fight through any situation she is put through. Golden also uses the symbolism of makeup to present the facade all geisha’s – not only Chiyo – must be able to put on in order to be a successful geisha. They have to conceal their desires and hide their true feelings under a painted face and how they handle this can expose their true nature as Hatsumomo’s beauty did not overpower her cruel nature as it is later on recognized by everyone including her clients. Through these devices the readers should be able to identify that Chiyo experiences many hardships that test her will and strength, altering the person she may be. Through the struggles and through the painted faces, she holds onto her true self and only matures who she always has been: the poor girl from the poor village. Her humble roots enable her to grow into a successful geisha and a person who is liked by many. In a world like today’s, people can be excused for their inner ugliness if they are beautiful enough or if they generally meet the standards in all aspects including personality. One can never be too much of something: too kind, too nice, too shy – there always has to be a perfect balance. This is not true. What brings people together and initiates diversity amongst communities is the ability to be themselves even if it means they are not a perfect balance. Pretending to be someone you are not is not going to last long as one can not pretend forever without causing a little damage.

Works Cited:

Golden, Arthur. Memoirs of a Geisha: a Novel / M. Alfred A. Knopf, 1998.