Influence of MNE’s Strategy, Industry and Home-host Country Cultural/Institutional Variables

Influence of MNE’s Strategy, Industry and Home-host Country Cultural/Institutional Variables


Globalization is bringing into the table many challenges to companies over the last decades. Overtime managers began to realize that the cross-cultural differences ware one of the most important challenges they had to face, moreover, how to turn disadvantages into advantages in a competitive market. 

In this paper, we will discuss issues from multicultural teams to strategies MNEs choose to adapt, from an internal and an external point of view. In addition, we will understand how the cross-cultural differences can contribute to improving performance.

The main goal is to analyze how the diversity of background, values, and beliefs will influence stakeholders and affect a company’s wealth applying theories such as Hofstede cultural dimensions and EPG model approach.

Introduction and background

With the advent of technology, the world today is moving toward a single market. Distances are getting shorter and shorter and the market is showing clear signs of convergence. However, it is crucial for MNEs to choose the strategy that better fits the company in order to be able to compete in this scenario where your multinational could be competing (and losing) to a local business just because a lack of understanding of who are your market.

Furthermore, companies have to choose also the best strategies to deal with its employees, being locals, expatriates or a mix of both. Recent studies show positive implications related to multiculturalism in teams such as adaptability, leadership, problem-solving, enhanced network and creativity.

Key areas

Culture inside the company

The EPRG Framework defines and classifies the ways companies behaves your 

Ethnocentric: Do not adapt their products to the needs and wants of other countries where they have operations.

Geocentric: The main idea is to target “global consumers” who have similar tastes. To borrow from every country what is best.

Regiocentric: Economic, cultural or political similarities among regions

Polycentric: Equal importance to every country’s domestic market. Believe in the uniqueness of every market

Cross-cultural teams

Re / Expatriates: The psychological adaptation of migrants is a phenomenon widely explored, especially by the international scientific community.

Increase creativity / productivity:

Richier brainstorming: Different backgrounds give and individuals different perspectives, which open to the company new possibilities. 

Increase adaptability: Learn how to be more resilient, tolerant and sensitive when dealing with differences in culture is a “must” in today’s business world, especially, in Canada.

Some of the disadvantages of multicultural teams include, stereotyping, communication issues, integration issues, increase competition and increasing the cost of training.

Strategies in managing cross-cultural teams

Clarity: Avoid assuming people already possess information.

Neutral language and subjects: Less is more, especially, when you are not familiar with other’s culture.

Make an effort to understand: Show courtesy, and respect which will come around as trust and inspiration.

Acknowledge and embrace differences: Diverse people will bring a diverse range of perspectives into the team, which make it more efficient and effective.

Communicate, communicate and communicate.

Hofstede dimensions

Low power distance vs high power distance: Extreme respect to hierarchy and seniority.

Individualism vs Collectivism: The difference between the individuals who value more their own interest and the individuals who put the interest of the community/team/ first.

Masculinity vs femininity: The difference between the individuals who has more masculinity traits such as competition, assertiveness, and the individuals who have more femininity features such as patience, kindness, sensitiveness.

Low uncertainty avoidance vs high uncertainty avoidance: If you are more likely or less likely to take risks.

Short-term orientation vs long-term orientation: The difference in value and in loyalty between tradition and the spontaneity. 

With MNE functioning around the world, the technology and hierarchical practices are in need to improve constantly. While the locals know-how can be well received and acceptable, it is true that the “best practices” are expected expand faster. Currently, people are recognizing the difficulty of managing an MNE. Each subsidiary has a component within the organization and are differentiated by a variety of local and cultural conditions but most importantly, management (Mueller 1994).

Our focus in this investigation primarily will be the influence of culture and the type of management of the home country.

Figure 1. Perspectives, issues, actions and consequences in MNE performance

Source: Adapted from A. Engle and P. Dowling, ‘State of Origin: Research in Global Performance Management: Progress or a Lost Horizon?’, Conference Proceeding of the VIIIth World Congress of the International Federation of Scholarly Associations of Management, Berlin, September 2006.

As the figure shows, every individual has a set of elements that shape the input of their performance, the base of these elements is the self idea of how the subject perceives the environment around and this will influence the output dramatically; at this point the conception of the local and global strategies is leading to the employee to be part of the different appraisal, local and remote or global.  The critical issues consist of the whole process of develop a task(s) to reach the purpose, base on the criteria that has been given (explicit) and has been conceived (implicit). The result of the employee’s performance can determine if he is a subject of training or recognition on the individual outcome and the grade of control or level of reputation as organizational outcome.

Global strategy of MNE

The strategy local statements vs strategy global statements are not always the same, due to a variety of circumstances that the company has to prevent in order to give the first step to a internationalization, and these situations are closely related with social, cultural and political matters (Noorderhaven, 2003). For a better understanding of how management and organization will work on these environments, is important to take into consideration Hofstede’s dimensions. In the field of management and organization, the power distance dimension and uncertainty avoidance are extremely important. Management from a large power-distance culture will concentrate the process of the decision making; on the other hand, management with high uncertainty avoidance will control processes and activities through strict rules (Hofstede 2001).

There is an variety of studies showing that issues, for example, initiative and the board, centralization of power, hierarchical job vagueness, and specialist relations associate altogether with at least one of Hofstede’s social records (Hofstede 2001).

The cross-national administration issues is concentrated in two approaches: cultural and institutional, both represent an examination of strictly local firms accordingly restricting their importance for cross-national administration issues. The relevant inquiry with regards to this paper is the manner by which nearby culture and organizations of the nation of birthplace affect on MNE approaches, specifically internationalization and universal control procedures. Through what instruments could these wellsprings of primary characteristic apply impact on the MNE? The answer can be breaking down as it follows.

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All MNE are possibly related with a specific nation cause that affected them in the middle of the lapse when they were not considered as internationalized. At this specific time, the MNE might be accepted to have been impacted in a route and to a degree equivalent to a local firm. However, for this impact to be substantial, it must last longer, all together for a nation of-starting point impact to be available, we must expect this influence is enduring. One methodology is expected ‘hysteresis’, or ‘a lagging effect after a causal power has been expelled’ (Pauly/Reich 1997).

We agree Ghoshal/Nohria (1989) when they stated that the subjective introductions of senior managers are vital to understanding the hierarchical procedures through which MNE’s create their own conditions to adapt themselves. All things considered, social and institutional elements enter associations through the general population working in them (Kostova/Roth 2002).

The roots of the values on the MNE are clearly related with the set of behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, culture and the conditions of the home country. Although it is important to take into consideration some interesting works about cross-culture like the one from Hofstede, it is also true that the hiring process is from home-country influence the behavior of the MNE, and the print of these home-country in the know how is apparent in the organizational structures, procedures and processes of the MNE, however, the management needs to be aware that this particular behavior would be not well received by the rest of the members of the company, due to the differences of cultural and institutional behavior of the host country (Noorderhaven, 2003).


Mueller, F. (1994). Societal effect, organizational effect and globalization. Organization Studies, 15(3), 407-428.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage publications.

Noorderhaven, Niels & Harzing, Anne-Wil. (2003). The “Country-of-origin Effect” in Multinational Corporations: Sources, Mechanisms and Moderating Conditions. Management International Review. 43. 10.1007/978-3-322-90995-4_4.

Ghoshal, S./Nohria, N., Internal Differentiation within Multinational Corporations, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 10, 1989, pp. 323-337.

Kostova, T./Roth, K., Adoption of an Organizational Practice by Subsidiaries of Multinational Corporations: Institutional and Relational Effects, Academy of Management Journal, 45, 2002, pp. 215-233.

Pauly, L.W./Reich, S., National structures and multinational corporate behavior: enduring differences in the age of globalization, International Organization, 51, 1997, pp. 1-30.

Influence of Government and Policy Makers on UK Classrooms

“Mathematics educators have often emphasized reasoning as one of the primary goals of

learning mathematics.” (Hwang et al., 2017)

The aim of this essay is to analyse the empirical literature which discusses the current government and policy maker’s influence on UK classrooms which suggest that introducing East Asian pedagogical practices would improve mathematical achievement and numerical reasoning to raise standards towards levels seen in renowned internationally successful nations.

 In 2012, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)’s Programme tested over half a million children from over 65 regions, countries and economies around the globe, with a focus on mathematical attainment. Mathematical performance, for PISA, was formulated to measure the ‘mathematical literacy of 15-year-olds to employ and interpret mathematics in a variety of contexts to describe, predict and explain phenomena, recognising the role that mathematics plays in the world.’ (OECD, 2018). To be successful on the PISA test, students must be able to reason numerically and use ‘mathematical concepts, procedures, facts and tools to describe, explain and predict phenomena’. (OECD, 2016). The 2012 study illustrated findings showing that children from Shanghai and Singapore were the top performers in mathematics, with the equivalent of nearly three years of schooling above most other counties being displayed by children from Shanghai. Whilst there were many other East Asian nations also in the highest performing group, three of our European Counterparts were also there: Liechtenstein, Switzerland and the Netherlands. Results indicate that ‘23% of students in OECD countries, and 32% overall, failed to master the simplest maths problems’. (OECD, 2014). Almost half a million children took part in the PISA assessments in 2015, these children represent about 28 million 15-year-olds in the schools across the 72 participating nations, economies and countries taking part. (OECD, 2018). These findings and conclusions show that four countries within Asia continue to ‘outperform all other countries/economies in mathematics’ (OECD 2016). The first PISA results (OECD, 2014) surprisingly claim that ‘only 20% of the students in OECD countries frequently encounter mathematics problems that are set in real-world context and where argumentation skills are demanded’.

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Another international-scale study, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) was designed to provide a ‘perspective’ on international teaching and learning in mathematics and science ‘designed to inform educational policy and practice’, was carried out in 2011. Singapore, Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Japan were ranked in the top 5 respectively for 10-11 year olds (Mullis et al., 2012); the 2015 study showed that those same nations remained the most successful; with the remainder of the world remaining at least 23 points behind (the same margin as in 2011). The purpose in TIMSS’ aims are to ‘understand how mathematics curricula should be improved and how to improve students’ mathematics achievements’ (Mullis et al., 2012) through testing the numerical reasoning skills of children on an ‘international scale’. Furthermore, in 2015, results indicate that only 6% reached an advanced mathematical level where they are able to ‘apply understanding and knowledge in a variety of relatively complex situations and explain their reasoning’. In ‘Singapore, Hong Kong SAR and Korea 41-50% of pupils achieved the advanced benchmark, but 10% or fewer did in 34 of the 49 countries that took part’ at age 10-11 years. (Mullis et al., 2015). These results have been discussed, analysed and sensationalised; making national and international headlines on numerous occasions – educators and policy makers in the UK create the impression that it is surprising, demoralising and depressing that we are unable to challenge the mathematical abilities of the most successful countries. These reports of international success, however, should be used to motivate other nations and demonstrate the capabilities of children when given the ‘optimal conditions to succeed’. Mullis et al (20012) states that ‘they demonstrate that our children’s current achievement is not the best they can do; they can achieve much more’.

There have been many studies on the impact of East Asian methods due to their successful results in PISA and TIMSS surveys. For their theoretical study, Jerrim & Choi (2014) aimed to develop a ‘better understanding of how children’s performance on internationally standardised math tests changes between ages 10 and 16’, through comparisons between the experiences of English children compared to the highly successfully performing East Asian jurisdictions (Japan, Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong); discussing reasons why children from such countries are, on average, more than one school year ahead of their Western peers (Jerrim and Choi 2014). Fundamental limitations in this study are expressed at the outset in that ideally, longitudinal data would be available to analyse findings in this study, however, the researchers’ use of cross-sectional data ‘repeated cross-sectional data, where samples have been collected from the same, or very similar, cohorts of school children at various points in time’. Jerrim & Choi create a credible study by discussing limitations to their empirical study in that there are some conceptual differences in the skills being measured between PISA and TIMSS data collection, however, they question whether the slight difference in focus is of substantive importance. (Detail findings and methods – focus on rigour and credibility)

Conversely, Jerrim and Vignoles (2015) studied two of the most frequently asked questions by education policymakers ‘What drives East Asian educational success?’ and ‘What can we do to catch up’? Their paper attempts to provide some robust evidence to begin to fill this important gap in the literature. Specifically, it provides evidence as to how introducing a particular East Asian inspired teaching method into a Western schooling system influences children’s mathematics test scores. (Detail findings and methods – focus on rigour and credibility)

Boyd and Ash (2018) investigate teachers’ beliefs during implementation of a textbook-based Singaporean mastery approach to teaching mathematics. (Detail findings and methods – focus on rigour and credibility)

There has been a vast amount of study into different approaches that could be adopted to improve mathematical reasoning within the primary classroom. Key findings of Nunes et al‘s research study found that ‘mathematical reasoning, even more so than children’s knowledge of arithmetic, is important for children’s later achievement in mathematics’. Mathematical reasoning and knowledge of arithmetic (assessed at age 8-9 years) make ‘independent contributions to children’s achievement in mathematics in KS2 and 3’ (Nunes et al.,2009). While both are important, Nunes et al. (2009, p.1) claim that mathematical reasoning is more important than knowledge of arithmetic for achievement in KS2 and 3. Mathematical reasoning has been defined in a number of ways (Bolton, 2017; Erdem & Gürbüz, 2015; Holton, Stacey & Fitzsimmons, 2012; Herbert et al, 2015): though researchers generally accept that mathematical reasoning involves critical thinking; focus on mathematical relationships; drawing inferences; involving in-depth discussion; metacognitive explanation; argumentation; justification of solutions; and reflection on the strategies and methodology applied in the process. Corollary, researchers commonly agree that reasoning and proof form the foundation of mathematical understanding. This large longitudinal study survey of children investigated children’s progress at different stages through primary and early secondary school. Findings discuss the advantages of heterogenous groupings in place of more traditional homogenous (ability) groupings which ‘in Primary school improves the mathematical reasoning of children in the top ability group, but the effect is small. It hinders the progress of children in the other groups.’ Claiming that children’s self-confidence in the subject has a small but significant impact on attainment in mathematics reasoning.

The aims of Herbert et al. (2015)’s research study was to create a framework of teachers’ perceptions towards and of mathematical reasoning which would enable the tracking of teacher perceptions (which in turn could then be utilised in further study to adopt professional learning and enhance pedagogical application). Herbert et al. claim that the framework produced can provide a ‘vehicle to assess teachers’ awareness of aspects of reasoning’; facilitating this tracking tool could both evaluate professional learning requirements and assess the impact of this learning. Furthermore, claiming the framework capable of ‘maximising the change in teachers’ perceptions of mathematical reasoning.’ A pragmatic philosophy appears to have been adopted when selecting this phenomenology paradigm; to investigate the participants’ perceptions of the concept of investigation as opposed to the researchers’ bias, experience or predetermined ideas. (Describing learning as a change in the way a student conceives the object of learning (Booth, 1997; Ramsden, 1988)). Herbert et al. (2015)’s investigation clearly followed a robust and rigorous process underpinning the importance of eliminating bias in the phenomenology paradigm; illustrating that ‘phenomenography to be an effective methodology to provide evidence for establishing this framework’. Limitations into generalising this study included the socio-cultural features of the schools participating; limited teaching experience in some participants. Additional limiting factors are highlighted as teachers’ lack of vocabulary to discuss mathematical reasoning. However, the framework successfully developed creates opportunity for further research to determine the effectiveness of professional learning on participant’s perceptions of mathematical research.

From an opposing perspective and approach to improving attainment of mathematical reasoning; the research study of Gürbüz & Erdem (2016) uses correlation analysis to determine a relationship between mental computation and mathematical reasoning in primary aged children. An explorative approach appears to be used to facilitate the quantitative research methods allocated to the investigation; utilising a correlation model. This study focused on 118 primary aged children nominated using random selection techniques to identify participants from ‘low and middle socioeconomic areas in a city in Turkey’. An analytical survey and Inferential analysis was used allowing generalisations to be formed. Correlation analysis found a ‘relationship between mental computation and mathematical reason of the students involved in the study’. In literature, only correlation values of 0.65 or higher in education research will show that it represents the correlation correctly and will allow individual predictions that are reasonably accurate for generalisation purposes. This study found a 0.654 correlation that there is a ‘significant’ and ‘highly positive relationship’ between students’ mental computation and mathematical reasoning’. This robust and credible study used clearly defined parameters to analyse and discuss findings. Conclusions identified a highly positive relationship between mental computation and mathematical reasoning. To move from explorative to more transformative research, Gürbüz and Erdem (2016) suggest further study to investigate the relationship between mental computation and mathematical reasoning qualitatively; examining the impact of addressing mathematical misconceptions, perceptions and ability on mathematical reasoning through more constructivist and transformative descriptive analysis.

With regards to policy-makers making decisions on adopting East Asian pedagogies and teaching formulas, Jerrim & Choi (2014) state that East Asian children vastly out-perform their English peers even when they have been through the English schooling system.[1]. A claim that is justified by indicating that perhaps it is generally high expectations along with cultural and community ethos that contribute to high levels of achievement, which in the UK cannot be a short-term focus seeing as it is notoriously difficult to modify people’s attitudes and beliefs ‘. Bray (2003) also highlights issues with this kind of cultural expectation which can result in ‘pressure which students (physical and psychological) and parents (financial) must put up with’. However, is this the kind of pressure which could allow our children to achieve at the superior level in PISA and TIMMS similar to that of our East Asian counterparts to ensure financial prosperity and long-term economic success?

Some studies have found that many primary teachers are not confident in defining reasoning (Loong et al., 2013). Teaching methods, attitudes and perceptions in an education system along with teacher subject knowledge, pedagogical application and professional development are paramount in improving achievement in mathematical reasoning in primary classrooms. Herbert et al.’s research could be used as a basis to create a tracking tool to assess perceptions and to improve professional development outcomes as a new curriculum initiative is introduced.

Developing classroom dynamics including specific grouping and encouraging confidence in mathematical ability can improve children’s achievement in mathematical reasoning (Nunes et al, 2009). Providing sufficient opportunities to engage in mental computational mathematics is important to ensure children’s mathematical knowledge can be applied to other contexts (Gürbüz & Erdem, 2015). This mental computation forms an important component of the method in which Eastern Asian countries apply their mathematical teaching methods with significant success internationally as seen in the PISA and TIMSS results.

Even when policies and teaching methods have been proven to be effective in East Asia, culture and context potentially limit the extent to which such initiatives can be successfully transferred to other countries (Cowen, 2006,). Family and social commitment to education is also reflected in the large number of weekly hours East Asian students spend in self-study activities (Jerrim & Choi, 2014) and, as Zhu and Leung (2011) argue, the ‘great impact extrinsic motivation has on their mathematics test performance (much more so than their Western peers)’. However, here the issue of causality exists. (Jerrim and Vignoles, 2015) Indeed, it appears that instead of at secondary level that mathematical reasoning develops fully, it appears that East Asian countries that top the PISA and TIMSS survey appear to ’pull ahead’ before age 10 and then maintain the mathematical superiority which exists between them and other countries globally. Furthermore, these children display a ‘situated mathematical mindset’: a belief held in varied ways by teachers and children, that the more you practice at the edge of your current attainment level in maths, the more intelligent you will become as a mathematician (Boaler, 2016).

Whichever, teaching method is adopted, researchers generally agree on one vital component for mathematical and numerical reasoning success – mastery is paramount. ‘Learning for Mastery (LFM) is a group-based, teacher-paced approach to mastery instruction wherein students learn, for the most part, cooperatively with their classmates’ (Block and Burns, 1976). Traditionally, in the UK classroom, approaches to differentiation commonly involve some children being identified as ‘mathematically weak’ and are taught a reduced curriculum with simplified mathematical work to carry out, possibly in heterogenous ability classes but generally in same-ability groupings; whilst others are identified as ‘mathematically able’ and given further challenges and extension tasks, or more simply moved to the following years’ skills. This approach has been adopted with the best of intentions: to offer additional support to those encountering difficulties with understanding mathematical concepts, with a view to ensuring competence of key concepts within mathematics. Nonetheless, this can only have negative connotations for these children surrounding their mathematical ability, the perception of their own mathematical ability, their motivation and mindset surrounding the subject and their future numerical application. In the light of international evidence from high performing jurisdictions in the Far East, and ‘mindset’ research (Hattie, 2012), mastery appears to be the most common form of pedagogy within those nations who boast the highest levels of success. Most modern mastery applications stem from the word of Benjamin Bloom (1971, 1976, 1984), who discussed how teachers might adapt their pedagogy to improve learning in classrooms. Bloom suggested ‘if teachers could provide the necessary time and appropriate learning conditions, nearly all students could reach a high level of achievement’ Guskey, 2010). ‘The notion that Singaporean teachers place more emphasis on whole class mastery of concepts is supported by the Teaching and Learning International Survey (Micklewright et al 2014)’ (Jerrim and Vignoles, 2015). The class simply do not move on until every member of the class has acquired mastery of each concept. More able children investigate the aspect in more depth, whilst the teacher focuses on those children who need more support in achieving the mastery. Additional support in terms of parental partnerships and after-school tutoring is also commonplace for these children in order that they can also become fluent in the fundamentals of mathematics along with their classmates. Furthermore, the’ Singapore system concentrates more on developing problem-solving skills rather than mental arithmetic’ (Cohen, 2017). Indeed, the English National Curriculum for Mathematics states that ‘… decisions about when to progress should always be based on the security of pupils’ understanding and their readiness to progress to the next stage. Pupils who grasp concepts rapidly should be challenged through being offered rich and sophisticated problems before any acceleration through new content. Those who are not sufficiently fluent with earlier material should consolidate their understanding, including through additional practice, before moving on’ (Department of Education, 2014). In many mathematical schemes of work in the UK, there are time constraints to different areas of the curriculum to ensure adequate ‘coverage’ – these schemes create constraints on the time for which each concept is taught. In Wales, one scheme of work indicates that one week at the start of each year should be dedicated to place value, followed by one week of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division respectively – arguably the most important cornerstones of mathematics, without an in-depth knowledge of each, children could not possibly hope to compete on an international scale with those children from our East Asian counterparts. Researchers studying the importance of learning for mastery (Jerrim and Vignoles, 2015; Guskey, 2010; Mercer, 2006; Mevarech, 2015) would strongly disagree with this padagogy, agreeing with a 2012 publication by the independent Advisory Committee for Mathematics Education (ACME) which advocates ‘depth in place of acceleration’ and which states that ‘users of mathematics should experience a deep, rich, rigorous and challenging mathematics education, rather than being accelerated through the school curriculum’.

It could be suggested that although elements of East Asian pedagogy can be learned from and are generally agreed to be highly effective, it cannot be proven unequivocally that they could be implemented successfully within any other educational setting to equalise mathematical performance with East Asian nations without also (impossibly) committing to cultural and historical mirroring. Instead, a focus and commitment of changing the methods and pedagogy through which mathematics is taught in the UK appears to be a more realistic target. Ensuring mastery in the fundamental mathematical areas of place value; addition and subtraction, multiplication and division; their inter-relationships; and the reasoning and application of methods and strategies to solve calculations and numerical problems, should instead be the focus to improving numerical reasoning and mathematical attainment within the primary classroom.


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[1] In 2011, 78.5% (76.6% in 2015) of Chinese children achieved five or more A*–C grades including Maths and English. This compares to a national average of 58.2% (57.1% in 2015); 61.8% (61.1% in 2015) of Asian pupils achieved five or more A*–C grades including Maths and English;

Influence of Media on Young People’s Opinions

The mass media has a great influence on people and especially on the younger generation. It plays an important role in shaping the opinions and positions of young people. Argue for or against this statement.

As communication technologies and platforms continue to advance and evolve, the mass media is increasingly becoming a more influential factor in modern society. It is a powerful tool that has a strong impact on the population as a whole and in particularly on the younger generation. In modern society, the mass media has the ability to shape both the opinions and positions of the younger generation who are more curious and can more easily be influenced. This can not only create new cultures, but can also change lifestyles to some degree by shaping opinions and positions. This essay will discuss the three major influences that the mass media has on the younger generations and their effects in supporting the statement “The mass media has a great influence on people and especially on the younger generation. It plays an important role in shaping the opinions and positions of young people”. Firstly, advertisements are changing young people’s views on beauty concepts and stimulate consumption. Secondly, the influences of social media platforms such as Facebook are shaping behaviour trends and lifestyles. Finally, music has shape emotions and a source of inspiration in creating new career ideas for the younger people.

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Nowadays, advertisements have great power to impact minds and create new habits amongst the younger generations. Large parts of their lives are connected with advertisements through various forms of media such as the radio, films and magazines. And according to Vitelli (2013) “Television, Commercials, and Your Child”, advertisers try to target young people by: concentrating on new products with special features, producing advertisements which are familiar with daily life so audiences do not realize they are watching commercials and making them lose the ability to distinguish between reality and the advertising that they are watching every day. More recently, with the development of more far reaching platforms of mass media, the thousands of messages about perfect the body images presented on posters and on television shows have re-shaped opinions on what is the ideal body shape for women. The powerful messages have made women obsessed with the new female body standards. Trying to fit into what is represented as attractive by the mass media, have caused stressed and have had a negative effect on some women, in particular the younger women who feel the need to comfort more. An example about the negative influences of advertisements on the young generations is building up their impossible expectations about attractive appearances by using luxury images of supermodels and celebrities, who they hope to look like (Wikipedia 2014). Therefore, teenagers tend to try keep their body thin through putting themselves on a diet, doing exercise or even getting cosmetic surgery while they are never satisfied with their bodies. In addition, it is suggested that using the dynamic beauty of young people for fast food advertising is also one of the causes of changing eating habits and rising obesity rates on the youth (Ashton 2004). In some cases, they are attracted by the advertisements when people with good shape, are eating fast foods and might think that it is healthy foods or even eating them will help to keep their bodies as good as in the advertisement.
The rates of obesity in children and youth have almost tripled in the last quarter century. Approximately 20% of youth are now overweight with obesity rates in preschool age children increasing at alarming speed (The impact of food advertising on childhood obesity 2014).
Although the role of advertising in modern society is undeniable because it is used to both introduce new products to the public and is the shortest way to motivate consumption, it is generally believed that advertisements have consequences on people’s mind, especially on the younger generations because advertisements generally have always exaggerated the truth, also changed the opinions and positions of young people.
In recent times, social networking sites have become more popular than ever, they also directly impact on behaviour of people, particularly on adolescents in what way as they decide how to connect each other and how to respect their relationships. Social networking sites have become a major revolution in society. There are a lot of advantages that can be associated with this, but an alarming tendency out of this, is that the young people seem to be more isolated in their own world and don’t learn how interact with society As a result, they gradually lose their communications skills and the intimacy of face-to-face interactions (Dakin 2014). ) In the past, face – to – face was the best way which people chose to communicate to each other. With the appearance of Facebook, peoples’ lives, minds and the behaviours of the youth have changed. Young people are highly addicted to Facebook as they spend a lot of time on the internet to update status, post on walls, and even whatever they make. This leads to them ignoring spending time with families or hanging out with friends in order for them to sit in front of computer screen to validate their importance in society. The number of “Likes” they have, the more this validates their confidence (Sameer 2011). In addition, the development of social networking is one of the reasons why the young people are becoming the narcissist. According to Harrington (2013), in “Hey you, it’s all about me”, the teenagers are documenting everything they do in their lives and posting selfies on social networking to get more attentions from others, and falling in love themselves. Young girls are more likely to be dissatisfied with their shape and weight, even if they are very healthy and balanced from this (Sameer 2011). For example, with the support of Photoshop technologies, the photos on Facebook are probably more attractive than the real life. This creates pressures on teen girls try to keep their appearances as perfect as the pictures on the internet. The revolution of social networking sites impacts strongly on the younger generations through changing their views about communications in a virtual world.
One product of the mass media that is a big influence on the youth is music, which deeply affects the lifestyles of teenagers, the controlling of emotions and building up personality on people. In modern society, there are many technologies such as iPhone, iPod which can effectively connect the youth to music where they go. It is believed that the young generations listen to music while they are eating, studying and sleeping. Therefore, music seems to play a special role in shaping their opinions and positions. The explosion of music videos on YouTube brings young people to a new fashion culture when they tend to copy images of their idols (Wixom 2013). For example, new fashion trends often approach the public through the superstars in their music videos. When the youth search and watch the videos on internet, they are easily attracted in styles of celebrities, so they try to dress or let their hair similarly to famous people and might think they look more attractively. Nowadays, there are young teenagers develop their music career in that way they produce videos, update them on online websites to share with people. If the music products were successful, they could become famous people even after one day. Actually they have made career decisions based on factors of the mass media. Consequently, benefits of music are inspiring and creating a lot of opportunities for the youth to make their dreams come true (Wixom 2013). Furthermore, the lyrics on music songs strongly influence on minds, emotions and behaviours of teenagers. The information on the internet is generally uncensored and young people also are supported by many search tools. Therefore, they can easily be impacted their spirit by the unconformable lyrics which can create rebellious tendencies or the early sexual awareness of young people (Holden 2014). For example, many songs are composed based on the love story and the events in real life. Although the messages on those songs might be given by the individual views, but they still have a great power. Especially, when young children listen to music constantly, they generally tend to react and think as lyrics in songs. As a result, they are aware of the problems in society very soon and grow up faster than their real old. Although the influence of music to young people with both negative and positive, but it is gradually becoming one of the determinants of behaviour and thinking of the younger generations.
In conclusion, modern society has created a major mass media revolution with the help of the availability of all the new technologies available such as television, magazine, music, social media and the internet. This has given the mass media an enormous power in influencing the perceptions and lifestyles of the younger people. It could even be stated that the perceptions and lifestyles of the younger generations are mostly influenced by the information provided by the many forms of media, as they search based all decisions from the information provided on the internet. The internet is used for scientific information, entertainment and connecting friends. The ideas and views from the internet are usually derived from the masses, so they have both positive and negative, but young people are given the choice to see and believe what is of value to them. Therefore, they should choose the most appropriate approach in order to get the best value that the mass media are contributing to human. All things as above have proven the mass media shape opinions and positions of youth.
American Psychological Association 2014, ‘The impact of food advertising on childhood obesity’, American Psychological Association, viewed 13 November 2014,
Coleman, R 2008, ‘The becoming of bodies’, Feminist Media Studies, vol.8, no.2, pp.163-179, viewed 12 November 2014,

Harrington, S 2013, ‘Hey you, it’s all about me’, The Sydney Morning Heralb, 20 September, viewed 12 November 2014,

Media Smart 2014, ‘Television’s Impact on Kids’, Media Smart, viewed 13 November 2014,
Pediatrics 2006, ‘Children, Adolescents, and Advertising’, Pediatrics, vol.118, no.6, pp.2563-2569, 01 December, viewed 18 November 2014,



Wixom, R 2013, ‘The Influence of Music’, The Church of Jesus Christ of latter – day Saints, September, viewed 26 November 2014,

How can a traumatic experience influence children’s behaviour

The issues surrounding children’s behaviour after a traumatic experience are complex, multifactorial and often hugely controversial. Having considered the literature on the subject, one could be forgiven for believing that there are as many opinions on the issues as there are people considering the issues.
In this review we have attempted to cover as many of the major areas as possible in order to present a reasonably comprehensive overview of the subject.
The definition of a traumatic experience is subjective from both the point of view of the child concerned and also form the observer. Some commentators have suggested that the only workable definition of a traumatic experience is one that, by definition, produces demonstrable psychological sequelae. (Abikoff 1987) This may be the case, but as other commentators observe, some psychological sequelae may not surface for years, if at all. This does not mean that the original triggering episode was not traumatic. There is also the view that that the worst kind, or most extreme type of trauma may be the most likely to be actively suppressed at either a conscious or subconscious level. (Haddad & Garralda. 1992)
Literature Review
With an area of literature as vast as the one that we are considering here, it is often difficult to find a place to start. In this instance we will consider the paper by Prof. Harry Zetlin (1995) who starts with a short monograph on the screening of a television programme which dealt with arguably the most catastrophic of stresses to befall a child, that of the loss of a parent through murder or violence. He makes several thought provoking comments which are worthy of consideration as they are germinal to the thrust of this article. The first is a plea that the diagnostic label of post-traumatic stress should not be a catch-all basket for all emotional and behavioural problems that can occur after a traumatic experience. (Gorcey et al.1986)

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The second is the realisation that in the particular circumstances portrayed on the television where a parent is murdered have two consequences. The first is the obvious catastrophic trauma that the child experiences with the violent loss of a parent, but the second is the much less obvious fact that the child has, at a stroke, also lost a valuable, and normally available resource, of the protective family environment, which is often one of the most useful therapeutic tools available to the therapist. He adds to this two further insights. The first is that the surviving parent has their own trauma to deal with and that is invariably transmitted to the child and that, because such events are mercifully comparatively rare, only a comparatively few professionals are ever able to build up any significant expertise and experience on the subject.
The main issue of the piece is, however, the very relevant point that considering the apparent obsession of the media with intrusive fly-on-the-wall documentaries and the almost equally insatiable public hunger for sensation, the very fact that such a programme is made at all, almost inevitably adds to the trauma felt by the victims. (Koss et al 1989) One could argue that actually confronting and talking about such issues is part of the healing process. Such considerations may be of value in the adult who is more able to rationalise the concepts involved, but to the child this may be very much more difficult and being forced to relive the episodes in a very public and unfamiliar arena, may do little more than add to the psychological stresses and damage already caused. (Mayall & Gold 1995)
This paper offers a wise and considered plea for sense and moderation, not to mention reservation and decency. It is written in calm and considered moderate tones which makes the impact of its message all the more powerful. The next few papers that we would like to analyse deal with the thorny issue of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. It has to be commented that there is a considerable body of literature which argues on both sides of the debate about whether ADHD is the result of childhood trauma. One side is presented, quite forcibly, by Bramble (et al. 1998). The authors cite Kewley (1998) as stating that the prime aetiology of ADHD is a genetic neuro-developmental one. They challenge the expressed views that it is a manifestation of early childhood abuse or trauma which can have occurred at some time previously with the words:
..early abuse and trauma later manifest as symptoms and that the detection of these symptoms in children clearly illustrates early trauma is a prime example of the logical fallacy that underpins all psychoanalytical theory and practice.
The authors argue that to state because psychotherapy is often effective it must reflect the fact that a traumatic episode must have been responsible because it addresses directly the original emotional trauma (Follette et al.1996), is completely unsound. The natural progression of this argument, they assert, is the reason why many parents of children with ADHD have such difficulty in finding child psychiatrists who can actually help them rather than the many who would seek to blame them for the child’s behaviour in the first place. (Breire 1992)
The authors take the view that the reason that psychoanalytical practitioners have held so much influence on the profession over the years is that it is only recently that the glare of evidence based medicine has fallen on their discipline. The authors argue that far from using psychotherapeutic tools to try to achieve resolution, the evidence suggests that psycho-stimulant treatment is far more effective (Abikoff 1987) if only because it enhances the therapeutic effect of other forms of treatment such as family therapy and special educational provision.
The converse argument, or perhaps an extension of the argument, is presented by Thambirajah (1998) who takes the view that many papers on ADHD (and by inference he is referring to the one reviewed above), regard the syndrome as being a diagnosis made simply by checking an appropriate number of boxes on a check-list. He asserts that factors such as biopsychological circumstances should be weighed equally strongly as the symptom cluster of impulsivity, inattention or hyperactivity. (Tannock 1998)
In direct contrast to the preceding paper he states that early traumatic experiences, current abuse or even depression of the mother may all be contributory factors in the aetiology of the condition. He argues that taking no account of these factors is to ignore much of the accumulated evidence and wisdom on the subject. He also makes a very valid point that to ignore these factors and only to use the check-list approach means that here is an over-reliance on the significance of these symptoms and, as a direct result, this leads to an overestimation of prevalence. He points to the obviously erroneous estimate of a study that was based exclusively on check list symptomatology, of 15% (although the study is not quoted).
The author makes the very valid point that most psychiatrists would agree that the hyperkinetic disorder is a small sub-group within the ADHD syndrome and that these children may need treatment with stimulants but only after other aetiologies have been excluded. He makes the rather apt comparison of treating all children with ADHD the same way as calling all four legged animals with a tail donkeys. There are a great many more papers on this issue which we could usefully review but we must explore other areas of trauma in a child’s life in order to try to give a representative overview.
With the possible exception of the situation outlined in the first paper reviewed, there can be few experiences more traumatising to a child than to me made homeless as a refugee in a time of war. The paper by Hodes (et al. 2001) is both heart rending and informative as it explores the health needs of refugees arriving in the UK. Although the paper catalogues all of the health needs (that need not concern us in this article) of the refugees, it does not overlook the psychosocial trauma aspects of the children’s plight. They point to the fact that one way that a child’s psychological trauma can be minimised is by being accepted into a peer group such as a school. While this may indeed be true, the problem is that refugee children are seldom seen by their peers as belonging and are therefore seldom completely accepted. (Lewis 1998)
This is either aggravated or caused by the fact that they already have twice the rate of psychiatric disorder as found in control groups of children. (Tousignant et al. 1999). It is therefore important to be aware of these problems as they are often very amenable to psychiatric intervention (O’Shea et al. 2000). The authors quote a paper by Burnett and Peel (2001) who appear to be particularly pessimistic about making a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder in children from a fundamentally different culture, as their recovery is thought to be secondary to the reconstruction of their support networks, which may prove particularly difficult in a different or even alien, cultural environment. They point to studies of the children who fled to the USA to escape the Pol Pot regime, who had post-traumatic stress in childhood, and even when followed up 12 years later they quote 35% as still having post traumatic stress and 14% had active depression. (Sack et al. 1999).
This may be a reflection of the difficulty in getting appropriate treatment for a condition in a different culture. But, in distinct relevance to our considerations here, the authors comment that even exposure to a single stressor may result in a surprisingly persistent post traumatic stress reaction. (Richards & Lovell 1999). The last article that we are going to consider here is a paper by Papineni (2003). This paper has been selected partly because of it’s direct relevance to our consideration, but also because on a human level, it is a riveting piece of writing. It is entitled Children of bad memories and opens with the quote Every time there is a war there is a rape (Stiglmayer 1994).
The whole article is a collection of war-related rape stories and the resultant psychopathology that ensued. The author specifically explores the issues relating to childhood rape and its aftermath. She also considers a related issue and that is how the effect of maternal shame shapes a child’s perception of themselves (with heartrending consequences), how the shame felt by the mother is often externalised to affect the child who is the visible symbol of the physical act. (Carpenter 2000)
The catalogue of emotion and reaction described in this article by some of the subjects, would almost make an authoritative text book on the consequences of a traumatic experience in childhood. It would be almost impossible to quantify a single negative emotion that was neither articulated nor experienced by the victims, not only of the act of rape, but also of the stigma and aftermath of the act which was often described as the worst aspect of the whole thing.
A constant theme that runs trough the paper is the realisation that the presence of a child conceived by a rape is a potent reminder of the trauma and therefore is, in itself a bar to psychological healing. The author also points to the fact that another, almost inevitable consequence of forcible rape, is difficulty with relationships and intimacy which can devastate a child’s social development. (Human Rights Watch.1996). Such a child may not only have this burden to bear for its life, but the stigma forced upon it by society may also have untold consequences. The author quotes a child born from the Rwandan conflict, describing itself by different names which bear witness to society’s perception, and more accurately and inevitably, the child’s perception of itself: children of hate, enfants non-desirés (unwanted children), or enfants mauvais souvenir (children of bad memories)
The author describes how such psychological trauma may never be successfully treated and ends with the very perceptive comment. There cannot be peace without justice, and unless the international community recognises all rape in conflict situations as crimes against humanity, there will be no peace for the victims of such atrocities.
It is clearly a forlorn hope to cover all of the aspects of trauma and its potential impact on a child’s life in one short article. We hope that, by being selective, we have been able to provide the reader with an authoritative insight into some on the problems associated with the subject.  

High Compensation Pay Will Influence Employee Motivation

This article shows the relationship between high compensation pay and employees motivation in organization. Besides training, job satisfaction, and work environment, compensation pay is one of the factors that can influence employee motivation. Motivation has many theories that support employee will perform better in their job. Compensation pay aspects such as pay or reward package and promotion will lead or boost up employee motivation in order to perform in their work that contributes to organization. There are many theories that explain compensation effect on employee motivation. Many researchers had mentioned about the relationship between compensation pay aspects, pay or reward package and promotion and employee motivation in organization. Higher the compensation pay, employee motivation in organization will increase.

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Compensation is the total amount of the monetary and non-monetary pay provided by employer to an employee in return for work performed as required. Wayne. F. Cascio had stated that compensation which includes indirect cash payment and direct payments in the form of employee benefits and incentives that provide by employer in order to motivate employees to perform well for higher levels of productivity is an important component of the employment relationship between employer and employee. According to Milkovich, Newman & Gerhart (2011), compensation refers to all forms of financial returns and tangible services and benefits that give by employer to employee as part of an employment relationship. For monetary pay, it as the return for employee that work or contribute in organization, while for non-monetary pay is provided by employer to an employee in order to motivate employee to perform in their work.
Every stakeholder such as employer, manager, shareholder and others have their own perceptive regarding compensation and how compensation affects how they behave. Employee may define compensation as an exchange of service employee contribution or as a reward for a job well done. Employee see compensation as to some reflects the value for their personal skills and abilities, or the return for the education training they have learned or acquired. The pay individual receives for the work they perform in their work is usually the major source of personal income and financial security in their life and so it is very important determinants of an individual economic and social well being. For manager, compensation pay directly influences their success in two ways. Firstly, it is a major expense competitive pressure both internationally and domestically, forces employer to consider whether their compensation decisions is affordable or not. Other studies show that many organization labor costs account for more than 50% of total costs. And for industries such as public employment or service, this figure is even higher.
Compensation is one of the factors that influence employee motivation in organization. The good compensation pay is a good motivator for employee. Employee motivation and behavior influence by compensation by two ways (Milkovich, Newman & Gerhart 2011). High compensation pay will lead employee to motivate in doing their job or perform well in their work and performance. If employee did not get compensation pay much as they should get, employee tend to not perform well and motivate to do their job. Compensation pay desired behavior which is motivated employee for better performance. This study would like to investigate the relationship between compensation pay aspects which are pay or reward package and promotion towards employee motivation in organization.
The problem
“After bonuses are distributed, management teams may often be frustrated by the lack of employee motivation. If the employee does not see a direct correlation between performance and bonus, this may lead to a lack of motivation because employees see no reason to perform better”.
Shun Linda Wang, 2003
Nowadays organization whether small or large, people pay much more attention to their life style and the money they earn from the work than their senior. However, it still remains unclear whether many of employees would continue working if it were not for the money that they earn. Employee will expects their employer give a compensation plan are that it is fair and equitable, that it provides them with tangible rewards matched with their skills and, further, that it provides recognition and employee feel their employer appreciate them.
Employer will face big challenge in order to motivate employees in organization. Motivation of employee is an important key to an organization that can lead to overall effectiveness of organization. Basically, employee will do or perform well in their work if their employer provides compensation pay to them. In other word, employee is not motivated in order give full commitment in their work because of compensation pay that they receive from employer is not enough or dissatisfied. Employee will perform better if they see the relationship between compensation pay and performance. Employee tends to motivate and perform better in their job if employer provides high compensation pay.
Are wages attached to jobs and do promotions play an important role as a wage determinant? Do expected promotions affect motivation and, once the promotion has been realized, will this make the motivation disappear completely? These questions is the famous question that employer will ask in order perform well towards increase productivity or efficiency of organization. As Herzberg (1968) has argued, just because too little money can affect and demotivate employee, does not mean that more and more money will lead about increased satisfaction, much less increased motivation. But it is reasonable to assume that if employee’s take-home pay or salary was cut in half, employee morale would suffer enough to not perform well and undermine performance. It doesn’t necessarily follow that doubling that employee’s pay would result in better work or employee will motivate to perform well. According to Schuler and MacMillan (1984), they stressed that Human resource management practices (including compensation) may give a competitive advantages to one corporation over its rivals in order to retain and motivate their employee in organization.
Literature review
“Motivation is the desire to achieve beyond expectations, being driven by internal rather than external factors, and to be involved in a continuous striving for improvement”.
(Torrington, Hall, Taylor & Atkinson, 2009, p. 276)
Motivation, in the context of work, is a psychological process that results from the interaction or relationship between an employee and the work environment and it is characterized by a certain level of willingness to do something. Motivation also defined as the employees are willing to increase their work effort in order to desire that they hold or obtain a specific need (Beardwell & Claydon, 2007). According to Arnold (1991), motivation consists of three components:
· Direction – what a person is trying to do?
· Effort – how hard a person is trying to do?
· Persistence – how long a person keeps on trying to do?
Motivation of employee was set as the dependent variable in this study. Although the construct of motivation can be operationally defined with the help of similar to variables such as motives, dispositions, needs, and values (Hogan and Hogan, 1990), the field of psychology has not observed a single, crucial measure of employee motivation. Therefore, there is the study that measures motivation by a single straightforward item: How has the level of your work motivation level changed in the last three years? The responses of the study had range from “decreased (1)” to “increased (5).” (Takahashi, 2005)
Moreover, in a way of accomplishment expected work productivity and job satisfaction motivation is the outmost element to be taken into account (Schultz & Schultz, 1998). Mainly, the impacts of motivation on the work performance and productivity will attract attention towards employee motivation in the work environment (Huddleston & Good, 1999). Employee with high level of motivation tends to work hard and perform better in their work as compared to the employees with low level of motivation. The understanding of the employee’s expectations and needs of employees at work signifies the base for their motivation. In order to increase employee satisfaction and motivation with their work, it is important to arrange employee’s work and the level of satisfaction with work.
Motivational models are usually divided in to two between and those, which are process theories that focus on the individual’s interactions with their environment and those content theories that which focus on an individual’s internal attributes. Expectancy theory is one of the process motivation theory describes motivation as a function of individual or employee’s perception that they have about their surroundings and they will form the expectation based on these perceptions.
The organizational psychology literature includes a number or many motivational theories, but based on Ghazanfar, Chuanim, Khan & Bashir (2011) they have selected expectancy theory as their “implementation mechanism” for some reasons. Firstly, the theory has been subjected to rigorous academic testing that each of its components has been experiment and the result is there is a positive influence or relationship on employee motivation. Other researcher such as Klein (1991), Pritchard and Sanders (1973), and Arvy (1972) give support for the link or relationship between effort and E-P expectancy. Hope and Pate (1988) established that the link between instrumentality and effort is one of be the best supported of the components and measured by Lawler and Porter (1967), Snead and Harrell (1994), Klein (1991), Harrell and Stahl (1984). Pritchard and Sanders (1973) have confirmed the motivational link between effort and valence. Secondly, the theory is easily to understand and very straightforward. Developed by Vroom (1964), expectancy theory determines three factors that play an interactive role in motivation. Effort-performance expectancy refers to E-P expectancy that concerns the employee’s perception which effort is positively linked with level of performance in organization.
Maslow’s theory shows that human needs as a role of the capacity in which the human needs have already been fulfilled. It means that human needs that are fulfilled have a low motivation value. Other than that, Herzberg explains that work satisfaction is based on the presence of intrinsic motivation, while the presence of extrinsic factors will lead to dissatisfaction of work. If there is hygienic factors, workers will be happy with their current work situation. In order to have motivated workforce in organization, the hygienic factors must be satisfied and when motivations are in place. This model is in the same type as the theories of Lewin and Vroom that it is concern with the influence of perception and expectancy on motivation. However, this model is a more comprehensive theory than the other theories. The model is based on the following propositions:
The motivational force of an individual is based on how individual see the value of the goal, the power required achieving the goal and the probability that the goal will be achieved.
Because of individual’s past experience is similar of situation, it will enable to a better self-assessment of the required effort, ability perform well and achieve the goal
Performance achievement can be achieved by individual efforts which mean individual understand the task requirement and know their self-assessment of ability.
Individual sees performance as lead to both rewards which is extrinsic and intrinsic can give satisfaction if individual feel the rewards are fair. This model is most complete and has enough description of the process of motivation.
Performance of employee is usually described as a joint function between both ability and motivation, and one of the primary tasks that employer have to face is motivating employee to perform to the best of their own skill or ability (Moorhead & Griffin, 1998). Basically, when economists talk about incentives and motivation, it refers to type of motivation which is extrinsic motivation (Frey, 1997, Benabou and Tirole, 2003). Extrinsic motivation is a type of behavior influence by external interventions, examples your boss give reward in term of money, praise your work, or status (Frey, 1997). This type of incentives works same as quid pro quo: employee has the implicit contract that after perform well in a performance they will receive an external reward. This means that the view of monetary rewards, either in the form of incentive compensation or promotions automatically will increase employee motivation.
According to Minner, Ebrahimi, and Watchel (1995), they explain that motivation consists of these three interdependent and interacting elements which are drives, needs, and incentives. As long as organizations have been operated, compensation had recognized as one of major motivator of employees in order to perform better as well as an important tool for organizations. To construct compensation systems, organization must have mutual understanding so that it can be to the organization’s structure, strategies, and employees that has been an important area. To use compensation as a motivator to employee motivation, personnel employer must look at four major components of a pay structures in an organization (Popoola & Ayeni 2007). These four major components are job rate, which is the importance the organization attaches to each job, payment, which employer give reward to encourage employee based on to their performance, personal or special allowances, like transport allowance and fringe benefits such as holidays with pay and pensions.
According to Akintoye (2000), he highlight that money is still be the most important motivational strategy. Early year 1911, Frederick Taylor and his scientific management associate defined money as the most important factor to motivate employee in order to achieve and improve better productivity. Taylor also defined compensation and performance based pay as one of the major tools management had to motivate employees and to improve their productivity hence reduce turnover. Money sees as an important motivating power in as much as it symbolizes intangible goals like security, prestige, power, and a feeling of accomplishment and success. Sinclair (2005) explained that the motivational power of money with the process of job choice. Sinclair explains that money has the power to attract, retain, and motivate employee in order to increase and improve performance. As example, if an employee gets another job offer, which offers best financial rewards and has same job characteristics with his current job, that employee would be motivated to leave current job and accept the new job offer.
Banjoko (1996) states that employers which want to reward or punish their employees, they usually use money. This is can be done through the process of rewarding employees for increase productivity by give recognition to employee so that employee will feel fear of loss of job or other related issues such as no promotion because of not perform well in performance. The eagerness to be promoted and earn improved pay also will motivate employees. Compensation research is more focus on stressing the internal orientation to an individual’s reaction to pay. This research orientation is always led by industrial organizational psychologists and has contributed to human resource management practice. The main force for this research has been the suggestion that pay will affects level of job satisfaction of employee and work behaviors or employee motivation (Oshagbemi, 2000).
Generally, organizations offer their employees three types of opportunities which are (Ospina, 1996):
Challenges at work.
According to Kwon (2004) there are two ways promotion provided incentives. First, wage increase upon promotion or promotion premium can be fixing by principal, and let the promotion probability depend on performance. Second, a principal also can fix the promotion probability and let the promotion premium depend on performance. Hence, both promotion probability and promotion premium will base on performance. However, the literature has only focused on the former, and mostly will ignore the final. Remind that when use for performance-based wages, in most previous models of promotion-based incentives, the principal do not have any reason to provide huge incentives, and sometimes promote employees without any reason. Our model highlights the final. Because employees in the model is same and usually makes an investment along the equilibrium path, the principal promotes them based on term unless they realized performance or wages. This is consistent based on seniority-rule in promote employees. But, a wage increase with promotion based on performance in order to provide incentives for investments on job-specific human capital that does not for a new job level. In the extreme case, controlling for term, the promotion probability based whether on performance or on wages.
According on a survey amongst all individual employees, Herpen, Cools & Praag (2004) found a positive link that effect of promotions on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, which leads to the effectiveness of promotion. They show that promotion will affect positively on extrinsic motivation that constant with one of the basic assumptions in the tournament model. Motivation is high in this type when employees think that they will get promotion in the future. Intrinsic motivation is not so much affected by an expected promotion but rather by a recently realized promotion. Without a realized or expected promotion in long period will lead to a decrease of intrinsic motivation (Herpen, Cools & Praag, 2004). Promotions should elaborate motivation in many ways. Moreover, there often does not seem to be strong pay for performance within jobs, which only increases the clear importance of promotions for organizational incentives (Hedstrom, 1987).
But for internal labor markets, the status of higher positions is more important rather than higher pay because employees tend to perform well to win the competition. Promotion defines an incentive mechanism that gives value to employees that in higher position (Takahashi, 2005). For organizations that want to motivate their employees, they must fully the incentive effects of promotion. Lazear & Rosen (1981) stated that promotions have contributed a great deal in theoretical interest, especially in the tournament models. A promotion can be an indication of trust and lead to empowerment, which is correlated positively with intrinsic motivation (Deci and Ryan, 1985). In order to find out the full incentive that effect promotion, organization will analyze the relationship between perceived promotion opportunities and intrinsic motivation.
“Reward is the benefits that workers can get from perform well in a task, representation a service or discharging a responsibility.” (Colin Pitts, 1995, p. 11.) Pay can be as the most important factor that will motivate employees and also can be motivating reward that is received when employees can perform better in a task and service. Individuals will motivate to go out and find a work in order to get pay. Pay is also can be seen as a way in order to value employee’s work that contributed to organization. Organization will face a problem such as hard to retain good employees in organization if employees feel reward package that they get is unfair and not satisfied. It is because pay can be a powerful demotivator towards employees (Colin Pitts, 1995). It shows that rewards absolutely can influence employee motivation. Inequity in the management of compensation such as performance that measure unfair may give negative impact to the objectives of the company, as employees will not work hard but want to get reward so it will lead to expense of contribution. But if the compensation pay is perceived as fair, satisfied and competitive, hence good employees are likely to stay in the organization (Schuler, 1998).
Many employees think that reward package is only wages and salaries that employer give as a return of their contribution to organization. Actually the reward package is include bonuses, health insurance, pension schemes, car allowance, beneficial loans, meal allowance, profit sharing, share options and others. (Pitts, 1995, p.13). Efficient reward system can be a good motivator but an inefficient reward system can lead to demotivation of the employees. Reio and Callahon (2004) concludes that both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards motivates the employee resulted in higher productivity.
Carraher et al (2006) stresses that there should be an effective reward system in organization in order to retain the quality employees’ and reward should provide based on their productivity. There many works has been done in order to evaluate the link between rewards and employee motivation and there are many researchers investigated and agreed that reward can give impact on employee motivation. Organization must make sure that policies and procedures to form reward system will increase employee motivation and satisfaction in order to maximize the performance of the employees.
Performance-based pay (PBP) is one of the compensation schemes that have link between employee performances with pay. It can be defined as a system of remuneration in which an individual’s increase in salary is solely or mainly dependent on his/her appraisal or merit rating (Swabe, 1989). Armstrong (2005) defines it more comprehensively as the process of providing a financial reward to an individual which is linked directly to individual, group or organizational performance. But Schuler (1998) maintains that PBP is not limited to financial rewards, and that non-financial rewards, such as recognition, can also constitute pay for performance. The basic reasons for PBP are performance enhancement for competitive advantage and equity (MIlkovich and Newman, 1996). In this regard, Beardwell and Holden (1995) identify several specific reasons for which managers may introduce PBP. These include:
Help in recruitment and selection;
Facilitate change in organizational culture;
Weaken trade union power; increased role of the line manager;
Greater financial control and value for money;
Ability to reward and recognize performance; and
Encouragement to flexibility.
Proposition/ Recommendation
Each researcher has their own recommendation regarding this study that investigated the relationship between compensation pay and employee motivation. Organization or employer should understand what influences individual’s motivation which determines how they behave and why they behave in a certain way. Organization can use theories of motivation in order to determine level of motivation or factors that can influence employee motivation in organization. One of the theories that organization can be use is the basic one, Maslow’s theory. Maslow’s theory shows that human needs are a function of the capacity in which the needs have already been fulfilled. This means that a fulfilled need has a low motivation value.
Bishop (1987) suggested that pay is directly related with productivity and reward system depends upon the size of an organization. Compensation pay such as pay or reward package and promotion will influence employee motivation in organization. For efficiency of compensation pay, organization can give compensation pay based on their size of organization. If the organization is big, employer should provided compensation pay that suitable to their employee such as high compensation pay in term of give employee high pay so that employee will motivate and tend to perform well. Consequently, it will increase employee motivation in organization and employee.
Herzberg’s theory explained that if employer give an opportunities for promotions and actual promotions are highly to motivate higher performance than regular pay structures. This is supported by Maslow’s earlier needs theory, which ranks self-esteem and self-actualization as higher-order needs compared with physiological needs, which would include pay, as lower-order needs. Promotions do usually increase pay, but the motivational influence stems from recognition, increased responsibility, more challenging work and a personal sense of accomplishment — all of which are motivating factors, according to Herzberg. Herzberg even notes “opportunities for advancement” specifically as a motivator. If employer gives opportunity or promotion to employee, motivation of employee will increase towards to perform better in work because employee feels that employer appreciate their contribution to organization and get recognition from organization.
Conclusion and Implication
Human resources Compensation pay is one of the most important factors that influence employee motivation in organization. The findings of the present study adds a new perspective on the basis of a new environmental settings to the existing evidence signifying that the work motivation in the organizations is influenced by the satisfaction of the employees with their compensation, which is offered by the organization. The further analysis of the data pertaining to the satisfaction with compensation and work motivation suggest that benefits had a positive but weak relationship with the work motivation. Benefits include allowances and reimbursements for miscellaneous expenses, company housing and company conveyance. The previous researches in this regard refer benefits as not an ingredient, which motivates employees, Jacques and Roussel, (1999). Our findings relate with these findings because of the weaker relationship of benefits with work motivation. We might also find an explanation for the inefficiency of benefits, in research by Hills, Bergmann and Scarpello (1994). Referring to surveys concerning employees, they formulate the proposition that benefits are generally perceived as a right in United States society, so they have no incentive character.

Do parents have an influence over child delinquency?

To what extent do parents have an influence over their children becoming delinquent?
There have been an increasing number of stories in the media regarding children and their increasing tendencies to crime. High profile crimes such as the Jamie Bulgar murder and shootings in universities across America have sparked a high level of controversy and research into what actually makes a child delinquent. There have been a number of factors which have been associated with child delinquency such as the individual child, peers, school, neighbourhood, the media and one which has received a huge amount of attention is parents and family. This essay will be looking at the extent to which parents have an influence over there children becoming delinquent.

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It will explain reasons and ways in which parents influence there children into delinquency through lack of for example discipline, and a variety of other factors. It will then go on to examine other factors such as the individual, peers and school, which may contribute to a child taking the path of crime and will evaluate how much influence this has on a child.
The US dept of justice created the office of juvenile justice and delinquency prevention (OJJDP) which formed a study group on very young offenders to examine the prevalence and frequency of offending in children under the age of 13. This study group identified a number of risk and protective factors which were crucial in developing early intervention and protection programs for very young offenders. It found that some aspects of children’s behaviour such as temperament are established during the first five years of life. This foundation coupled with children’s exposure to certain risk and protective factors, influences the likelihood of children becoming delinquent from an early age. Risk factors are things which are most likely to pull a child into a life of crime. There are three types of risk factors; static, dynamic and protective. Static risk factors are those which are historical and cannot be changed such as age at first offence and prior criminal history. Dynamic risk factors are those which are changeable these are things such as substance and alcohol abuse.
Lastly protective factors are those which mediate and moderate the effect of exposure to risk factors. This is usually done by reducing the risk of exposure to crime, reducing negative chain reactions which means to deal with a delinquency problem identified in children from an early age rather than letting it spiral out of control. Another protective factor which should be instilled in children is establishing self esteem and self efficacy this in addition to opening up opportunities to them will reduce the calling of crime as they will have other things to keep them occupied and realise there are a number of things which they can do t broaden there horizons. However the identification of these risk factors have been difficult to pinpoint but it remains imperative to distinguish as these factors are essential to developing interventions to prevent child delinquency from escalating into chronic criminality. There area number of studies which were done in both the UK and the US to identify risk factors which are associated with a child turning to crime.
The Cambridge Study of Delinquency was a longitudinal survey of the development of offending and antisocial behaviour in 411 males first studied at age 8 in 1961 – at that time they were all living in a working-class deprived inner-city area of South London. It found eight different factors which contributed to children turning delinquent these were; low income family, large family, poor parenting, below average intelligence, parent with criminal record, impulsivity, antisocial behaviour, socio-economic deprivation and coming from a ‘broken’ home. A youth lifestyles survey which was carried out in the UK also identified eight different risk factors which are associated to a child turning to a life of crime these are; drug use, alcohol abuse, low interest in school, being bullied, lack of qualifications, delinquent peers, poor parenting and a lack of appropriate space for children to be in. According to the OJJDP study group on very young offenders, a group of 39 experts on child delinquency and child psychopathology convened by the OJJDP, risk factors for child delinquency operate in several domains: the individual child, the child’s family, peer group, school, neighbourhood and the media.
This again corresponds with the findings of the Cambridge study which found compared with the un-convicted men, being a persister was predicted by having a convicted parent, high daring, a delinquent sibling, a young mother, low popularity, large family size and a disrupted family. Compared with the un-convicted men, being a desister was predicted by having poor housing, a convicted parent, high daring, low junior school attainment, low nervousness and a disrupted family. The large majority of those who were first convicted at ages 10–13 (91%) or 14–16 (84%) did not give up offending after the first offence. They continued offending (according to convictions) for an average of 13 years. Those who started at 10–13 years had an average of nine convictions; those who started at 14–16 had an average of six.
In contrast, the average for those who were first convicted at age 17 or older was much lower at around two convictions each. This shows us that the younger the offender starts the longer there career in crime. The results by the OJJDP also correspond with the results found in the Youth Lifestyles survey. Most professionals agree that there is no single risk which leads a child to delinquency rather the likelihood of early juvenile offending increases as the number of risk factors and risk factor domains increases. While parental delinquency is not the whole answer to juvenile delinquency, it is one of the major factors in this problem.
The notion of protective risk factors is one which parents are largely associated with. Traditionally it is the role of the parents to protect and harbour there children from a life of crime and deviance. However this is not always the case. There is wide belief that single parents are highly likely to have delinquent children for a number of reasons such as economic conditions which are inherent to single-parent families may place children at greater risk. Socialization of children residing in single-parent families may differ from those residing with two parents and may have a damaging effect on the child as well as they type of neighbourhoods, in which single parents often reside. Lastly the ways in which the system or officials from formal institutions such as school, police, and courts respond to children from single-parent homes may result in these children being more likely to be identified as delinquent. There is consistently a positive relationship between marital discord and delinquency. Children who witness marital discord are at greater risk of becoming delinquents.
Social learning theory argues that aggressive behaviour is learned; as parents display aggressive behaviour, children learn to imitate it as an acceptable means of achieving goals. However, most children who witness marital conflict do not become delinquent. A healthy home environment, one in which parents and children share affection, cohesion, and involvement, reduces the risk of delinquency. Parental rejection appears to be one of the most significant predictors of delinquency. Not only does parental attachment to children influence the likelihood of delinquency, but apparently so does the attachment of the child to the parent. This dual relationship implies an interaction between characteristics of both the parent and the child. A healthy home environment is the single most important factor necessary to keep children from becoming delinquent. Current positivist approaches generally focus on the cultural and socio-economic environment to which a young person has been exposed, and how these conditions may be criminogenic.
These theories de-empathize the fault of the individual, and stress criminal behaviour is largely determined by factors out with a young person’s control. Social ecology or social disorganisation theory says crime is generated by the breakdown of traditional values and norms. This was most likely to occur in urban areas with transient populations and high levels of migration, which would produce the breakdown of family relationships and community, competing values, and increasing impersonality. Children who are inadequately supervised by parents who fail to teach them right and wrong, who do not monitor their whereabouts, friends, or activities, and who discipline them erratically and harshly are more likely to become delinquent. Marital discord is a more powerful predictor of delinquency than divorce or single-parent family structure.
Family relations, not just the separation, influence delinquency. Abuse directly affects the child, yet the link between abuse and delinquency is not as strong as the link between rejection and delinquency. Abused children tend to manifest more problematic and aggressive behaviour than children who are not abused, but some abused children withdraw, become self-destructive, or focus their reaction inward. Other children show few behavioural effects of abuse. Being abused increases the chances of delinquency, but most abused children do not become delinquent.
Research on causes of delinquency makes a major contribution to the understanding of the interaction of the family and delinquency. A child’s predisposition toward impulsive, aggressive, and antisocial behaviour may initiate a process within the family that ultimately leads to delinquency. Parents of a difficult child may stop parenting to gain peace within the home and may come to reject the child. Antisocial patterns established within the family may be exacerbated and reinforced as the child enters school. As the child enters adolescence, delinquent acts may further weaken the youth’s attachment to family, school and conventional ties. Whilst it is true that society does have a role to play in the upbringing of children in the sense of providing a social environment in which to bring up a child but it is clearly the role of the parent to mentor, advise and guide a child through to their adulthood.
No child has it easy, but it is true some are worse off than others and as a result of being disadvantaged in some way. But there is also another class of youngster, one without discipline and respect in their life, one without a strong guide in their life which ensures that the child stays on track and in the right direction in their life. These are the roles of parents and a society which attempts to divorce parents from this responsibility is only asking for more trouble. The role of a parent, is to watch, to guard, to mentor, to guide, to create a home environment suitable for a young person, but the role of a parent is to also educate a young person in their role in society. It is a clear deficiency of a parent, when a young person goes off the tracks. Therefore the question must be asked whether parents can, through effective socialisation, prevent delinquent behaviour among there offspring? In addition to affection, three elements appear to characterize positive parenting that is normative regulation, monitoring regulation, and discipline. The quality of supervision is consistently and strongly related to delinquency.
Parents must adequately monitor their children’s behaviour, whereabouts and friends. They must reliably discipline there children for antisocial and prohibited behaviour, but must do so neither rigidly or severely. It helps if they assist their children in problem solving, negotiate conflict and model pro social behaviour. Less is known about the link between parental attention to normative and moral development and subsequent delinquency than many other topics of family life. However research appears to indicate that delinquency is more likely when normative development is incomplete, and when children are unable to distinguish between right and wrong, feel little or no obligation to standards of behaviour, and have little respect for the rights and welfare of others. Parents play a critical role in moral development.
A variety of family circumstances have been identified as contributing to the delinquent behaviour of children. Children who are rejected by their parents, are inadequately supervised, and grow up in homes with considerable conflict are at greatest risk of becoming delinquents. The presence of any one of these family circumstance factors increases the chances of raising a delinquent child. The addition of more than one factor further enhances the odds of misbehaviour. There appears to be a cumulative effect such that the presence of more than one of these negative family attributes compounds the likelihood of delinquency. Not all children follow the same path to delinquency; different combinations of life experiences may produce delinquent behaviour. Finally positive parenting practices during the early years and later in adolescence appear to act as buffers, preventing delinquent behaviour and assisting adolescents in desisting from further delinquent behaviour.
In addition to parents having an influence on children becoming delinquency there are a number of other factors to consider such as the effect of school on children. A negative effect from school can impact the progression of delinquency developing in children. Failure to bond to school during childhood can lead to delinquency. In addition, as stated above, early neurological deficiencies, when combined with the failure of family, school, and community to provide adequate socialization, lead to early-onset offending that persists throughout life. A specific school risk factor for delinquency is poor academic performance. A meta-analysis of more than 100 studies examined the relationship between poor academic performance and delinquency and found that poor academic performance is related to the prevalence, onset, frequency, and seriousness of delinquency (Maguin and Loeber, 1996).
In young children ages 8 to 11, academic performance has been related to serious later delinquency (Loeber et al., 1998). Even when individual intelligence and attention problems are taken into account, academic performance remains a predictor of delinquency. Children with weak bonds (low commitment) to school, low educational aspirations, and poor motivation are also at risk for general offending and for child delinquency (e.g., Hawkins et al., 1998; Le Blanc, Coté, and Loeber, 1991). It is likely that children who perform poorly on academic tasks will fail to develop strong bonds to school and will have lower expectations of success. As a result, academic achievement and school bonding are, in many ways, interdependent. For example, one study found that boys who engage in delinquency are less committed to school and are also more likely to have “shorter plans” for their schooling. These boys described themselves as bad students (Le Blanc et al., 1991).
In addition to school fellow classmates and peers can also have a negative impact on a child. Peer influences on child delinquency usually appear developmentally later than do individual and family influences. Many children entering school, for example, already show aggressive and disruptive behaviours. Two major mechanisms associated with peer factors or influences are association with deviant peers and peer rejection. Association with deviant peers is related to increased co-offending and, in a minority of cases, the joining of gangs. Related to strain theory is subcultural theory. The inability of youths to achieve socially valued status and goals results in groups of young people forming deviant or delinquent subcultures, which have their own values and norms. (Eadie & Morley: 2003 p.552) Within these groups criminal behaviour may actually be valued, and increase a youth’s status. (Walklate: 2003 p.22)
The notion of delinquent subcultures is relevant for crimes that are not economically motivated. Male gang members could be argued to have their own values, such as respect for fighting ability and daring. However it is not clear how different this makes them from ‘ordinary’ non-lawbreaking young men. Furthermore there is no explanation of why people unable to achieve socially valued goals should necessarily choose criminal substitutes. Subcultural theories have been criticised for making too sharp a distinction between what is deviant and what is ‘normal’. (Brown: 1998 p.23) There are also doubts about whether young people consciously reject mainstream values. (Brown: 1998 p.23) Since a 1931 report showing that 80 percent of Chicago juvenile delinquents were arrested with co-offenders, empirical evidence has supported the theory that deviant peer associations contribute to juvenile offending (Shaw and McKay, 1931). The unresolved question is whether deviant peers model and reinforce antisocial behaviours or whether the association with deviant peers is simply another manifestation of a child’s predisposition to delinquency.
In other words, do “birds of a feather flock together” or does “bad company corrupt”? The theory of Differential association also deals with young people in a group context, and looks at how peer pressure and the existence of gangs could lead them into crime. (Eadie & Morley: 2003 p.552) It suggests young people are motivated to commit crimes by delinquent peers, and learn criminal skills from them. (Eadie & Morley: 2003 p.552) The diminished influence of peers after men marry has also been cited as a factor in desisting from offending. (Graham & Bowling: 1995 p.4) There is strong evidence that young people with criminal friends are more likely to commit crimes themselves. (Walklate: 2003 p. 2) However it may be the case that offenders prefer to associate with one another, rather than delinquent peers causing someone to start offending. (Graham & Bowling: 1995 p.49)
Furthermore there is the question of how the delinquent peer group became delinquent initially. The Study Group found that a strong case could be made that deviant peers influence Non-delinquent juveniles to become delinquent. For example, according to data from the National Youth Survey on a representative sample of U.S. juveniles ages 11 to 17, the most frequent pattern was a child moving from association with non-delinquent peers to association with slightly deviant peers, and then on to commission of minor offences. More frequent association with deviant peers and more serious offending followed, leading to the highest level of association with deviant peers (Elliott and
Menard, 1996; Keenan et al., 1995). Deviant peers influence juveniles who already have some history of delinquent behaviour to increase the severity or frequency of their offending. A few studies of children younger than 14 support this hypothesis. For example, in a study of Iowa juveniles, involvement in the juvenile justice system was highest for those who engaged in disruptive behaviour and associated with deviant peers at a young age (Simons et al., 1994). The Study Group concluded that deviant peers contribute to serious offending by child delinquents during the period of their transition to adolescence.
Although an extreme form of association with deviant peers, gangs provide a ready source of co-offenders. Not surprisingly, gang membership reflects the highest degree of deviant peer influence on offending. The Rochester Youth Development Study, the Denver Youth Survey, and the Seattle Social Development Project have all shown that gangs appear to exert a considerable influence on the delinquent behaviour of individual members. Juveniles are joining gangs at younger ages, and the role of gangs in crimes committed by youthful offenders appears to be an increasing problem (Howell, 1998). In the case of violence, even after accounting for other risk factors (such as association with delinquent peers who are not gang members, family poverty, lack of parental supervision, and negative life events), gang membership still has the strongest relationship with self-reported violence (Battin et al., 1998).
Lastly a focus on the individual is required when looking into factors associated with delinquency. Not everything can be blamed on parents as there is a large element of the child themselves which make them more predisposed to following a path of delinquency. Classical criminology stresses causes of crime lie within the individual offender, rather than in their external environment. For classicists offenders are motivated by rational self-interest, and the importance of free will and personal responsibility is emphasised. Rational choice theory is the clearest example of this approach. It states that people weigh up the pros and cons of committing a crime, and offend when the former outweigh the latter. A central deficiency of rational choice theory is that while it may explain when and where people commit crime, it can’t explain very well why people choose to commit crimes in the first place.
Neither can it explain differences between individuals and groups in their propensity to commit crimes. James Q. Wilson said the conscience and self-control of a potential young offender must be taken into account, and that these attributes are formed by parental and societal conditioning. Rational choice does not explain why crime should be committed disproportionately by young people, males, city dwellers, and the poor. (Walklate: 2003 p.2) It also ignores the effect a, young persons peers can have on them, and the fact that some youths may be less able to accurately foresee the consequences of their actions than others. Rational choice theory does not take into account the proven correlations between certain social circumstances and individuals’ personalities, and the propensity to commit crime.
If we study the characteristics of those processed by control agencies, and if we accept that they are representative of all delinquents, we may conclude that the typical juvenile delinquent is different from his peers in a number of ways. That is to say that there are a number of traits which are significant predictors of delinquent activity. Some of these traits appear to be fundamental personality factors hyperactivity, tendency to alcoholism, psychosis, low measured intelligence, small stature and poor health and being male rather than female. There are also some significant characteristic modes of social interaction which make the individual more prone to delinquency such as bad temper, unpopular with peers, disruptive behaviour in school, parents found him a difficult child, likely to be violent and poor work and bad results at school.
Lastly backgrounds are important in determining whether a child will follow a path of delinquency and a career in crime. These factors include environmental, living in a slum area, living in an area of high delinquency, social class, father unskilled labourer, poor surveillance, irregular discipline, lack of affection, family interaction characterised by antisocial behaviour, family breakdown and poverty. These young people are recognized as being difficult by parents, other children and teachers. The onset of these problems was very often early in the child’s life, and the first steps into delinquency were often taken as early as 9 or 10 years old.
A significant implication which, has been highlighted is that bad behaviour is a general trait. Robins and Ratcliff (1980) have shown that each separate type of childhood deviance (hyper-activity, conduct disorder, bed-wetting, etc) is independently correlated with the overall level of adult deviance. Each separate type of adult deviance is predicted by the overall level of childhood deviance. The overall level of childhood deviance is a better predictor of adult deviance than any one particular childhood behaviour. These relationships do not depend on the continuation of the same behaviour from childhood into adulthood. Variation in the kind of bad behaviour manifested is more a function of age than of character.
Focus on risk factors that appear at a young age is the key to preventing child delinquency and its escalation into chronic criminality. By intervening early, young children will be less likely to succumb to the accumulating risks that arise later in childhood and adolescence and less likely to incur the negative social and personal consequences of several years of disruptive and delinquent behaviours.
Child delinquency usually stems from a combination of factors that varies from child to child. No single risk factor is sufficient to explain it. To develop effective methods for preventing child delinquency and its escalation into serious and violent juvenile offending, intervention methods must account for the wide range of individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors.
Some effective intervention programs that focus on reducing persistent disruptive behaviour in young children have reduced later serious, violent, and chronic offending. Some interventions focus on parent behaviours that increase the risk of persistent disruptive behaviour in children. Peer relations training and school/classroom programs have also shown some promise. Still, many gaps exist in our knowledge about the development of child delinquency, the risk and protective factors that contribute to it, and effective prevention and intervention methods. Addressing these gaps offers an exceptional opportunity to reduce overall crime level.

Mayan Religion And Their Kings Influence Upon It Religion Essay

The Mayans of Mesoamerica have been known for their mysterious culture but mostly for their kings and religious practices/beliefs. The exact beliefs or actions of the Mayans may never fully be discovered or understood. As time passes we have learned more and more from the ruins they have left behind. Due to the mysteriousness of the religion many people take advantage of this and make up stories to benefit themselves but luckily we have archaeologists and anthropologists to debunk these ridiculous claims. Many people believe that the Mayans were a bloodthirsty race due to their religious practices and explanations of them by outsiders, such as colonialists. The Mayans seem to be very violent due to these stories by the colonialists and propagandists but people don’t realize it’s just the Mayan’s strong devotion to religion and faith within their kings that make them willing to sacrifice themselves or loved ones to their gods but were never to be considered blood thirsty.

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This is the first account, the first narrative. There was neither man, nor animal, birds, fishes, crabs, trees, stones, caves, ravines, grasses, nor forests; there was only the sky. The surface of the earth had not appeared. There was only the calm sea and the great expanse of the sky. There was nothing brought together, nothing which could make a noise, nor anything which might move, or tremble, or could make noise in the sky. There was nothing standing; only the calm water, the placid sea, alone and tranquil. Nothing existed. There was only immobility and silence in the darkness, in the night. Only the creator, the Maker, Tepeu, Gucumatz, the Forefathers, were in the water surrounded with light. […] Then Tepeu and Gucumatz came together; then they conferred about life and light, what they would do so that there would be light and dawn, who it would be who would provide food and sustenance. Thus let it be done! Let the emptiness be filled! Let the water recede and make a void, let the earth appear and become solid; let it be done. Thus they spoke. Let there be light, let there be dawn in the sky and on the earth! There shall be neither glory nor grandeur in our creation and formation until the human being is made, man is formed. […] First the earth was formed, the mountains and the valleys; the currents of water were divided, the rivulets were running freely between the hills, and the water was separated when the high mountains appeared. Thus was the earth created, when it was formed by the Heart of Heaven, the Heart of Earth, as they are called who first made it fruitful, when the sky was in suspense, and the earth was submerged in the water. (Thompson 1970)
After the creation of the earth, together these gods tried to create man so that they would be praised for their creation. They attempted to make man but made animals and quickly realized they weren’t man yet. Then they try to make a man out of mud but the mud just soaked up the water and dissolved. Next they try to make man out of wood but these lacked souls and minds. Then came the true creation of man as such
This the Forefathers did, Tepeu and Gucumatz, as they were called. After that they began to talk about the creation and the making of our first mother and father; of yellow corn and of white corn they made their flesh; of cornmeal dough they made the arms and the legs of man. Only dough of corn meal went into the flesh of our first fathers, the four men, who were created. […] And as they had the appearance of men, they were men; they talked, conversed, saw and heard, walked, grasped things; they were good and handsome men, and their figure was the figure of a man. (Thompson 1970)
From this women were created while the men were sleeping. This starts the understanding we have of Mayan cosmology allowing us to shape their culture and religion around it.
Mayan religion can be looked at as a contract between man and his gods. The gods would help man with all of his work and provide him with the essentials of food and water. In return for this the Gods would expect payments typically in advance. The Mayans flourished thanks to a deep understanding of their geographic setting, and surprising adaptations to the environmental conditions that surrounded them. They conceived the world as a flat and four cornered space that was ordered and measured at the time of creation. Each corner was held up by four old deities. The sky was held up by four Bacabs of the correct color for each direction supporting the skies with upraised arms. These Bacabs were also sometimes represented as trees. The Mayans also believed in the idea that life and death are cyclical like their seasons, calendars, and astronomical cycles they predicted (Karen Bassie-Sweet 2008: 4). They also believe that the physical world is tied to the supernatural world by the Gods who live within the other/supernatural world. These cycles spiral through time without beginning or ending because when one of these would end another would begin again creating the cyclic pattern. The Mayan’s believed that when people died they would enter the Underworld through a cave or most likely a cenote. Although that was the belief of the path of death for most Mayans when the kings passed away they followed a path connected to the cosmic movement of the sun and fell into the Underworld. Then because they possessed the supernatural powers they attained from while being king they were reborn into the Sky World and became gods themselves. Mayans usually dreaded death by natural causes because the dead did not automatically go to “paradise”. Usually they buried people beneath the floors of their houses with their mouths filled with food and a jade bead while being accompanied by religious items and objects they used when they were alive. Most of the graves of priests were believed to have contained religious books.
The Mayans were known by archaeologists and anthropologists for their immense knowledge in astronomy, astrology, and mathematics. To the Mayans religion and science were one in the same. Many of their discoveries in these areas of intelligence tied in with religious rituals closely. They were also very closely associated with time which is why they are known by archaeologists and anthropologists for their calendar. Within Mayan cosmology the world has been created 5 times and destroyed 4 times. This tied into the idea that has been created by propagandists stating that the long count ending date is the supposed day of destruction but this assumption is untrue due to the cyclic pattern of the calendar. Mostly the calendar was used for religious purposes. The calendar showed specific dates in which rituals were to occur and also the Uayeb (Sharer and Traxler 2006: 102) otherwise known as the unlucky days or days without souls.
Since their religion was centered on their extensive calendar the priests had a very close connection with astronomy and the calendar. A lot of the times the Mayan kings were priests as well. Priests were expected to know the lucky and unlucky days of the calendar. They were also expected to know the days of the year to advise the people and kings what days were good for harvest, warfare, sacrificial days, and much more. Scholars initially believed that the Mayans were of a peaceful civilization due to its advancements in astronomy, astrology, and mathematics. After further investigation they discovered through hieroglyphics that the Mayans waged war on many other civilizations and took their kings hostage debunking the initial belief that they were peaceful. The Mayan kings were very connected to the planet Venus (Coe 2005: 96) and only waged wars on certain days of its cycle. After taken hostage some of these rulers were sacrificed to the Gods. This is where the idea of the Mayans being bloodthirsty derived. Bloodthirsty by definition is considered murderous, cruel, taking pleasure in bloodshed, or eager to shed blood (Merriam-Webster 2011). The Mayans believed that the Gods were nourished by human blood and the only way of pleasing them or contacting them was through human sacrifice or bloodletting. This shows that they weren’t doing it for fun or pure enjoyment but because their religious practices called for the bloodshed. These rituals were believed to strengthen fertility, show faithfulness, and propitiate the Gods. Sacrifice seems to be tied in with mainly ball games, festivals, and the taking of power by a new king. Within their beliefs it states that if these rituals and the bloodletting were neglected or forgotten then cosmic disorder and chaos would take place.
The rituals of high importance had the sacrifice of a victim that was held down by four helpers called Chacs on the top of a pyramid or raised place while the priest made an incision below the ribs and took out the heart with his hands. At this point the heart was then burned to please the Gods. This was believed that the smoke would reach the Gods as a sacrifice.(Sharer and Traxler 2006: 602) Not only did they make captives suffer but the Mayan aristocracy also was expected to undergo ritual bloodletting and self torture as mediators between the people and the gods to please the gods. If a person was of a higher power than another person they were expected to spill more blood. So the higher the position the more blood and more self torture you were expected to inflict upon yourself. Some such examples of self torture to draw blood were to jab spines through the ear, penis, or by pulling a thorn-studded cord through the tongue to draw blood that was collected as an offering to the gods. Another way of sacrifice practiced was the priests tied the victim to a wooden pole and threw spears and arrows at the victim’s chest in the area of the heart. A third type of sacrifice was that they threw the victim into a sacred well known as a Cenote.  These are typically defined as limestone sinkholes. One of the most famous of these was a cenote at Chichén Itzá.  It has been discovered that if the victims survived the fall and did not drown within the cenote, the priests would pull them up out of the well.  This is because the Mayans believed that if this occurred it would be because the gods had chosen to spare these victims.  In these cases the priests would then asked the victims what messages they had brought back from the gods.  From that point on the victims received special treatment because the Mayans believed that they had spoken to the gods and deserved to be treated this way. Other human sacrifices consisted by flaying, decapitation, or hurling bodies from a precipice. It is also thought that the losers of a ball game played by the Mayans may have been sacrificed to please the gods. These may seem very violent and direct thoughts towards the Mayans being bloodthirsty. Yet again people must remember these were rituals for religious purposes rather than enjoyment and were not done all the time but rather saved for those very important rituals and situations. For lesser rituals other objects were sacrificed such as animals like manatees, jaguars, opossums, parrots, turtles, pumas, crocodiles, squirrels, insects, feathers, deer, or rubber, cacao, maize, squash seeds, flowers, bark, honey, wax, jade, obsidian, virgin water from caves, shells, and more. Other rituals also took place to please the gods such as dancing, competitions, performances, and prayers to the gods. Major sacrificial rituals were not done every day but are one of the only things you hear about when you discuss or learn about the Maya. Knowing all of this it shows that although the Mayans are displayed as bloodthirsty monsters in books and classes today they really weren’t that way and that is just a westernized idea of a small part of their culture that is dramatized and blown out of proportion.
The Mayans were dominated by an elite group that governed them in a divine kingship style. Divine kingship is known as a religio-political concept that views a ruler as a manifestation, mediator, or agent to the deities in a culture. In other societies, members view their rulers or chiefs as inheritors of the community’s own magical power. The kings were typically men and were referred to as k’uhul ajaw meaning divine or holy lord. The kings obtained a lot of power from a lot of areas but it is definite that religion was fundamental to royal power. All of the Mayan kings controlled rituals that were considered by the Mayans to be responsible for resources such as water, food, and security. This gave them extra power over the Mayan people. Within ancient Mayan societies, the crown typically symbolized maize leaves, symbolizing the rulers with the Maize God and showing a similarity between the authority of the king and the sacred power of the God. The Mayan kings were known to dress as deities for rituals and performances. When the kings dressed as the deities or other spiritual beings during ritual performances, they were assuming the identities of them and wielded their divine powers. There were three vertical levels that the Mayan kings reigned over. The cosmological levels were the celestial upper world, the middle world otherwise known as earth, and the watery underworld. There was a great world tree that linked all three of these together represented by a maize plant, ceiba tree, or sometimes in the form of the king. Mayan kings used architecture to replicate the topography of the universe. It is believed that a pyramid represented a sacred mountain while the bordering plazas symbolically represented bodies of water. Beliefs are also that a prosperous collection of small objects were there expressing celestial principles through iconography.
Although the Mayans have been studied for many years they are still mysterious to the world. From this we can conclude that the Mayans were not bloodthirsty monsters but were rather just fearful of their gods or faithful to their kings and only did major sacrifices once in a while when need be to please their gods. Many of the beliefs about the Mayan kings display that they controlled almost everything the Mayans did due to the divine kingship they held. This allowed the Mayans to do what the king wanted and what the king said the God’s wanted done. In conclusion the Mayans were a regular civilization with advanced abilities in astrology, astronomy, and mathematics that tied that intelligence into its religion creating an advanced calendar predicting special religious days and sacrificial days that they followed with persuasion by their divine rulers and fear of their Gods.

Influence of Pablo Picasso on Art

Pablo Picasso: His Influence on Art.
The influence of Pablo Picasso on art can be measured via the enduring fame of the man; he remains, arguably, the most famous artist since Michelangelo, more celebrated than Duschamp, Monet or Cezanne. He was a legend during his own lifetime, the celebrated Salvador Dalí citing Picasso as, “his hero, and to be taken seriously by him [Picasso], a sort of right of passage.”

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His posthumous reputation is built upon the solid foundation of innovative art coupled with revolutionary expressionism that many commentators have seen as constituting the very genesis of modern art. For many, Picasso is none other than the artist who carried painting into the twentieth century, the personification of the advent of a new age in art felt in the same way as it was in industry, economy and ideology.
His private life and professional life merged more than most famous artists. Bar for a small period towards the end of his life, Picasso was free from the scandal that accompanied the legends of Matisse, Van Gogh or Manet, for instance. Art was always his first mistress, although more than most other artists, Picasso drew from the experiences which touched him in his personal life to inspire his creative output.
Born in Spain Picasso was, from the outset, noticed as a child prodigy by his art teacher father. Indeed, the Museo de Picasso in Barcelona is dedicated almost exclusively to his very early paintings and sculptures. By the time he was a teenager Picasso began to frequent the more Bohemian outlets of Barcelona, where his inquisition acted like a sponge for the diversity of influences all around him. Inevitably, Picasso moved briefly to the capital of art, Paris, where he was further exposed to the rich variety of expressions prevalent at the fin‑de‑siecle. One can see these formative years as essential in the development of the discernibly different styles that Picasso adopted in his adult life.
First he experimented with realism and caricature, heavily influenced by his time in Paris. Commentators have since labelled his next two phases as the “Blue Period” and the “Rose Period” respectively. During the “Blue Period” (1901‑1904), Picasso relied heavily on a blue palette for his paintings, where he focused excessively on the traditional outsiders of society to tell his story: beggars, prostitutes and vagrants make up the bulk of the actors in this phase of his life. In contrast, the “Rose Period” (1904‑1905) used as its focal point less wretched members of society, though he still accented the ridiculous: clowns, trapeze artists and other circus personnel tended to constitute the majority of his work during this epoch. Apart from bequeathing such classics as the Blue Period’s La Vie (1903) and the Rose Period’s Family of Saltimbanques (1905), the work of Picasso during the very early years of the twentieth century also highlights the tendencies of an artist who is unwilling to be pigeon‑holed as an exponent of only one type of art. His greatness came from his ability to transcend certain artistic genres without ever losing any credibility or acumen.
Next Picasso travelled to Holland where he was greatly influenced by the classical paintings of Greek mythology. He returned to Paris where he was intrigued and challenged by the ground‑breaking Fauvist work of Matisse, which used familiarly grotesque themes to Picasso’s “Blue Period”.  The caricature‑like nature of Matisse’s work inspired Picasso to experiment with ancient, primitive art, especially that which so influenced the Iberian culture from where he hailed. With Spain being positioned so close to Africa, Picasso naturally, “appropriated African art in the development of modern styles,” and his primitive experimentation ought to be seen as the key development in his embracement of Cubism, the style for which he remains most noted internationally today. Picasso’s incorporation of African influences into his own sculptures constituted the first time when he consciously used his art as a vehicle to voice his concerns over the state of the modern world in which he lived. “It allowed him to confront his audience with their own assumptions about ‘Africa’ and the relation of Picasso’s work to that highly publicised discourse.”
Yet, as detailed, Cubism remains the artistic style most closely associated with Pablo Picasso. Essentially, Cubism played with the concept of the three dimensional human figure, distorting the shapes, lines and contours of the paint so that both the front and back of the body was visible at the same time. Together with Georges Braque, Picasso drove forward the movement of Cubism so that, by 1913, it was the chief progressive artistic ideology in both Europe and North America. The Guitar (1913) is often cited as Picasso’s own personal best with regards to Cubist expressionism, a noticeably Synthetic Cubist creation, although he was soon, unsurprisingly, moving away from Cubism to embrace yet another facet of modern art.   
Towards the latter part of his creative life, Picasso moved into the realms of Surrealism, influenced again by classical art. By that time, however, the Spanish Civil War (1936‑1939) had broken out, igniting, once more, a politicisation of Picasso’s work. “Picasso was deeply moved by the civil war raging in his native Spain, and applied himself to creating a monumental record of its barbarity.” Guernica (1937) is his most celebrated painting of the time – the carnage inflicted upon the Basque city designated within the title constituting his inspiration for painting, which, for the first time in history, documented the horrors of modern warfare, in particular the devastation of air raids.  
Thus, as Picasso was present to carry progressive art through to the twentieth century, so he was likewise the catalyst for the artistic expression of horror that post‑industrial man could inflict upon civilisation that the Second World War would starkly reveal. Moreover, his breath‑taking skill, throughout his career, at depicting all forms of artistic endeavour have led contemporary commentators such as, Susan Sternau, to conclude that, “more than any other individual artist, Picasso shaped the course of twentieth century art.”
M. Antliff & P. Leighten, Cubism and Culture (Thames & Hudson; London, 2001)
R. Brandon, Surreal Lives: the Surrealists, 1917‑1945 (Macmillan; London, 1999)
E. Doss, Twentieth Century American Art (Oxford University Press; Oxford, 2002)
B. Leal et al, The Ultimate Picasso (Harry N. Abrams Inc; New York, 2003)
S. Lemoine (Edtd.), Towards Modern Art: from Puvis De Chavannes to Matisse to Picasso (Thames & Hudson; London, 2002)
T. Martin, Essential Surrealists (Dempsey Parr; London, 1999)
S.A. Sternau, Art Nouveau: Spirit of the Belle Epoque (Tiger Books International; London, 1996)

Influence of Types of Play on Children

It is important to understand the different types of play and how they help children’s development in order to plan activities for children. This will help them to develop holistically.
The Early Years Foundation Strategy says that “play underpins all development and learning for young children” (The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance p1.17 Crown 2008).
Learning through play is a very important principle of Early Years education, staff must provide opportunities for all the types of play:-
Imaginative Play Construction Play
Home corner Lego blocks
Dressing up Building towers
Small worlds

Physical Play Creative Play
Examples: tricycles, Sensory Play Drawing and
skipping ropes Water and sand play painting, crafts
Children may play in different ways to what you expect, this doesn’t matter, it shows their creativity. They may be running round outside in a superhero costume waving a sword they made out of a cardboard tube (physical + imaginative + creative), this helps them to develop holistically.
Types of play for children ages 2 to 8
This is any play with a focus which is physical. Children can be playing indoors or outside with balls, ride on toys. They can be climbing, running about or throwing and catching a ball. Physical play helps with motor skills, this gives more confidence. The children interact with each other when they are playing games outside, they learn the rules, how to negotiate, take turns, solve arguments, this helps with social skills.
Resources needed
To help with motor skills and co-ordination you would provide balls of various sizes, ride on toys and trikes, and skipping ropes, hula hoops. Space to play games like hopscotch, tag or football. For 6-8 year olds you could have a basketball hoop, inline skates and bikes.
Example from nursery
In my nursery setting the children play outdoors and there is equipment accessible for them at all times such as scooters. There are only two scooters which gives the opportunity for children to learn how to share and take it in turns to use the scooter. They must communicate with each other in order to ask if they can have a go on the scooter and have to wait their turn to use it, this improves their social skills and language. The scooters help to improve the children’s physical development greatly as the children have to be able to balance and use their legs to be able to move around the area on the scooter. They enhance the children’s gross motor skills. When the children are riding the scooters they can make their own decisions on where they want to go and think for themselves improving their cognitive development.
Development through physical play may be affected if there aren’t enough resources available so children have to wait a long time for a go on a tricycle for example. This can be helped by sending children out in small groups so you have enough things for them to play on.
Children enjoy pretending, it helps them with their speech language and communication skills, their social skills, their identity. There are lots of different types of imaginative play:-
Pretend play – children make an object into something else, a ruler can be a wand for a magician.
Role play – using props, the children play act different roles they are familiar with such as Mummy & Daddy, brothers and sisters, going shopping.
Socio dramatic play – a group of children play out scenes from real life such as taking their dog to the vet. This type of play is better for children with good language skills, children with English not their first language will not get as much out of this, they will need support from staff to help improve language skills.
Superhero – children dress up to act out their heroes from films they have seen like Toy Story, Shrek, Spiderman and Frozen.
Small world – using small animals, cars, toy soldiers children enjoy making up situations and manipulating the objects. They could act out a battle or be a farmer looking after the animals.
Plenty of dressing up costumes in different sizes
Everyday items for baking, shopping at supermarket,
Farm and zoo animals, miniature cars, toy soldiers
Play house
Example from nursery
In the home corner we have used containers of real products that have been filled with coloured liquid or a substance that isn’t dangerous for the children, such as a used Vimto bottle filled with water which has been coloured with purple food colouring to look like actually Vimto. There is also a washing up powder box filled with table salt as well as more everyday objects that the children will watch their parents handling. These resources give the children a real-life experience enabling them to use their imagination and creativity. They can also improve their fine motor skills as they pretend to poor drinks and serve food. Children can improve their communications skills as they talk to the other children and role play situations they have witnessed at home. These resources also help the children to enhance their social skills as they interact with the other children.
Good language skills are needed for imaginative play so children will find it harder to join in if they have delays in language. Practitioners need to be aware of this so they can support the children with a different type of play which helps their holistic development.
Experiencing how water, sand, play dough, gloop feel and what you can do with them helps with fine motor skills and eye-hand coordination. At the same time children are learning about texture and properties of materials, maths concepts of volume and shape.
Sand and water
Play dough – bought or home made
Food – mashed potato, pasta
Example from nursery
In my nursery, they have a sand tray which they have access to all the time. There are different objects in the sand such as stones, buckets, spades and miniature animals. The sand can be made into different consistencies, it can be completely dry with no water this allows the children to feel the sand between their hands and put it into containers and pour it out. When water is added to the sand it makes it malleable so the children can build sandcastles and other things with it. It promotes the child imagination and creativity. This type of sensory play is very relaxing for the children and is very good for children with disabilities, they can enjoy the feel of the sand on their hands. Sand play can advance a child’s physical development, they use their upper bodies to handle the sand and play with the objects. They can dig, poor, scoop and grab the sand which also improves the children’s hand eye coordination. When children play in the sand they usually play alongside other children therefore this encourages their social skills. They must learn how to share the objects and get a space around the sand tray for themselves. Sand play also promotes cognitive development as the children are learning about the conservation of matter as they play with the sand, pouring it into different size and shape containers.
Creative play is when children make or create something, they use the resources you provide but it is important they choose what they want to do. This helps with fine motor skills, eye-hand coordination, expressing and releasing emotions. They learn to manage frustration and how practising something helps you improve. When the child succeeds after they keep trying, they feel a lot of satisfaction. An example of this is making a necklace from beads. This requires good eye-hand coordination to thread the beads and patience if they keep falling off the elastic. The child learns to persevere and not give up. Also, they can help each other which develops their social skills. It is important for staff to not jump in to help, to encourage the child to keep trying.
Drawing and painting – paper, card, paints, crayons, brushes
Musical instruments – mouth organ, kazoo, recorder, drums, small keyboard
Collage materials – glitter, textiles, glue, beads, feathers, string
Junk for modelling – boxes, tubes
Modelling kits for 6-8 year olds
Example from nursery
In the nursery, there is a box with lots of recycled containers and materials such as, milk cartons, cardboard boxes, straws and lots more. The chldren can make whatever they want with the materials and they are given the freedom to do so. All the materials help develop the children’s creativity, they can experiment with the resources and use their imagination to think up ideas of what they want to make. When children handle the materials they are improving their fine motor skills as they are using their muscles in their hands to cut with scissors, and use their fingers to stick things together.
Children enjoy putting things together such as jigsaws, wood blocks and constructing things for example lego/duplo. They can make dens from sheets over chairs or out of large boxes. This helps with hand-eye coordination, spatial awareness, how things work. Building a tall tower gives a sense of achievement this helps self-esteem.
Jigsaws, bricks, model aircraft and trains
Different sizes of cardboard boxes
Example from nursery
In the outdoor space of my nursery they have a construction area with large coloured plastic bricks. The children can build towers and walls and knock them over and rebuild them. Playing with the bricks gives the children a good opportunity to advance their social skills and communication as they cooperate to build a tall tower. They must be able to share the bricks with the other children and take it in turns to build what they want to. They use their gross motor skills to place the bricks on top of each other and as the tower gets taller they have to reach up to place the bricks on top. If another child knocks down their tower, they have to learn how to express their emotions of anger, frustration, upset and assert themselves to tell the child not to do it again.
Case Study 2-8 year olds
In “The Secret Life of 5 year Olds” TV programme Jude struggles with being on the losing team when they are doing an obstacle course challenge. The winners get some chocolate and he wants some as well. He thinks it isn’t fair that only the winners get the chocolate, he gets very upset and angry and cries. He asks his friends to get it for him. At first they try but it annoys the other children so they stop playing with him. Jude isn’t able to control his emotions and accept he lost. He can’t put himself in their shoes to see their point of view. The teacher sees that Jude needs her help and support to manage his emotions. In the next episode she takes him to one side and quietly supports him, she explains a better way to react. This enables Jude to behave differently the next time, he has developed his social and emotional areas of development. In the next task he shows that he has learned how to manage his feelings when he loses because he says “Well done” to the winning team (episodes 1 and 2 Channel 4 Nov 29th and Dec 6th 2016). The other children want to play with him more because he isn’t having a tantrum. Sometimes you have to get involved to help a child develop to the next level. If the teacher had just left Jude to carry on getting angry, he would have lost his friends and not learnt a better way to lose.
Types of play for children ages 0 – 2
Play is different for babies, they learn through their senses. Also, they need a lot more interaction and supervision from adults.
Treasure basket
Elinor Goldschmied had the idea for Treasure Baskets. This is an activity for babies who can sit on the floor unsupported and grasp objects. Lots of natural objects are put in a low basket that a baby can reach into. The adult is nearby to supervise in case the baby tries to put things in her mouth. Kathy Brodie says “No plastic!” ( She means that you should provide natural resources with lots of different shapes and textures. Toys are smooth and plastic so the baby won’t learn much from picking one up, they are too young to do much more than touch, smell and taste at this age. It is important to let the baby choose what to explore, the role of the adult is to supervise so the child is safe and to reassure them by being nearby.

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The objects can include things which are light or heavy, rigid or squishy, warm or cold. Lots of variety stimulates the baby’s senses, this helps development in the brain, new neural connections are made. Using the treasure basket helps develop hand-eye coordination, it also helps the baby get stronger muscles. The activity could last as long as 45 minutes depending on the child’s interest and concentration. If they put things in their mouths you need to clean them before another child gets the basket. Review the contents regularly and change the objects to keep the babies interested.

Example of resources
Low sided basket with about 30 objects in
Natural – fir cones, pebbles, shells
Wood – spoons, pegs, wooden curtain rings
Metal – bells, whisk, small pan, teaspoon
Others – pot pourri bag, soap, fabrics, hairbrush, mirror, lemon
Heuristic Play
This is for older babies and toddlers, they want to find out what they can do with objects, not just touch them like the babies. As well as the objects from a treasure basket, you can add man-made things so the toddler can widen their exploring. Bigger objects can be used as the children can stand up, they have more control over their movements. This is a child-directed activity like for the treasure baskets, adults just supervise, they don’t get involved unless there is a danger or the child invites them.
In Helen Huleatt says “When toddlers make an enjoyable discovery – for instance when one item fits into another, or an interesting sound is produced – they often repeat the action several times to test the result, which strengthens cognitive development as well as fine muscle control and hand/eye coordination.”
Heuristic play needs a clear space for the objects and children, objects are grouped into types for example, all the tins in one group, the fabrics in another. The role of the practitioner is to set out the area then sit quietly nearby. At the end of the session the children can help to clear away, they can develop cognitive ability by sorting types of objects or colours into boxes they came out of.
It is important to choose the right time for this activity, if the children are tired, they can’t concentrate very well. Observing what the children interact with and how they use the objects will mean you can develop these interests in other types of play. For example, if you notice a child who enjoys sorting things by colour, you could help them to learn the names of the colours in a construction activity with different coloured bricks.
Supervision is important to ensure the children don’t put things is their mouths or break things causing sharp edges. Staff need to be near enough to intervene but not distract their concentration. If a child doesn’t seem to be interested, they may be tired or hungry, there may not be enough objects to attract them.
Example of resources
Objects from the treasure baskets can be used
Cotton reels, buttons, fabrics
Containers of different shapes and size, made of different materials
Tubes for pushing things through, cardboard boxes
Peek a Boo and Hide and Seek
Babies enjoy games like Peek a boo. As well as being fun it helps them to learn about object permanence. At first when something is out of sight a very young baby will think it no longer exists, they are surprised when you peek out. By about 4 or 5 months old babies know an object still exists even if they can’t see it, they start to anticipate seeing you. Older babies and toddlers like playing Hide and Seek, especially when the adult pretends they can’t see them. The game encourages children to develop problem-solving skills by finding a place to hide or looking for everyone. They improve physical ability by running about looking for a hiding place to squeeze into. They develop social skills by taking turns
Provide small spaces where children can hide
Roll a ball
Roll a ball helps a young child’s holistic development. They develop hand-eye coordination and balance by rolling the ball, they learn about taking turns which develops social skills; their communication skills develop by listening to an adult talk about the activity.
Different sized balls
Case study – 11 months old
The baby I have been observing plays Peek a Boo with her Mum. Her Mum said at first she got upset when she hid behind her hands but slowly she realised her Mum was still there. When I watched, the baby was laughing and smiling. She wanted her Mum to keep doing it. This game helped the baby to understand that when her Mum leaves the room she will come back so she doesn’t get upset and cry for her. A strong attachment is very important for young babies to develop so they need to learn this as soon as possible.
Resources to support play and learning
A good variety and amount of resources are needed to support children If they are good quality they will last longer, there is less chance of the children being injured. All resources need to be safe for children to use, they have to have the safety marks to show they have been tested and are safe. These are the CE mark, the Lion mark and the Kite Mark.
Each age group and ability/stage of development will need its own resources. Too many toys limits creative and imaginative play so provide lots of blocks, shells and containers instead of actual toys. You need somewhere to store them all so if you put them in boxes the children can play with the boxes as well.
Older children might have particular interests for example dinosaurs so you could provide a set of different types of dinosaurs, books about them, and clay for them to make models. The 6-8 year olds could make a video using their models – this would help their ICT skills as well as language skills. They would improve their fine motor skills by modelling and work together to make the video, improving social skills.
Another thing is about different cultures and religions. If you have children from another country, like asylum seekers, they will do things differently so you must provide resources that they recognise. This could be dressing up clothes from other countries or different play foods for the home corner. Dolls should be of different colours so a black or asian child can identify with them. Books should show children from different races and cultures being heroes, not just white children, this helps them to have a positive sense of identity.
As the children grow and develop the way they play changes, it depends on the individual child. Play is more social for 4 year olds than 2 year olds because their communication skills are better, they play cooperatively, they are more imaginative. 2 year olds need supervision to ensure safety and help them engage in play but 5- 8 years olds are very independent compared to 2 year olds, they don’t want adults getting involved except to sort out problems. Older children like board games, they understand rules and taking turns whereas toddlers don’t have the cognitive abilities. They are not good at sharing, they think if they want something they should have it.
“Research on successful outcomes of Early Years provision – both in the short term and for later success in school and as adults – has pointed to some general guidelines. The best outcomes for children’s learning occur where most of the activity within a child’s day is a mixture of:
• child-initiated play, actively supported by adults
• focused learning, with adults guiding the learning through playful, rich experiential activities.” (Learning, Playing and Interacting 2009)
If children only do free play then some areas of development and skills can get missed out. They may keep repeating the same activities so they don’t learn anything new. If adults direct all their play it is less fun and prevents them gaining independence, it is better to plan a range of activities and opportunities during each day or week, this ensures their needs are met.
Children aged 0-2 benefit more from adult-initiated play than 2-8 year olds. This is because the older children have developed a lot further, they need less help. Older children like to make up their own games and decide what to do. If they are offered the same resources, the younger and older children will use them differently.
Babies and toddlers enjoy water play because it feels good, they can splash about, it is relaxing. They develop fine motor skills using buckets and spades. However, older children play with water in a different way. They like to measure out different amounts, see what sinks and floats. They will do experiments to test out ideas or use water in role play.
Supporting children’s learning and development through play and activities is the best way to develop the child holistically. Children are unique, they develop at different rates, practitioners must observe all the time so they have a good understanding of each child and their interests. They can plan a range of opportunities to help them develop more and provide resources the child will enjoy, also to provide a challenge so they develop.
The Early Years Foundation Stage Practice Guidance 2008 p1.17 Crown
Learning, Playing and Interacting: Good Practice in the Early Years Foundation Stage 2009 p5 Department for Children Schools and Families Crown 2009 accessed 11/12/2016 accessed 11/12/2016
Tassoni, P. A parent’s guide to treasure basket and heuristic play (2015) Nursery World p30-32
Tassoni et al 2014 Pearson Education Limited, Harlow

Regional Influence in Entrepreneurship

Regional Influence in Entrepreneurship



Entrepreneurship “it is process of setting up of business and continuing it expansion” as businesses are prime factor for the economic growth and development.  It has become the key resources of economy and therefore for their development and growth, developed and developing nation are putting in substantial resources to motivate entrepreneur and increase the rate of Entrepreneurship within the nation. These Entrepreneurial growth within the nation create new firms, bring in innovation, and help in creating more Jobs which lead employment growth in a location (among others, Baptista and Preto 2011; Fritsch and Mueller 2004; Lee Florida, and Acs 2004; van Stel and Suddle 2008). Therefore, no surprise that academics, other organization and policy maker are keen in understanding region influence in driving the entrepreneurship or as to why entrepreneur are more adaptive to some region. It is seen that countries and localities have different level of economic dynamism which influence the entry and exit of the organization. Numerous have endeavoured to get these Entrepreneurship rate as a result of territorial variety within the basic variables of generation, monetary accessibility and capital comprising of human and intellectual factor (e.g., Florida and Kenney, 1988; Armington and Acs, 2002; Lee et al., 2004; Audretsch and Lehmann, 2005; Drucker, 2016) but they have failed to give the in-depth on the affecting factor. So, what are the factors that influence the growth of entrepreneurship in that particular area.


Research Scholar believe that the Regional influence have Two dynamics

Culture- The culture side which include- value, belief and norm held by the residents of the region can be seen the motivation factor of the entrepreneur activity but taking the example of the Boston which now has seen entrepreneur boom was not considered a place founding a firm or joining a start- up lucrative during the period of 1970 and 1980. Even though culture do have some have some effect on the short run the same cannot be considered as a prime factor while considering the development in the long run. Culture explain that the factor for the entrepreneurship and cannot be set aside as it may be driving factor but not it does not show the stable character. For culture to clarify the entrepreneurial growth rate it would ought to have a comparative pliability. Therefore, taking into account the culture factor does not satisfy the requirement as the cultural attitude changes with time.

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Ecosystem– The second most influencing factor which are included in my studies is the Entrepreneur ecosystem which can be justified as region where we have both demography of different organization instrument for the Entrepreneur development and infrastructure to support them.  Effective places have been characterized as Industrial districts, Territorial innovation system, Territorial production system and learning regions (Storper and Walker, 1989; Becattini, 1990; Porter, 1990; Asheim, 1996; Cooke, 2001). Region certainly have the effect and tend to give the starting edge to a person in the entrepreneurship. It helps in creating the environment to bring in the creativity and produce the result.


Regional influence has been the factor in deciding the setup of the new firm. Whether it is availability of resources, manpower or several other factors. They have influenced the entrepreneur in taking the decision and therefore new entrepreneur always research the region before setting up the start- ups or they consider their home place or work place when entering the market. Environment where entrepreneurial activities exist help in creating the path and are the guiding factor for the new entrepreneur to step in. But these can vary from region to region some can have higher growth and some almost remains stagnant. So, what drive the entrepreneurial activities within the region. We believe organization help in shaping the environment giving the opportunities to entrepreneurs and defining edge for bringing in creativity in the competitive surrounding. The region with high rates of entry and exit of start-ups become common ground for new entrepreneur to entry in as it is easier place to find new venture because of the readily available resources for the entrepreneurs. Region with large population of small and young firm help in producing the entrepreneurs which can justifies with reason that they these regions have more people who have past experience with start- ups therefore they are ready to take the risk because of the learning they have gained in the past experiences and are connected to entrepreneur which help in guiding them through the process. Explaining them in details, person having an experience in small firm develops wide range of aptitudes which help them succeed as an entrepreneur because there they tend to learn variety of function with the organization by engaging in different roles (Baron et al., 1986). These exposure to different organizational activities prepares them better for the challenges that entrepreneur faces while running the start- ups (Lazear, 2005). Past experience serves as a model for structuring the firm—different division, the allocating authority and operational routine design (Freeman, 1986; Phillips, 2002). When as person is working in different small firm, they develop dense social network with former and present colleagues and this social connection plays valuable through the process of entrepreneurship development.  Spigel 2015 Model of entrepreneurial ecosystem shows different factors attributing toward entrepreneurship activity.

When large number of setups are particularly concentrated within a particular region, they help in facilitating the specialized service and policies which can support the entrepreneur during the initial stage of formation. Importance of having local legal services for the start- up which was highlighted by Kenny and Patton (2005). A region of successful entrepreneurial exercises comprises of solid bunch of business visionary who act as a well-regarded guide and advisor which offer assistance in giving knowledge to new entrepreneur. In addition, proficient administration (law, accounting, real estate, insurance, consulting) that specialize within the special needs of new companies and scales-ups and appropriately priced. Policies which are supportive are in place in these covering economic development, tax, and investment vehicles encourages nascent entrepreneur to take risk of starting and funding the new venture but what is most important is regionally influencing entrepreneurship in well-connected community of start-ups and entrepreneurs along with visible investors, advisors, mentors and supporters (indicated by high network density). The networks of different people which include of entrepreneurs, financial leaders, talent, knowledge, and support services in region are the elements for the entrepreneurial growth within that region. As each of them plays important role like network of entrepreneur provide an information flow, enabling an effective distribution of knowledge, labour and capital, Leaders direction and are critical in building and maintaining ecosystem. Financial supports by investors with entrepreneurial knowledge is crucial for investments in uncertain entrepreneurial projects with a long-term horizon (see e.g. Kerr & Nanda, 2009). The most important of all for effective entrepreneurial ecosystem is presence of a diverse and skilled group of workers (‘talent’: see e.g. Acs & Armington, 2004; Lee et al., 2004; Qian et al., 2013).

These different experiences and different driving factors within the region are influencing factor which influence entrepreneurship with the region.


Regional demography and availability of the resources has somewhere factored the growth of entrepreneurial activities within that region and have attracted many regional policymakers and leaders. With certain public policy, social attitudes, and financing. But regional influence is not alone the driving factor for entrepreneurial development. As these two examples shows the different pictures. As, (Sorenson 2017) mentioned in the paper Detroit had once been the Silicon Valley of its time, the place for entrepreneurs but things have changed there. Spigel 2015 discussion of waterloo, Ontario shows that how waterloo got developed into supportive entrepreneurial ecosystem after the establishment of University of waterloo. Region does smooth the process of entrepreneurial activities resources are already available, but what really matter in the entrepreneurial development is the pool of highly skilled worker who help in creation of the entrepreneurship. Networks of these skilled people are the influencing factor in helping new entrepreneurs learn the formal and informal skills about new markets, technologies, and opportunities to flow through the region. They all helps to reproduce and strengthen the region’s overall cultural orientation towards entrepreneurship, ensuring their growth. This compelling ecosystem was not made overnight nor through a deliberate exertion by the state or an individual. Rather numerous factors have contributed to making an ecosystem that innovative, high-growth entrepreneurship which in turn has created the difference.



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