Dealing With Climate Change Through Interior Design Environmental Sciences Essay

Living in discomfort because of tropical climate is not desirable. Everyday’s challenge in Singapore is humidity, heat, and rainfall for its location that categorized in tropical climate zone. Hence, Singapore Government especially Minister for National Development stated about Singapore’s approach to sustainable development because it also has connection to global warming, that is why sustainable and nature are very important nowadays. For instance, the usage of garden within buildings might be the most effective way to reduce heat and humidity. The necessity to use nature is because it gives positives changes and result to the built environment and people.

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This essay will conduct a topic of tropical climate and nature’s effect in relation with various ways how to tackle the problem and response with design. It is possible to design a comfortable living and working environment by creating in-between spaces to provide relief from the tropical climate through a combination of natural and vernacular architecture elements. In this essay, author will talk about Biophilic design theory as a background that explained about the inner human to be near with nature, as one of the design elements to help and achieve in reducing humidity, heat, and deal with rainfall; in which, those three factors that make people uncomfortable in their activities.
Firstly, natural elements that are involved in warm wet zone and those are to be maximally used in terms of the effect of characteristic from nature which will bring positive result for the end users. Secondly, the variety ways of tackling humidity, heat, and rainfall in tropical climate, such as vernacular architecture is the most appropriate to handle this problem. Thirdly, in-between spaces which are lacking in Singapore; meaning that more intense activities in spaces or places e.g. offices do not have enough nature inside the building which actually can help reduce stress of people from work. Lastly, tropical climate case studies that link to the issue and how those spaces are workable in tropical climate.
In facing tropical climate as a central issue, the design approach can be inspired from using nature elements within certain places or spaces. The reason to use nature as part of solution is because it has qualities of positive psychological effects for human being and to some extent providing visual and spatial relief. As to enhance a better way of living in tropical area, contemporary vernacular architecture nowadays exists to adapt with surroundings. All of these are guides that may lead us to develop and aim for the best design solution in the future living.
Living in nature, people will get benefit from the essence of nature’s effect. Besides, nature shapes the built environmental to be the ideal space for people’s demand at present time.
A. The Tropical Climate
The tropical climate is positioned in the equatorial belt, between 230 and -230latitude which is also known as warm wet zone. Average annual temperatures can reach a maximum of 30o C during the day and 24o C at night while thermal comfort for people is between 26o C-27o C (Anon, p2). Most importantly, tropic area is distinguished by its region characteristics: high levels in humidity, heat or solar radiation in dry season and rainfall in rainy season. During rainy seasons, the level of humidity also increases. Due to high level of humidity, appropriate openings and ventilation are needed to utilize the airflow so the evaporation will increase. Another element is roof as a shelter plays an important role to be shading and keep the inside cool from the heat while it also becomes a protection during rainy periods.
Tropical Climate in Singapore Context
Singapore is one of the countries in South East Asia region that is located in tropical area. The most concern for Singapore is to deal with the unstable climate of heat, rainfall, and humidity since geographically it lies along the equator line.
It has become everyday’s challenge for Singapore to deal with tropical climate. But, it is no longer new problem for people who live in tropical climate face this kind of weather every single day. Furthermore, this condition worsens most of the stressful working people and uncomfortable weather like heat may reduce their energy. Technology innovations such as air conditioners (AC) help people to achieve thermal comfort and they become reliance to AC but it is not the only solution. For over the years, Singapore has achieved itself to be a green city and currently Singapore government especially Minister for National Development, Mr. Tan in his speech (2010) stated about Singapore’s approach to develop more on sustainable environment. At the moment, Bedok Court HDB (Hosing Development and Board) is one of an example how Singapore deals with this tropical climate issue.
B. Nature as Design Elements to Achieve the Aim in Reducing Discomfort in Tropical Climate
Can we deal in a better way to response this issue? Nature is one of the solutions to help reduce heat in tropical climate. As written above, to reduce fatigue and stress which are caused by tropic weather, the importance to use nature is become fundamental, since contact with nature helps to heal and recover health, increases concentration and memory. Viewing nature can produce a rapid improvement in body restoration both psychologically and physiologically. The exposure of nature is purposed to influence the levels of activities and energy for it draws people to a positive changes.
We feel and assume that the impact of heat always give disadvantages, while, the approach in tropical climate is to minimise the heat and also take advantage from it. The benefits from nature elements can be utilized as maximum as possible since they produce positive effects to people’s mind and body. This means, the essence of nature in this context is not only providing the built environment with aesthetic factor.
1. Biophilic Design Theory
The reason to use nature is because it has positive effects psychologically and physiologically to the sense of human beings. It has a close relationship with a theory called Biophilia. The term of Biophilia is founded by E. O. Wilson and this theory is based on the inner of human being that essentially needs to be close with nature. Based on ‘Biophilic Design’, Kellert (2008, p3) stated that biophilia can be defined as an understanding of the inherent human affinity to affiliate with natural systems and processes, especially life and life-like features of the nonhuman environment.
It is proved that people tends to depend on environmental features because it enhances human physically and mentally. Those environmental features can be described such as light, sound, odor, wind, weather, water, vegetation, animals, and landscapes. “There are six biophilic design elements: environmental features, natural shapes and forms, natural patterns and processes, light and space, place-based relationship, and evolved human-nature relationship. ” (Kellert 2008, p6)
2. Natural Elements
With that background of the importance of nature for people, this essay will discuss on the first element of biophilic which is the environmental features that consist of three key elements of nature: greeneries or plants, water, and natural light.
The Essence of Greeneries, Water and Natural Light
There are three main natural elements that are involved and become necessary for tropical climate in order to reduce humidity and heat as the aspects of the tropical climate. Firstly, greeneries; it has become popular and also important to have plants or gardens within buildings. Essentially, greeneries become necessary because they provide visual and spatial relief for human beings. In addition, there are some positive psychological effects of greeneries toward human beings. It effectively reduces stress, decreases mental fatigue, gives relaxations for it is good for eye relief, restores mental clarity, enhances comfort, and improves or increases sense of well being (Kellert 2008, p7).
Secondly, water that produces positive physiological effect and always be the most basic human needs. Water is able to lower blood pressure, relax tension-filled muscles, ease headaches and also cure aches and pains. Water insertion to a built environment provides and enhances the quality of human life. Furthermore, water in motion such as waterfall, cascade, and a pond with circulation will add strong value to the biophilic design attraction. Other applications of water elements can be contributed in roof gardens, green roof, interior pools or basins (as a soft boundary to blur the distinction between inside and outside), exterior water gardens, and water cascade (Kellert 2008, p7).
In a warm-hot climate, water is an absolute necessity. It remains cooler because water heats up slower than the land (Trocme 2006, p11). This means, the built environment which located alongside water will be cooler than one is surrounded by land.
“Water, you have no taste, no color, no odor, you cannot be defined, you are relished while ever mysterious. Not necessary to life, but rather life itself, you fill us with gratification that exceeds the delight of the senses. Of the riches that exist in the world, you are the rarest and also the most delicate: you, water, are the proud divinity.” (Antoine De Sant Exupery, p43)
Thirdly, sunlight or natural light which comes from solar radiation; the quality of its illumination and colours from light can affect mood and energy level while it also good for maintaining health. In Kellert’s statement (2008, p11), natural light is preferred in contributing to improve health, productivity, and well being in a built environment. Besides, the effect of natural light also provides sense of openness. People prefer and depend on natural light for its ability in terms of giving visual acuity to satisfy human needs in physical, emotional, and intellectual aspects (Kellert 2008, p7). Direct sunlight in tropical area is not preferable, it might become our enemy. But of course it does help us in providing the advantages, so controlling the sunlight is necessary to make it desirable.
“Light draws people, as it does flowers, but our need for light must be balanced with keeping cool.” (Trocme 2006, p11)
Understanding these elements and factors may help the designers to create and built the controlled environment to adopt with the tropical climate. The prime aim is to minimise and prevent the discomfort that caused by the tropical climate in order to create a better living environment.
C. Variety Ways of Tackling Tropical Climate (Heat, Humidity, and Rainfall)
There are various ways in tackling tropical climate especially with vernacular architecture. Some requirements of treatments and techniques are needed in an appropriate way to tackle the tropical weather.
1. Vernacular Architecture
In the book ‘Contemporary Vernacular’, according to Correa (1998, p10); the term of ‘vernacular’ can be described as the notion of the building that has relation to the environmental contexts and involving society as a whole. The built forms in vernacular architecture are adapted to fulfil specifics needs regarding climate and culture, existing materials in order to accommodate the ways of life and values in producing them.
In Singapore context, because of its multicultural circumstances, it may influence the local architecture. As Singapore was a British colony, historical buildings are mainly influenced by European styles. In the other hand, this small country was known as a free international port, other races such as Chinese, Malay, and Indian are also involved in influencing the local Singapore architecture.
Not only cultures that shaped the vernacular architecture in Singapore but the tropical climate also determined the built environment. In other words, the local vernacular architecture is not originally come from one aspect but is combination with other aspects. These are some influences of vernacular architecture in Singapore which classified by Yeang (1987 ,p30-31) :
Malay Rural Vernacular
Typical Malay vernacular house based on Malaysian tradition, consists of ‘atap’ roof, timber panels with floor raised above from the ground level. The raised floor is purposed to provide tranquillity because in the rural ancient times, they used to live in a village setting where animals might attack their houses. So, it is created in such a way for protection from ground moisture, flood and animals, ventilation, and shade.
Moorish-influenced institutional building
Fig. 2
Mostly the examples are the Istanas of Malay Sultanate which had larger scale and it is influenced by European and Middle Eastern countries.
Dutch influences
Fig. 3
Christ-Church and stadthuys are the most obvious examples of Dutch influences since most of Dutch are Christians.
The straits eclectic
Fig. 4
Chinese shophouses are best described this style. It emphasize in ornamentation in their facade treatment.
Anglo-Indian influences
Fig. 5
The local Anglo Indian style has motifs with Sino Malay influences in terms of unglazed half-around tiles and the ‘serambi’.
In local context, the most appropriate of vernacular architecture in tropic area is the Malay Rural vernacular since it has the same environment and climate with Singapore. But, Malay rural vernacular cannot be called as a set style because it depends on the local circumstances, situation and environmental context that eventually created in a way to meet the specific needs of the built environment. Therefore, this built environment can be held as an approach in order to fulfil the requirement in local context. The existence of vernacular architecture in tropic area can be a guideline in developing the suitable built environment for people.
Through fundamental guidelines of tropical vernacular architecture, influences from other cultures and weighing the environmental context in the same amount, that is where a critical approach means for vernacular architecture in Singapore. The responsive design to the climate, local context and environment are the key points to aim the built environment. Though Singapore does not have a fixed style, meaning of vernacular architecture in Singapore is may be more important to depend on the characteristic of a place and environment.
In tropical climate, roofs are more important than walls. Roof shaped is one of the vernacular features for thermal control. There are few types that mostly used for tropical area: pitched roof shaped, high jack roof, ventilated roof, and deep roof overhangs. The main function of roof is to allow the breeze penetration in order to utilize the air flow, reduce humidity, and make the space inside cooler.
First type is pitched roof shaped, usually with large overhanging eaves give protection from the direct sunlight and rain. High jack roof, usually used by typical shophouses that has gabled roof segment is mainly functioned as shelters and the small opening which separate from the main roof enhances cross-ventilation to reduce heat from solar radiation (Yeang 1987, p24). Ventilated roof is also effective for removing heat by cross ventilation. Besides ventilated, it usually combined with pitched roof shaped with wide overhang so it also able to shade walls. Deep roof overhangs with ventilation grilles above eye level protected the built environment in terms of sun shading and also allow air flows.
Fig. 6 Types of Roofs
Pitched Roof Jack Roof Ventilated Roof Deep Roof Overhangs
Knowing these several basic types of roof shaped can lead designers to create the built environment in a contemporary context. Types of roof are invented in many ways to be the solution and improve the living environment in tropical area. Besides, in local context roofs’ shapes are mostly influenced from other countries either from the colony (British) or the countries which have the same climate condition as in Singapore.
The applications can be seen in traditional Chinese shophouse design in Malaysia with a key feature of the continuous covered veranda-way in order to minimise the discomfort of tropical climate. Another principles are to use internal air-well that allows light, adequate amount of openness in the interior space with high ceilings and overlapping- roofs to reduce heat radiation.(Yeang 1987, p22-23)
Types of roof are not the only way to tackle the discomfort from tropical climate. Openings are another aspect which is crucial for cross ventilation. Besides, air flow pattern is determined by openings because air has to circulate. Therefore the intensity of using openings is important to design a good controlled of built environment. Louvered or jalousie openings are mostly used because this system directs air to the living areas. Tight area without or less openings will give more humidity and heat. Separated and scattered layout or forms of space are purposely used for air flow. For example: house in Buzen, Japan that is formed in scattered and individual boxes. The design intention in separated layout of each functional room is to have maximum cross ventilation and enhanced with windows in each rooms.
D. Lack of In-Between Space in Singapore
Although Singapore already has adequate amount of greeneries around the city, it still lacks of in-between spaces in terms of inclusion of nature to the interior. However, there is an example which provides a good solution to make more comfortable living in tropical area.
Good application of vernacular aspect and nature can be found in Bedok Court. Compared to other high rise residential, the difference of Bedok Court is the big supply of balconies and spaces that specially planned for plants which placed in-between living units; so called semi open forecourts. Cheng Jian Fenn was the designer of Bedok Court and the inspiration was from the rural village lifestyle whereby people live in a relaxed atmosphere and harmonious environment. But, due to the land scarcity, Cheng strategically planned each dwelling unit with garden as a whole to provide sense of ‘landed house’. (Lim 1998, p63-64) Creatively, his intention in the design is to maximise the land area with the system of high rise building yet each unit will own the garden.
Fig.7 Bedok Court Fig. 8 The Balcony
Through surveys, Bedok Court shows satisfying result. With high supply of garden in each unit, the semi open spaces is preferred as the most comfortable spaces among the other functions in units such as swimming pool, the balcony, the lobby, the lift, and the interior of the unit. (Bay 2006, p66) The usage of garden helps the spaces to improve the thermal comfort condition in terms of the weather become slightly cooler because of the plants. In other words, it is encouraged to increase the ‘green’ areas to get a lower ambient temperature.
In-between space has potential or possibility to be a ‘break’ space (to be developed)
In-between spaces can function as place where activity and free spaces joined (to be developed)
E. Tropical Climate Case Studies
1. The Architect’s House in Sri Lanka by Geoffrey Bawa (need further research)
a. emphasize on openings and light-well on each room
b. use of greeneries or plants inside the house
2. House at Blair Road in Singapore by Richard Ho Architects (need further research)
a. evokes comfort with air-well for light and ventilation

The Evolution of Interior Design

Question: Discuss the work James Stirling; Norman Foster; Ettore Sottsass; Richard Rogers; David Hicks; Philippe Starck.
Post- Modernism period is from the1950s to 21th century. Post-modern style leadership at 1970s influenced today architecture and product design even graphic design. Apart of influence to architecture design, it also has culture, literature, art, philosophy, history, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. Post-modern style make more same style building in the world appeared. Post-Modernism makes local characteristics and traditional design fade out. Nowadays architecture and urban landscape are too boring and no special point. However architecture industry appears young designers and young architect groups that try to change and develop the Post-Modern style building outlook. That occurred revolution of the architecture industry.

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Classical, Modern and Post-Modern architecture are simple definition. We can see every city established the architecture by using of the geometric. The geometric structure is the most popular style. These thought had been given from Bauhaus. Bauhaus is influenced to modernism architecture mostly. The modern architecture it is not too much decoration. The material and functional architecture is a modern style feature mainly. Until now, the Post-Modern architecture is not only about aesthetic. Meanwhile Post-Modern architecture the characteristic is focus in environmental protection. Besides that, we can found the Post-Modernism return to classical style in architecture and furniture design.
I will introduce several most important Post-Modern Architects and Designers. James Stirling he is Architect in British. He designed the History Faculty Library, Cambridge, completed in 1968. He was a led in Post-modern movement important person. In Italy Ettore Sottsass is a designer. Graduated with a degree in architecture but some of his iconic works is a product design Typewriter Valentine. Richard Rogers is a British architect. He corporate with the Italian architect Renzo Piano Designed the Pompidou Center in 1971-77 in Paris. The Centre approach is high-tech. David Hicks is an Interior Designer. He strongly introduced Color and Graphic such as clashing colors and geometric pattern carpets. He pioneered a mix and match antique with the modern pieces. There are two important person will be discussed in below. They are most popular architect Norman Foster and Designer Philippe Starck at today.
Firstly let us discuss Norman Foster, Norman Forster is a Post-Modernism high-tech iconic architect designer. He is worldwide famous architect. He is a star in architectural industry also he won many of the world class architectural awards. He is one of the world’s major architects.
The Gale Group Inc (2004) point out that
“Called the “hero of high-tech,” his architectural signature is a design that opens a building up to the public, is mindful of the environment, and saves money by using modern materials and advanced technology.”
HSBC Bank is a most popular bank In Hong Kong. Also Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) Headquarters. Looking buildings around in Hong Kong Central the architecture is still most modern, even though it was established in 1985. That architecture is a British architect Norman Foster design.
In fact, his famous designed Huge Financial Commercial Building and Airport Terminal. In 1986s Hong Kong, we all know HSBC Building Hong Kong designed by him the building style is high-tech. Structural of steel parts was manufactured in United Kingdom. Glass, aluminum outer frame and flooring was manufactured in America. Component facilities were manufactured in Japan. The building architecture design structure is not internal support. All supporting structures was located outer frame of the building and free removal. And glass facade designed to make the best use of natural light. The ground floor lobby door is toward north south, winter keep cool in the lobby, it save air-conditioning costs. The High-tech architecture is also known as Structural Expressionism. That building gives him famous in the international architecture industry. At 1998s Hong Kong International Airport Terminal also designed by him. That made him well-known in architecture industry. At 2013s, he designed Kai Tak Cruise Terminal in Hong Kong. In addition Hong Kong International Airport Terminal and Hung Hom Station were close to the same design.
At the same time at Beijing, China 2003 – 2008. He designed Beijing Airport. The outside of the Beijing airport look like similar to Hong Kong International Airport. That is Norman foster style I would say. Although, the airport is look like too similar of outlook. But we if carefully study for that architecture. We will find some differences and interesting is come from the Beijing airport architecture design. Norman Forster is not only just applying technologically improved to airport building. He is very intimate design for in terms of passenger experience. The terminal it’s used soaring aerodynamic on the roof. And then the roof Imagination form Chinese dragon form and Chinese colors red. It is so symbolic for China. Norman Foster designed for maximum flexibility to care with cannot know in future of the aviation industry. It is resolve the future complicated air travel. The Beijing Airport Terminal that interior spatial clarity combining with high service standards. As for public transport, the airport building connect are fully integrated all kind of transportation. Passengers are not walking too long distances arrive destination. He suggested shorten distances of the road for flights. It can be made transfer times flights are minimized time. Beijing airport terminal is like to Hong Kong International airport terminal. The concept is both of the open view to the outside. Special remark, the Beijing airport just four years can be design and built that airport terminal.
David McManus (2015) point out that
“The terminal building is one of the world’s most sustainable, incorporating a range of passive environmental design concepts,”
Mr. Foster he very good use the skylight. The skylight can be gain from the sun light. I’m agreeing he is “hero of high-tech”. His great use high technology for himself design concept. Mr. Foster has unique architecture system and form. If no Hong Kong International Airport design and build experience. I think Beijing Airport cannot finish within four years of design and built that airport terminal. I would say he is architect of high-tech father.
What is this? UFO can be making an orange juice or lemon juicy? The UFO let me imagine that just a micro-sculpture is not having functional. But that product is a citrus squeezer. That might be one of his best-known works. This citrus squeezer Iconic symbol of Philippe Starck and produced by Alessi.
Philippe Starck is famous Product Designer, Industrial Design as well as architect. He is amazing designer in my mind. His characteristic is the focus on different areas of the design. His works is from high budget of the architectural design to smaller works of the toothbrush product. He is very creative in all design. Such as designed of the computer mouse for Microsoft, as well as redesigned new packaging for Beer Brand. Philippe Starck design usually use different material mixed such as glass and stones or plastic and aluminum combining. His almost famous design works in 1990 Juicy Salif. That Juicer looks as a Rocket Launcher that is designed for Italian Brand Alessi Housewares. The most well-known is the 1984 Paris Café Costes. In addition, the Asakusa Tokyo Asahi Beer Tower, Hong Kong Peninsula Hotel Felix bar. His interior design style keeps in classical or old style and mixed with the contemporary material. That his effort is design for every body
Philippe Starck with Baccarat’s signature red crystal pendant lamp redesigned. He adds black crystal and lined with aluminum on the pendant lamp. The name is ZÉNITH NOIR it is neoclassical historical style. He likes to change the historical style using new modern material renew. Another iconic and great design is ghost chair. The chair is best sellers today. That is neoclassical historical style. He redesigns the classical chair was used by transparent polycarbonate material. The chair used by transparent material, it will be invisible in the interior has no chair effect, that effect is so interesting.
Philippe Starck in 2014s cooperates with RIKO. RIKO is a wooden constructions company. The project name is a Prefabricated Accessible Technology Homes short name is PATH. We are living in a modern age; the PATH house has been given living with nature for human. The PATH house design concept is come from future. Combining high technology, comfortable, sustainable, timeless design and respect environment. The PATH idea is come from Philippe Starck. But he is adamant that PATH house design its does not used a Starck style. The house construction is using Aluminum and Spruce Wood. The house outside is using aluminum material. This material is good for insulation effect. Indoor interior design is using spruce decor. Overall for the house, his design is included coordinating, renewable energy power generation, solar panels, wind turbines, geothermal systems, and rainwater collection system. It will be installed on the roof. It can be greatly reduced by more than 50% of ecological engineering. That house design is a Philippe Starck breakthrough his design thinking.
Philippe Starck design is in use the historical elements very well. Even the PATH house design is not Starck style but we if carefully study for that house. We will found the house is a roman ionic order transforming of the elevation. He is my favorite designer for me.
In conclusion, I think Norman Foster has influence to architecture go to high-tech trend and systematization constructions. He is leadership the High-tech architecture functional building and environmental protection building popular development movement. Today design style influence contemporary architect and have High-tech outer frame style usage. Philippe Starck has influence to contemporary material and renaissance classical or old style design mixing usage. Beyond the Post-Modernism and design rules. His amazing design way inspires a new generation of architect and designers what is creative and multitasking of design think.

Reference List:
Muschamp, V. (1992, June 26). James Stirling, 66, a Bold British Architect, Dies. Retrieved from:
Moore, R. (2014, May 18). Ettore Sottsass: the godfather of Italian cool. Retrieved from:
Zukowsky, J. (2013, May 30). Richard Rogers British architect. Retrieved from:
Lambert, E. (1998, April 2). Exhilarating eclecticism and abundant color reawaken English taste. Retrieved from:
The Gale Group Inc. (2004). Norman Robert Lord Foster of Thames Bank Foster. Retrieved from:
McManus, D. (2015, January 26). Beijing Airport Building. Retrieved from:
McManus, D. (2015, January 26). Beijing Airport Building. Retrieved from:
The Starck truth: Does British design need saving?. Retrieved from:
Philippe Starck’s new prefabricated house realises the modern living ideal. Retrieved from:

The Influence of an Interior Space on the Human Psyche

In the research document below research will be done on how designers are influenced by Biophilic interior design concepts, the influence interior designers have on relevant target markets and ones need for particular interior design influences in order to reach self-actualisation, furthermore research will be done on the concept of Rene Descartes’s “I think therefore I am” theory but applied to the interior design world of “I design therefore I am”.
In conclusion the author will summarise the influences interior design has on the human psyche and the benefits one can obtain from interior design.
The aim and objectives of this research paper is to establish that all interior spaces which surrounds us as individuals are designed with a particular purpose in mind, whether it be mechanical, functional, practical or purely aesthetic and that it does have an effect on us not only physically and emotionally but also mentally. Some interior designers cater for the niche target with the goal in mind to satisfy qualitative needs, such as custom designs that are designed to order and produced exclusively for that particular client’s needs of owning an exclusively designed custom interior space, generally relating to one’s social status. The niche target market is the top one percent of the economies income bracket, in other words the wealthiest individuals within the particular economy. The average income target market, is the market where designers aim to satisfy the quantitative needs of the target market, designs are generally less exclusive and produced in bulk so that they are accessible by a larger demographic, thus designs are rendered as more affordable.
Interior Design can improve one’s quality of life as it is ”the environment around us affecting our mood, productivity, energy levels, aptitude and attitude”. Creating a beautiful interior is about creating a space where you feel relaxed, comfortable, organized and at peace, the idea of the space is to be thought of as therapeutic.” (Jess Douray, 2014).
Well known sociologist Jean Baudrillard reasons that all objects chosen to fill an interior space is subconsciously placed within the space to tell a story as they are the manifestation of one’s character and desires. He suggests that us as individuals unconsciously judge interiors on four separate value criteria’s, in addition to how the rooms look at face value.
He further explains the questions of each value criteria as follows:

“Function: Will this item fit your needs? Is the kitchen table big enough to seat your whole family? Will this flooring cover the entire area of the room?
Exchange: Is this item worth the price? Would you rather have this singular high-end couch for R15, 000 or a whole bedroom suite for the same price?
Symbolic: Does this item have an emotional attachment? Did you choose a collection of family photos for your décor or a print of a painting?
Sign: Does this item have a particular status symbol? Is it a name brand or a generic?” (Jean Baudrillard, 2007).

Interior design is about much more than designing for aesthetic appearance. It has to consider communication and the key user experience: how spaces work; how they deliver a message and how individuals respond to this when conducting their daily lives; and even how people move around space and interact with objects or people. When within popular design culture, people consider the look of architecture; the true meaning of spaces and places is developed by interior specialists. These are people with the ability to combine engineering, construction, art and psychology in creating spaces; they must consider the basic provision of spatial design.
Interior design requires knowledge of appropriate building regulations, health and safety legislation, project planning and technical specifications, all applied in a creative fashion to generate an environment, all of the above needs to be taken into consideration when creating successful designs.


The authors ultimate goal of the below research document is to establish the value of interior designers and the impact they make in the environments we as individuals reside in.


The aim of the following research paper is to establish the influence of an interior space on the human psyche, the importance of interior designers, the processes of interior design and the outcomes of a well-designed interior.


This research document will be based on research done digitally, journals, published articles and books, encapsulating relevant information to that of the topic illustrated above, examples will be provided substantiating statement given along with illustrations and appendices.


The importance of interior design and the effect it has on the human psyche along with how interior design influences an individual to the point of reaching self-actualisation.


Interior design has been around for centuries and has played a vital role in displaying social status, a sense of comfort and a individuals identity, it is however evident in research done thus far that the importance interior design has on an individual’s mental well-being and vitality, has not been defined in great detail. A general lack of information on the benefits interior design possesses and the impact it has in an individual’s daily lives has become apparent.


The author has found within the research done that an individual’s surrounding interior does not only affect their productivity and mood but their thinking processes and even their physical well-being and health. The lighter and more open the space, the more easily one can become focused, the darker more congested the space the more one can feel overwhelmed or even trapped. “Biophilic design can reduce stress, enhance creativity and clarity of thought, improve our well-being and promote healing; as the world population continues to urbanize, these qualities are ever more important. Theorists, research scientists, and design practitioners have been working for decades to define aspects of nature that most impact our satisfaction with the built environment” The (Terrapin bright green, 2014). The study of biophilic design will be further explored throughout the research paper.


Interior design- the art or job of planning how the rooms of a building should be furnished and decorated
Biophilic Design- is an innovative way of designing the places where we live, work, and learn. We need nature in a deep and fundamental fashion, but we have often designed our cities and suburbs in ways that both degrade the environment and alienate us from nature.
Dictionary. 2015. Interior design – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 19 March 2015].
2015. An interior designer has a direct influence on the places and spaces we occupy – Magazines – Student – The Independent . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 19 March 2015].
2015. what is biophilic design? – Google Search. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 19 March 2015].
2015. Interior design – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 19 March 2015].
Chapter 1: Literature review
Chapter 2: Research theory
Chapter 3: Findings supported by relevant research
Chapter 4: Designs conceptual development


Impact of Art Nouveau: Influences on Interior Design

My proposal will demonstrates that Art Nouveau was an artistic movement that took different directions in each country, how does this art movement changes the place of the world and affect all forms of visual culture. Furthermore, the impacts it has on architectures and interior design in the Art Nouveau movement. I will also demonstrates a New York architect who’s work has relate to my design practice as inspiration.

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I was interested in Hector Guimard’s historic and refined architectures inspired me a lot, especially the Paris metro station. I like the dazzling virtuosity of wrought ironwork, as well as the floral designs and the unique letterform that was applied on the Paris metro entrance. Besides, the silhouettes of the metro entrance were symmetrical and it was designed to catch the eye and the surface decorations are elegant. He employs endless wealth of nature forms in architecture. Guimard architectures are essentially characterized for the naturalistic ornamentation and sophisticated design based on plant, his design idea is borrowed from nature and subsequently translates the contour of nature into architecture. I particularly like his bold use of materials and colour, such as the vibrant green he apply on the Paris metro entrance.
In my own design practice, Hector Guimard’s architectures have an impact on my design in terms of the highly detailed surface ornamentation on architectures, the bold colour and distinctive appearance of his historic architectures have inspired me in my design where historical and contemporary design are incorporated into one design. On the other side, I found that the Art Nouveau glassware, architectures and interior design have truly inspired me a lot on detailed decorative designs and the use of plants as ornaments for interior decoration. The rich colours of Art Nouveau glassware have combined the beauty in nature and this is one of the reason I love everything that was produced during this art movement. The motif in my design practice encompasses all the characteristics of Art Nouveau, comprising the inspiration are derived from plants forms and the decorative surface.
This book very clearly and thoroughly discusses how elements of Art Nouveau were absorbed into Art Deco after the World War I and how Art Nouveau styles of tile-making have been revived in the 1980s and 1990s. The book is very useful in determining why this was so and demonstrating the cultural significance this type of decoration had at the time. Verbrugge gives a detailed explanation of Art Nouveau was an attempt to give a new direction to nineteenth century art, architecture and design and to replace the prevailing historical style at the time. Additionally, the book also looks at how architects incorporate Art Nouveau ceramic decorations in buildings.
This book demonstrates the many ways in which furniture not only offered Art Nouveau designers the opportunity to use their favourite sinuous curves and floral decorations, but also gave them free rein to select variety of woods and other materials to obtain different effect; in order to decorate a space in Art Nouveau style. In addition to thorough written and illustrated examples of their use, the book shows the diversity of Art Nouveau furniture that they are characterized by their charm for ornamentation. It also discusses why Art Nouveau furniture was elaborately decorated in the nineteenth and twenty century interior and discusses their meanings in the interior. It further goes on to detail on the sources that inspired designers in decorating the interior with Art Nouveau furniture.
The book explores chairs and desks were adorned by elaborately distinctive styles of ornate, sinuous shape and natural curves of design. Duncan also looks at Art Nouveau furniture designers’ prefer is use a wide range of wood. Pale wood comprise teak, ash and maple. While dark woods were walnut, rosewood and mahogany. Mahogany has dark grain surface, it varnished repeatedly until it acquired a rich chocolate-brown hue, imparted a feeling of wealth. In addition, the characteristics of Art Nouveau furniture are their simplicity of line, richness of material and sobriety of decoration.
This book offers a wide discussion on material which it has quite obviously played an important role in Art Nouveau glass. Ricke has discusses why Art Nouveau glass is not just a material for vessels but also for works that are so close to sculpture. This is relevant to my interests in the unique and distinctive design on Art Nouveau glassware. Ricke explains when various layers and colours, deep intaglio cutting and engraving are employed on glass, it make the glass looks more distinctive effect. Besides, he aslo discusses painting on glassware is very similar of paint on wall in certain aspects.
Becker’s book historically locates Art Nouvea jewels took on strange unprecedented characteristics; moreover, the dramatic symbolism of themes and motifs in Art Nouveau jewels. Besides, she has also referred the main principle of Art Nouveau proposed that the aim of art was to suggest reality. Becker discusses why the Art Nouveau jewels reflect the century at the time. It chronicles the role of women is the theme for many Art Nouveau jewel designers at the time and this theme reflected in many portrayals of women in the jewels. Insects, animals, plants, nature and birds are the fantasy creature as well as greatly loved motifs in Art Nouiveau jewelry, specially the dragonfly and butterfly; they were used in endless variations. Wriggling marine plants, rippling hair and the natural curves of the female form are the inspirations for Art Nouveau jewelry designers. The decorative floral motifs can also being seen in Art Nouveau jewelry. They all dominant theme of Art Nouveau jewelry. Furthermore, Art Nouveau motif was extensively used in jewelry for a reason of harmony in life and art. Jewelry designer has put emphasise on aesthetic to the jewelry design and the femininity that employ a powerful influence during the Art Nouveau movement conveyed through the most feminine of ornaments. This book provides an excellent contextual overview for considering how Art Nouveau jewel designers express the new spirit of the art with special emphasis on the decorative element in jewel design. The book discusses questions about jewelry was the most intense expression of the Art Nouiveau movement. It reviews the nature of Art Nouveau style suited the purpose of jewelry as adornment to feminine beauty. Wealthy family who are passiobate about their plants was uncontrollable over their jewels and how they turned the natural flowers into jewels and diamonds to be transformed into flowers are further topics in this book. Becker explains the reality of nature in Art Nouveau jewelry design demonstrates jewel designers’ keen observation of the structure of and composition of plants. The book is useful because it mentioned every jewel designers contributed their individual way to their Art Nouveau jewelry design. She has also looks at the international impact on Art Nouveau jewel.
Becker explores Art Nouveau jewelry designers study the plant structure and also mentions Art Nouveau jewelry have exquiste charm and deep relationship to nature. Additionally, the most extensive influence on Art Nouveau fashion jewel design came from ancient jewelry. She also gives a detailed explanation of Art Nouveau jewelry had all the vigour and intensity of youth, they are all highly decorative, streamlined and rich in order to create an abstract linear look on jewels.

Light in Interior Architecture: Annotated Bibliography

Architecture and space are always defined by light. “Architecture is the masterly, correct and magnificent play of masses brought together in the light and our eyes are made to see forms in light”, said Le Corbusier. (Curtis, 1987) light become more important part of the interior architecture. Le Corbusier thinks the characteristic features of architectural spaces only come to life with light and there are no architecture spaces without light. Hence light is the way it is arranged gives an appreciation of the space and generates specific emotive and aesthetic responses. The architect, through the different forms of light, realizes an order that is a pure creation of people’s mind and the light affects our senses intensely. The light deep resonances to influence architecture and control space. It is undeniable that sometimes in a building environment, shape, color or light can be used as a “theme element”, that is, the creator wants to highlight a certain aspect of the information. And appreciation is indeed in this area has been clear and strong feelings. But despite this, the emphasis on one aspect does not mean that this factor can accomplish the creation of the whole atmosphere and that it must be used synthetically.

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Since we look at the architecture interior space changed, the modern architecture also starts to focus on the light. They use the artificial lighting as the main method to gives a new definition to space. Richard Kelly was one of the pioneers of this technique’s Glass House was the significant artificial lighting works by Philip Johnson and Richard Kelly. At some transparent architecture, the biggest challenge is the clear glass which turns into a mirror at night and to reflecting the interior lighting. By illuminating the surrounding trees and minimizing the interior lighting has played a flow from the daytime into the night. In “The Structure of light” (Meden, 2011) Articles, it reflected his theory of lighting. That was a great influenced by the light effects found in nature. Nowadays his terminology is used to describe some conceptual background for numerous lighting solutions. In particular, his concept of distinct types of lighting: “Focal glow and ambient luminescence”. “Focal glow” is for Kelly a way to point out important elements and the “Ambient luminescence” is the background lighting that serves to perceive the environment in general. Use Artificial lighting to creating architecture space become central to our modern architecture and Kelly’s perspective is a valuable source of inspiration to use lighting to creating images of such iconic power.
According to the traditional Japanese interpretation, architecture is always connected with nature. “Further connections with nature are effected by the subtle transformations caused in part by delicate contrasts of light and shade.” (Pare, 1996) So, Thus, you can clearly see the natural light performance in Ando’s architecture. In Japan, the Church of the Light was one of Tadao Ando’s signature Japanese architectural style work. The Church of the Light clearly pointed out that Ando’s personal architecture characteristic between nature and architecture, through the way in which light can define spaces is also can through the light to create new space perceptions equally. ‘The Church of the Light ‘was completed in 1999. The church of light focus on the cross. Ando’s to put the cross on the east facade allows for light to pour into space throughout the early morning and into the day. It has a dematerializing effect on the interior concrete walls transforming the dark volume and bring it from darkness to light. Use the simple medium of creating a pure, unadorned space. The intersection of light and solid raises the temporal and spiritual cognition of audience. As a modern architecture, those minimalist structures use lots of factors of light into interior space. light is an important controlling factor in Ando’s architecture.
Light is the original source and the wellspring of all the laws of nature, whether known to human science or not. In Kahn’s words, “matter is extinguished light. When light ceases to be light it becomes matter. Silence tends to express something, and light creates it, gives It form”. (Giurgola, 1979, p. 16) Another different contrast or form of light is the shadow to express the meaning of light. Louis I. Kahn in this regard also made great achievements and he believed that the dark shadow is a natural part of the light, Kahn never attempted a space for a formal effect with no light. For him, a rarely of light to show the level of darkness: “A plan of a building should be read like a harmony of spaces in light. Even a space intended to be dark should have just enough light from some mysterious opening to tell us how dark it is. Each space must be defined by its structure and the character of its natural light.” (Kahn, 1993, p. 36) Thus, the light as a source is often hidden behind louvers or secondary walls, thus concentrating attention on the effect of the light and not on its origin. Like the ‘MIKVEH ISRAEL SYNAGOGUE’, Louis I. Kahn works on the ceiling, the ceiling as a smooth and white surface, when the wall opening, it will cast starkly pronounced patterns of shadow and light o to this surface. It is the particular technique in his architectural forms.
“Material lives by light, “Wrote Louis I. Kahn. “You are spent light, the mountains are spent light, the trees are spent light, the atmosphere is spent light. All material is spent light.” (Giurgola, 1979, p. 36)
As for the performance of the texture of the material, but also with the help of the role of light. Such as the original band structure arranged together in the sun’s exposure, in addition to the structure itself, the three-dimensional sense of the obvious, but also for the wall or the ground shed a shadow, this change in the formation of a visual contrast, also stressed the rhythm of the building and the depth of space, often gives a clear, simple impression. le Corbusier use the site of Ronchamp to make the establish relationship between the light and materials. Corbusier wanted the space to be meditative and reflective in purpose.  The stark white walls add to this purist mentality that when the light enters the chapel there becomes this washed out, ethereal atmosphere.  The effect of the light evokes expressive and emotional qualities that create heightened sensations in tune with the religious activities. The walls of Ronchamp give the building its sculptural character and each wall becomes illuminated by these differing window frames, which in conjunction with the stark whitewashed walls gives the walls luminous qualities punctuated by a more intense direct light. Rather the light is what defines and gives meaning to the chapel experientially.
Curtis, W., 1987. Le Corbusier: nature and tradition. London: Arts Council of Great Britain.
Meden, R., 2011. The Structure of light: Richard Kelly and the illumination of modern architecture. Richard Kelly and the illumination of modern architecture, 48(12), p. 2299.
Pare, T. a. 1.-R., 1996. ando,tadao,1941-;Architecture–Japan–History–20th century. London: Phaidon.
Baek, J., 2009. Shintai and the Empty Cross: Tadao Ando’s Church of the Light. Architectural Theory Review, 01 04, pp. 55-70.
Giurgola, R., 1979. Louis I. Kahn. 5th Spanish/English ed. ed. Barcelona: Editorial Gustavo Gili .
Kahn, U. B. 1.-. L. I., 1993. Louis I. Kahn : Licht und Raum = light and space. Basel ; Boston: Birkhäuser Verlag.

The Relationship Between the Interior and Exterior Design of Zaha Hadid’s Buildings

Iraqi-born British architect Zaha Hadid was well known for her amazing futuristic architecture by curving façades, sharp angles, and severe materials such as concrete and steel and created beautiful pieces of architecture Hadids highly expressive designs are shown using sweeping fluid forms of multiple perspective points.
Zaha Hadid started out as a painter creating wonderful art of futuristic looking art and it was not until 1977 when she started her career as an Architect, Hadids first successful project was Vitra Fire Station (1989-1993).
In recent decades, Zaha Hadid’s work has been credited with a list of very honourable awards. In 2004 she received the Pritzker Prize which was very significant as she was the first woman to receive this prize. In 2010, Zaha Hadid Architects received the sterling prize which was given to a project built or designed in Britain which has had the biggest contribution to architecture. 
Vitra Fire Station
a Zaha Hadids first major build was Vitra Fire Station in Weil Am Rhein, Germany (1993) this was Hadids first mile stone in the world of architecture which gave Hadid international recognition. When Hadid was initially designing the project, it was only meant to accommodate a fire station but this expanded and her complex design included boundary walls which allowed there to be room for an exercise space and a bicycle shed. The building was to sit around a bend on the street which made the design a challenge.
Hadid has designed the building in such a way where it is purposeful as well as an elegant piece of architecture.
Vitra Fire Station consists of complex shapes and planes while this is not necessary for the purpose of the building ( fire station ) the building is a clear demonstration of the rhetorical power of architecture. The building consists of the engine house where fire engines are stored, shower and changing facilities, a kitchen and also a conference room. The fire station is often described as ‘sculpture-like’ and is mainly made out of insitu concrete. Hadid has been very clever and used the building to define the street in which the site is positioned on.
Hadids design intentions resulted in a long and narrow structure that stretched along the street. The building itself is composed of a series of linear concrete walls and roof elements. The walls, which appear as pure planar forms from the outside, are punctured, tilted, or folded in order to meet internal requirements for circulation and other activities. 
One thing Hadid wanted to maintain throughout the design of the Vitra Fire Station was for it to look simple and give a sense of purity, this was achieved by using in- situ concrete to create the walls which gave them a smooth finish, she had chosen not to use roof cladding and edging because this would have created a distraction from the clean cut edges of the in-situ concrete.
Exterior Features

The materials used for this building was mainly in-situ concrete and steel supports this was because Hadid wanted to make the building simple. It is composed of a series of concrete walls and roofing features, with certain interstitial spaces in between. The walls appear to be flat but on closer inspected are tilted or angled this is to increase circulation throughout the building to meet standards. Zaha Hadid wanted to show many things through the design of the building the first one was a movement this is to reflect the activities that go on in the building. There are also predicted guide lines on the pavement which are designed to show the movement of the intended purpose of the building, for example, there are curved tracks coming out of the garage which show the movement of the fire engine and the other paths would show the routine that the firemen would take when doing their job.
Interior Features
The interior of Virta Fire Station building was designed to reflect the entire buildings purpose which is movement and space this can be seen throughout the building as each element of the interior adds to the feeling of movement in the building as neighboring elements contain lines that run parallel, and the perception to depth is increased by adding slanted planes onto sides of the wall, making each room seem even larger than they actually are. The theme of simplicity carries on throughout the interior in such aspects as windows, stairs and door entrances. Windows in the building do not have frames the stairs are basic stairs however, far from conventional stairs more modern and futuristic yet so basic this has been achieved by only connecting the stairs by one part also the stairs only have a run and have a void instead of a rise. Door entrances in the building have no doors and seem to be open all times indicating they may be used frequently.The light that enters the interior follows the angles of the exterior and it feels direct and logical which reflects the fast movement through the building.
The Guangzhou Opera House
Like many of Hadids work The Guangzhou Opera House has been shaped to resemble to pebbles located on the bank of the Pearl River (Guangzhou Chine). The building started construction in 2004 and was finished 2010 china in 2010. featuring two separate forms that seem to piece together, the project serves as a gateway to the city and was one of zaha hadids biggest pieces of work to be completed.
Exterior design
The exterior of The Guangzhou Opera House is a fascinating shape thought to have been created to resemble two pebbles as a reference to the neighbouring pearl river. The Guangzhou Opera House has many urban functions and has opened access to the nearby river and docks, combining cultural traditions with a contemporary approach. 
The structure is mainly metal frame work of the opera house consisting of many unique, custom-cast steel joints to hold the structure in place. The cladding of the larger building is coloured a charcoal and being made from a rough granite while the smaller building is made from a lighter more of a white coloured granite.
The triangular glass sections of the buildings work great by creating natural light into the buildings as well as opening up as areas for the public.
Fold lines in this landscape create different zones within the Opera House, cutting dramatic interior and exterior canyons for use of circulation, lobbies and cafes, and allowing natural light to pass throughout the building.Fully glazed walls merge interior and exterior environments
The smaller of the two buildings is a multipurpose performance hall, while the larger is the main auditorium. 
Interior design
The interior is split among two separate buildings, the larger buildings spans across  an area of about 36,400m², while the smaller structure spans about 7,400m². The circulation of visitors is created by the massive steel structural frame spine inside the main auditorium space in the larger building. A variety of views are created looking into the main foyer this can be seen from various different levels used for finding orientation and also connectivity throughout the building. The public foyers are allocated between the auditorium and the structural steel of the buildings . The foyers take many paths one of the paths can be taken to the auditorium balconies using slopes and twists to navigate your way through. The outdoors and main entrances are all either accessed through ramps or stairs.

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The Walls and ceilings of the auditorium are made up of about 4,000 white LEDs. The acoustics design was a challenge for the asymmetric performance hall. The design had to consider the all the differences between Chinese and Western operas. To create the correct acoustic levels this is achichived by its unique shape by maximising travel both in width and height meaning less effort is required to fill the auditorium.

London Aquatics Centre for 2012 Summer Olympics
Zaha Hadid started designing this back in 2004 her theory behind the unique shape and design was inspired by fluid geometrics or the flow of water it created space around the olympic park as well as reflecting important features such as the riverside landscape. It was built 2011 for Summer Olympics in 2012. Inside of the stadium consists of three pools, the training pool, the competition pool and the diving pool . The training pool is placed under the bridge and the competition and diving pools are placed in the central hall which is directly under the main roof. The Aquatics Centre is designed to accommodate 2,800 at one time and it also has the ability to fit 1000 more seats which can be available for special events. Due to its wave like structure, the aquatics centre is one of the most visited places by tourists in London. It’s currently used for diving, synchronised swimming and water polo. It has become the main centre for hosting swimming competitions in London.

Exterior features
Once the Olympics had ended and the Olympic grandstands were removed, the east and west facades were built. The east and west facades were shaped sloping inwards coming down from the roof. The shape of the sloped had to follow the wave shaped design of the roof and the merge out of them in a way that makes them look graceful. The posts were placed from diagonal struts to an additional column that was placed behind the façade, this made a support structure to balance the other structural elements. The support structure that is created is fixed at the ground level and this allows all the load to be transferred to the ground. 
The ceiling of the building is made out of hardwood which is sourced sustainably the roof is constructed from structural steel and also aluminium these are 50% recycled materials. The unique structure was made by 2 arched shape structures that span 120m long. The ceiling of the building is clearly one of the main design features of the interior aswell as the exterior. They both follow the same paths as they are both representing the flow of water chosen by Hadid.
Gare from sunshine is prevented as all the glass panes are covered with screen printed black dots that are arranged in a pattern. This will make sure only pleasant sunshine is given and glare is not which would make it more uncomfortable for someone sat in the building or it could affect the performance of one of the atheletes.
The building consists of 628 panes of glass which are placed around the building and there are also 8 external doors, these are the only way natural light is allowed to pass through the building. The external facade is supported with steel sections that separate the panes of glass, Hot water is then passed through the steel sections and this is to prevent condensation forming on the glass and creating a clouded window which wouldn’t be able to pass much light through this is especially essential during the winter months. The exterior is mainly structural glass as well as structural steel Hadid uses these materials to create the shape and form of waves.

Interior features
Inside the Aquatics stadium, the main material that was used was smooth finishing concrete along with tiling to complete the floors which is seen to be the main material as the building is kept quite simplistic with the choice of material as the main focus was the shape and structure of the building. The building is 45m in height and has over 600,000 tiles completed the floor and all three pools.
Zaha Hadid uses very complex curves and features to produce fantastic pieces of architecture, throughout her work she has learnt to let her buildings flow more and the exteriors of her work become more open and take over the shape instead of the exterior. This can be seen throughout her work from her paintings right up until her final pieces.
Hadid is now one of the most famous architects of all time and her architectural style cannot named as her style is so vast her work is often described as unique, strong, powerful and interesting through studying Hadid I have come to notice she creates contemporary iconic architecture which brings a new level of arhictetcuure not just phsyvially but socially. Hadid loves exploring news aspects of design through materials and is always stretching her limits in her architectural career one of her more noticed use of styles is the use of fluid motion where she would create simplistic fluid structures with the use of geometric shapes this can be seen throughout her work especially in The London Aquatics centre. Hadid had a massive love her painting and started out painting in her earlier career and had said some of her designs came from the ideas of lightness and floating structures, and the way they land on the ground gently. Hadid mainly worked with 2 main materials, in situ concrete and glass, she would use these materials, alter and bend them to create natural shapes this is seen in very much of Hadids work. Because of her use of transforming shapes, she was able to create intresting shapes which can create a physical feel as well as mental. Hadids work is very much respected by millions around the world
Hadid’s first opportunity to show off her abstract designs was given to her when she designed the Vitra fire station. The building is made up of in situ concrete planes, which serve to shape and define the street running through the complex, this was Hadids first attempt at making one of hrt paintings become a functional architectural shape. Her style in the 90’s was focused around sharp edges, angular concrete planes and smooth seamless boundaries, this style for was used for her interior and exterior design. Hadid drifted away from this as her architectural career progressed.

Hadid always kept the simplistic element in the majority of her designs Hadid believed by keeping things simple she could achieve more from her designs Zaha Hadid’s design for the 2012 Olympics resulted in a large construction that had the main focus on the roof that raised dipped like an ocean wave, the exterior and the interior of the Olympic stadium reflected the movement of water. Hadids worked had become more of a flow rather than straight lines she created spaces and shapes based on real objects as in the London Aquatics centre she used the curves to create the shape of water.
Zaha Hadid had said that she wanted to move away from her design style that gave her success in the 1980s and this would be shown in the development of her interior and exterior relationship. Her initial design strategy was to use complex shapes and the interior would reflect that by seeming to be unusual where parts of the wall and floors would not seem to be in scale or seem to be larger than they actually, and this would create an illusion. Her more recent designs show how her strategy has changed completely where she now chooses to uses flowing curves rather than angular straight lines. Zaha Hadid has chosen smooth 3 dimensional exploded forms into smooth flowing forms which seem to be less intense on the eye. Simplicity has always been an element of Hadid’s design, for example in the Vitra fire station, the design was based around a complex fragment explosion but she would still keep the simplistic element where the pieces still seemed simplistic as they were one material and they had a lack of edging and exterior cladding. 
Hadid has always worked with the idea of blurring the object in a foreground and background landscape, meaning her buildings would reflect the landscape that it’s around and in some cases, the landscape merges into the building for example this is shown in The Guangzhou Opera House as the Pearl river flows  along side it the building is supposed to replicate two pebbles along the river bed side. Zaha Hadid’s style of work is unique and bold, making her buildings lively and also evoking human emotion. Zaha Hadid’s iconic architecture has made her become one of the most influential and famous architects of all time.