Nuclear Energy And Its Future In India Environmental Sciences Essay

1. Dr. RK Pachauri while addressing at a national workshop on ” Nuclear energy development in India” organised by The Energy Research Institute ( TERI) and Indian nuclear society on 13 Aug 2009 said ‘India has been dependent on conventional fossil fuels but it is no longer possible to depend on the same for a long time. There is an urgent need to look for substitutes to ensure the energy security of the country, and requires adding significant power generation capacity in the coming years.’

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2. Nuclear energy has the potential to address a major portion of the country’s power shortage and climate change worries. According to the Ministry of Power, the share of nuclear power in the country is abysmally low at 2.9% of the total installed capacity. Presently India produces 150,323.41 megawatt of electricity. Of this staggering 96,044.74 MW (64.6%) comes from thermal [that includes coal, gas and oil]; 36,916.76 MW (24.7%) from hydro; 4,120 MW (2.9%) from nuclear; and 13,242.41 MW (7.7%) from renewable sources.
3. However, India is envisaging increasing the contribution of nuclear power to overall electricity generation capacity to 9% within 25 years. In 2010, India’s installed nuclear power generation capacity is likely to increase to 6,000 MW. Experts say that India plans to produce 20,000 MW by 2020 and if everything goes smoothly with Indo-US nuclear deal, it can even produce an additional 25,000 MW by the same year. The country presently has 17 nuclear power plants and six more are under construction with a total capacity of 3,160 MW. Several others are under the various stages of planning.’
4. Nuclear Power is the greatest facilitator of energy security in countries with inadequate domestic energy resources. First commercial nuclear power stations started operation in 1950s. Out of the 440 commercial nuclear reactors operating in 31 countries a total of 360,000 MWe is being generated. This caters to almost 16% of the world’s electricity supply in 56 countries which combined operate a total of 284 research reactors.
5. The comparison of GDP and Electricity Generation ranks more or less match. That is the country that has a strong electricity production has a high GDP. This is a strong correlation. The only exception to this fact is countries with very cold climate such as Russia and Canada. Countries with no active nuclear construction programme today have either high per capita electricity generation or access to alternative energy options (cheaper in the short term). Italy has shut down its nuclear plant however imports nearly 20% of its electricity from France which in turn has nearly 80% of its electricity coming from Nuclear energy. The selection of nuclear reactor technology has a large bearing on the efficient utilization of available Uranium. India (PHWRs) tops the list in this regard.
The Nuclear Reactors
6. Basic Types. In a nuclear reaction is a process in which the uranium nuclei breaks and in the process release large amount of heat. This heat can be captured and used to produce steam and subsequently used to run turbines and produce electricity. There are two basic types of reactors – Thermal Reactors or Slow Neutron Reactors, in which the neutrons produced in the fission process are slowed down using a moderator (graphite, high purity ordinary water- called light water in nuclear parlance or heavy water) and the FBRs, in which the fission process takes place with high-energy neutrons, not requiring a moderator. A brief description of the two types is given below.
(a) Thermal Rectors. Among thermal reactors, there are two types – those that can use natural uranium as fuel and those that require enriched uranium (in which percentage of fissionable U235 is increased artificially). Reactors using natural uranium as fuel were developed by Britain, France and Canada, who did not have large uranium enrichment capability. Enriched uranium was used initially in the nuclear propulsion plants of the nuclear submarines built by the US and USSR. These reactor designs were later scaled up for electricity production and were known as Light Water Reactors (LWR) The LWRs have also been adopted in France, Germany, Japan and Korea, after getting the technology from the US.
(b) Fast Breeder Reactors. Unlike Thermal reactors, Fast Breeder Reactors do not use moderators to slow down the neutrons. A large amount of heat is produced from a small volume in these reactors requiring special materials such as molten sodium to be used as coolant. The greatest advantage of these reactors is that they can utilise up to 50 percent of natural uranium as against less than one percent used by the Thermal reactors. The FBR is thus a fuel conservation measure that makes possible the extraction of about 60 times more energy from uranium than the present day thermal reactors. However, the complicated design and its unsuitability for scaling up to commercial sizes has resulted in FBRs not finding favour with most of the nuclear energy producing countries.
The Nuclear Fuel
7. The material that can be used for nuclear reaction are called fissile material. The main resources for nuclear energy are Uranium isotope U235, U238, U233, Plutonium isotope P239 and Thorium isotope Th 232. Only U 235 (less than 1%) is naturally occurring that can be used directly as a fissile material. U238 which is available in abundance can be used to produce P239 and similarly Th 232 is used to produce U233. Thus U238 and thorium are also valuable nuclear resources, called fertile materials, as they can be converted into fissile material for fuelling nuclear reactors.
8. The Natural Uranium resource found in India is modest and at best can be used to for generating approximately 10,000 MWe of energy in the PHWRs for duration of about 30 years. The country has vast resource of Thorium (about 3.2 lakh tonnes), which if used in the Fast Breeder Reactors, can provide about 10,00,000 MWe of energy for a period of approximately 200 years.
9. Given the abundance of thorium in the country and the potential it holds for the energy generation, the Indian nuclear programme is centred on using thorium as the main fuel for Indian reactors. Whereas Uranium remains the favourite fuel for the LWRs being used the world over, there are certain advantages that thorium offers over uranium based fuel. For this reason, the world nuclear community is increasingly recognising thorium as representing a crucial part of the future of civil nuclear power generation. The key advantages offered by thorium on other isotopes currently being used as nuclear fuels are as follows:-
(a) Abundance. As an element, thorium is at least three times as abundant in the earth’s surface as that of uranium. All mined thorium can be used in a reactor, compared with 0.72 percent of the fissile U235 isotope of the natural uranium. This means that up to 40 times the amount of energy per unit mass could be available from thorium.
(b) Non-Proliferation Benefits. The most advocated reason for using thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle is the non-proliferation benefits that it offers. All uranium fuelled reactors produce a certain quantity of plutonium, which can be used for the weapons programme. But when thorium is used as the dominant fuel, it decays to become U233 and does not yield any utilisable plutonium.
(c) Less Radio Toxicity. There is very low and significantly less radio toxicity from spent thorium fuel than that of spent U235 or U238. Spent U235 and U238 have half-lives of around 700 million years and 4.5 billion years respectively, while the spent U233, from the thorium fuel cycle has a half-life of 160,000 years and would remain radioactive for 500 years only.
(d) Higher Neutron Yield. A further benefit from U233 is its higher neutron yield per neutron absorbed, thus providing for greater fuel efficiency than U235 or U238.
10. The Indian nuclear programme was conceived based on, unique sequential three-stages and associated technologies essentially to aim at optimum utilization of the indigenous nuclear resource profile of modest Uranium and abundant Thorium resources. This sequential three-stage program is based on a closed fuel cycle, where the spent fuel of one stage is reprocessed to produce fuel for the next stage. The closed fuel cycle thus multiplies manifold the energy potential of the fuel and greatly reduces the quantity of waste generated. The salient aspects of the programme are as follows:-
(a) The First Stage. The first stage comprises of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors fuelled by natural uranium. Natural uranium contains only 0.7% of Uranium235, which undergoes fission to release energy (200Mev/atom). The remaining 99.3% comprises Uranium238 which is not fissile however it is converted in the nuclear reactor, to fissile element Pu 239. In the fission process, among other fission products, a small quantity of Plutonium239 is formed by transmutation of Uranium238.
(b) The Second Stage. The second stage, comprising of Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) are fuelled by mixed oxide of Uranium238 and Plutonium239, recovered by reprocessing of the first stage spent fuel. In FBRs, Plutonium239 undergoes fission producing energy, and producing Plutonium239 by transmutation of Uranium238. Thus the FBRs produce energy and fuel, hence termed Breeders. FBRs produce more fuel than they consume. Over a period of time, Plutonium inventory can be built up by feeding Uranium238.
(c) The Third Stage. Thorium232, which constitutes world’s third largest reserves in India, is not fissile therefore needs to be converted to a fissile material, Uranium233, by transmutation in a fast breeder reactor. This is to be achieved through second stage of the program, consisting of commercial operation of Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs). In the second stage, once sufficient inventory of Plutonium239 is built up, Thorium232 will be introduced as a blanket material to be converted to Uranium233. Consolidation and further growth of the nuclear electric base is planned by means of thorium breeders, which will form the third stage of the programme. The third stage involves breeder reactors using U233 (produced in second stage) in their cores and Th232 in their blankets, thereby producing energy that can meet the demands of the country for many centuries to come.
11. Considering the sequential nature of the indigenous nuclear power program, and the lead time involved at each stage, it is expected that appreciable time will be taken for direct thorium utilization. Therefore, innovative design of reactors for direct use of thorium is also in progress in parallel to three stage program. In this context, the frontier technologies being developed include the Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). The ADS essentially is a sub-critical system using high-energy particles for fission. One of the significant advantages of this system is small quantity of waste production. The quantity of waste in this system is greatly reduced in comparison to the existing reactors as Actinides produced in ADS are `burnt’ out.
12. The AHWR is another innovative concept, which will act as a bridge between the first and third stage essentially to advance thorium utilization without undergoing second stage of the three stage program. It uses light water as coolant and heavy water as moderator. It is fuelled by a mixture of Plutonium239 and Thorium232, with a sizeable amount of power coming from Thorium232.
13. The Capability Development. The country has developed comprehensive capabilities in all aspects of nuclear power from sighting, design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. Multidimensional R&D facilities have also been set up along with capability development in front and back ends of the fuel cycle, mining, fuel fabrication, storage of spent fuel, reprocessing and waste management. Infrastructure also exists for miscellaneous components like heavy water, zirconium components, control and instrumentation. The country has also been able to develop excellent Human Resource and training infrastructure for the specialised skills needed for generation of nuclear power. The figure below illustrates the status of power production through various sources. It is evident that the nuclear energy has a great future in the sector of power.
14. The Slow Progress. At the time of country’s independence in 1947 and for several years thereafter, the industry’s capability was limited to manufacturing and supply of equipment for cement and sugar industry. The Indian industry exposure, manufacturing and supply of equipment for high technology requirements was quite limited. Whereas other developed countries at that time had well established industrial infrastructure and capability to manufacture equipment for defence and aviation industry. The nuclear industry development in those countries was a spin-off of the well established industry. The Indian industry development was initiated and achieved maturity with the development of nuclear technology.
15. As per the data of the Economic Survey 2007-08 of the Government of India, nuclear power was one of the slowest growing power-generation industries in the country. The scenario, however, is likely to change now. The Indo-US nuclear agreement signed in Oct 08 and the NSG waiver accorded to India for international nuclear trade would be of a great help to India in its quest for large energy source. The much needed Uranium would bring up the reactors back to its full capacity and give the necessary breathing space for the indigenous nuclear programme using natural thorium to take off.
 

Causes of the Partition of India

Question: What was the most decisive turning point on the path that led to partition?

The partition of India of 1947 religiously divided the Indian subcontinent into the separate independent nations, India and Pakistan. This not only meant the end of the British Raj, but also the start of one of the greatest religious migrations of the 20th century, leading to a death toll ranging from 200,000 to 2 million and the estimated displacement of 15 million[1]. In order to determine the turning point on the path that led to such a partition, this essay finds it necessary to explore the factors which deteriorated Hindu-Muslim relations, making the separation necessary. This essay believes that the 1936-7 elections was the most decisive turning point leading up to the partition as it drove up the popularity of separatism. The elections aggravated the significance of other turning points, to be explored as well, such as the formation of the Anglo-League Pact and the involvement of the British in Indian politics. The partition itself not only represented a literal geographical partition but also a figurative partition of Hindus and Muslims.

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The results of the 1936-7 elections clearly led to a downward spiral in Hindu-Muslim relations, involving the Muslim League[2] and the Indian National Congress[3]. Not only did the elections mark the political parties’ detachment from each other, but led to the parties’ becoming political rivals. In its early years, the League’s ideology was not separatist, with its members working to encourage good relations with other religious communities, as exemplified by its close work with the INC and by the fact that the party did not hold a meeting alone during the early 1920s.[4] The 1936-7 elections were a huge success for the INC, who won 716 of the 1,585 seats in the provincial legislatures. The League, however, received only 4.8% of the total Muslim vote and was unable to even secure seating in Muslim-majority regions. The blaring contrast between the outcomes of the elections for the two parties made it clear of the INC’s abundance of support in comparison to the Muslim League. This led to feelings of resentment from members of the League, primarily from its leader, Jinnah.[5] They hence set out to cease cooperation with the League and declare the INC as their rival, invoking religion in their propaganda. By binding the parties to the religions they were associated, the propaganda only led the public to associate their conflict with a religious one. The propaganda the League pursued was one of misrepresentation and meant to frame the Hindus for threatening Muslims by their pursuit of economic and political power. During electoral campaigns, the League used phrases such as “Islam is in danger” to invite the Muslim Indians to see the INC as the nemesis of their religion who would use their position in Indian politics to further the rights of the Hindus at the expense of all other communities.[6] Separatist propaganda propounded the Two Nations Theory[7], and by the 1945-6 elections, the decision was not between INC and the Muslim League, but between Hindu and Muslim.[8] S. Suharwardy[9] noted the difference in the philosophy of the two religions, stating that the Hindus were prepared to reduce the positions of all other groups in society for their own benefit.[10] Malcolm Darling observed that the residences of the Punjab were poisoned by propaganda and the hatred it incited among the public, creating distrust where there was once harmony.[11] With the League winning all 30 seats in the Central Assembly and 427 of the 507 Muslim seats in the provisional legislatures during the 1945-6 elections, there was no doubt that the League’s propaganda was effective and their ideology popular among the locals. Religion was now inseparable from politics, furthering the mistrust between Hindus and Muslims, which eventually manifested itself in violent events such as the Great Calcutta Killing of August 1946, just a year before the partition. With Jinnah placing full blame on the Hindu’s for the killings when H. S. Suhrawardy had been the initiator, the event not only led to various other acts of religious violence in the country but signified a point of no return to Hindu-Muslim relations. Therefore, due to the series of events which began with the 1936-7 elections, the relationship between the two religions became significantly more strained, making their separation all the more inevitable.

 Another turning point which was considered was the formation of the Anglo-League Axis, though this essay concludes that this alliance was less significant as it simply played off of the consequences of the 1936-7 elections. The Anglo-League Axis was an unwritten arrangement, which sought to undermine the efforts of the INC to promote nationalism while further spreading the separatist politics of the League. The arrangement definitely benefited both parties, with the British being able to steer the Muslims away from nationalism and the League being provided with the support of the government. This result not only in the stagnant progress of the nationalist movement, but it made an INC-League alliance impossible and unattractive. Through cooperation, the League and the British were able to deal with the INC’s protests for nationalism. Such cooperation was most evident between the government and Aga Khan III, who gained his position as president of the League due to his close relations with the government[12] While he acted as a pawn for the British, the government provided him with money and weaponry.[13] Viceroy Minto expressed repeatedly his beliefs that a self-governing India would revert the country back to a land of savages, integrating clauses to suppress Hindus in every way in his reforms.[14] A way in which he accomplished that was through the implementation of reforms which he knew were favourable to the Muslims, such as through the Muslim deputation of 1906. The British support of the League can be seen through the memoirs of Aga Khan, who wrote that Lord Minto’s willingness to work with the League made the creation of Pakistan inevitable.[15]. Cooperation also took place between Jinnah and Viceroy Linlithgow, whose secret letters contained promises that the future of India would be determined by Muslim wishes and that the League would be consulted regarding future decisions.[16]. Such a collaboration not only meant the proliferation of separatist ideology, but meant that any cooperation between the INC and the League would be unfavourable from the perspective of the Muslims. Attempts such as one made in 1944 by Gandhi, who approached Jinnah in hopes to settle their religious disputes, but were in vain due to Jinnah’s knowledge that the power he enjoyed would be taken away if the League were to be associated with nationalism in any way. Jinnah knew he would gain nothing in negotiations with the INC, as acknowledged by Lord Halifax[17], leaving there no chance of cooperation between the parties. By extension, Hindu-Muslim relations would suffer and worsen, and because of this the Anglo-League Axis was able to fast-track the partition following the outcomes of the 1936-7 elections.

 It is also arguable that the beginning of British hand in Indian politics was a turning point in the path to the partition. Threatened by the Hindu’s and their protests for nationalism, even before the government and the League began their cooperation, British Raj policy aimed at dividing Hindus and Muslims to further their interests. An example was the partition of Bengal, done to prevent the Muslims of Bengal from joining the cause of nationalism. When explaining the decision to the Muslims of the region, Viceroy Curzon assured that the partition was done for the benefit of Muslims. This was supported by the Anglo-Indian press, which focused on maintaining the rights and interests of Muslims against “Hindu pre-eminence”.[18] By presenting the Hindus as the enemy of the Muslims in order to quell nationalist efforts, as well as showing favouritism through actions such as providing Muslims with positions in government previously held by Hindus, the British won the allegiance of many Muslims and encouraged separatist thinking. However, this essay would argue that while the British efforts to induce separatism were noteworthy factors leading up to the partition, their actions simply fuelled the conflict already present as a result of the Muslim League’s propaganda.

  By the time of the 1947 partition of India, Hindu-Muslim relations had already been deteriorated significantly, making the partition inevitable. Despite the continuous deterioration of relations between the communities since the beginning of British influence in the subcontinent, the partition itself signified an everlasting dent in relations between them and the subsequent migration led to bloodshed in regions which had seen co-religious peace for centuries. This essay is firm in its belief that it was the 1936-7 elections, which sparked fear in the Muslim League and encouraged them to pursue more radical ideologies, which signified a decisive turning point in history in the lead up to the partition. Other milestones simply exacerbated existing hatred and conflict and the partition became a by-product of built up tensions.

Bibliography

Gankovskij, J. V., & Gordon-Polonskaya, L. R., A History of Pakistan (People’s Publ. House, 1972).

Khan, A., The Memoirs of Aga Khan: World Enough and Time (Simon and Schuster, 1954).

Kulkarni, V. B., India and Pakistan: A Survey of Hindu-Muslim Relations (Jaico Pub. House, 1973).

Linlithgow, V. A., Speeches and Statements by the Marquess of Linlithgow (Bureau of Public Information, Government of India, 1945).

Mahomed, S., The Memoirs of Aga Khan (Cassell, 1954)

Prasad, R, India Divided (Penguin Books, 2010)

Talbot, I., & Singh, G., The Partition of India (Cambridge, 2014)

Tuker, F., While Memory Serves (Cassell, 1950)

[1] Talbot, I., & Singh, G. The partition of India. (Cambridge University Press, 2014)

[2] A political party with a Muslim-majority which fought for the rights of Indian Muslims.

[4] Kulkarni, V. B., India and Pakistan: A survey of Hindu-Muslim relations. (Jaico Pub. House., 1973) , 212

[5] Kulkarni, India and Pakistan, 306-9

[6] Kulkarni, India and Pakistan, 316

[7] A concept spearheaded by Jinnah, calling for the creation of a separate nation for Muslims.

[8] Tendulkar, D. G., Abdul Ghaffar Khan: Faith is a battle,(Popular Prakashan, 1967), 367

[9] The Premier of Bengal from 1946-7 and a member of the Muslim League

[10] Gwyer, M. L., & Appadorai, A., Speeches and Documents on the Indian Constitution, 1921-47 (Oxford, 1957), 570

[11] Darling, Malcolm. At Freedom’s Door. (Oxford, 2011)

[12] Kulkarni, India and Pakistan, 208

[13] Khan, A., The memoirs of Aga Khan: World enough and time (Simon and Schuster, 1954)

[14] Gankovskij, J. V., & Gordon-Polonskaya, L. R., A history of Pakistan (People’s Publ. House, 1972)

[15] Khan, A. The memoirs of Aga Khan, 94

[16] Linlithgow, V. A., Speeches and statements by the Marquess of Linlithgow (Bureau of Public Information, Government of India, 1945). 397-403

[17] A former viceroy of India under the British Embassy at Washington.

[18] Kulkarni, India and Pakistan, 188-9

 

Online Shopping In India

Online shopping is the process of researching and purchasing products or services over the Internet. The earliest online stores went into business in 1992, and online retailing took over a significant segment of the retail market during the first decade of the twenty-first century, as ownership of personal computers increased and established retailers began to offer their products over the Internet. 
Consumers across the globe are increasingly swapping crowded stores for one-click convenience, as online shopping becomes a safe and popular option. Online shopping has some advantages over shopping in retail stores, including the ability to easily compare prices from a range of merchants, access to a wide selection of merchandise, being open 24*7 and the convenience of not having to drive to a physical store. But despite that the online shopping cannot replace the experience of shopping in a retail store or the entertainment value of going to a mall or market. A customer who knows exactly what he or she wants can look it up online, read and compare the information, and purchase from the site that offers the best price or service. But a shopper who is uncertain what to look for, or who just enjoys browsing through items on display, will prefer a retail store where the merchandise can be seen, handled and sample. The décor, music and arrangement of goods in a retail store creates a multi-dimensional shopping environment that cannot be duplicated online. For many people, going shopping at a mall, department store or market is a form of entertainment and a social experience. Many people who are currently unfamiliar with computers and do not feel comfortable using the Internet to shop are not likely to change their habits. 

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The Future growth will come through improvements to the shopping process on existing Web sites; the implementation of more online shopping sites by existing retailers; the coming of age of a younger, more technology-oriented generation; and the introduction of novel goods, services and online shopping experiences. The growth of online shopping in developing nations like India will occur as more people acquire personal computers and credit cards.
Global Arena
Online shopping, or the use of the Internet to gather information on products and services, has already shown significant growth globally.
The Nielsen survey, the largest survey of its kind on the topic of Internet shopping habits, was conducted from October to November 2007 and polled 26,312 Internet users in 48 markets from Europe, Asia Pacific, the Americas and the Middle East. When The Nielsen Company conducted its first survey into online shopping habits two years ago, only 10 percent of the world’s online population (627 million) had made a purchase over the Internet. Within two years, this number has surged by approximately 40 percent – to a staggering 875 million. The burgeoning popularity of online shopping is a truly global phenomenon. Online shoppers can be found scattered across the globe, but the world’s most avid Internet shoppers hail from South Korea – 99 percent of Internet users in South Korea have shopped online. German, UK and Japanese consumers come in a close second. US consumers are slightly more recalcitrant, clocking in at number eight.
Indian Scenario
While the Internet and the World Wide Web are continuing to expand at a rapid pace, the development of electronic commerce has been slower. Surveys indicate many Indian Internet users employ the developing interactive medium to shop or browse for information on products and services, but a far smaller percentage has actually made purchases online.
The number of people and hosts connected to the net has increased worldwide. In India too, Internet penetration has became more widespread. Online shopping though a small proportion of the Internet activity is believed to increase in the coming years. Some of the prominent factors leading the change are greater Internet penetration, fall in prices of hardware, fall in the price of Internet communication, development of better and more reliable technologies, and increased awareness among the users. Some of the various ways in which online marketing is done in India are company websites, shopping portals, online auction sites, etc.
E-commerce may not have taken off in India the way it should have, yet prospects are bright. India is expected to be the third largest Internet market in the world in the next five years (Source Ac Nielson). The advantages are there for both buyers and sellers and this win-win situation is at the core of its phenomenal rise, as it is believed that e-commerce transactions will represent the largest revenue earner especially in the business to consumer (B2C) segment in India.
Indian customers are increasingly getting comfortable with online shopping, and there is a higher acceptability for the concept. India has 25 million Internet users and more is now turning to online shopping. There has been an influx of online shopping sites in India with many companies hitching onto the Internet bandwagon. The revenues from online shopping are expected to increase tremendously.
According to IAMAI, the average number of transactions per month in India has gone up from 2 lakh in 2003-04 to 4.4 lakh in 2004-05 and has doubled to 7.95 lakh transactions per month in the year 2005-06. The online sales during the festival season had increased rapidly especially during Diwali and Ramzan which recorded a sales of Rs115 crore, a 117 per cent increase from the Rs53 crore in the year 2004-05 (source IAMAI). These figures clearly show that online shopping has truly come of age and consumers are keen to shop on the net. Effective customer communication on products plus reduced shipping costs and timely delivery has helped online marketers to seize a slice of the Rs 115 crore sales. Though a miniscule amount in the global context, the Indian online shoppers’ population would make its presence felt quite remarkably. The potential of the Indian e-market can be gauged from the fact that 16 percent of Indian consumers want to buy online in the next six months, making it the third most online-potential country after Korea (28 percent) and Australia (26 percent) (Source:IMRB). This is an indication of a growing breed of Indian consumers who are not only better equipped but also more confident of the online transactions.
LITERATURE REVIEW
The consumers’ attitude towards online shopping is known as one of the main factors that affects e-shopping potential (Michieal, 1998). Though attitudinal issues are thought to play a significant role in e-commerce adoption, however social-demographic variables such as the gender, income, age, and nation also affect customers in purchasing. In a study of customer satisfaction and repurchase behavior, Mittal, Kamakura & Wagner (2001) divided consumer characteristics into six social-demographic variables. They were gender, age, educational background, marital status, children, and living area.
A review of empirical studies in this area shows several things. Many studies have found that typical online buyers have used the Web for several years, and because of their familiarity, they searched online for product information and purchase options (Bellmanet al., 1999). There was also evidence that the Internet shopper was convenience-oriented (Donthu & Garcia, 1999; Korgaonkar & Wolin, 1999), innovative and variety-seeking (Donthu & Garcia, 1999). He or she did not appear to be brand-or price-sensitive (Donthu & Garcia, 1999). From a consumer’s viewpoint, Yao (1998) who researched the purchase behavior of online shopping in demographic variables and behavior variables angle, found that different age groups affected customer’s product choice in price. Sheth (1983) considered that consumers’ purchase preference would affect their intention.
Considering that Internet shopping, is still not at the mature stage of development, not too much is known about consumers’ attitudes towards adopting this new shopping channel and factors that influence their attitude toward (Haque et al., 2006). That means that, through motivation and perception, attitudes are formed and consumers make decisions. Thus, attitudes directly influence decision making (Haque et al.,2006). Attitudes serve as the bridge between consumers’ background characteristics and the consumption that satisfies their needs (Armstrong and Kotler, 2000; Shwu-Ing, 2003). Because attitudes are difficult to change, to understand consumers’ attitudes toward online shopping, can help marketing managers predict the online shopping intention and evaluate the future growth of online commerce.
OBJECTIVE:
The purpose of this research study is to investigate online Indian consumer behaviour, which in turn will provide E-marketers with a constructional framework for fine-tuning their online strategies. The objectives of this research are:

To study the attitudes and behaviour of Indian consumer regarding online shopping.
To evaluate the contribution of online shopping in India.
To understand the issues and challenges of online shopping in India.
To analyze if the Indian online buying behavior is affected by demographics, cultural and social characteristics.
To identify factors which determine online shopping.
To examine the satisfaction level of online purchases of Indian consumers.
To investigate the future and growth of Online Shopping in India.

HYPOTHESIS:
Keeping in mind the above objectives and in order to address the problem in the most effective manner the following hypotheses have been formulated:

There is no significant difference between the frequency of online buying among male & females Indian consumers.
There is no significant difference between the Indian consumers educational background and their online purchase intention.
There is no significant difference between the income of regular online shopper and occasional online buyer.
There is no significant difference between the convenience orientation of consumers who make frequent online purchases or those who purchase occasionally.
There is no significant difference in the dominance of usage of shopping online between the Generation Y shoppers (those born after 1977) and other online buyers, that is, people over 45 years of age.

RESEARCH METHODOLGY:
The general purpose of the study is to conduct a descriptive research on the customer attitudes and behaviors for online shopping in Indian setting.
To this end exploratory or qualitative research tool would be used, which can help better understand and gain data that, shows how consumers make online shopping. Sampling designs chosen for use in this research is non-probability judgment sampling. A non-probability sample group would be used and the surveys would be mailed and distributed among the Internet users chosen. As discuss by Cavana et al.(2001), when time or other factors become critical, non-probability sampling is generally used. By using this sampling design, no probabilities are attached to the elements in the population under research. However this research may able to collect preliminary information in a quick and inexpensive way. In judgment sampling, the researcher uses his/her judgment in selecting information rich units from the population for study based on the population’s parameters to answer the research question. Five hundred surveys would be conducted because it is considered to be a large sample size to serve the purpose of the research.
A combination of primary and secondary research techniques would be used to collect the data to meet the objectives. The primary research would be conducted across Delhi through structured consumer survey questionnaires administered among all the people who use Internet through judgmental sampling. Any person who meets the criteria would be a potential sample unit for the survey. According to Sekaran (2003), surveys type is a useful and powerful method in finding answers to consumer behavior’s research. To carry out the research, the questionnaire consists of a combination of several types of questions.
Also the researcher will seek to review related literatures of consumer behavior on online shopping. After data collection the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) would be used for data analysis. Various tests would also be conducted like T Test, Z Test, Factor Analysis. These methods would help to reach an answer and come up with results to prove the findings.
SCOPE:
Today Internet is not only a networking media, but also as a means of transaction for consumers at global market. Internet usage has grown rapidly over the past years and it has become common means for delivering and trading information, services and goods (Albarq, 2006). Since online shopping is growing tremendously in the current business scenario it is imperative to study how consumers’ make purchase decisions on the Internet. With the advent of Internet shopping, consumers are faced with an overwhelming amount of product offerings, and consequently have a greater degree of freedom to choose among many different alternatives. Internet shopping carries a number of different characteristics than traditional shopping methods.
In India the Internet has taken root and grown along many fronts in the past decade. The research assumes significance since marketers have endeavored to cater to this growing segment of consumers. Research undertaken within India on the profile of Internet shoppers is piecemeal and incomplete. This empirical research intends to explore into this issue, this study among the Internet users will help marketers to plan highly focused online campaigns in the future.
PROPOSED CHAPTERIZATION:
Keeping in mind the objective of the research, In this research proposal, the background, context and theme of the study would be presented first; then the objectives of the study and the research statements would be formulated. Here, vital concepts, questions and assumptions shall be stated. Finally, the scope and limitation of the study, methodology to be used and the significance of the research will be discussed in detail.  
So, proposed table of contents for the research are as follows –

Acknowledgement
Executive Summary
Table Of Contents
List Of Tables
List Of Figures

Chapter 1 – Introduction
In this chapter the background to the research area is presented. This presentation leads to a discussion of the issues within the research area which further leads to the formulation of a research question. This research question will be answered later in this thesis. The purpose of this thesis is also presented.
Chapter 2 – Literature Review
This chapter includes a review of relevant and supporting theories for this research. They begin with broader theories of segmentation and online buying behaviour before two models relevant to the empirical study is presented.
Chapter 3 – Research Methodology
The means that were used to conduct this research will be presented in this chapter. This includes the methodological approach, the research strategy, method of data collection, the sample and quality standards. The methodology is chosen to fulfil the purpose and aim of this thesis.
Chapter 4 – Analysis & Findings
The results of the empirical study will be presented in this chapter. The empirical findings will assist in the analysis of results presented in chapter five.
The extent by which data analysis done would depend on the amount and quality of data collected through primary and secondary research. Principle objective in such a process of data analysis would be the use of statistical tools wherever required which could include the use of worksheets in excel. This would involve extensive discussion with industry representatives to get an accurate and valuable opinion. Based on the analysis suitable analysis and recommendations would be fixed.
Chapter 5 – Conclusion
The conclusion answers the research question and presents implications for marketers. It answers whether the purpose of the research has been achieved.
Chapter 6 – Recommendations And Limitations
In this chapter the limitations of this research is presented as well as recommendations for future research in online communities
References
This research has referenced the following reputable sources – Literature, Journals, Articles, and Websites
Appendices
 

Monetary Policy and Economic Risk in India

Monetary Policy and Economic Risk in India 

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

RBI and Monetary policy

Quantitative tightening and repercussions for India

Operating in India – economic risks

How we can manage the risks? 


Tackling Transaction Exposure via Derivatives

Financial Hedging

Operational hedging

In summary

References

In this era, more and more Indian firms and businesses are globalizing their operations resulting in more imports and exports. In the course of engaging with international firms, most of the firms will trade with multiple currencies. Consequently, these firms are exposed to foreign exchange risks and uncertainties in their bottom line due to unpredictable fluctuations in the exchange rate (Bhaskaran & Priyan, 2015). This report will firstly address the likelihood of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in taking a quantitative tightening (QT) approach as of now. Based on India’s current state of economy as well as a current repo rate of 6.5% that the RBI continued to maintain, the central bank may tighten the repo rate in the future. In the event that QT is actually imposed, the economic hypothetical ramifications will be investigated. The types of economic risks that MNCs face will then be explored. Such risks include direct and indirect economic exposure which branches out to transaction, operating and translation exposure. This is followed by a discussion on how such risks can be mitigated to survive the threat of ever-changing exchange rates.

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The RBI sets it monetary policy based on its medium-term expectations of Consumer Price Index (CPI) rates (RBI, 2018A). It operates a inflation range targeting strategy, aiming to keep CPI rates at 4 percent with a band of +/- 2 percent. Prior to the RBI’s monetary policy meeting in October, the RBI’s Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) had consecutively increased the repo rate in the past two meetings by 25 basis points each time. This placed market expectations that the RBI would become more hawkish with its policy, and most believed that the repo rate to further rise by 25 basis points (The Economic Times, 2018; Allirajan, 2018; MINT, 2018). Some Indian banks even preemptively increased their interest rates (Nayak, 2018). Expectations were fueled by the roaring fuel prices (Allirajan, 2018) with prospects of reaching $100 per barrel (Daily News & Analysis, 2018).  The Rupee against the dollar was also plummeting, reaching new lows as the Fed continued to increase its funds rate (Gupta, 2018; Parekh, 2018).

Against market expectations, the RBI decided to maintain the repo rate at 6.50 percent. In this case, the RBI was less aggressive than expected. Though oil prices weighted the MPC’s decisions, the Indian government had provided some relief by slightly cutting prices (Free Press Journal, 2018), therefore was not as significant a factor as market participants had believed. However, the MPC changed its stance on monetary policy from neutral to “calibrated tightening” (RBI, 2018B). This stance signals that there will be no rate cuts anytime soon, and rate rises on the horizon (The Hindu Business Line, 2018). The aggressiveness of these rises will be dependent on the macroeconomic conditions that compose CPI in the medium-term. Main factors to watch out for include oil prices, the falling Rupee, the Indian government’s fixing minimum support prices at 150 percent, and global market volatility. Thus far, with these factors taken into consideration, CPI forecasts have been revised down from the August resolution (RBI, 2018B), suggesting prospects that moderate intensity in policy changes.  

In the case of quantitative tightening, theoretically, increased interest rates could attract foreign investment. It could lead onto an increase in demand for the rupee and subsequently the currency’s appreciation. This could also potentially assist the Indian government recover from its widening current account deficit. However, against the recent Fed interest rate hikes (Free Press Journal, 2018; Sinha, 2018), this strategy may prove to be ineffective stirring much market investors’ interest towards the rupee. It may be the RBI’s best interest to learn a lesson from fellow emerging economies (i.e. Turkey, Argentina and Indonesia) that have failed to resolve their currency’s depreciation via rate hikes (Parekh, 2018).

The current decline in the rupee may prove to be beneficial to the exports sector. Having lower costs comparatively to trade partners and competitors, Indian products may become more competitive in the global market. As it stands, imports are rapidly growing and are likely to offset potential export gains (Bhandari, 2018). If a rate hike does lead to the appreciation of the rupee, the balance of payments is only likely to worsen.

Moreover, quantitative tightening from the RBI is inappropriate given the liquidity stress that the Indian market is currently experiencing. There is trouble in India’s shadow banking industry. A further drain on the liquidity through rate hikes will do nothing to ease the pressures of the collapse of IL&FS (an Indian infrastructure development and finance company). The government has already had to bail out IL&FS (Shukla, 2018), and the RBI scheduled to take on open market operations to relieve the situation with 360 billion rupees (The Hindu Business Line, 2018; MINT, 2018). The current account deficit may be a pressing issue for the RBI and Indian Government. But if the liquidity situation worsens, the government bodies will be forced to intervene even more in the market, and thus further widen the account deficit.  A tightening of policy would also negate the support provided to borrowers via the relaxation in statutory liquidity requirements (The Hindu Business Line, 2018). 

Risks, in general, refer to the variation in business outcomes and performance to forecasts (Miller, 1992). Businesses that operate only in the domestic market face risks such as market risk, liquidity risk, and credit/default risk faced. On top of these common risks, businesses that operate on an international scale also face foreign exchange risk which comprises of operating exposure, transaction exposure and translation exposure (Eiteman, Stonehill, & Moffett, 2015). Companies are influenced by economic risks if the present value of its future cash flows are sensitive to changes in exchange rates (Marston, 2001). Companies that partake in globalised markets are susceptible to changes in the value of the domestic or foreign currency however the effects of economic exposure are not restricted to a particular industry (Marston, 2001). Since, this company operates in multiple countries, our overall exposure to fluctuating exchange rates is lessened.

There are two categories of economic risk known as direct economic exposure and indirect economic exposure (Eiteman et al., 2015). Direct economic exposure affects organisations if they are involved in foreign currency transactions or expecting to have foreign currency transactions in the future (Eiteman et al., 2015). Specifically known as transaction exposure it refers to the variability in a firm’s foreign currency denominated transactions due to exchange rate risk (Martin & Mauer, 2003). Given our company operates on a multinational scale, we are subject to changes in the repo rates that occur between the issuance and settlement dates of our transaction contracts (Martin & Mauer, 2003). Such movements can be either favourable or unfavourable. The potential increases in the repo rate, signalled by the RBI’s calibrated tightening stance, may increase the cost of our long-term borrowings. However, the RBI maintenance of the repo rate 6.50 percent till the next MPC bi-monthly meeting means that our current short-term borrowings (one to two months) will remain mostly unaffected.

Another direct risk affecting our transactions is the value of the rupee. The current depreciation of the Rupee makes our foreign account payables (or imports) more expensive and the increases the value of our foreign account receivables (or exports) (Bhakaran & Priyan, 2015).

On the other hand, indirect economic exposure occurs when a company’s competitiveness is affected by fluctuations in exchange rate (Eiteman et al., 2015). If comparatively, our costs are less than those of competitors because of lower exchange rate against trade partners, our competitive edge in the market strengthens. With the continuing surge in oil prices, Mishra & Debasish (2017) would conclude a continued downwards pressure on the rupee. This may be indicative of our potential to remain competitive by continuing operations in India. On the outlook, our sales margins should be relatively secure because of this competitive position.

In this section, a few risk management strategies are suggested. These strategies aim to reduce the company’s exposure to transaction exposure, operating exposure and translation exposure.

Tackling Transaction Exposure via Derivatives

Transaction exposure is one of the more observable forms of exchange rate risk. Hedging by using forwards, futures or option contracts allows us to offset the changes in value of an existing position and thus minimise, or eliminate, risk (Antoci, 2015).

Figure 1 NCF from hedged position versus unhedged position (Antoci, 2015)

This approach is favourable as it adds more certainty to expected cash flow increases the firm value. (Figure 1) It releases companies from cash constraints and saves agency costs. As can be seen in Figure 3, many other Indian MNCs adopt multiple hedging techniques as risk management strategies.  

Figure 2 Hedging techniques adopted by MNCs in India based on survey on 50 companies (source: Goel 2012)

Figure 3 Derivative used for hedging FX risk in India (source: Sivakumar & Sarkar, 2008)

Although hedging options are concentrated at forward contracts, it is evident that MNCs in India are utilising hedging activities to manage its transaction exposure. As per Figure 3, the most popular foreign currencies include USD, Euro and Pound as the major trading partners of firms operating in India. Forwards are more preferred by MNCs operating in India over futures due to its OTC nature, as they have the requisite bargaining power to negotiate with their counterparties to match their exposures (Sivakumar & Sarkar, 2008).

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Options are a more flexible alternative in the short-term hedging market. it is adopted by TCS to hedge its exposure to USD (Sivakumar & Sarkar, 2008). Because of its asymmetrical payoff regarding volatility, options grant TCS a profitable opportunity due to the high volatility of the exchange rate between USD and the Rupee. However, expensive upfront premiums may deter other MNCs from entering the option market. The implication entails that TCS may have a short planning horizons (Sivakumar & Sarkar, 2008).

Money market hedge may also be exploited as an alternative to forwards as it manifests in firms obtaining a loan agreement and a source of funds to fulfil their obligations under that contract (Goel, 2011). This approach depends more on the ‘differential interest rates’. (Goel, 2011, p 90) Recent fluctuations of the interest rates in the US, EU and India itself have added uncertainty to this approach, which makes forwards the most appropriate hedging technique. (Kim, 2011)

Swaps are also used by several car manufacture companies as long- term hedging strategies, it operates to rather hedge the firms’ operating exposure (Antoci, 2015).

OPERATING (ECONOMIC) EXPOSUREOperating exposure is harder to measure and the mitigating mechanisms depend on the operational structure of each firm. The ultimate goal in mitigating this risk is to maintain a balance between its profit margins and market share in cases of adverse exchange rate movements (Goel, 2012).

PASS-THROUGH The appreciation of Rupee is a downside risk for MNCs operating in India. It results in lower demand in both global and domestic markets for our products. If the firm is able to pass through the changes in the exchange rate onto customers, potentially demand can be sustained. However, our ability to pass-through the rise in value depends on the product’s elasticity of demand (Dumitrescu, 2009).

Financial Hedging

Table 1 Techniques used for hedging operating exposure by 95 MNCs in India (source: Goel 2012)

Figure 4 Pie chart for number of techniques used outlined in Table 1 (source: Goel 2012)

If firms can match up the currency of their cost and with the currency of their revenue, it can reduce their exposure to foreign rate changes. One method is to borrow foreign currency in Euromarkets (Prasad, 2016). Alternatively, it can be achieved by swaps, which is an agreement to exchange cash flows for an agreed period. The later method can be risky when RBI implements a tightening monetary policy, which increases the cost of borrowing domestically.

Operational hedging – FDI

Our firm will need to restructure its operations to manage its operating exposure. MNCs have the requisite resources to set up production lines in multiple foreign countries. Firms are therefore more flexible for production shifting as having their own offshore suppliers or subsidiaries. (Goel, 2012)

GCHL and Shima were Indian textile firms that mitigated its exposure to appreciation of Rupee by finding a cheaper source of cotton and shorting the output at a higher price in other countries (Bhaskaran & Priyan, 2015).

Suggestion:

Along with the QE in America, Trumps protectionism has hindered the growth of FDI in the US market. Therefore, its rival China can be an appropriate destination for FDI according to the OLI paradigm.

Owner-specific: Since our company operates on a multi-national level, it has competitive advantage such as economies of scale.

Location-specific: As China is the largest consumer of raw materials, it has developed a mature mechanism to hedge against their exposure in the market. Other factors including relatively cheap labour and a substantial domestic market confirms that China is a suitable destination for FDI. (Jethmalani, 2018)

Internationalisation: The potential issue lies with our firm obtaining control over the foreign investment. As China is an authoritarian republic, there may be heavy regulations imposed. However, as China loses a portion of its market share in the US, it is plausible for investment policies in China to turn in our favour.

Ultimately, MNCs including our company are victims to exchange rate fluctuations and therefore, it is crucial for firms to know how to hedge the foreign exchange exposure. Having analysed the current situation in India, the central banks are more likely to impose QT in the future than not, and economic repercussions will subsequently unravel. Monetary policy may be the root cause for some of the exposures that we face. Nevertheless, risks can be mitigated through implementation of risk management strategies.

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Dumitrescu, D. (2009). Managing Transaction Exposure. Annales UniversitatisApulensis Series Oeconomica,1(1), 1st ser., 359-367. Retrieved October 8, 2018, from http://www.oeconomica.uab.ro/upload/lucrari/1120091/37.pdf

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Fashion and Culture in India

Language disguises the thought, so that from the external form of the clothes one cannot infer the form of the thought they clothe, because the external form of the clothes is constructed with quite another object than to let the form of the body be recognized (Calefato 2004. p 13).
The western culture is cultivating a grand love affair with the distinctive fashion style in India. Along with Indian music and spirituality, Indian clothing is seeing a huge impact on main stream identities of western style and culture. The main intention of this essay is to demonstrate how this emerging trend relates to the changing face of Indian fashion.
Fashion is the style and custom prevalent at a given time. To some it’s an art form, to others it’s like a part of their culture and religion but to most it is a method of utilizing cloth to show or hide something about themselves. Fashion can be used to serve as an extension of one’s own personality or to disguise one’s own true self. One of the major points here is, how does art, culture and industry, the three aspects of life, relate to fashion? The English dictionary states that, art is a human skill opposed to nature. There are various for and against argument on whether fashion is an art form. One view that favors the argument is, art is a visual medium whose creators respond to the same stimuli as painters and sculptors and like art, it involves immense creativity as well as mastery of technique and materials. The view against it is, artists supposedly are not concerned with selling, they are consumed with creating works of art, not producing a collection for regularly scheduled showings (Rhodes, 2003). Culture on the other hand is basically an ‘intellectual development’ at a certain time and a certain place and refers to certain human behavior and activities that conclude to significance and importance whereas; industry is a segment of economy, concerned with the production of goods and service. It is an essential component of most societies and fashion is a huge contributor to it. The major fashion cities have continuous competition between each other and due to their different strategies become known as the ‘cultural industries’. The history of costume, Barthes (1983) says, has a general epistemological value. By ‘history of costume’, he means a socio-semiotic reading of the phenomenon of clothing as an articulate language through which it is possible to analyse a culture, as system and process, institution and individual act, expressive reserve and significant order. The nature of fashion, however, constantly changes and focuses on newness, or the illusion of something new which means that signs and symbols are transient. According to Woodruffe-Burton “fashion is a visual commentary on the excess of a postmodern culture, the perfect foil for a world of fragmented and commensurate identities and personage, offering a dynamic procession of free floating signs and symbolic exchanges” (Woodruffe-Burton 1998, page 302).

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Choices made in relation to new clothes are usually controlled by the current fashion ‘look’ as defined within the fashion system and realized by the availability of fresh goods (Alexandra, 2004). According to Barthes (1983), the concept of new lifestyle and fashion styles is “signified” while the fashion commodities become “signifiers”. He also points out that the present form of fashion commodities decrease in value and are subsequently relinquished when the new signifier readily provides a replacement for the previous signifier. In addition, Baudrillad (1981) referred to fashion as a “compulsion to innovate signs apparently arbitaray and perpetual production of meaning – a kind of meaning drive”. The meanings drive individuals, to seek out those new commodities that could signify them. According to Vinken, “The discourse on fashion is constructed by the articulations of three major conceptual articulations: the division of being and mere appearance; the division of the sexes; and – inseparably linked to the latter – the division of the classes”. In modern times, there has been a marked tendency for the first of these conceptualities – whether it appears in its philosophical form or in its ethical application – to be incorporated into the sociological variations of the divisions of gender and class. This phenomenon of compression has been compounded by the fact that the paradigm of the division of the sexes has allowed itself to be grafted onto the discourse on class, dominant until the eighteenth century, with the same ease that, in traditional thought, the moral condemnation of vanity let itself be combined with the philosophical suspicion of mere appearance”(Vinken, p4) India during its earlier days to be clothed in fashion was seen as a mark of privilege enjoyed exclusively by upper class. The lower end of the society didn’t have the access to it due to the dominance of traditional clothing which followed intensively during that time. But now it has changed for the better and is being enjoyed by almost everyone at every social level because of the democratization of fashion which has helped in mass production during the Industrial Revolution. The appearance of avant-garde designers from Japan in the early 1980s was believed to be the beginning of the postmodern phenomenon in the field of fashion. It allows openness to a great variety of styles and genres and the acceptance of Asian designers which was considered as the breakdown of the racial boundaries among designers who were largely white. Post modernity allows ethnic minorities, from women, lesbians and gay men to state find or retrieve an identity (Wilson 1994). The definition of what is fashionable was gradually decreasing in its nature with the beginning of postmodernism which eliminated differences and with the end of the autonomous sphere of fine art. What was usually worn as underwear now could be worn as outerwear. What used to be a hole for the neck could be worn as an armhole. Contents of fashions have become diverse and have redefined themselves implying the breakdown of the clothing system, itself that is, of sartorial conventions. The emergence of the new modern India seems to be the buss word for the new younger generation exposed to the vision of the new millennium as India opened up its doors to the west, there came a need to create a new identity. Thus was the idea of taking Indian traditional fabrics and styles and combining them with western cuts and lines, to appeal to larger segments and masses. Due to these developments, fashion gained in acceptance out of selected cities into the most conservative households. The new emerging trend catered way to the concept of Indian fashion boutiques, due to which women started moving out of the house and those typical tailor master were out of fashion. When more and more women started doing job, the online boutiques proved to be of great help as they can find everything under one roof, from fabric, designing, stitching and accessories (Chawla, 2006). Earlier to have a desired design, effort was needed to be put on to run from shop to shop to buy the fabric. Once the fabric is bought, the matching colour of laces and buttons need to bought and all these need to be given to the tailor for completing the stitching of the garment. Now, all these headaches are been taken care by the boutiques which keep a complete range of stitched and unstitched garments from casuals to party wear. The mall culture and family stores has dominated and is steadily growing in India. These are the places which are starting to become a favorite fashion hub for upper and middle class people. These stores sell fashion garments of all age groups and sexes and are considered as shopping destination.
Most Indians express a great deal through their clothing. Their quench for the ultimate perfection plays a great deal in their choice of beautifully colored dramatic and sensuous garments. Highly lively colors woven in to signify the ornate designs can be found resonating through the whole of India. Lot of western influences has created modern designs which has been included into the basic structure of Indian outfit and that are the dresses that we find these days. So that makes us wonder, what was Indian fashion actually like when there were no designers displaying their haute couture to pamper a luxurious line of clientele? Well the answer to it is, India had its own kind of customs and traditions followed from generation to generations, the presence of it are even felt today. A surprising fact about ancient Indian fashion was that the clothes were not stitched together at all because most of the clothing was ready-to-wear, as soon as they left the loom. The ancient Indian fashion did not really have garments that were sewed together. The examples of these are the dhoti, the sari, the turban and the scarf. The practice of wearing dhoti by men and women were seen as a familiar site since India always go through hot and humid climatic conditions and these were made with cotton which suits the condition. The traditional Indian Dhoti, the Scarf or Uttariya and the popular Turban are still seen visible in India as people continue to wear them and hence remains as an integral part of Indian culture. Indian dressing styles are marked by many variations, both religious and regional with a wide choice of textures and styles (Tirthankar, 1999). One of the most commonly worn traditional dresses, the sari, is essentially a rectangular cloth measuring about 6 yards long. It passes through the legs around the body and tucked in at the back. It’s worn in varied styles and is made from materials like pure silk or other fabric woven in different textures with different patterns. It is worn by women as the lower garment combined with a Stanapatta (a thin band that wraps horizontally around torso) which forms the basic wear. This consists of garments that do not have to be stitched, the stanapatta being simply fastened in a knot at the back (Osella, 2000).
Although the saris and the dhotis have never gone out of fashion, with the Persian influences in Indian fashion, women started wearing long tunics that went down to the knees with trousers that were known as churidars. It also includes the very popular, versatile, comfortable and stylish salwar-kameez. The salwar is a loose pajama like trouser whose legs are wide at the top and narrow at the ankle whereas kameez is a long tunic that goes down till the knees, the sides of which are left open below the waist-line, giving the wearer great freedom of movement. The basic design of this has been modified in various ways since ancient days (Jessica Pudussery, 2009). Apart from clothes, Gold plays a major role in Indian fashion and the use of it has been a tradition, long enjoyed by Indian women since early ages. Ornaments made of gold, combined with precious and semi-precious gems and beads, are the most popular ones. As the story goes on, it is said that traditionally Indian ornaments had an economic value for women. The ornaments given to her at her wedding constituted a daughter’s inheritance from her father (which was earlier referred to as “Dowry”). Though this no longer holds true, a bride’s ornaments is considered as a financial security for her throughout life.
In India the appearance of dressing styles is more towards a cosmopolitan way rather than region specific; the cause of this change can be reflected back to the early days of Indian Independence. Later on globalization bought about huge changes and this can be considered as one of the major factors witnessed in Indian fashion industry, were significance noticeable changes in styles have happened in connection with Indian dressing. India’s rapidly expanding economy has provided the basis for a fundamental change, the emergence of what is called a “new vanguard” increasingly dictating India’s political and economic direction (India child, 2000). There can been seen an increasingly popularity towards western mode of dressing styles among the urban youth of both sexes. Some young women are trying to incorporate the latest fashion trends within their wardrobe while still following some of the traditional Indian dressing customs. The women youth market is significant not only because of it sheer size and the spending power but since they are the trend setters for rest of the population. Young women generally pay more emphasis on their appearance than older people and thus clothing occupies a more central position. They are more likely to be fashion conscious and hence are frequent buyers and they usually prefer wearing casuals (Gowswamy Roy, 2007). Although traditional dress is still worn in India, according to V.P. Sharma, an Indian worker working as a weaver in the traditional handloom sari industry in Bihar since 1988, blames the trend in women’s changing tastes for handloom saris, a simple cotton sari that many Indian women wear daily. The plain designs and less appealing colors, plays no significant role for a new modern woman like Rashmi Raniwal who is a 22 year old sales assistant. “Sari?” she says giggling, “I never wear it casually, only for formal occasions”. She further adds that “women in India welcomes change as it is seen as a mark of progress”. There is a common view that people would consider, a woman clothed in western formal wear is more empowered than her traditional counter parts. (Time Magazine 2009).
In globalized modern India men’s fashion hasn’t changed significantly from season to season whereas business clothing has undergone few changes but it’s more of being professional than being fashionable. Personal hygiene is part of the success equation, freshly scrubbed wins out over heavily fragranced. The finishing touch for Indian business professionals is his choice of accessories like briefcase, portfolio and pen but when it comes to sealing the deal, a top of the line suit, a silk tie and a good pair of leather shoes would make things perfect and professional. It’s all about presenting themselves in a way that makes the business clients feel comfortable and confident on them. Dressing for success is still the rule that is being followed. It was during the late 1970’s and 80’s the importance of women in work place began to have a prominent role than ever before. They gradually moved into positions that had been traditionally held by men. Many of them even thought that they need to imitate male’s business clothing to look appropriate for the position; the outcome was, women seen dressed in skirted suits and jackets with tailored blouses. While the business women now wear trousers to work, she does it with the intention to look professional. (Doris, 2005). Like the men the same overall rules apply to women’s work atmosphere as well, business clothing is not a reflection of the latest fashion trend but it is to notice herself as a professional. They think that they should be noticed for who they are and their professional skills rather than the fashionable clothes they wear. The business wear should be appropriate for the industry and the position they hold within the industry.
In the 1960s and ’70s, this whole bit of buildup of wealth in India was still suffering from a Gandhian hangover. Even though there were a whole lot of families who were wealthy all over India from North to South, all their lifestyles were very low key. They were not exhibitionist or were not into the whole consumer culture. The trend has now changed completely and we can see a complete lifestyle transformation on spending habits from cell phone, holiday destination to latest fashion, which earlier would have triggered a sense of guilt that in a nation like India a kind of vulgar exhibition of wealth is contradictory to its own values. Consumerism has now become an Indian value and the new Indian middle class is making its voice heard everywhere. The middle class is hard to define precisely, is bracketed on either side by the upper and lower echelons. It is not a single stratum of society but straddles town and countryside. It encompasses prosperous farmers, white-collar workers, business people, military personnel and myriad others, all actively working towards a prosperous life (Fernandes, 2006). Members of the upper class which is around 1 percent of the population, are owners of large properties, members of exclusive clubs and vacationers in foreign lands, and include industrialists, former maharajas, movie stars and top executives. Below the middle class is perhaps a third of the population who are ordinary farmers, trades people, artisans and professional workers (Britannica 2009).
In today’s fashion conscious society, with numeral number of designers, it would be a difficult to note down some of the top fashion designers all over the world. The superiority of designer clothing gives one the satisfaction of owing a designer piece that is unique in every way. The emergence of western concepts of displaying fashion shows has now become a common event in India. The so called catwalk models started displaying collections of designers on ramp. It was in 1932, the first fashion catwalk was organized in India by Catherine Courney. Now it can be seen as a common every day event with many conceptual and theme based shows. Indians have started exploring new avenues with their modern hybrid fashion trends which is a blend of the old traditional and the new modern and is gearing up to International exposure. This fact can be proved by the existence of eighty plus fashion schools in India were young vibrant designers are trained to face the international arena. Recently, some of the world’s famous fashion designers like Armani, Fendi and Myiake all have been fascinated and drawn by the elements of the exotic Indian culture and traditions (Mark 2008). India, which perfectly mixes the spirit of adventure, the sense of mystery and majesty with the principles of elegance, sophistication and modernity, has long been a wonderful source of inspiration for many internationally acclaimed fashion designers. In Paris, Dries Van Naton, (The Telegraph, 2009) one of the new fashion leaders and the member of the so- called “Belgain Four” presented a collection of layered chiffon raps dresses saris and kurtha looks – alikes. The color palettes of these modern western designers are drawing from the colors of vibrant Indian Rajasthan Desert at sundown using rich gold’s red and green. Fashion designers are credited for their mastery in embedding their creations with works of art that embellish the beauty of a woman. It’s a fact that all of us are different from each other and seldom have the perfect figure and elegant personality that should be flaunted. It’s also a truth that nobody is perfect, we all vary in height, color and characteristics. It’s the magical hands of the fashion designers that transform one through intelligent smart dressing. They shape up the body in the most modest manner and make people look stunning and sensuous. There is something unique about every designer, one might focus on ethnic styling while the other on hottest western collections. The Indian movie industry has contributed and provided inspiration for the gloriously rich Technicolor summer fashion. Asia had a huge influence on the spring/summer 2002 designer catwalks and this resulted in the high street awash with bright turquoise, fuchsia, brocade and emerald tops, skirts and trousers (Colin 2004).
With the changing time, the Indian fashion designers have brought about a storm in this glamour world with their commendably fabulous variety both internationally and locally. A huge chunk of latest fashion is made out of expensive designer clothing. These range from expensive saris to other traditional outfits which are stitched with semi-precious stones. These are exclusively made to cater the taste and preference of particular individuals to be worn during special occasions. Some even focus on modern expensive western fashion brands to make their presence felt. All these trends can be seen in India’s growing class of the super-rich which constitutes the maharajas and other like leading movie stars and industrialists. According to CapGemini Merrill Lynch Asia Pacific Wealth Report 2008, the number of Indians with more than $1 million in assets has grown since last year by 22%, to 167,000, more than in any other Asian country. Finally, Indian fashion beauties on the world stage cannot be ignored or left out of fashion since it’s the women beauties of India who bought about major changes in outlook of fashion, though they were left behind in the early days. Lara Dutta (Miss Universe 2000) and Priyanka Chopra (Miss World 2000) are the few to name as the world renowned Indian beauty’s who contributed to these changes. Indian fashion got International exposure and acclamation through the medium of such beauty contests. Unlike uniforms, the way we dress of our own accord involves a number of subconscious decisions. There is a concept in fashion that nothing is new, in a sense everything has been done before. This is coming closer to obvious reality, although the direction is not yet decided, it is almost certain that women will use fashion as an extension of their freedom and being no longer limited by the boundaries of class. Now people like to dress in style which is accepted globally and has become an aspect of one’s identity and personality.
 

E-Commerce in India

Marketing environment in India is changing. The trend of marketing by the consumers has changed drastically from past 10 years till date. The local environment has changed in both infrastructural ,social,economic terms in india. This paper shows the increase of the e-commerce market and internet marketing in india. Our findings show that the trend of internet marketing is on the rise among the various section of people of different age groups. This paper also refers to the various causes of the emergence of these markets along with the steps that can be used to enhance it’s development in Indian market. E-commerce is emerging as a new market which can help in the economic growth. This paper also shows the types on material available on the internet and how it is used as an medium for marketing.

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INTRODUCTION
E commerce or electronic commerce is defined as the sale and purchase of goods and services through internet as the medium through the different sites on the internet. Electronic commerce refers to expansion of the buisness market and maintaining the relationship with the customers by using telecommunication networks . E commerce has led to a shift in the buisness environment in the world including india.india ia still a developing nation. The growth and development of e commerce will be vital for the growth and develpment of nation. In india the users of computers and internet have increased drastically from 1995 to 2013. Now the entire buisness scenario has changed as everything has become online now. Most of the buisness activities are related to internet e.g. internet commerce,virtual commerce,cyber commerce. All these have been possible due to the use of internet. As we say that the world is a global village has been possible due to advancement in the communication services
Internet growth has been regarded as the main cause of the new developments, such as decreased margins for companies as consumers turn more and more to the internet to buy goods and demand the best prices. E-commerce provides various benefits to the consumers as goods are available at lower cost, variety of choices are available and the tie of buyer is also saved. People can buy goods and services at a mere click of the mouse button without moving out of their houses or offices. Similarly online services such as banking, ticketing (including airlines, bus, railways), bill payments, hotel booking etc. have been proved a boon for the customers. Online businesses like financial services, travel, entertainment, and groceries are all on the verge of expansion.
In the e commerce process the customer browses through internet to get the information about the desired product/services.when the customer is completely satisfied by product’s features,its advantages after comparing it with other products then the order is placed for the desired product/services. Online transaction is done and then the selling company informs the customer about the payment and the delivery date is given.
Some of the features of e commerce process are:

E commerce enables the companies to expand them globally. Everything can be sold on internet even if the product is for smaller markets.
It is time saving, delivery is done at a faster rate,reduces the cost of transportation.
There is no time constraint.
Consumer can easily compare pice and product effectively and efficiently.
Consumer interaction with the company directly is also improved by quick feedback and comment forms.
E commerce refers to better and quick customer services. Due to the absence of intermediaries, buying procedure is generally quicker.
E commerce is also boosted by electronic fund transfer throughout the world.
Because of all these features the e commerce industry in india has flourished at a high rate,

INTERNET USERS IN INDIA
During the past decade the no. of internet users has increased at a explosive rate. According to times of india, India had about 121 million internet users by December 2011,. Out of 121 million, 97 million are expected to be active Internet users, who access Internet at least once in a month. a study by internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) and IMRB said “A 100 million internet users is considered a critical landmark for the country. With this internet use in India is expected to enter a critical period of growth with the possibility of becoming the largest internet using country in the world in this decade,” .
The economic times also stated that according to the Internet World Stats, India has achieved a 10.2% internet penetration at about 12.1 crore users as of December 2011. E:SSS.jpg E:internet-usage-statistics-india-500-809.jpg
According to the data given in this chart, the internet users in india is increasing year by year and in 2012 the number of internet users were 150 million. These show that the use of internet in on a high among Indian masses.India has 13% of internet users in Asia and 7.36% that of the world. 70% of people who know computer have used internet which is a healthy sign.
According to the surveys of india in 2011, the following facts were the main findings :

According Census 2011 of India there are 15.54 Million households (6.3% of total population) in India who have computer/laptops in their homes. 
However Only 7.6 Million households  (3.1% of total population) have laptops/ computers with internet.
Maharashtra is the biggest Indian Internet market with 18% of Total Internet households followed by Tamil Nadu with 10%, Karnataka 8.27% , U.P (Noida inclusive) 8.18%, Delhi 7.68% and Andhra Pradesh with 7.15%.
Delhi/NCR inclusive of Noida and Gurgaon would however have much higher numbers.

SHIFT IN THE MARKETING PROCESS IN INDIA
In the ancient times the buying and selling of things was done by barter system. Barter is a system in which exchange goods and services are directly exchanged for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money. now in this generation the marketing with the help of internet is on the rise.Most people can use the Web since it is affordable and easy to access. Internet is a fast and flexible means for marketing.
Shopping on the Internet is convenient as there is no time restriction, it is comfortable since it is in a user friendly environment and there is also an instant satisfaction of ordering, paying and delivering. A one-to-one basis, as well as, a two way communication with customers through the Internet is possible. Enhancing brand image, creating awareness and providing customer service are more important than just selling the products or entertaining customers. With better technologies, companies can create a stronger brand image and thus increase sales. On the other side, it is easier for customers to receive a kind of acknowledgement; feeling that they did not waste their time . Nowadays, people live a busy life and shopping online is time consuming for them. The company also saves time since whenever a customer uses his/her credit card to purchase a product.E-marketing is seen as a promotional as well as informational tool. This new era of commerce is beneficial for marketing logistics, a global presence, to establish and maintain a competitive edge, shorten components of supply chains, for cost savings and research advantage in india.
Now companies like myntra, flipkart are providing cash on delivery to the customer which was not done before. This is a strategy which aims at payment only after the complete satisfaction of the customer. In this strategy the customer first receives the ordered product and he/she pays. This has been found quite successful in India. If any problem is found in the product ordered,then it gets replaced within a few days. Earlier the customers had to do advance payment which was not favourable in the interest of the customer as many complaints were reported in the goods which they ordered. So in this way the companies are trying to attract the customers towards themselves to increase their sales. Cash on delivery is done by Credit Cards, Debit Cards, Netbanking, ITZ Cash Cards, Cheques, Demand Drafts or cash.
E COMMERCE IN INDIA
The low cost of computers in india, a increase in the number of computer users,and a growing isp market are the main causes for the emergence of e copmmerce market in india.there has been a rise in number of companies taking up e commerce in india. The companies like ebay,myntra,flipkart,quikr,olx are some of the companies which have established their name in the indian e commerce market. All these sites are selling varieties of products,movies tickets,electronic gadgets,accessories,household items and much more. Now the stock exchange has also become online now. Delivery of goods to consumers by couriers at a faster rate,moreover the quality of product delivered is satisfactory.Many indian banks are also using internet banking facilities.
India’s economic industry is on a growth curve and is undergoing a spurt in growth.The Online Travel Industry is one of the biggest segment in ecommerce in india and is booming due largely to the Internet-savvy urban population. The online travel industry inclused some private firms such as Makemytrip, Cleartrip and Yatra. The government has also started IRCTC, which is a successful Indian Railways initiative. The online classifieds segment is also increasing. It is broadly divided into three sectors; Jobs, Matrimonial and Real Estate. Mobile Commerce is also growing rapidly and proving to be a stable and secure supplement to eCommerce due to the record growth in mobile user base in India, in recent years[10].
The online classifieds segment is broadly divided into three sectors; Jobs, Matrimonial and Real Estate. Mobile Commerce is also growing rapidly and proving to be a stable and secure supplement to eCommerce due to the record growth in mobile user base in India, in recent years.
A report by the Internet and Mobile Association of India has stated that India’a E-commerce market is growing at an average rate of 70 percent annually and has grown over 500 percent since 2007. E-Tailing and digital downloads are expected to grow at a faster rate, while online travel will continue to rule the major proportion of market share. According to the third edition of eBay India census 2010 conducted across 28 states and seven union territories, Gujarat has emerged as one of the top five online shopping markets in the country. Gujarat which was ranked 7th in 2009,is now ranked 4th in after Maharashtra, Delhi and Tamil Nadu.
Technology related products dominate India’s domestic eCommerce, contributes 44% of totals eCommerce transactions according to the latest eBay Census.. Whereas, lifestyle product category dominates in the global trade contributes for 35% for online shopping. India is showing tremendous growth in the Ecommerce. Rival tradeindia.com has 700,000 registered buyers and it has the growth rate of 35% every year. The travel portal MakeMyTrip.com has attained Rs 1000 crores of turnovers which are around 20% of total e-commerce market in India.
These facts also show that the e commerce market in india is also increasing per year. In 2012 the e commerce market size was about 50000 crores in india as compared to 1 billion in 2011.Apparently, more online users in India are willing to make purchases through the Internet. Overall e-commerce industry is poised to experience a high growth in the next couple of years.
The e commerce industry has the following major sectors

Travel- 51%
E-Retailing-40%
Cothiers-09%

These are 3 major categories of e commerce market, travel being the largest among them.
For online marketing the websites also play a vital role. The websites should be informative, entertaining and unique. the attention of the customer must be captured as soon as possible. They should be understandable and easy to search information needed. Moreover, it must continuously be up-to-date for most recent information about the company.
Companies also use different types of strategy to know what are the wants and needs of customers.
Some of them are :
Product Strategy – Brand recognition is made clear on the Internet but the number of purchase is not there yet. Sometimes the products are not available on the Web site and consumers hesitate before getting this particular product. To increase their confidentiality, recognized vendors should be mentioned on the Net. Authenticity is important for both sellers and products.
Pricing Strategy – In the long run, it will be better for the firms,if they can concentrate on offering products with the unique characteristics at the most suitable cost. Online shoppers differentiate the products/services by the benefits and quality . A low price strategy should rely on cost advantage and high volume to be able to compete.
Distribution Strategy – There is a necessity of a direct-to-customer process. The industry has to be the first providing unique services to always be ahead of competitors as fast as possible to make a mark in the mind of customers.
Promotional Strategy – This depends on the marketing research and consumer preferences. It deals as how to companies want to promote their product. FAQ questions should be provided on the websites along with the advertisements on various sites such as you tube which is most widely used by the people.
CONCLUSION
The Internet network is a marketing channel used by advertisers, marketers, and society to find the right combination of marketing mix to suit the customer’s needs. It is important for a company of this age to have access to the Internet to be more successful. Internet marketing targets consumers and Internet advertisements client marketers from companies. People always find themselves under stress of working long hours and they do not have enough time for social activities or even shopping. Thus E-commerce becomes an everyday thing and routine for them. E-mail is also famous for direct marketing in supporting E-commerce activities. Internet should be used with other media for a more effective marketing tool. Internet marketing will become even more important in the future. As more companies will have access to the Internet, they will start doing business over the Internet.
Increase in the e commerce’s economy in india will be in another dimension where customer focus, responsible business practices and innovation are the determinants of success and not only customer relationship. Security will not be an issue anymore because software companies, banks and credit card institutions are working hand in hand to improve Internet security. Companies need to protect themselves in three areas: data integrity, confidentiality of data and authenticity by installing firewalls or routers. Customers will look for a business on the internet since there are unique opportunities for marketing a company’s service, selling products and gathering information on the Net. This is the new era of innovation; where everyone will be interacting on the Web. Live video session will be available and a prospective customer may be able to talk to a customer representative directly over the internet in the future will be more beneficial in the interest of customers.
 

Case Study of Monopolistic Competition in India

Hindustan Unilever Limited being the leading company in the FMCG sector is the prime focus of our study. It is the largest share holder of the FMCG sector in the Indian market. It was founded in November 1956 and its based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. The mission statement of HUL is, “add vitality to life”.
In this report we have analyzed the life cycle of HUL, along with its strong presence in the market due to its highest shares in the FMCG market. Research in this report consist of analyzing the competitors with respect to HUL through reference book, internet research which gave a proper direction to our study.
Our major finding includes that HUL has a strong market base which is spread strategically in all the market segments under soaps and detergents due to so many brands by HUL. Also we see there are a lot of emerging competition to the HUL’s soaps and detergent market share and how it has and will continue to tackle these competitions. Additionally we see the HUL firm’s life cycle, along with an understanding of a monopolistic market. Furthermore we see into one of the competitor’s downfall in the soaps and detergent market.
In conclusion, this study shows HUL has a strong market share in the soaps and detergent sector.HUL in the light of all the competition, is constantly innovating new products so as to dominate the market. Unlike other companies, HUL has its base under all the segments, thus targeting a wide range of consumers.
 
Abstract
Hindustan Unilever Limited is the largest FMCG Company with market leadership in the Soaps & Detergents Industry. The report focuses on the evolution of HUL as the market leader in light of the Life Cycle of a Firm and analyses how it managed to sustain its position with emerging new entrants in a monopolistic competitive market.
Problem Statement
Among several leading national and global brands, HUL is the largest company in the FMCG Sector and it is the market leader with 46% share in the soaps and detergents industry. The underlying factor for its success is the strong customer base.
It :
Provides wide range of products
Continuously innovates to respond to the competitive pressures by providing value additions to its existing products
Has established its target audience to every segment: premium, mid-priced and popular
Introduction
Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) is India’s largest Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) Company based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. It is a subsidiary of Unilever, a British-Dutch company which controls 52% shareholdings in HUL. Unilever is world’s largest supplier of fast moving consumer goods across 100 countries in the world.
In Home & Personal Care Products and Foods & Beverages, HUL’s 35 power brands are spread across 20 different consumer categories such as detergents, shampoos,soaps, skin care, toothpastes, coffee, tea, ice creams etc. The company aims to create a better future every day as it provides for nutrition, hygiene, and personal care that help people feel good and look good. HUL touches the lives of two out of three Indians.
These brands are manufactured over 40 factories and operations consist of 2000 suppliers and associates. It covers 6.3 million retail outlets reaching the entire urban population and 250 million rural consumers.
HUL has over 16000 employees and an annual turnover of around Rs.21736 crores(as per financial year 2011-2012).
Life Cycle of HUL
Life Cycle can best be explained as the course of events that bring a new firm into existence and follows its growth into maturity to capture the mass consumers. The most common steps in the life cycle of a firm include the following phases:
Introduction
Development
Maturity
Growth
Sales volume
1988 1930 1991 2000
Time
Development Phase
Firms in the development phase are likely to be characterized by small levels of sales and are more speculative in nature. The firms enter the market as they see a market opportunity. Unilever the parent company of HUL viewed the Indian market with tremendous potential. Thus, it launched “Sunlight Soap” in 1988. This gave rise to an era of marketing branded fast moving consumer goods (FMCG). It further introduced Lifebouy and other brands like Pears, Lux and Vim came into market in 1985. Vanaspati and Dalda were also launched in 1918 and 1937 respectively.
Introduction Phase
In 1930’s the introduction of the firm as Hindustan Lever Limited came into existence with the merger of HindustanVanaspati Manufacturing Company, Lever Brothers India Limitedand United Traders Limited.It became the first foreign subsidiary company to do so. Today, the company has more than three lakh resident shareholder.
Growth Phase
In 1991, with the liberalization of the Indian economy,a drastic change in growth curve of HUL was witnessed as the company explored every single opportunity in the product segment,without any restriction in the production capacity. HUL and its largest competitor Tata Oil Mills Company (TOMOCO) merged together,and the acquisition took place in 1994.In 1996,a 50:50 joint venture was formed, with Lakme Limited to market cosmetics andwith US based company Kimberly-Clark Lever Ltd to marketHuggies Diapers and Kotex Sanitary Pads.HUL also set up a subsidiary as Unilever Nepal Limited (UNL). The UNL factory manufactured HUL’s products like Soaps, Detergents and Personal Products both for the domestic market and exports to India.
The company witnessed crucial mergers, acquisitions and alliances after 1990’s , on the Foods and Beverages front.
Maturity Phase
HUL entered the maturity stage in early 2000’s. Since it reached upper bounds of its demands, it undertook various projects and initiatives to maintain its brand image. The increasing demand is not entirely affected by the advertising. For instance,HUL undertook Project Shakti in 2001,a rural initiative which targeted small villages. Presently, 45,000 Shakti entrepreneurs are working,which covers over 100,000 villages across 15 states and reaching to over 3 million homes.
In 2002, HUL made its entry into Ayurvedic Health & Beauty Centre category with the Ayush range and Ayush Therapy Centers.
In 2003,it launched Hindustan Unilever Network, Direct to home business , launching ‘Pureit’ water purifier in 2004.
In 2007, the Company name was formally changed to Hindustan Unilever Limited.
Brooke Bond and Surf Excel showed Rs.1000 crore as a sales mark followed by Wheel which crossed the Rs.2000 crore sales milestone in 2008.
HUL has completedmore than 75 years of corporate existence in India.
HUL-Monopolistic Competition
Monopolistic competition is a market situationin which there are a large number of sellers and a large number of buyers for the products and services. The firms in a monopolistic competitive market are generally small in size. All firms provide similar products i.e. the products are close substitutes of each other. However they can be differentiated on the basis of color, packaging, features, and brand price and so on.

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The Indian FMCG Market is a perfect example of monopolistic competition. It is a highly crowded market with a large number of national and global players competing on margins. The stock turnover is high as FMCG products are frequently consumed and have a short shelf life. The main features of FMCG in light of monopolistic competition can be viewed as follows:
Large Number of Sellers
In a monopolistic competitive market, there is abundance of sellers producing differentiated products. The presence of large number of sellers is highlighted by the fact that the Indian Soap and Detergent market has 700 companies competing to sell their products. The major players across the globe are: ITC Limited, Procter & Gamble and Hindustan Unilever Limited.
Freedom of Entry and Exit
There are low barriers to entry and exit of firms in monopolistic competition. If the profits are attractive, the firms can enter the industry. Increase in disposable income in hands of both rural and urban consumers, gave an opportunity to the rural consumers to shift from unbranded unorganized products to branded FMCG products. The increasing demands, leads new firms to enter the market. When the competition increases the existing firms are forced to reduce their price in order to meet the competition. Thus free entry and exit maintains normal profits in the market in the longer span of time. For instance, Nirma was launched in the detergent industry at a low price targeted to cater to the needs of middle-priced and popular segment. The success of Nirma forced HUL to launch an even lower priced product. Thus, Wheel and Rinwere introduced by HUL to maintain its market share.
Selling Costs
Due to product differentiation in monopolistic competition, firms are required to incur some additional costs such as advertising, sale promotions, salaries of marketing staff etc. to promote the product. The main aim is to inform, persuade and remind the buyers of the availability of the product. The strategy of aggressive advertising is adopted. HUL and Procter & Gamble are two renowned companies for portrayal of advertisement war. Aggressive television commercials were shown targeting each other’s brand. Even in print the prices of detergents such as Tide and Rin were compared to influence the customers buying habits. It is highly believed that advertisements are factual and help buyers make an informed choice.
Product Differentiation
It is regarded as the most important feature of monopolistic competition. The products in monopoly are homogenous in nature whereas in monopolistic market it is heterogeneous in nature. The products are close substitutes; however every seller tries to differentiate his product from the competitor’s product. They maybe different in terms of colour, packaging, features, pricing, size and shape. For instance, Ariel, the detergent laundry line for P&G, is available in a variety of forms. Ariel Colour is a detergent used mainly to protect colour of clothes, Ariel Stain remover is a stain pre-treatment product, ArielQuickwash is used to wash clothes in the quick wash cycle and so on. Therefore, Ariel has been able to expand its laundry line depending on the use of the detergent. By adding various features to the existing product, Ariel has been able to distinguish itself from the competitor.
Absence of Interdependence
The firms operate on the basis of their own marketing policies and production. No firm is influenced by the other firm. Since a large number of firms enter the market, the size of each firm varies. Thus, no firm is dependent on the other.
Falling Demand Curve
A firm in monopolistic competition, has a downward sloping demand curve. This is mainly because the sellers are the price makers i.e. they are influential enough to affect the price of the product. The demand curve is highly elastic as substitutes are available.This means one can sell more at low prices and vice-versa.
Competitor’s analysis
HUL has a large share of market in soaps and detergent segment, but it still faces a growing number of competitions from various Competitors in the market. In the detergent sector it faces competition from Procter and Gamble (P&G), Henkel, RohitSurfactancts Pvt. Ltd. (RSPL) and Nirma (now out of the market). In the soap sector it faces competition from Godrej, P&G, Wipro, ITC and Nirma (now out of the market). HUL faces just one competition in the health care sector of the soap industry and that is from Reckitt.
Detergents Market
Past
HUL captured the Indian detergent market in the year 1957 and maintained its monopoly in terms of quality till 1980s with its product ‘SURF’. However by 1980s a company named Nirma Chemicals brought out a detergent ‘Nirma’ which was priced much lower than HUL’s ‘Surf’ with a very catchy advertisement on TV, claiming great quality at affordable rates. It soon became a very popular jingle, catching the imagination of the masses. By 1985 Nirma had replaced Surf from the number one position in the detergent market.
HUL then changed their strategy and introduced cheaper detergents named Wheel and Rin, and managed to regain some of the lost ground in the detergent market. This shift ultimately resulted in HUL’s Wheel replacing Nirma from the top position of the detergent market in early 2000.
But soon there emerged a threat from a product named Ghari which was launched by RSPL in 1987.
Present
In the current market scenario, Ghari holds the number one position at 17.3%, followed closely by Wheel which holds 16.9% of the market share. Nirma on the other hand had witnessed a huge downfall and it now just commands a market share of less than 6%. Tide launched by P&G is now at the third position in the market after Ghari and Wheel, with a share of 13.5%.
The Indian detergent market is broadly classified into four different segments namely:-
Premium, examples- Ariel and Surf
Mid-price, examples- Henko, Rin and Tide
Popular, examples-Wheel, Ghari, Nirma and Mr. White
Regional and small unorganized players
Premium, Mid-price and Popular account for a market share of 15%, 40% and 45% respectively against each other.
All the above three segments combined form 60% of the market share, while the rest 40% share is held by the regional and small unorganized players in the market.
HUL is still a major player in the market with its Wheel, Rin and Surf in all three main segments, but RSPL is now the overall leader due to Ghari.
Soaps Market
The soap market in India is divided into various categories that is men’s soaps, ladies soap and common soap. There is also a small share in the soap market which is held by specialty soaps like baby soaps, sandal soaps, glycerin soap etc. The market growth of the soap sector is estimated to be 7% p.a. and it is observed that rural market constitutes 60% of the soap sales.
There are about 700 soap manufacturing companies in India. The Indian soap market’s value is estimated to be around 60000 crores. In this huge market there are just a handful of key players who control the major chunk of the market share. These are HUL, Godrej, Wipro, P&G, Nirma and ITC.
HUL enjoys over 54.3% of the market share with its brands such as Lux, Lifebuoy, Rexona, Breeze, Pears, Haman and Dove.
Godrej Consumer Product Ltd.(GCPL) comes in second position with 11% of the market share with its brands such as Cinthol, Fairglow, Nikhar and Allcare. GCPL is among the biggest manufacturer of toilet soaps and it launched Fairglow, which was the first fairness soap in India.
Wipro with its brands such as Santoor and Chandrika has a strong base in the soap market sector.
Procter & Gamble (P&G) and Nirma are the other competitios with a strong presence in the market share.
ITC is a fairly new entry into the soap market with the launch of its brand named Vivel. According to AC Nielson a global marketing research firm, Vivel soaps have witnessed a growth rate of 70-80% within a short period of time. ITC is now the fastest growing company in soap the soap market.
Case Study: Downfall of Nirma Detergent Powder
The purpose of this case study is to highlight the factors that led to downfall of NirmaDetergent Powder. How ignorance of factors like consumer behavior, innovation, product differentiation immensely affect the existence of any firm in the cut-throat competitive market.
Nirma detergent powder was launched in 1969 by Nirma Chemicals at a price far lower than the market leader-Surf. The aim of Nirma was to create a brand at affordable price. The strong popularity of Nirma among the cost conscious Indian consumer, gave rise to competition. No company is interested in losing its market share. Thus, recognizing the threat, HUL, the undisputed leader in FMCG, launched Wheel detergent to try and establish itself in the low end of the market. Nevertheless, it forced Nirma to exit the market. The main reason for this are highlighted as under:
Lack of Innovation: With the increase in disposal income in the hands of the consumers, a shift was seen in the demand of products. The consumer desired aspirational products focused on viability and divisibility instead of economy brand products focused on affordability. Nirma suffered from the inability to innovate products to meet the new demands of the consumer. It failed to think beyond pricing. On the other hand, HUL was able to establish products in all segments; Popular:Wheel , Mid-Priced: Rin and Premium:Surf.
Lack of Advertising: Nirma did not have a strong brand promotional strategy. It failed to capitalize on the trademark jingle i.e. failed to convert its recognition earned into sales. With the increase in competition, Nirma did not introduce new and improved advertisements. Even the visibility on TV channels reduced.
Lack of Product Differentiation: On the one hand where the sales of HUL increased, there was evident decline in those of Nirma. Hul along the way changed its technology and added features to its existing products. Surf went from Surf to Super Surf to Surf Excel. Even though Nirma advanced to Nirma Blue, the differentiation was not visible.
Lack of Price Increase:Nirma locked itself to the conventional low price plank. Overtime with the increase in prices of LAB ( linear alkyl benzene) and Palm Oil, both ingredients used for the making of detergents, Nirma did not increase the price of the detergent. Naturally the company faced complications in terms of revenue generation as the costs were higher than the profit derived from it.
What Nirma could have done?
Compete on Quality: A company like Nirma can easily increase sales by highlighting improved quality in its product. It could emphasize on the performance risks in the low priced segment and mention the cost advantages.
Strategic Positioning: A company must position its product well. The target audience for Nirma was the low income group. It should aim at increasing sales in the rural markets by increasing availability in villages. Moreover it should tap the untouched cheaper and unorganized markets.
Attractive Advertising: Advertising plays an important role in creating consumer awareness. The way HUL changed the packaging of Lifebouy from a masculine product to a family product (as shown below),Nirma should change the conventional image of a Nirma dancing girl to something more appealing.
C:UsersDIVNEETDesktopold_lifebuoy_ad_mazhar khan.JPGC:UsersDIVNEETDesktopLifebuoy_soap.jpg
Co-opt Contributors: A company can easily form strategic partnerships with dealers, suppliers and resellers by offering exclusive deals and offers.
Grammage in Packaging: Many a times, companies reduce the quantity of the product and sell it at the same price. Reduction in quantity is generally unnoticed by the consumer. For example: Selling Half Kg detergent for Rs.7 instead of One Kg.
SWOT analysis of HUL Soaps and Detergent Market
Strengths
Established target audience in various market segments
Largest company in FMCG sector
Top position in soap and detergent market share
Wide range of products
Continuously innovates
Global presence
Popular among the masses
Weakness
Few popular products appealing to the mass has been kept in premium pricing range, due to which people prefer cheaper products offered by the rival companies
Opportunities
As the masses are becoming more hygiene conscious, the sales expected to rise
Rising demand of premium and mid-priced products in the rural areas
Downfall of Nirma will help them to regain lost market shares
Soap sector’s growth is expected at 7% p.a
Threats
Rising competition from other emerging companies
Losing top position in the market share of detergents to Rohit Surfactants Pvt. Ltd.(RSPL)
ITC’s sudden growth in the soap market
Conclusion
In this report, it can be easily observed that HULis a market leader in the FMCG industry in soaps & detergents. Its evolution can be seen through various phases and currently operating in its Maturity phase. However, its evolution began in 1988 with launch of sunlight soap by Lever brothers and today we see a wide range of products starting with soaps and detergents, home & personal care and food & beverages. We see how continuous innovation and close study of consumer behavior has helped HUL exist in this competitive market as a leader in its field. Grabbing right opportunities at the right time and optimal utilization of available resources is the also one of the key critical success factors for any firm to be successful.
HUL was able to capitalize on its products because of their approach towards target segmentation. HUL targeted the mass audience with products available in all income groups-low level, middle level & high level.HUL have managed to balance margin pressures in the detergents segment, through product mix changes by good quality of a huge product and brand portfolio.
Recommendation
 

Amber Alert Implementation in India

Memorandum

Executive Summary

In India, roughly about every 8 minutes a child goes missing. Approximately 1 lakh children go missing every year and nearly half of them are untraced. After a child is abducted/ goes missing the first 24 hours becomes the most crucial period this requires swift response and immediate call for action to trace and safe recovery of the child. This lead to Amber Alert plan implementation in the United States where 75% of the children are killed within the three hours of abduction. As of March 2018, 924 children in total have been successfully recovered due to Amber Alert being issued. The success of this program in the United States lead to other countries like Canada, Europe, Malaysia and Ecuador to adopt Amber Alert system to alert people when a child is abducted. We need to implement similar alert system in India which would increase the chance of recovering the missing children.

There are three ways through which Amber Alert could be implemented in India: Mobile Technology, Social Media and Newspaper/Local Radio Stations. Among them, using Mobile Technology to send alerts would be the best way to reach the maximum number of people in lesser time and resource.

Now, we should implement the Amber Alert plan using Wireless Emergency Alerts system that is using Mobile Technology. There are some required steps and resources to implement the plan. Firstly, we need to secure space for collaboration with the service providers. Secondly, a team that would work on implementing Amber Alert. Thirdly, develop and test the alert system to create awareness among the public about the system. Finally, after the alert system is implemented and fully functional we will require a rescue team to work whenever an alert is issued.

Problem Statement

According to the National Crime Records Bureau, everyday hundreds of children are abducted/missing in India. The categories of the abducted or missing children include abductions by family or non-family members, trafficked children, lost child or children forced to run away due to the circumstances around them. According to NCRB, the crimes against children in India has increased over 5 times in the past 10 years. Their loss is a nightmare and inconceivable by the parents therefore, the number of children that goes missing every year should not be only considered as mere statistics. Despite large number of children missing in India every day there is no alert system implemented yet that would inform public about the child abducted.

Overview of alternatives

According to “Top 10 States/UTs in terms of highest Crime rate of Kidnapping and Abduction during 2016”. During 2016 the crime rate was found to be 6.9 at All – India 2016. There 77250, 83005 and 88008 cases of abduction and kidnapping reported during the period of 2014 to 2016 respectively. As per the analysis an increase of 7.4% increase in kidnapping and 6% increase in 2016 as shown in Exhibit 1.

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As per the article “One lakh children go missing in India every year: Home Ministry” (Tiwary, 2018). In the past three and the half years almost 50,000 children are missing from Maharashtra making it one of the worst states in terms of children protection. While Andhra Pradesh, Delhi and Madhya Pradesh comes next with 25,000 missing children within this period. If we analyze the data properly we can observe that more girls are abducted compared to boys as shown in Exhibit 2.

To overcome the issue of child abduction and ensure the safe recovery of the children, we recommend Ministry of Women and Child Development to consider following three alternatives: Mobile Technology, Social Media and Newspaper to create an alert system. All these alternatives have been analyzed based on different criterion. In the modern era, these three technologies are easily accessible by all the users and hence can be proving to be very beneficial in implementing Amber Alert.

The parents can utilize the mobile technology to ensure the safety of their child. They can equip their children with technologies such as Mobile Phones or Amber Watch enabled with GPS that will help them to track children in case of emergency.

Social Media websites like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram could be used to create awareness about the missing children and take quick action in case of emergency. Social Media websites are being used by people of every age and hence could be very effective in solving the missing cases. Recently in the start of 2015, Facebook joined Amber Alert system in the US. Facebook is now also extending the Amber Alerts service to Canada as well. Such kind of initiatives should be taken by other social media platform as well to help in saving child from missing.

Similarly, newspaper could also be used to create awareness and to track the missing children especially in rural areas of the country where the people are not economically sound and cannot afford the access to the new technologies. Thus, newspaper have its own importance and can be very effective.

Criteria

As described above, all the alternatives have strength and weakness. To evaluate the alternatives, I have used three criteria – Cost, Technology, Difficulty of development, Effectiveness. First, the cost that would be required for all the alternatives to implement it from scratch and which would be less costly. Second, I considered the technology that would be required to implement these alternatives. Third, the difficulty of development, would be another criterion to compare three alternatives. Besides, required resources were considered in this category. Finally, I evaluated the effectiveness of the two alternatives whether sending out alerts on phones would be more effective and will have maximum impact or vice versa.

Analysis of alternatives

Criterion 1: Cost

If we analyze the cost of implementing Amber Alert through Mobile Technology, it would incur cost to the Government of India only at the initial phase while setting up the alert system to the service providers and thereafter once the system is in place the service can be offered for free to the public. Alternatively, if we consider social media there would be no cost to post on the social networks such as Facebook, Twitter however it can be less effective when compared to alerts sent on mobiles and pagers. Lastly, for Newspaper, the Government would have to pay the newspaper agency for posting an advertise in the newspaper each time the child goes missing which could be very expensive.

Criterion 2: Ease of Implementation

Implementing alert system using mobiles will be easier as the service providers must give the consent on whether they would like to send the alerts and the Government will have to just sign the contract with the service providers across the country. Posting on social media to create an alert about the child missing would be very easy but the downside is that the alert won’t reach maximum number of people in less time. Using newspaper, the ease of implementation will be least as Government will have to contact the newspaper agency every time the child goes missing.

Criterion 3: Effectiveness

Mobile Technology would be the most effective as the alerts can reach maximum number of smartphone users instantly. Hence, a quick action could be taken to save a child while social media would be the less effective as the number of people using social media such as Facebook, Twitter would be less compared to mobile phone users. Also, sometimes the credibility of the missing information of child could be questionable since people must post fake news about the child missing even when the child is recovered as there would be no one to update the post. This can result in no action taken by the public. Newspaper would be least effective of the rest two as the advertisement will be only delivered the next day.

Recommendations

Among three alternatives, Mobile Technology is the most effective alternative for sending alerts. The summarized comparison result is shown in below table.

Comparison summary

 

Cost

Ease of Implementation

Effectiveness

Total Score

Mobile Technology

11

Social Media

10

Newspaper

6

◎: Good(3 points), △: Meet expectation(2 points), ▼: Need to improve(1 point)

As per the analysis alternative 1 i.e. Mobile Technology and Social Media is better in terms of cost and effectiveness. Although, Newspaper would also be easy to implement but would require more cost.

Implementation Plan

Although Mobile Technology can offer the good solution for alert system, we need to improve our entire process to implement this change. Required resources and steps are as follows.

Prepare for collaboration work (Now ~ Jan. 2019):

The Government will have to collaborate with different mobile service providers to finalize the cost and the effectiveness of their services. The Government will also have to analyze the network coverage in the congested areas. This step would take the maximum time since the decision will play a important role in the effective implementation of amber alert.

Build a new team for the project (Now ~ Feb. 2019):

A dedicated team of employees who would be employed at the Government agencies to track the services provided by the different vendors and to track the implementation of the system and tracking and updating the information of missing child.

Implement the service in different areas and test the system (Mar. 2019 ~ May. 2019):

Once the system is implemented and fully functional, a test alert should be sent out to the public to create awareness among them about the system. Test a few cases by sending trial alert and check the success of the system.

Launch the alert system and rescue team (Jul. 2019 ~):

After the alert system is launched, there should be a rescue team in place which comprises of Police and technical people to deal with the emergency of missing child whenever an alert is issued. Also, to have a backup plan in place in case of system outage.

 

Appendices

Exhibit 1: Top 10 States/UTs in terms of highest Crime rate of Kidnapping and Abduction during 2016

Exhibit 2: One lakh children go missing in India every year: Home Ministry (TimesofIndia, 2014)

Exhibit 3:

Source: Khoya-Paya: Citizens Corner of Tracked child

Exhibit 4:

Source: Source: Khoya-Paya: Citizens Corner of Tracked child

References

Times of India Internship Report

An INTERNSHIP REPORT on Market conceptualizing, Space Selling and Market Research
Name of the Organisation:
TIMES OF INDIA (TIMES GROUP)
Internship guide in the organisation:
 
Introduction
I was interning with the “TIMES GROUP” in Lucknow from 10th February to 1st April 2014 . It has been a wonderful experience of the corporate world. Basically, I was associated with the Marketing Department which was “TIMES RESPONSE”,at initial days of my internship I had to call up the clients ,talk to them, and persuading them to advertise in the MEDICAL LISTING column in the NAVBHARAT TIMES. It was a different experience talking to clients who already advertise in the competition papers but still it was a learning experience of pitching to the clients and getting an idea about the local business and how a publication house works. I did get an experience of working for three major sectors i.e. HEALTHCARE, EDUCATIONAL and RETAIL.
RETAIL- In this particular sector, I got involved in doing market scan and understanding the local to local business sectors in the city.
HEALTHCARE- In this particular sector, I got involved in pitching the medical clients for the medical line plus column for NAVBHARAT TIMES.
EDUCATIONAL- In this particular sector I got involved in pitching the coaching clients in different areas , persuading them to advertise in TIMES OF INDIA as well as NAVBHARAT TIMES.
The purpose and the whole agenda of doing this was to get in touch with different segmentation of the market as well as understand the business of the publication house in dealing with each vertical/sector clients. Through this I got the basic idea of how advertisements on newspaper gets placed and at what ad rates the “TIMES GROUP” advertises in the market.
DECLARATION OF THE STUDENT
I Mefha Mathhew D/o Mr. P.J.Mathewkutty, certify that the project report is prepared by my personal efforts and authentic help under the guidance of Eram Qazi Ma’am and TIMES OF INDIA’, where I worked.
Date:
Place:
Signature of the student:
MEFHA MATTHEW (MJMC 4)
ABOUT TIMES of india
 
 
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper. In 2008, the newspaper reported that with a circulation of over 3.14 million it had been certified by theAudit Bureau of Circulations (India)as theworld’s largest selling English-languagedaily, ranking it as the third largest selling newspaper in any language in the world and the largest selling newspaper outsideJapan.
Supplements

Lucknow Times
Lucknow Times Masala Mix
Times Life
Times Ascent

Eduction Times
Ownership
The Times of Indiahas its markets in major cities such as Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Indore, Jaipur, Ahmedabad, Surat, Coimbatore, Madurai, Trichy, Puducherry, Patna, Pune, Calicut, Kochi, Lucknow, Nagpur, Nashik, Panaji, Mysore, Hubli, Mangalore, Bhubaneswar, Visakhapatnam, Chandigarh, Raipur, Ranchi, Guwahati, Trivandrum, Aurangabad, Kolhapur, Bhopal and Varanasi.
Each Sunday TOI publishThe Sunday Times(Sunday TOI).
MISSION & VISION
Empower people into people leaders. Performance facilitating development and growth reflected in lateral and upward movements. A dedicated Capability Building Team that ensures these objectives is met by focusing on Induction, Functional Skill Programs, Young Manager Programs, and Leadership Development Programs.
MAJOR FINDINGS
The three key words on which I need to focus on were MARKET CONCEPTUALIZATION, SPACE SELLING, MEETING CLIENTS & MARKET SCAN in all fields of information. They must have complete and qualitative meaning as not just a need but a right. There must be no compromise.
TIMES OF INDIA has focused on addressing access to formal work along with inclusiveness based on realistic indicators in order to meet these challenges for providing quality news to thousands of people as masses as Quality information are inextricably linked.
TASKs & ACTIVITIES
During my internship at Times of India, I had works upon many tasks given to me in the spot. The tasks were given daily on the basis of meeting clients and persuading them to advertise. The tasks were on meeting clients, understanding the local business, and market research.
On the daily basis I used to meet 10 clients, and persuade them to advertise for the medical listing column in NAVBHARAT TIMES.
DAILY ROUTINE WORKS:

Meeting the Clients .
Persuading them to advertise.
Market conceptualization.
Listing out the clients.
Working for heathcare,Retail as well as Educational Sector.

This mentioned work comes under the MARKETING DEPARTMENT of any newspaper organization.
CONCLUSION
In the analysis we come to know about the effectiveness of the TIMES OF INDIA. Also some of the major challenges this organisation is facing in its functioning of media. The various parameters are taken to check the effectiveness of the organisation.
In parameters like transparency, effectiveness of the organisation, more work needs identification to the members of it which responded positively. This showed that the organisation maintains a good effectiveness in these parameters. Though there is high scope for improvement & effectiveness in it since the members and workers of the organisation needed to be told more about the spreading itself in developing system.
So, the training program designed for the workers are very fresh for the organisation as it helps the workers and freshers very effectively.
As the performance of news network in Times Of India is well designed it needs only to get modified according to the changing times without changing its basic structure. It has increased in area of networking and circulation so that each person tends to know about the real and can knock the door…
“North…East…West…South”(NEWS).
APPENDIX
My work performance in TIMES OF INDIA was on Market Conceptualizing, Market Research and Space Selling.
Here are some samples of my work attached to it.
 

Relations Between The US And India

India and Pakistan have been in the interest of the United States due to their strategic positions and roles the South Asia. This memo will describe an overview about US relations and policies toward India and Pakistan. It will also provide recommendations that Vietnam must support US policies toward India because of the benefits for our country regarding to economic development, nuclear energy plan and defense and security stability.
This memo uses realism and systemic approach as the analytical framework. It studies and analyzes the relationships and policies in the concern with power and security in the whole international system.
BACKGROUND
Relations between the US and India
After Indian independence in 1947, the relationship between India and the US was not warm. US policies regarding to India -Pakistan dispute over Kashmir was one issue that deteriorated India – US relations since the US was supporting Pakistan over India. Even during Sino – Indian war in 1962, when the US provided India with military support, the relationship did not improve much.

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During Cold War, the US was concerned about the neutrality of India because India signed the Indo – Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation in 1971.  During this period, the US viewed India as just a regional power with little global weight and concentrated more on supporting Pakistan, which was invaded by the Soviet from 1979.  
After Cold War, the US lessened assistance to Pakistan, leading to a better relationship with India. Furthermore, since 1991, India has transformed the economy and opened the country to foreign investment. With rapid growth, India has become an emerging economic power in the world and had opportunities for economic engagement with the US.  The relationship between the countries has been positively shifted, especially in economic development, security, military and nuclear cooperation. However, it has been constraint mainly because of the complication of the trilateral relationship: the US – India – Pakistan.
Current Policies of the US toward India
Economic Policies:
The US strongly supports India’s economic reform, and develops trade and investment partnership with India. Bilateral goods trade revenue between the two countries increased 932.14%, from $5.6 billion in 1990 to %57.8 billion in 2011.  US foreign direct investment to India was $27.1 billion in 2010, a 29.5% increase from 2009.  
However, India has extensive trade and investment barriers, such as heavy government involvement in the banking and finance sector and demanding regulatory structures. Therefore, the US has encouraged and supported India to remove those barriers.  
Security and Military Policies:
The US and India share a variety of common strategic priorities. Both are concerned about the rise of China’s power and do not want China to dominate Asia. They also consider the security of energy lanes in the Indian Ocean as a critical factor to their national security.  With those strategic policies, the US has had India’s in its side in a number of situations. India supported the US in three resolutions against Iran’s nuclear programs and in the reconstruction in Afghanistan. Indian military forces have also had tight contacts, joint patrols, joint training and exercises with the US.  
The US has been selling defense equipment to India. By 2011, US arms sales to India reached approximately $8.83 billion.  However, US arms sales decisions to India still depend on the stability of the region, especially the balance between India and Afghanistan’s military. The US is also concerned about the engagement between India and Russia and Israel, the two major suppliers India’s army.  
Another remarkable point in US policies toward India is that US President Barack Obama publically announced that the US will supports India to be one permanent member of United Nation (US) Security Council if it is expanded.  Although it does not mean that the Council will be reconstructed and India will be able to have a permanent seat soon, Obama’s announcement has been an effective diplomatic gesture to show the importance of the US to India and to strengthen their relationship.  
Nuclear Policies:
US nuclear policies have been to cooperate with India. By doing so, the US not only to be able to sell nuclear fuel, technology and reactors, but also build up India as a counterweight of China in Asia.  In October 2008, the US Congress approved an agreement facilitating nuclear cooperation between the two countries.
Although the deal has brought benefits for both the US and India, it has faced criticism and responses from many other countries. The deal has been said to go reversely against the international efforts of nuclear nonproliferation. It can also increase the risk of a nuclear arms race in Asia, when Pakistan, Iran and North Korea are attempting to develop their nuclear weapon programs as well.  
Relations between the US and Pakistan
After Pakistan became independent in 1947, the US provided military aid to Pakistan but did not seek deeper relations. However, in 1965 when the Indo – Pakistan war occurred, the US suspended the assistance.  In 1979, the US discovered that Pakistan was building a uranium-enrichment facility in response to India’s nuclear program, and then stopped the aid.  
In the same year, the Soviet invaded Afghanistan, leading to the reconnection between the US and Pakistan. However, once again, the discovery of Pakistan’s nuclear weapon programs in 1990 caused to the suspension of military assistance from the US.  
The nuclear tests in 1998 led to new US sanctions to Pakistan. However, the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the US (2001) was a turning point from which Pakistan started to be valuable for the US in the counter-terrorism campaigns. Economic assistance came back, and Pakistan became a “major non-NATO ally” of the US.  But since May 2011, after US intelligence killed Osama bin Laden in Abbottabad, Pakistan, the relationship has reached to its lowest point since 2001.  
Current Policies of the US toward Pakistan:
Economic Policies:
In March 2009, the US develop an “AfPak” policy to emphasize that success in Afghanistan depend on actions taken in Pakistan. The US has increased annual aid to Pakistan from $600 million to $1.5 billion in five years. The new strategy has aimed to assist Pakistan to improve living standards of local people, especially ordinary Pakistanis along the border region and counter al Qaeda and Taliban propaganda.  
Military Policies:
Obama’s administration now is still expanding Bush’s policy of drone attacks to the Taliban in the north-west of Pakistan.  This strategy has shown its effectiveness in killing Taliban groups, but it has alienated the public because of innocent civilians being collateral damage. According to the Bureau of Investigative Journalism, a non-profit organization in England, between 474 and 881 civilians in Pakistan have been killed in strikes from 2004 to 2012.  
The US has assisted Pakistan with “Train and Equip” programs. US arms and security assistance has included helicopters, infantry arms, advanced identification systems and police training, with the purpose of strengthen Pakistan domestic stability and law enforcement capability.  
Nuclear concern:
WikiLeaks in 2010 revealed US diplomats fear that Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program could lead to the weapons falling into the hands of terrorists or a devastating nuclear exchange with India.  However, US responses toward Pakistan’s nuclear programs are still unclear.
Challenges the US Faces:
Challenges for the US in South Asia are the quadrilateral relationships between the US, India, Pakistan and China. These relationships are extremely complex.
India and Pakistan have had a long history with wars and conflicts. The Kashmiri sovereignty has been a major issue of tension. The two countries also appear to be fighting a “shadow war” inside Afghanistan.  The US – India and the US – Pakistan relationships themselves are constraint because of each other. The tie between the US and Pakistan displeases India and vice versa. China’s South Asia interests are firmly linked with Pakistan. This situation is problematic not only for the China – India relationships, but also for the China – the US ones because of significant US investment in Pakistan.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Vietnam has strategic relations with India, but not really with Pakistan, thus at the moment we just need to focus on US policies toward India. In order to maintain peace in the region, develop relations and get benefits from both India and the US; Vietnam must support US policies toward India. Following are the reasons:
Benefits for the Economy:
US economic policies toward India bring Vietnam benefits, not harm. The US encourages and supports India to remove trade and investment barriers,  opening more favorable conditions for Vietnam to trade with India. Both India and the US are important economic partners of our country. By supporting US policies, we can maintain and develop economic relationships with both countries, with the purpose of strengthening our economy.
Benefits for the Nuclear Energy Plan:
US policies toward India’s nuclear energy program benefit Vietnam’s plan of building nuclear power plants. The US has showed its interest in assessing other countries’ nuclear programs to see whether they are for peaceful purpose or not. Having an example of a peaceful energy nuclear program being supported by the US, we can confidently develop our plan.
In addition, India has been a partner for our program, apart from Japan and Russia.  With US technology transfers, India can assist Vietnam more effectively. Cooperation with India will be important to us because we might no longer rely on Japan, which might exit the nuclear industry due to the damages after the tsunami in 2011.  
Benefits for Defense and Security:
The US – India relations is a counterweight of China in Asia, especially in the East Sea conflicts. Supporting US military and security policies toward India brings Vietnam advantages in championing our targets from the disputes. High level of military exchanges, joint training and exercises between Vietnam and India,  with US support, has been strategic for us to deal with China. Backing India to be a permanent member of the UN Security Council is also beneficial for Vietnam due to the relationships between the two countries.
CONCLUSION
US relations with India and Pakistan have had a long history, with significant changes after each period of time. The US has had special interest in both India and Pakistan because each country has strategic importance for US power and security. With regard to this situation, Vietnam must support US policies toward India because they bring us benefits for our economy, nuclear energy plan and defense and security stability.