Incentives and Enforcement in International Environmental Agreements

Incentives and Enforcement in International Environmental Agreements


Many environmental resources represent global public goods. Individuals cannot reasonably exclude others from using a given environmental resource and the use of the resource by one individual does not diminish it for another (Bodansky, 2012). Due to this feature of environmental resources, their management often requires international governance (Bodansky, 2012). This presents unique challenges because there is no overarching authority on a global level that can require states to participate and uphold agreements.  This results in inadequate enforcement of cooperative actions among sovereign nations on environmental issues (Bohringer, 2003).International environmental agreements are only effective to the extent that they can address this challenge. To be successful, international environmental agreements must include cooperation incentives and be self-enforcing.  International climate treaties have failed in this regard. As a result, they have been ineffective at curbing global emissions of greenhouse gas.


Lack of Cooperation Incentives in Climate Agreements

The Kyoto Protocol was negotiated in 1997 due to growing international concern about the impacts of greenhouse gas emissions (Bohringer, 2003). This treaty commits industrialized states to emission reduction targets with the goal of curbing impacts of global climate change (Bohringer, 2003). Despite the urgency of this goal, the Kyoto Protocol lacks the incentives necessary to promote state cooperation and encourage political buy-in. The projected effects of climate change are uncertain and economists disagree on the proper approach to evaluate the impacts (Bohringer, 2003). This uncertainty makes it challenging for states to determine whether their participation in climate agreements, such as the Kyoto Protocol, would advance their domestic interests.  Countries have incentive to participate in international environmental agreements when their cooperation would make them better off than they would be if they remained uninvolved (Bohringer, 2003). When the benefit of action is unclear, states have incentive to stick with the non-cooperative status quo in order to avoid costs of premature or unnecessary action.  Additionally, states have more incentive to participate in international environmental treaties when they feel that the costs and benefits of participation are equitably distributed (O’Brien, 2012). Differing ideas of what is equitable have posed obstacles to state cooperation with climate agreements. The interests and fairness ideals of key parties, including the U.S., China, and the European Union, have been critical in shaping negotiation outcomes for climate agreements. (O’Brien, 2012). The Kyoto Protocol established “common but differentiated” state responsibilities and the need for developed countries to curb emissions before developing countries (Clémençon, 2016). The U.S. argued that the increasing emissions of emerging economies like China were not properly accounted for and these nations had an equal responsibility to reduce their emissions under the protocol (Clémençon, 2016).  Ultimately, the United States left the Kyoto Protocol in 2001 followed by Canada, Australia, Japan and Russia (Clémençon, 2016).  The interests of these states with regards to the fairness of the climate agreement eroded their willingness to participate.

Lack of Self-Enforcement in Climate Agreements

Instead of creating motivations to cooperate, the circumstances of many climate agreements create substantial free-rider incentives (Böhringer, 2003).  States that either do not agree to climate treaties or agree but then violate their terms can avoid the cost of participation while benefiting from the efforts of other participating states (Böhringer, 2003). Severe and convincing sanctions are required to reduce free-riding in climate agreements (Bohringer, 2003). However, in the case of the Kyoto Protocol, such sanctions do not exist. There were no repercussions for states that did not sign the agreement and only minor sanctions for states that did not reach emission targets (O’Brien, 2012). The Kyoto Protocol included restriction of trade privileges with non-compliant states. However, this enforcement mechanism was unsuccessful in reducing free rider incentives because it was detrimental to sanctioned states and sanctioning states alike (O’Brien, 2012).  Ultimately, the lack of self-enforcement in the Kyoto Protocol contributed to its ineffectiveness at curbing global greenhouse gas emissions.

Cooperation Incentives in Successful International Environmental Agreements

 The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is considered to be one of the most effective international environmental agreements (Bodansky, 2012). Born from the need to protect the ozone layer from ozone-depleting substances, the success of the Montreal Protocol can be partially attributed to its cooperation incentives. It used a powerful combination of decreasing costs for participating states and increasing costs for non-participating states to promote cooperation (Bodansky, 2012). The Montreal Protocol created incentives for developing countries through the establishment of a Multilateral Fund (O’Brien, 2012). This fund supported developing economies by offsetting the cost of committing to the agreement and complying with its requirements (“Multilateral Fund,” n.d.). Furthermore, the Montreal Protocol used trade restrictions on non-parties making it costly for developed nations not to participate (Bodansky, 2012). Unlike the incentive structure for climate agreements, which creates free-riding incentives, the incentive structure for the Montreal Protocol compelled voluntary state participation.

Similar to the Kyoto Protocol, perceptions of unfairness were an obstacle to state cooperation with the Montreal Protocol. However, the latter was successful in negotiating equitable terms to incentivize cooperation. India and China initially refused to sign the Montreal Protocol until the parties agreed upon a financial arrangement in 1990 (O’Brien, 2012).  Montreal mandated that both developing and developed states reduce their use and manufacturing of CFCs. Unlike Kyoto, the Montreal Protocol was effective in managing the inherent equity concerns of this proposal through differentiated compliance options (O’Brien, 2012).

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The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is another international environmental agreement that has been relatively effective. CITES regulates international wildlife trade with the goal of preserving global biodiversity (Carey, 1999). Similar to the Montreal Protocol, the success of CITES is partly a result of its effective cooperation incentives. As CITES was building its membership, it discouraged non-participation through trade embargoes on both party and non-party states that did not comply with the standards of the CITES agreement (Sand, 2013).  Non-cooperating free-rider states were then forced to identify alternative markets or suppliers. As CITES membership grew, non-cooperating states increasingly struggled to find opportunities for external trade (Sand, 2013).

Furthermore, CITES has inherent participation incentives through the financial benefit it affords to some countries. Endangered species protected under CITES provide economic benefits to global communities (“CITES incentives,” n.d.). In some countries, endangered species may support the economy through ecotourism or through the role they play in a critical ecosystem. If these species go extinct, countries could lose critical economic resources. This financial dependence on CITES could also contribute to countries’ willingness to participate in the agreement.

Self-Enforcement in Successful International Environmental Agreements

 Due to their strong participation incentives, both CITES and the Montreal Protocol are mostly self-enforcing with regards to encouraging participation. The enforcement challenge for these treaties is ensuring that participating states do not violate the established agreement. Where the Kyoto protocol had minimal sanctions for states that failed to reach emission targets, CITES and the Montreal Protocol are able to address treaty violators more effectively. In the case of CITES, severe noncompliance is met with a general embargo. This last-resort enforcement action restricts the targeted state from profitable legal export opportunities. The severe economic implications of this sanction are typically enough to elicit compliance (Sand, 2013). Generally, these trade suspensions have been effective in the enforcement of CITES. In 2002, for example, United Arab Emirates pledged reform following a CITES recommendation to halt trade with the country (“CITES incentives,” n.d.).


While a range of factors play a role in the effectiveness of international environmental treaties, enforcement and incentives for participation are critical to success.  Agreements between sovereign states must encourage participation and contain enforcement mechanisms lest they fail in the absence of a central, powerful authority. Climate agreements such as the Kyoto protocol have struggled to achieve the participation and enforcement needed for success.  Both successful and failed agreements offer powerful insights into the driving factors behind effective international environmental agreements. Future improvements to international climate policy may include stronger incentives and sanctions.


Bodansky, D. (2012). Whats in a Concept? Global Public Goods, International Law, and Legitimacy. European Journal of International Law, 23(3), 651-668. doi:10.1093/ejil/chs035

Bohringer, C. (2003). The Kyoto Protocol: A Review and Perspectives. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 19(3), 451-466. doi:10.1093/oxrep/19.3.451

Carey, J. E. (1999). Improving the Efficacy of CITES by Providing the Proper Incentives to Protect Endangered Species. Washington University Law Review, 77(4), 1291-1322.

CITES incentives inspire vital reforms in wildlife management. (n.d.). Retrieved from:

Clémençon, R. (2016). The Two Sides of the Paris Climate Agreement. The Journal of Environment & Development,25(1), 3-24. doi:10.1177/1070496516631362

Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. (n.d.). Retrieved from

O’Brien, E., & Gowan, R. (2012, September). What Makes International Agreements Work: Defining Factors for Success. Retrieved February 10, 2019, from

Sand, P. H. (2013). Enforcing CITES: The Rise and Fall of Trade Sanctions. Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law, 22(3), 251-263. doi:10.1111/reel.12037

Impact of New Media Technology on International Law

To what extent can it be argued that new media technologies have impacted on the structure of international news?
The concept of globalization has changed the way or perhaps the structure of international news and represents a key component in the media transformation. It implies that the new media technologies plays an important role in enhancing globalization by allowing mass flowing of information between countries and intercultural societies. However, the rise of citizen journalism and internet seems to challenges the traditional way of international news structure.

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First of all, globalization has made an impact on the editorial structure and content in international news structure. Globalization is best describes as a transformation process while the development of new media technologies like internet and satellite system is an important part it. Flew (2007) describes globalization as a process rather an outcome or a collective tendencies of economic, political, social and cultural relations across nation’s border. Therefore globalization creates new forms of international journalism, the political ideas, economic events and communication spread much more easily and widely than before. The global news system is driven by technology and spread through the different media form such as international news broadcasts, televisions programming, internet and even satellite radio broadcasting. In fact, Kperogi (2011) points out that foreign news and local news continues to co-exist but become networked and blended together, creating new form of journalism. However audience are still basically primarily concern on their own national news while national interests are still the main aspects in journalism. Holm (2001) agreed that the content in the international news structure was always about political and economic event in foreign countries. In that case, this foreign news is facing competitive pressures with the other sensualizes and entertainment news. However with the new media technologies such as satellite and cable system, more and more people are getting concerned about the issues happened around the globe. Foreign news is now known as global news; therefore new agencies have the need to expand news productions and developed a more professionalism practices in the news coverage. Reese (2010) argues that international news agencies have to position themselves within transnational relationships, while maintaining their norms and logics to engage with the local practices. CNN as an example, an US based satellite and cable channel, now has a specific column for international news coverage such as Africa, Asia, Europe and Middle East in the website. Therefore the selection of international news must not just reflect global interests but also address to the local community.
Likewise, globalization as a post-modern world phenomenon has eventually the shaped the role and practice of journalists to mediate the news between the nation and the global interest. As Volkmer (1999) argues that the globalization and journalism has reflected the new categories of media, practice, professionals, and content which they need to redefine into global perspective. Todays, every media people have the computer and internet access to international 24 hours news feed. The digitalization of information and the development of new media technologies with the capacity to store the information and permitting the convergence of information have contributed in spreading a global agenda. This evolution of news system has been seen in some of the international news agencies in the past 19th century such as Reuters and AP which had become the emergence of today’s modern global news system. Journalists and reporters are assigned throughout all over the world even the war zone like Palestine and Iraq with the objective to cover and report any significant live event happened in the country. The transformation in the structure of international news communication has created the perception of a shrinking world through intercultural connectivity. Thus people are getting more concern with the global news, especially when it has huge political, economic and social impact to the world. New media technologies allow the people to access to foreign news, while breaking news, live event and exclusivity have resulted changing demand in international news coverage. The reason is because people always wanted to be the first to know what is happening and it must be huge, example like the 911 incidents the people around the world are able connect to live news reporting but also in the same time they have also witnessed the second terrorist plan attack during the news reporting in the their TV screen as it is happening. International news reporting has expanded widely and can be received throughout the world. CNN, Al-Jazeera and even BBC do not just exist in their origin country; foreign operational offices also have been established across the world. Therefore, it could be argued that new media technologies and the Internet have stimulated this interconnectedness between countries and lead to the rapid spread of information, news, content and programming.
Furthermore as the media corporations expand globally, the structure and content in the international news become more and more saturated which people have been bombarded by different kind of political reinscribed messages. Basically, media consists of propaganda potential to narrow down the range of ideas in the public sphere and restrict debate among the citizens. McComb & Shaw (1997) describes media has the powerful influence in determine the agenda and highlight certain issue in the society. With new media technologies, these effects certainly become global and visible especially throughout this cultural sensitivity world. To illustrates this, Israel-Palestinian and middle-east conflicts are now the international central agenda, by consistently highlighting and broadcasting on going live events such as the war in Israel and Palestine, the international media create a new form of public sphere and awareness. However as media grow in scale and centrality in international news reporting, the degree to which media constructs the agenda in news become an issue. Reese (2009) argues that the notion of globalization leads to another way to describe Americanization, cultural imperialism and transnational capitalism. One of the assumptions is that the international news agencies are very much controlled by the political elite group in the western countries. Neither do they are not covering enough news in the developing countries, the international news are still very much constructed in a very selective and biased way. Furthermore, due to the commercialised and privatisation in the media, the competition among those media tycoons has been reduced to few with media corporations are largely concentrate on fewer owner. Therefore media today are moving across national borders and building alliances with local forms through conglomeration and integration. One of the very good examples perhaps would be News Corporation owned by Rupert Murdoch. With the subsidiaries in Europe, United States of America, Asia and Australia, Murdoch has successfully expanded his global media empire through the establishment of satellite TV systems (Flew, 2007). The international media system today is largely owned by Western Corporations, with not even single one is coming from developing countries. It would be wise to say that the current international news agenda is imbued with westernised ideology. For instances, the participation of the minority group such as the African American are very much underrepresented in the media while the hunger and poverty in South Africa seldom been highlighted in the international news agenda. It is perhaps these international agenda does not seem to create a political and economy interest to the westernised country. On the hand, the conflicts happened in the Islamic middle-east countries have been the central of the international news. This is because these people who own these technologies of satellite and cable system as well as the resources are basically the white magnates, who have the tied relationship with the ruling class members. Thus they have the direct power to control the content and agenda in international media. From the political economy perspective, new media technologies has been seen as propaganda tools by these political elite groups members to spread their ideology into international level. The international news agenda somehow has been pre-constructed by the representatives such as journalists, editors and political figures to protect the dominant westernised ideology.
Despite the media conglomeration impacted on the international news agenda, the rise of the new internet phenomenon, the citizen journalism, seems to challenge the traditional way of international news cover. In fact, Goode (2009) defines citizen journalism as a range of web-based practices whereby ordinary user engages in journalistic practices. These practices include current affairs blogging, photo and video sharing and even posting eyewitness opinion on current events in social network. Indeed, new technologies has eventually changed the practices of journalism while new digital media such as Facebook, Twitter, DIGG and even The Huffington Post have connected the world and lower the distinctions between professional journalists and netizen. Likewise Dahlgren (2005) points out that the internet has the potential to democratize the current public sphere and lead to strengthened political interest and participation among the citizens in a long term effect. With computerized technology, satellite TV and the Internet have contributed to the cost-effective communication which it stimulates the home-made news production phenomenon among the citizens without the contents of being filtered by the gatekeeper. Citizens can often report breaking news more quickly than traditional news agencies. Social media like Twitter and Facebook enable a powerful form of citizen journalism with live coverage of events such as the war in Israel and Gaza as it is happening. It is perhaps citizen journalism has been act as form of pre-alert form of news. As Reese et. al. (2007) argues that blogging and other social media have helped create an interlocking dialog between professionals and citizens. In fact, rather than competing against each other, professional media seems to take citizen journalism into account and are responsible to embrace their efforts. CNN with new media technologies allows the people around the world have to opportunity to contribute the unfiltered or uncensored video and text-based news report (Kperogi, 2011: 319). Furthermore this digitalised form of news allows rapidly retransmitted effect throughout the world while commentaries were available in the social media platform (E.g. Youtube video-sharing to Facebook). Such news and information sharing phenomenon eventually contribute to the development of meta-journalism, and offer diverse range of alternatives news sources in the internet. Therefore social media established a healthy form of public sphere where individual opinion can be heard and dialogue between the citizen and social institution could be formed.
In this sense, the international news agencies sometimes do rely on the information from the citizens, especially when they do not have direct access or footage to the news coverage of the event. Professional sometimes selects and edits user-generated content before it actually published online. Indeed new digital media beyond most of the media regulation and gatekeeper control enable to create democratic practices in international news structure. However the practices of citizen journalism still remains scrutiny. Goode (2009) argues that the online communities lack of professionalism and credibility in this participatory news production. Although internet enable new form of public sphere, by creating the opportunity to publicize criticisms and comments, and to engage in a continuous dialogue, the accuracy of the news still much be questioned. This is because everyone on the internet can write and post anything about any issues in the internet. Unlike the professional journalism, the news without gatekeeper can be written without based on any facts, while the photo footage we seen on the internet might not be true and have been reconstructed by any computer tools like Photoshop and Video editor. Basically citizen journalism does not empower individual in any perspective. Again with the Israel-Gaza conflicts, the citizens in the country used twitter to routinely update about the news with the Hashtag features available (e.g. #IsraelGaza), but it still would not change anything. Therefore the credibility and objectivity of citizen journalism somehow still need to examine.
In conclusion, international news structure has been deeply affected by the new media technologies in the process of globalization. Media, practice, professionals, and content have to restructure into global perspective. While majority of the international news agency are owned by Western Corporation, new media technologies are essential propagate to shape the ideological agenda into international level. The rise of citizen journalism on the other hand creates the opportunity for the public participation in news production which public opinion and dialogue between the citizen and social institution could be formed. Therefore, new media technologies to certain extent still plays a critical role in helping international news organization act as a watchdog to monitor issues around the world.
DAHLGREN, P. (2005) ‘The internet, public spheres, and political communication’, Political Communication, 22:2, 147–62.
FLEW, T. (2007) Understanding global media: Globalization and global media corporations, Palgrave: London.
GOODE, L. (2009) Social news: citizen journalism and democracy, New Media & Society, 11, 1287-1305.
HJARVARD, S. (2001) News media and the globalization of the public sphere in in HJARVARD, S. (2001) News in a globalized society, Nordicom: Goreborg, 113-128.
HOLM, H. (2001) ‘The effect of globalization on media structures and norms: globalization and the choice of foreign news’ in HJARVARD, S. (2001) News in a globalized society, Nordicom: Goreborg, 113-128.
KPEROGI, F. (2011) Cooperation with the corporation? CNN and the hegemonic cooptation of citizen journalism through, New Media & society, 13, 314-329.
McCOMBS, M. E., & Shaw, D. L. (1997) Communication and Democracy: Exploring the intellectual frontiers in agenda-setting theory, Mahwah, N.J. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Reese, S. D., Lou Rutigliano, Kideuk Hyun & Jaekwan Jeong (2007) Mapping the blogosphere: Citizen-based media in the global news arena, cited in REESE, S. (2010) Journalism and globalization, Sociology Compass, 4: 6, 344-353.
REESE, S. D. (2009) The future of journalism in emerging deliberative space, Journal: Theory, Practice and Criticism, 10: 3, 362-364.
REESE, S. D. (2010) Journalism and globalization, Sociology Compass, 4: 6, 344-353.
VOLKMER, I. (1999) News in the global sphere: A study of CNN and its impact on global communication, cited in REESE, S. (2010) Journalism and globalization, Sociology Compass, 4: 6, 344-353.

International Healthcare Policy Health And Social Care Essay

This assignment deals with the impact that social and cultural issues have on attitudes towards healthcare using their chosen nation as an example; I should evaluate healthcare policy in one national context and explain the influences on policy formation, including impacts of funding issues. The comparison should be made to other national policies to show how different national policies arise. I should explain the structure of healthcare delivery in their chosen nation including an analysis of the organisations involved in healthcare and showing how this represents the translation of policy into practice. And also I should analyse practical barrier to the provision of healthcare in their chosen national context. All of these are covered in task 1 of this unit. Under task 2; Student should identify national and international public health campaigns and analyse their impact on the demand for healthcare in their chosen nation. Their analysis should look at the promotion of public health issues and how well this is achieved. And one thing more, student should identify current international or national health issues and assess how national policy accommodates these issues and the practical responses to these issues in their chosen national context. These assignments bring us new insight to the healthcare in the international sector as well as national. The example that I can cite is the issue of tuberculosis in national and international context.

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Let me give you a bird’s eye view regarding tuberculosis. Tuberculosis remains one of the most devastating diseases in the world, affecting people of all ages across the globe. Despite rumours of its demise, tuberculosis remains one of the most deadly, and disabling, diseases in the developing world. According to the World Health Organization’s Global Burden of Disease project (Mathers 2002), in 2000 it was the eighth highest cause of death, and the tenth highest cause of disability adjusted life years (DALYs).
Tuberculosis (TB) is a common and often deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, usually ”Mycobacterium tuberculosis” in humans. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air, when people who have the disease cough, sneeze, or spit. Most infections in humans result in an asymptomatic, latent infection, and about one in ten latent infections eventually progresses to active disease, which, if left untreated, kills more than half of its victims. Tuberculosis is most prevalent in developing nations and often coincides with malaria prevalence and acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS, and human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, infections. As an opportunistic disease, tuberculosis easily seats itself in carriers with weakened immune systems. When tuberculosis is a secondary infection in those with a primary infection that is as dire as AIDS, HIV or malaria, it is often a fatal disease.
Diagnosis relies on radiology which is commonly known as chest X-rays, a tuberculin skin test, blood tests, as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of bodily fluids. Treatment is difficult and requires long courses of multiple antibiotics. Contacts are also screened and treated if necessary. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in (extensively) multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination, usually with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine. Tuberculosis has been contagious for a long period of time. The signs and symptoms usually dormant or they called it as latent period. It can stay up to 5 years, until you will experience loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, easy fatigability, night sweat and persistent coughing with or without blood. This said bacteria are treatable if caught in an early stage. But also it is deadly if left untreated. Mostly the treatment is provided by the government; the course of treatment is quiet long and has to take religiously.
Task 1
One of the healthcare policies of the World Health Organisation regarding tuberculosis is to reduce the transmission of TB in households, any information, education and communication activity for prevention and management of TB should include behaviour and social change campaigns. Such campaigns should focus on how communities and, in particular, family members of smear-positive TB patients and health service providers can minimize the exposure of non-infected individuals to those who are infectious. This will ultimately translate into healthier behaviour of the entire community in relation to prevention and management of TB.
Healthcare in the UK is mainly provided by the country’s public health provider – the National Health Service (NHS). Established in 1948, the NHS was the first state organisation in the world to provide free healthcare. Today, it is the largest health service in the world providing services such as hospitals, General Practitioners (GPs/doctors), specialists, dentists, chemists, opticians and the ambulance service. The majority of these are free to those who are entitled (see below), but patients pay fixed fees for prescriptions, sight tests, NHS glasses and dental treatment, unless they are exempt for a particular reason.
The state system is supported by private health providers. These offer the opportunity to receive treatment more quickly, always see an expert specialist and be seen in clean and comfortable surroundings. The private health providers are not paid for by the state but through private health insurance or personally.
Those entitled to free or subsidised treatment on the NHS include:
Anyone with the right to live in the UK and who currently resides there (excluding British citizens who are resident abroad)
Anyone who has been resident in the UK for the previous year
EU Nationals
Anyone with a British work permit
Students on courses longer than six months
In addition, nationals from countries with reciprocal health agreements can also get treatment on the NHS, although this is usually limited to emergencies. (A full list of these countries can be found on the NHS website –
The number of patients using the NHS is huge. On average, it deals with one million patients every 36 hours and each GP sees an average of 140 patients a week. The NHS struggles to cope with these numbers and it is not uncommon to have to wait several months to see a specialist. As a result, many people opt to pay for private health insurance (or have it provided by their employer) to avoid long waiting times for appointments and treatments.
In the UK life expectancy has been rising and infant mortality has been falling since the NHS was established. Both figures compare favourably with other nations.
On the other hand, in USA they have these kinds of free medical services to those who are less fortunate. Medicaid is a highly specific, means-tested health coverage/insurance program. It covers those who are (primarily financially) unable to acquire health coverage. It covers low-income individuals, including children, pregnant women, parents of eligible children, and people with disabilities. Medicaid was created to help low-income individuals who fall into one of these eligibility categories pay for some or all of their medical bills. Medicaid helps eligible individuals who have little or no medical insurance. And for those who are able to pay their insurance they have Medicare which covers wide scope of individual in Unites States. These Medicaid and Medicare are both run by the government. So the government is the one deciding which one is beneficial to their people but they both get a better treatment in terms of healthcare.
As I have discussed TB as my example in healthcare issues again, tuberculosis is an infectious disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most common tuberculosis-causing pathogen in humans. Tuberculosis impacts society greatly by hindering economic growth in developing countries. Along with AIDS and malaria, tuberculosis is considered one of the three diseases of poverty. Tuberculosis can be extremely isolating for those infected with the disease. During the beginning stages of being a carrier of the active germs, you are required by medical professionals to stay physically isolated for a two-week period while receiving treatment that results in no longer being contagious. For those who are not treated in a timely manner but are aware that they are infected, this isolation may be extended for an inordinate amount of time. This isolation process has created an impact to the society, they become stereotyped that once you are isolated due to the said TB you are contagious for the whole course of treatment. That is why health education in the community, media information and also by giving leaflets are very helpful way to lessen the emotional burden of the victim or the patient.
In the recent study, in Asia India has the highest percentage incident of TB. In a study conducted by the Department of Community Medicine at Maulana Azad Medical College in New Delhi, India, it was shown that tuberculosis patients rated their quality of life as significantly lower than those test cases of non-infected patients. Women, in particular, felt that the effects of being a carrier of the disease were devastating to their romantic lives as well as their abilities to parent their children due to fears of infecting them.
The social determinates of tuberculosis are very clear. Poverty is one of the biggest problems and housing. The impact on women is quite serious because they are at the bottom of everything whether it comes to health services or economic empowerment and whether it is access to food and nutrition. Women are really in the bottom strata of the society, and, coupled with that is the effect of gender discrimination against women. There is no equal opportunity, so it affects a lot of women. Access to health is a big problem for women.
So, tuberculosis is complicated by all of these things and while, yes, it does affect everyone in the society, women tend to suffer a lot more just because their access to healthcare is so low, and it is so difficult for them. In fact, the health-seeking behaviour of women is very poor in the communities, and part of the empowerment process is to help them put their health first and to make them understand that their own health is important. They must begin to put their own health first rather than putting their family first and neglecting their own health. Since the cultural aspect in India are very strong that woman has to take care of the family while the father is the main bread winner; that is why most women tends to ignore their health problem even they were suffering from the said disease. And also one of their cultures is having extended family. In one small house maybe 2-3 families are living together, so the mode of transmission of TB is very evident and that is why increasing number of incident in the said country.
According to the study of British Thoracic Society; in London the cases of tuberculosis have been increasing since year 2000 – 2008 to 37% – 45% roughly estimated. Over 40% of TB Cases are Indian but not born here in London. 65% of new cases are aged 15-44yrs old. And it is common in male which is 55% and female 45%.
Other issues of service user (TB Patient in London) had been determine and it become barrier to the provision of healthcare namely:
GPs slow to recognise and act on symptoms
Non TB staff lack empathy / understanding
TB clinics a source of emotional and social support as well as health care
Advocacy services lacking
Psychological impact on being “isolation inpatient”
Geographic barriers
rural and inner-city health professional shortage areas
Cultural barriers
health beliefs and behaviors, practitioner beliefs and behaviors
Socioeconomic barriers
lack of health insurance, inability to pay out of pocket, poor education
Organizational barriers lack of interpreters, long appointment wait times, referral between hospital departments is troublesome
Combinations of these barriers may occur at the same time
According to the survey, 43% of BTS (British Thoracic Society) respondents gave the Department of Health in England a rating of poor or very poor in the priority they give to TB. The 2007 BTS survey saw 71% poor or very poor so this is a marked improvement. This reflects the increased priority the Department of Health has given TB, with much service improvement attributable to Department of Health funded projects such as Restructuring TB Services ‐ the multidisciplinary team project undertaken by BTS. Since it has given a priority in the year 2008, the incidents of TB are stable. But across England, the number of cases of the illness appears to be on the increase. According to the Health Protection Agency the number of people infected by the illness per year has gone up from 8,496 to 8,679. People who had been affected by the said disease are not the local once but people coming from outside the country like the migrants from Africa and Asia.
In the recent issue in Afghanistan, they begun to work on a $30 million hospital for the treatment of tuberculosis[TB], a disease that health officials say kills more than 10,000 Afghans every year,” VOA’s “Breaking News” blog reports. “The Japanese government is paying for the 80-bed center in the Afghan capital, which will also treat malaria and AIDS patients,” the news service writes, noting, “Japan is the second-largest donor to Afghanistan, after the United States.” VOA adds, “During Thursday’s groundbreaking in Kabul, Afghan Health Minister Suraya Dalil said Afghanistan ranks in the top 20 worldwide for the most TB patients,” and she noted the country has 2,000 centers nationwide that can diagnose and treat the disease. So in this, other first world countries like Japan are helping them to lessen or eventually eradicate the incident of TB and other deadly diseases.
According to the World Health Organisation, tuberculosis is a continuing public problem in developed and developing countries. Due to this, the World Health Organisation had come out with the plan of implementing the DOT or the Direct Observe therapy which started in 2006 and the result were remarkable that is why up to the present they are still using the said method of treatment in tuberculosis. One thing more is the implementation of screening test (chest X-ray) to all migrants who will enter to the specific country like in United Kingdom. They have policy that all migrants who will stay in the country for more than 6 months should have chest X-ray done and have valid reading result. They can bring their result from their own country but if they cannot produce the result in the immigration area, chest X-ray should be done before letting them inn in the country.
First let me define what “Public Health” is? It is the approach to medicine that is concerned with the health of the community as a whole. Public health is community health. And it has been said that it is vital to all of us at all times. Public health professionals are the one monitoring and diagnosing the health concerns of entire communities and promote healthy practices and behaviours to assure our populations stay healthy.
I have read an article about the campaign regarding tuberculosis world wide. It was held last March 2012 the 2012 World TB Day campaign will allow people all over the world to make an individual call to stop TB in their lifetimes. The Department of Health strategy for tackling TB is to help the NHS strengthen TB services in order to detect cases of TB early, and ensure completion of treatment. In addition to developing the TB Action Plan for England has: developed a set of resources, the “TB Toolkit”, on what constitutes a good TB service with advice on how to assess local needs and commission appropriate services in line with National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) clinical guideline. The Toolkit has been presented to Primary Care Trust (PCT) commissioners and their local service providers/public health teams via a series of regional workshops. Provided funding for the BTS (British Thoracic Society) to establish a national clinical advice network, with a multi-disciplinary make-up, offering peer support and best practice advice for the management of TB cases; implemented improvements to the current Health Protection Agency (HPA) surveillance system to enable local services to have rapid, timely and accurate information, allowing them to monitor TB cases and outcomes in their locality; funded an evaluation of the use of mobile X-ray screening in London as a tool for active case-finding. Provided funding for a TB ‘Find & Treat’ programme to support TB services in London in following-up suspected cases of TB, and diagnosed cases who have been ‘lost to follow-up’; introduced X-ray screening equipment in a number of key prisons in order to improve detection of cases among prisoners; Commissioned research on awareness of, and knowledge about, TB among certain migrant groups at higher risk of TB, and among primary care professionals. This forms the basis of further work to raise awareness of TB. For example, the DH is funding TB Alert to develop materials to raise awareness among higher risk groups, and work closely with PCTs to target these materials locally; reduced the cost of TB drugs to patients who would normally pay a prescription charge. A small amendment to the medicines charging regulations allows TB drugs to be given via TB clinics or patient group direction without a prescription charge being levied; held an expert meeting to review the TB Action Plan in England in order to identify gaps and priorities for further action.
On the other hand, tuberculosis impacts society greatly by hindering economic growth in developed and developing countries. The WHO estimates that globally tuberculosis causes $12 billion annual economic loss. Mycobacterium tuberculosis contaminates about one-third of the entire Earth’s society. It is also one of the most averaged single death affecting factors in adolescents.
It is about two point five percent of all the diseases in the world combined, there are huge consequences globally because of tuberculosis approximately two billion people in the world are infected. It is the seventh most death causing disease worldwide. About seventy-five percent of people fifteen years old to fifty-four are afflicted with this disease. In places like South East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa the rates of death caused by tuberculosis can range from ninety-five and ninety-nine percent. There are some productive drugs that sparingly helps prevent tuberculosis, for about 50 years there has been a statistics saying that every 15 seconds, one person dies due to tuberculosis. People say that this statistic is supposed to remain until the year 2020. One person with tuberculosis usually contaminates about ten to fifteen people every year.
It usually takes 1.6 billion US dollars to budget for tuberculosis control for just one severely affected country. Tuberculosis is a huge epidemic in Yemen. The majority of patients in Yemen that are contaminated by tuberculosis between the range of fifteen years old to fifty-four years old, seventy-two percent of that majority of the patients have pulmonary tuberculosis and twenty-eight percent of them have extra-pulmonary. Tuberculosis is transmitted very easily, when a person coughs they discharge a droplet nuclei which holds about ten bacilli. They are then transported by air currents, once they are breathed in they are anchored in the upper respiratory tract. Because the droplets are very small it is easier for them to stay in the air for a long amount of time. The risk of being contaminated with tuberculosis is very high in poor ventilated ares and crowded places.
There are many ways one can be infected by tuberculosis. An exposed victim will have a hundred percent chance of getting tuberculosis if they are in a very small, enclosed place with the infectious person. Poor ventilation can increase the risk because ventilation is used to remove the contagious droplet nuclei. The amount of time that you are exposed is another key factor. If the individual is exposed and is very susceptible that individual will be contaminated. There are many treatments for tuberculosis, one of them is a drug called Isoniazid it is widely used and it is for prevent tuberculosis. Another one is Rifampicin, it is very effective is non toxic. There are many others like Pyrazinamide, Thioacetazone, Streptomycin, and Ethambutol.
In Yemen, there were no studies or research conducted for a treatment for tuberculosis. But there have been many advances around the world in the past one hundred years, like in 1885 Cantan discovers nonpathogenic bacteria that reduce the amount of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 1944 the worlds first single anti-tuberculosis drug. Many scientists in Europe have worked hard to find a cure for Tuberculosis and in 1946 they succeeded in creating an acid that resist the bacteria, it is called PAS which stands for para-aminosalycilic acid. Soon after that they started to discover a lot more new drugs to treat tuberculosis; isoniazed was discovered in 1951, in 1954 pyrazinamide was discovered, cycloserine was discovered in 1955, ethambutol in 1962, and rifampicin was discovered in 1963. All of these have helped the spread of tuberculosis significantly lessen.
Even though many anti-tuberculosis drugs exist around the world, tuberculosis is still and epidemic in some countries because of the low economy some of the countries have. Since the countries that have tuberculosis as their epidemic have a low economy, this means that the country could not provide enough money to trade with other countries who have these drugs or the country could not afford money to provide research and studies for prevention of tuberculosis or for a cure. If each country with the anti-tuberculosis drugs would share their information with the other countries maybe tuberculosis can be eliminated from this world, because it affects the society of today’s world.
Having discussed the issues regarding tuberculosis in national and international aspect; it was an eye opening to the community how to lessen the transmission of disease and at the same time how to get information; give solution to the problem. By identifying the barriers in the issue of tuberculosis such as; GPs slow to recognise and act on symptoms; non TB staff lack empathy / understanding; Psychological impact on being “isolation inpatient”; rural and inner-city health professional shortage areas; long appointment wait times, referral between hospital departments is troublesome. And another thing is the cultural beliefs about healthcare. In these barriers, the NHS is trying their best to intervene and look for a possible and healthy solution.
Further more, the link between tuberculosis and diminished growth suggests that there is a role for health programmes such as DOTS in improving not only the health of those living in the developing world, but also such individual’s wealth. Any policy would need to take into account the problems involved in scaling-up treatments in countries with limited healthcare staff and health infrastructure. Both sets of guidelines appear to support a dedicated programme to treat tuberculosis using community based methods such as those of DOTS, which do not require long periods of hospitalisation or high-level infrastructure.
Future Impact of Tuberculosis |
TB’s Impact on Women
Controlling TB in London, London TB Services and Review…/tb…/j_hayward
Barrier to Healthcare
Tuberculosis in UK. What is being done?…ethics/…/Tuberculosiswhatisbeingdone.jsp
The Impact of Tuberculosis on Economic Growth – HEC Montréal
Future Impact of Tuberculosis |

International Accounting Standards (IAS) 37 Requirements

Since IAS 37 is published, companies obeying by international standards can solve the difficulty of how to recognize and measure provision, contingent liability and contingent asset. It provides an explicit direction for companies to disclose incurred transactions associated with liabilities. However, “probable” or “possible” such words are involved many times in this standard which can allow options and creative accounting for companies on whether to recognize it as a provision on the balance sheet or a contingent liability under the notes. This will further mislead investors’ decisions. Thus in this essay, we will re-evaluate it and give an in-depth understanding of it.

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This report will first give some background of IAS37, and what the major requirements of this standard are and why those requirements are important. Furthermore, the report will critically evaluate the IAS37 from aspects of 1) options allowed; 2) applicability of this standard internationally; 3) opportunities for creative accounting; 4) the weaknesses of this standard; 5) how this standard can be improved.
2. Background of IAS 37
The International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) issued IAS37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets in September 1998. It replaced parts of IAS10 Contingencies (IAS37 BV2008) and became operative for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 July 1999 (IAS37, BV2008).
Before the announcement of IAS37, different countries use various ways to verify their provisions, which bring the problem of inconsistency. Some enterprises confirm their provisions, depending on whether to undertake current obligation or not. While some other enterprises are according to managers’ willingness of proceeding future payments to confirm their preparations. Therefore, the results are:
Different types of business enterprises have different classification of provisions, so it creates inconsistency. This jeopardizes comparability of different enterprise’s financial statements.
It provides the opportunity for certain enterprises to manipulate their profits. For example, the cost should be recognized in the period but may be moved to other period to confirm; the cost should be confirmed in future but may be moved to the current period. Therefore, to achieve the balance of profits in each period is one of purposes of this regulation.
Some enterprises include some liabilities that do not meet the conditions of the requirements into their balance sheet. This apparently damages the current financial situation of the company.
‘The objective of this standard is to ensure that appropriate recognition criteria and measurement bases are applied to provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets and that sufficient information is disclosed in the notes to enable users to understand their nature, timing and amount ‘(International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), 2009). The key principle of IAS37 is that a provision should be recognized only when a liability exists. Planned future expenditures are not recognized as provisions or contingencies, even if the board of directors has authorized them.
3. IAS 37 Major requirements
An entity should recognize a provision as a liability based on the following three criteria met simultaneously:
(a) there is a present obligation or more likely than not that a present obligation exists at the end of the balance sheet date as a result of an obligating event;
(b) it is probable (i.e. more likely than not; i.e. 50%–95%) that an outflow of the economic benefit of the entity will exist;
(c) the amount of the outflow can be estimated reliably (IAS37 BV2008).
If the first criterion is met but it is possible (i.e.5%-50%) NOT probable that an outflow of economic benefit of the entity exists and the amount of the outflow cannot be measured reliably OR if possible obligation exists and the outflow of the economic benefit of the entity is not remote (i.e. 0%-5%), then contingent liability will arise.
In respect of contingent liability an entity should disclose it instead of recognizing unless the possibility of the outflow of the economic benefit of the entity is remote (IAS37 BV2008).
As regards a contingent asset, it should be just disclosed as well as contingent liability, unless the amount of the inflow of the contingent asset is virtually certain (i.e.95%-100%). When the inflow of the contingent asset is virtually certain, then it is appropriate to be recognized as an asset on the balance sheet (IAS37 BV2008).
When recognizing a provision, the amount of the outflow of the economic benefit of the entity should be based on the best estimate, i.e. this amount should be the same as the entity needs to pay to settle the obligation in due course (IAS37 BV2008).
When measuring a provision, things such as, risks and uncertainties, discounted provisions (if time value of money is material), changes in the law or other cases which can affect provisions, should be taken into account but do not take into account gains from the expected disposal of assets (IAS37 BV2008).
When reimbursement happens, an entity recognizes it if it is virtually certain and the amount recognized should not be more than the amount of the provision. The reimbursement should be recognized as a separate asset in the balance sheet. If the reimbursement and the expense relating to a provision are sustained in the same reporting period, then the expenses disclosed in the comprehensive P & L can be netted off by the amount recognized as a reimbursement (IAS37 BV2008).
The provision should be reviewed annually and adjusted according to latest best estimates. Changes in the provision can only be used for its original intention (IAS37 BV2008).
Provisions-three specific applications mentioned by this standard, namely: future operating losses, onerous contracts, restructurings. With regard to future operating losses no recognition should be made as a provision. In terms of onerous contracts, the unavoidable cost in excess of the benefit which can be received by the entity should be recognized as a provision. In related to restructurings, restructuring costs should be recognized when the criteria for provisions are met (IAS37 BV2008).
4. The importance of IAS37 requirements
According to Deloitte, IAS37 aims to ensure that recognition of provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets are made by using the best methods and measurements, to ensure that users of financial statements receive adequate and appropriate information for investment decision-making processes. In addition, IAS37 aims to ensure that it only deals with the real obligation in the financial statements and future expenditure, even if excluded from recognition by the responsible board.
The importance of taking the criteria into account, when the entity recognises the provision, is to prevent any unnecessary provision from being recognised in order to enhance the entity’s value in subsequent periods in unsubstantiated ways, leading to provision of unreliable information to financial statement users (ACCA, 2009). The importance of the liability and asset disclosure requirements could be viewed as returning to the Conservatism Principle in accounting which advises on ignoring profits not yet achieved, taking all expected losses into account and not registering potential gains until they occur. In other words this requirement prevents an entity from providing unrealised profits and subsequent information that might mislead users.
IAS37 provides guidelines regarding best estimates of provisions associated with its objectives, aiming to provide an appropriate way of measurement in order to represent sufficient and appropriate information. The standard requires the entity to take into account estimating process risks, uncertainties and other elements in order to achieve the best estimate for the provision. Following this requirement can prevent unrealistic values being reported in the entity’s financial statement. The requirements for solving the problem of reimbursement and illustrating the three specific applications are equally comprehensive, so that accountants know how to resolve them. Otherwise, it is likely that each entity might adopt its own method of troubleshooting which differs from others when facing such cases in reality, resulting in a lack of comparability among entities. In these instances investors may be misled when making investment decisions. In summary the importance of IAS37 is that it is intended to reduce the possibility of deliberate misstatement of an entity’s provisions, contingent assets and liabilities.
5. Critical Evaluation of IAS 37
5.1 Options allowed
In the measurement of IAS 37, there are several ways to measure provisions in order to make best estimate. Owing to these different ways, companies could control the amount of their provisions. All the information about provisions, such as amount and timing, are realized and disclosed by the companies. So a company could make the number of provision larger on the balance sheet when it is making a profit during the period. In addition, a company could calculate the number of provision smaller to make sure their balance sheets still look good when it is losing money during the year. This is an option that companies can change a number from their balance sheets showing different operating conditions and improve financial performance. In this way, decisions of investors could be misled, because investors of a company will not be possible to discover a present obligation or the estimation of the amount of the payment, companies could use this potential option to hide their real operating condition and make creditors and shareholder believe the companies are performing well.
In the second place, contingent liabilities are disclosed in the financial statement, especially in the notes, while provisions are disclosed in balance sheet as provisions are recognized as liabilities. It is absolutely sure that balance sheet will be paid more attention by reports’ users than notes. In order to make balance sheet attractive, the company will prefer to disclose adverse cases as contingent liabilities in the note on which the information appears less transparent. This action may affect investors’ decisions. And this kind of action may not be discerned because in general, both provisions and contingent liabilities are uncertain in timing or amount. This is another option under IAS 37 that companies could use to produce an advantageous financial report for them.
5.2 Applicability of IAS37 Internationally
Companies from more than 100 countries have been required or permitted to use IFRS since 2001. Meanwhile, remaining countries, such as Japan, have established timelines for harmonization with IFRS. (IASB, 2010)However, IAS 37 may face some difficulties when being applied world widely.
Owing to the different cultural attitudes, companies may not voluntarily disclose information about contingent liabilities and contingent assets in notes of their financial reports in some countries whose residents are secretive, such as Switzerland and Japan. On the contrary, Companies from transparent countries will disclose more detail information about their operation.
Additionally, some countries have more requirements about provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets than IAS 37 does. Because their accounting profession, as well as accounting standards, is well developed. For example, Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) of America has special requirements about companies who use IAS37 instead of GAAP. First, more information about recognized provisions need to be disclosed with further details about the nature, types and amounts being reported. Additionally, “other provisions” should be labelled and explained. Second, provisions recorded for estimated product returns, when recognizing revenues, are required to be given in more detail regarding the amount and location, and whether they are properly disclosed. SEC also considers the exact amount of this kind of provision that should be included; the amount when the financial period began and ended, followed by the amount made and used during the period. Third, it is strongly recommended that all information about estimated provisions and liabilities should be disclosed clearly. Fines and losses owing to currency allocation and pricing about forward sales, disclosure about these provisions and contingent liabilities is necessary (Deloitte, 2009b). In these countries where the accounting profession is fully developed, companies maybe prefer to use their own accounting standards. The application of IAS 37 could be easier in counties where accounting profession is less developed, such as Russia and Japan.
5.3 Opportunities for creative accounting
The essential rule of accounting is to be true; however creative accounting can occur and may be caused by human error, lack of professional ethics, squalid motives and so on. Simply put, the aim of creative accounting is to artificially state profits. Methods of creative accounting can be considered in four aspects:
1. Options give companies opportunities to make creative accounting. Provisions should be reflected in balance sheet but contingent liabilities only be disclosed in the notes. People focus more on balance sheet than the notes. Therefore, accounts may prefer to disclose some contingent liabilities rather than recognise the provisions.
2. Many accounting items need estimation and anticipation. Especially in IAS37, the items are full of uncertainty and arbitrariness. Although IAS37 makes rules for measurement, overrating or underrating still happens. As we mentioned before, the options allowed companies to control the amount of provisions. For instance, when a company wants to calculate the prospective pension liability, they will employ an actuary who should be familiar with the inside background and control the valuation on the basis of the financial performance.
3. A common method of creative accounting is artificial transactions which can be reflected in the balance sheet. This case needs assistance from other entities, for example, supposing entity A pretends to claim indemnity from entity B, so they can form contingent assets and recognise them as assets.
4. Creative accounting also plays tricks on real transactions, for example, suppose an entity has a contingent liability ofï¿¡50,000, the accountant may disclose this item in the next year to guarantee the financial situation in that year (Amat et al. 1999).
5.4 Weaknesses of IAS37
There are no prevalent problems existing in IAS37, however, it still has limitations which were discussed at the April 2009 IASB meeting.

Inconsistency with other standards, especially the probability of recognition criteria; Liabilities are recognized only if it is probable that there is an outflow of economic benefits according to IAS37 (IAS37 BV2008, p.5) .Contrarily, other standards, such as IFRS 3 Business Combinations, have no requirement to use probability recognition criteria for contingent liabilities when an entity is in a business combination (Deloitte, 2009d). This inconsistency is potentially confusing.
The unclarity on explain identification of liabilities. The term ‘contingent liability’ is used to describe varies things. Specifically, it is puzzling to use one term to represent both possible obligations and unrecognised present obligations in the practical examples (Broad, 2006, p.14). Since the existence of the present obligation is the fundamental feature of a liability, it is misleading to describe a possible obligation as liability even with a adjective ‘contingent’ .And it is contradictory to use contingent liability to represent a present obligation. However removing it from the standard may hide some potentially significant risks, such as litigation, illegal acts, and environmental laws. These items do not satisfy the definition of liabilities because they are uncertain on the balance sheet date but they are useful for decision making.
IAS37 is ambiguous when measuring a single obligation. It is universally interpreted that the most likely outcome may be the best estimate of the liability when measuring a single obligation, (IAS37 BV2008, p. 17).This is contrary to the current settlement notion which states that expected value should be the base when entities measure all liabilities, which may mislead. Basically, the estimation technique of expected value has more merits since it obtains information about the range of possible cash flows and reflects new information about a liability as that information becomes available (Broad, 2006, p.19).
The term ‘provisions’ is useless and there is an existing risk if eliminated. At present, the standard defines a provision as ‘a liability of uncertain timing or amount’ (IAS37 VB2008, p.10) therefore it is another form of liability. However, the difference between a provision, other liabilities and the new analysis of contingent liabilities is vague. The standard does not offer adequate explanation on how to distinguish them, for example, the uncertainty about timing or amount relates to cash flows .So it is difficult to recognize a liability for a product warranty. In other words, there is a choice between a provision and a contingent liability.

In order to improve the standard IAS37, several suggestions can be made:

Eliminate the probability of recognition criteria.
Eliminate the label ‘contingent liability’, and update the guidance in order to help entities to identify liabilities. Attention should be paid to potential liabilities in various scenarios in which a transaction embodies the nature of a liability. The IASB panel should publicise and add new applications to the IAS liability standards to help entities apply it to special cases.
Clarify that entities should establish basic measurements of all liabilities based on expected value, not on most likely outcome
Eliminate the terminology ‘provision’ and replace it with another phrase such as ‘non-financial liability’ which is important to make a clear distinction between liabilities.
A clear disclosure need to be established

6. Conclusion
ISA37 improves accounting standards as there were no specific regulations or provisions previously (Houillon, 1999). Therefore, the key principle for ISA 37 is the recognition of provisions. It requires that a provision should be recognized when the following conditions are met simultaneously: there is a present obligation or a present obligation exists at the end of the balance sheet date as a result of an obligating event, there is a probable outflow of the economic benefit and the outflow can be estimated reliably. Within these stipulations, IAS37 ensures recognition is made using appropriate measurements and provides valuable information for users of financial statements. Most countries in the world now apply IAS 37 but it may still face some difficulties when being applied globally. IAS37 gives companies options to choose whether recognise provisions or disclose contingent liabilities. Furthermore, some items in IAS37 need estimation and anticipation and provide opportunities for creative accounting, for these reasons, IAS37 is not perfect. The inconsistency with other standards and vapoury explanations of liabilities and constructive obligations provide the basis for some suggestions to improve ISA37. The probability of recognition criteria may be eliminated. Meanwhile, we probably need to pay some attention to potential liabilities and update the guidance in order to help entities to identify liabilities.

Neo Neo Debate in International Relations

The study of international relations is best thought as a protracted competition between the realist, liberal, and radical traditions (Stephen,1998). In international relations theory, there are four Great Debates argued by the international relations scholars. In this paper, the neo-neo debate to the study of international relations is the topic used to talk about. The neo-neo debate in international relations is known as a debate between scholars of neo-realist international relations theory and neo-liberal institutionalism (Steve, 2001). The neo-neo debate is not a debate between two completely opposite viewpoint. This paper is finished under the hammer at revealing the key features and the main contributions of the neo-neo debate to the study of International Relations.

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This paper is divided into three sections to finish the work. In the first section, the key features of the neo-neo debate to the study of International Relations show in this part. Section two focuses on the main contributions of the neo-neo debate to the study of International Relations. The last section relates to the conclusion of the whole paper.
2.0 Discussion about the features and contributions
Neorealism and neoliberalism are the two most contemporary approached to international relations theory and they create the neo-neo debate which has dominated much of international relations theory for the last decade (Powell, 1994). Arguments on the consequence of both anarchy and gains and the prospect for peace form the basis of the neo-neo debate (Taylor, 2006). Though neorealist and neoliberal international relations theorists pursue different arguments, the neo-neo debate is not a debate between two polar opposite worldviews. They share assumptions which focus on similar questions and they agree on very similar, through not identical, set of assumptions about international politics. In a word, there are both similarities and disparity between neorealism and neoliberalism. Taylor (2006) thinks the similarities between thee two schools are from the neorealism. First, both of them think states are rational egoists. Unlikely the classical liberal proposition that the idealistic “self-abnegation” and “self-regarding” motivations of states (Hobson 2000), neoliberal scholars agree with neorealists that states are rational egoists so that they are self -interested. This similarity formed those baseline assumptions that neoliberalists began to question and argue with neorealism.
Despite there are similarities between neorealism and neoliberalism, neoliberals maintained many of the key assumptions from the classical liberals. In this paper, there are some points under the neo-neo debate of international relations to show the incomplete opposite between neorealist and neoliberal international relations theories. Exactly those assumptions borrowed from neorealism and core classical liberalism produce the debate between neorealism and neoliberalism. First, the notion of anarchy in international relations is the most significant part among these two schools. To the classical realist, anarchy means that there is no “government of governments” and no authority in the world greater than the sovereign state (Fraser, 2010). But to the neorealist, anarchy is the organizing principle that makes states to act the way they do. The world is constituted of nations which are governed by states in relative anarchy (Axelrod & Keohane 1993). States are supposed to be rational and unitary actors. In the world of anarchy, states have to use self-help as a predominant tool (Setear, 2010). Waltz (1979) thinks that the effect of anarchy is to create the principle of self-help, because a state can only depend on itself for its survival. States are unable to control in an anarchic climate so that they should prepare to be challenged by opportunistic, stronger states (Hobson 2000). Neorealists stand on the belief that the state is the most important actor in international politics to peace, but they also feel powerless to influence the peaceful action of other states. Though neoliberalism is different from Neorealism, it does not vote down the anarchic nature of the international relations. Scholars of neoliberalism emphasis the neorealists have exaggerated the importance and effect of anarchy. They think anarchy can be mitigated by international regimes and institutions. That is to say they argue that the neorealists underestimate the effect of institutionalised cooperation. Neoliberalism believes that interstate cooperation could create institutions and regimes for the peaceful settlement of conflicts (Sheldon, 1994).
Another core disparity within the neo-neo debate is the problem of absolute and relative gains. The difference of this disparity is obvious. Neorealists think that all states must be concerned with the absolute and relative gains which produce by international agreements and cooperative efforts. While neoliberals are less concerned about relative gains and considers that both of them will benefit from absolute gains. For neorealists, winning at all costs can make their friends be their enemy in war in the pursuit of relative gains (Taylor, 2006). For neoliberals, if states only pursue absolute gains, they can cooperate with each other and avoid conflict by maintaining the international principle through a “positive game” (Viotti and Kauppi 1987). This disparity has significant implications on the problems of security concerns of states and the prospects of world peace (Taylor, 2006). Hence neorealists consider conflicts as inevitable outcomes of international relations. Besides, neorealists focus more on the short-term gains of states in competition while neoliberals pay more attention on longer-term absolute gains (Taylor, 2006). Hence neorealists place a higher emphasis on power-maximizing and security dilemma than economic prosperity (Baldwin, 1993). Neoliberals support that international institution can play an important role in resolving conflicts and that it can make states cooperate and work toward long-term gains rather than relay on short-term gains. Though neoliberals agree with neorealists on that states act only out of self-interest, they can not share the suggestion of neorealists about the possibility of international cooperation.
The neo-neo debate has been the dominant focus in international relations theory scholarship in the USA for the last dozen years (Baylis & Smith, 2006). Neorealism and neoliberalism turn to be conceptual frameworks which show people the images of the world rather than just theories. Both neorealism and neoliberalism have its limits and deficiencies. Neoliberalism emerged as a new liberal response to realism during the last decade of the Cold War. Interestingly, the neoliberals borrow many neorealist assumptions but distance themselves from the classical liberalist theory so they can restore integrity to liberal ideals (Taylor, 2006). Neoliberalism is always named as neoliberal institutionalism in the academic world. The development of neoliberal institutionalism presents a serious challenge for neorealist analysis. But the debate between them is still an inter-paradigm one. The neo-neo debate refers to the problems of state power, relations among different states, and relations between state and non-state actors. Baylis and Smith (2006) point out neorealism and neoliberalism share many assumptions about actors, values, issues and power arrangements in the international relations theories.
During the 1960s and 1970s, the appearance of non-state actors induced the world structure to change. Keohane and Nyne (1972) argue that a ‘definition of politics in terms of state behaviours alone may lead us to ignore important non-governmental actors that allocate view.’ Then the neoliberalism came out to explain the changes of world structure. Neoliberals think states should not be seen as the unique actor in international politics. Its assumptions clearly challenges and distinguishes itself from neorealism. Neorealists think that states are the primary and unitary actors in international politics. But the truth is globalization provides opportunities and resource for transnational social movements have challenged the state authority and control in some areas (Baylis and Smith, 2006). That is no exaggeration to say that the neo-neo debate comply with the development of international politics.
During the development of international relations theory, the development of each school is rooted in argument between different schools. Through those arguments, scholars of international relations extend their thoughts and explore more possibilities, shine their studies, and finally accept the strong points of the others and the weak points belong to themselves. Then they can rethink profoundly on their own theories and make recreation on their works. That is how neorealists and neoliberals affect each other and the development of international relations theories. Powell (1994) points out that much of the neo-neo debate can be seen as a response to Waltz’s Theory of international politics and a reaction to those response. Waltz’s key contribution to the international relations theories is the creation of neorealism which is also called structural realism by him. Neorealism is a reaction to the classical realism and leads the response from neoliberals. Then the debate between neorealism and neoliberals came out to discuss problems which exit in the international politics. The debate between neorealism and neoliberalism is much more deepen and careful than the debate between realism and liberalism. The approach used within the debate has its new features in evidence. It also opens up a new from of debate which not exclude each other and not easy to assert the fault of the other.
Some scholars also think the neo-neo debate between these two theories have failed to contribute as much as they could have to the international relations theory. Powell (1994) thinks neorealism and neoliberalism have serious internal weakness and limitations which lead to the neo-neo debate present confuse rather than clarification. Maybe this shortcoming can also be looked as a contribution to the international relations theories. Scholars need to find much more directions for the future theoretical work after they have realized there were weakness and limitations within the neo-neo debate.
3.0 Conclusion
Today, many of foundations of the interstate system are challenged by change in international norms. These changes have led to a debate among scholars about whether those international relations theories will survive in its current form or evolve into another theory that does not come out. Neoliberals believe economics is a driving force which can encouragingly increase cooperation among nations in international relations. While neorealists think that military force will continue decide what happens in the world. Both of them are right to some extant. And none of them will replace another. May another new debate will replace them someday, the neo-neo debate is still a great evolution of the study of international relations.

International Terrestrial Cable in Bangladesh

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Introduction of the report:
The internet has become an essential part of human life as it is the main mode of communication now a days. Internet is the interconnected computer network where billions of devices are connected through the backbone of optical networking technologies in modern days. My interest was to observe the rapid development of this communication mode and for this I have studied the optical transmission and networking systems and different protocols by working as an intern in the NOC department of 1 Asia Alliance Communication Ltd. Finally I have made a report of whatever I have learnt throughout my 3 months long internship program.

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1.2 Reason for selecting the specific industry:
Telecommunication is growing with the vast use of internet in Bangladesh. The introduction of optical fiber transmission both in submarine and terrestrial over satellite communication made it easy to spread the global connectivity throughout the major cities in Bangladesh. 1 Asia Alliance Communication Ltd. is one out of six companies which has the ITC license. Thus it serves as a domestic internet upstream for all the major ISP, IIG and IGW companies in Bangladesh using its terrestrial optical transmission technology. To better understand the optical transmission system and the IP network system it was the best choice to join as an intern in a company like 1 Asia Alliance Communication Ltd.
1.3 Purpose of the Internship:

To fulfill the requirements for the degree of the Bachelor of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering.
To see the practical implementation of what was studied during the university program.
To learn how a telecom company operates its technical functions.
To make recommendations on the basis of the study done.

1.4 Methods of Collecting Data:
The data for making this report was collected in many ways. Primary data, as well as secondary data for completing the task of report writing about this internship were used. Some of the methods which are used are discussed below.
Use of Primary Data:
Primary Data which were used for completing the report are as follows:

Discussions with the officers
Informal interview from the customers

Use of Secondary Data:
Secondary Data which were used for completing the report are as follows:

1 Asia Alliance Communication Ltd. brochure
1 Asia Alliance Communication Ltd. websites
Several articles on the internet related with the field of study
Research reports of several authors related with the field of study

Chapter 2: Backgrounds
2.1 Background of ITC and IIG in Bangladesh:
International Terrestrial Cable (ITC) operator:
In 2006 the internet of Bangladesh has been connected to the world by a single submarine cable, Sea-Me-We 4 (SMW4). SMW4 is 18,800 kilometer-long optical-fiber system and its landing station of Bangladesh is at Cox’s Bazar. Since SMW4’s activation, national Internet outages have struck Bangladesh in regular basis. When any portion of this optical fiber system is damaged, it takes huge time for maintenance and thus virtually all internet bandwidth of Bangladesh disappears,pushing local internet providers to retreat to slow and expensive satellite services or to simply wait for restoration.
A 20,000 km long secondary optical fiber system SMW5 is under construction and the landing port in Bangladesh will be at Mongla The SMW5 consortium signed the construction and maintenance agreement on March 7, 2014. But the complexation will take long time. In the meantime, major disruptions of Bangladesh’s Internet service continue to occur.
The planned maintenances and failures in SMW4 system make all understood that how susceptible Bangladesh’s internet connectivity really is. These events thus encourage the Bangladesh Telecommunications Regulatory Commission (BTRC) to take alternative measures. In 2012, the BTRC issued licenses to six companies to connect to India via the International Terrestrial Cable (ITC).
The six International Terrestrial Cable (ITC) operators are:

1Asia Alliance Communication Ltd.,
Novocom Limited
BD Link Communication Ltd.,
Mango Teleservices Ltd.,
Summit Communications Ltd., and
Fibre@Home Limited.

This inauguration of an operational terrestrial connection to India to serve as an alternative to SMW4 is a great achievement for Bangladesh’s telecommunication sector. Currently these six ITC operators are connected to Tata Communications and Bharti Airtel via Benapole TCLS.
International Internet Gateway (IIG) operator
The telecom sector in Bangladesh is rapidly exposing. Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC) is the regulatory authority for this sector. In 2007 BTRC offer the license forInternational Internet Gateway (IIG) and from then number of IIG operators grow in this country. Currently there are 36 licensed IIG operators in Bangladesh. Few Major International Internet Gateway (IIG) operators are:

1Asia Alliance Communication Ltd.
Aamra Companies
Abir Telecommunication
Apple Communication
Bangla Phone Ltd
BD Link Communication
Delta Infocom
Earth Telecommunication
Equitel Communications
Fiber @ Home
Global Fair Communications
Greenland Technologies
Intraglobe Communications
Level3 Carrier
Mango Teleservices
MaxNet Online
Radiant Communications Limited
REGO Communications

IIGs in Bangladesh serve as a gateway for routing International incoming and outgoing Internet based data traffic additionally working as a national internet exchange (NIX) for exchanging national internet-based data traffic.
Most of the gateways are connected with country’s sole submarine cable SMW4 as their main link and with the satellite earth station/VSAT as back up until another submarine cable SMW5 is available. When ITC operators in Bangladesh were introduced these IIG companies started using ITC services as an alternative to SMW4. BTRC has made a rule that all ISPs in Bangladesh shall be connected to global internet through these IIGs.
IIG operators mainly provide their services to the ISPs, carriers and large corporations of the country. They use extensive local and international internet peering and transit. Even IIGs are interconnected with national IX (Internet Exchange) BDIX and several international IX thus their customers can access all global internet routes through the minimum number of hops. These operators give their customers the choice to subscribe the bandwidth based on the destination of their traffic. Their goal is to reduce network traffic congestion and maintain shorter latency.
2.2 Background of the company
About the company:
1Asia Alliance Communication Limited (1AACL) is a joint venture company formed between Alliance Holdings Limited, Bangladesh and 1Asia Communication (BD) Ltd. It is a sister concern of Singapore based 1Asia Communication Pte. Ltd. The company was formed by a group of NRBs with over 20 years’ experience in the telecommunications business.
The company carries the licenses from BTRC to provide ITC and IIG services to its clients in Bangladesh. 1AACL is also the first ITC operator in Bangladesh. Since its birth, 1AACL has established enormous footprints in the ICT sector of the country. It is running parallel with the country’s drive towards digitalization and higher internet penetration.
The ITC project of 1AACL brings a much required backup for to the country’s lone submarine cable SMW4. The company offers its services to several ISPs, IGWs, IIGs, and corporate clients across the country.

IIG: License awarded on 12/04/2012, commercially started on 01/10/2012
ITC: License awarded on 05/01/2012, commercially started on 12/12/2012


IP Transit
Satellite BW service
Managed data network service
VPN service
Co-location service

Client types:

Enterprise customers

International PoPs (Point of Presence):

Equinix Building, Singapore
Epsilon Global Hub, London
60 Hudson Street, NY

Local PoPs:

HQ-Alliance Building, Dhaka
Coloasia-Borak tower, Dhaka
Chittagong-Akhtaruzzaman Center, Agrabad
Benapole-Chowdhury Super Market, Zero Point, Check Post, Benapole

Technology Partners:

Tata Communication Ltd
Bharti Airtel

Timeline of Infrastructure:
2012 to 2013

1AACL head quarter setup
Benapole POP setup
ITC backhaul setup
1Asia Alliance own WDM Network
Secondary ITC Network Setup
Tertiary ITC Network Setup
Interconnection Equinix, Singapore
Interconnection TATA, Chennai & Mumbai
Interconnection Airtel, Chennai
Interconnection TIS, Singapore

2013 to 2014

Chittagong Pop Setup
Pop at ColoAsia, Dhaka
London Pop Setup
Peering with Google, Facebook, Microsoft
Interconnection Epsilon GH, London
Interconnection Level3 & Cogent
Interconnection Equinix-IX & SG-IX

2014 to Present


Technical : Transmission, IP Core, Service Delivery , NOC


ITC Backhaul Systems (Dhaka- Benapole)
Primary ITC Network: 1Asia Alliance’s Own System WDM network with 8 Lamda capacity
Secondary ITC Network: Fiber@Home /Swapping
Tertiary ITC Network: ITC Consortium/City Cell
Number Of ITC Operators in Connection: 06
Cisco 12000 Series Flagship Routers as Core & Aggregation Equipment
Full Routing TABLE Implementation Auto Switch Over
Routing Through ITC with different upstream carrier
Switch Room Level Redundancy in National Segment
International PoPs at Chennai, Mumbai, Singapore, London, New York
Native IPv6 Peering (Upstreams & Major Players)
Direct Peering, Impressive RTD

2.3 Background study on research papers
Research Paper 1
Title: Soliton Transmission in Fiber Optics for Long Distance Communication
Authors: Mehul G.Patel (1), S. B. Khant (2)
Affiliation: PG Student [SP&C], Dept. of ECE, A.D.Patel Institute of Technology,V.U.Nagar,Gujarat, India (1) , Assistant professor, Dept. of ECE, A.D.Patel Institute of Technology, V.U.Nagar,Gujarat, India (2)
Research Problem: The research discusses the reasons for the limit in information carrying capacity of optical communication systems.
Research Methodology or Approach: Quantitative
Research Solution and Results: Soliton based optical fiber communication systems are more suitable for long haul communication because of their very high information carrying capacity and repeater less transmission.
The research paper highlights one of the important weakness of optical fiber communication in long distance. In that respect the research problem is a good one.
The research methodology is quantitative. But it could be better if more practical surveys were implemented.
The result shows the mathematical solution of the problem. But it could be better if some practical result/evidence was shown.
Strengths vs. Weaknesses: The discussion on the current problem in optical transmission is the strength of this research. But the result showing only mathematical solution is the weakness.
Opportunities: Advantages and disadvantages of optical fiber communication, Dispersion Phenomenon
[1] Gerd Keiser,Optical Fiber Communications, 4thedition, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008.
[3] R. Gangwar, S. P. Singh, and N. Singh, “Soliton based optical communication’’,Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 74, 157–166,
[4] Akira Hasegawa, “Soliton-based ultra-high speed optical communications’’, Vol. 57, Nos5 & 6-journal of physics Nov. & Dec. 2001.
[5] Opsim-appnotes.pdf.
[6] R. Ganapathy, K. Porsezian, A. Hasegawa, Life Fellow, IEEE, and V. N. Serkin,“Soliton Interaction Under Soliton Dispersion Management’’,
IEEE journal of quantum electronics, Vol. 44, NO. 4, April 2008.
[7] David S. Ricketts, Member, IEEE, Xiaofeng Li, Student Member, IEEE, “On the Self-Generation of Electrical Soliton Pulses’’, IEEE journal
of solid-state circuits, Vol. 42, NO. 8, August 2007.
[8] Yang Jing Wen and Xiang Lin Yang,Senior Member, IEEE, “Quasi-Transform-Limited Pulse Transmission in Dispersion Managed Soliton
System’’, IEEE photonics technology letters, Vol. 11, NO. 4, April 1999.
[9] Kuppusamy Porsezian, Ramanathan Ganapathy, Akira Hasegawa, Life Fellow, IEEE, and Vladimir N. Serkin, “Nonautonomous Soliton
Dispersion Management’’, IEEE journal of quantum electronics, vol. 45, no. 12, December 2009.
[10] Hiroyuki Toda, Katsuyuki Mino, Yuji Kodama, Akira Hasegawa, Life Fellow, IEEE, and Peter A. Andrekson, Member, IEEE, Member,
OSA,“Influence of Noise in Optical Pulse Source on Soliton Transmission’’, journal of lightwave technology, vol. 17, no. 6, June 1999.
Research Paper 2
Title: Optical Fiber Based Communication Network
Authors: Dr. Dharamvir Singh
Affiliation: Assistant Professor, Ch. Devi Lal University, Sirsa-125055 (Haryana) India
Research Problem: This research discuss about the different technologies used in the fiber based communication network. It also focuses the advantages of newly developed technology over the conventional ones.
Research Methodology or Approach: Correlation
Research Solution and Results: The physics of the optical fibers are discussed here and it points to a solution that technological revolution of fiber optic communication is happening due to the development of capacity increasing methods and the introductions of high speed devices.
The research paper discusses the very basic requirements for an optical fiber communication. It is very helpful to understand the optical fiber communication technology at a glance
The research methodology is correlative. And it is a better method to show the advantages of new technology over the existing one.
The research does not reflect to any strong solution for a particular problem rather it describes the different aspects of the optical fiber communication.
Strengths vs. Weaknesses: The discussion on the different technology used in optical fiber communication is the strength of this research. But it does not focus to any specific problem which needs to solved which is its weakness
Opportunities: Transmission Windows, Attenuation, Transmitters, Receivers
[1] S.G. Karshenboim, “Fundamental physical constants: looking from
different angles“, Can. J. Phys. 83, 767-811, (2005).
[2] S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye,
“Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber
networks”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[3] C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov , M. Guinet, C.
Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A.
Clairon, G. Santarelli, M.E. Tobar and A.N. Luiten, “Long-Distance
Frequency Dissemination with a Resolution of 10-17”, Phys. Rev. Lett.
94, 203904 (2005).
[4] Alwayn, Vivek, Fiber-Optic Technologies. Cisco Systems, 12- 31
[5] S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye,
“Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber
networks”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
Research Paper 3
Title: Next Gen. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Authors: Shaikh Bilal Anees (1) Sameer Khan (2), Shah Akhtar Ali (3)
Affiliation: Electronics Telecom Dept. AIKTC, Mumbai University, India, (1), (2), (3)
Research Problem: The existing DWDM system does not meet the current bandwidth requirements of the corporate, which is up to 1Tb/s. In this research it broadly describes the advantages of the next generation DWDM over the existing system and how it can meet the required demand. It also describes the other possible solutions.
Research Methodology or Approach: Meta-analysis
Research Solution and Results: The research ends with two solutions. One solution is to use the modulation technique RZ-DPSK over long haul systems. Second one is the utilization of DCF
This paper discusses several options to increase the capacity of optical fiber transmission over long haul. It could be better if some more studies are put into this.
The research methodology is meta-analysis. It relates all the possible solution to come up with the goal of this research, and for this it is the successful approach.
The research comes up with a good solution.
Strengths vs. Weaknesses: Its focus on the recent development to transmit high capacity data is its strength. Few more studies like the modulations techniques could be described, which is its weakness.
Opportunities: The ideas of DWDM, Light Sources and Detectors, Optical Fiber Distortion
[1] Muralikrishna Gandluru ―Optical Networking And Dense Wavelenght Devision Multiplexing (DWDM)â€-.
[2] Biswanath Mukherjee ―WDM Optical Communication Networks: Progress and Challengesâ€-.
[3] Introduction to DWDM Technology by Cisco ltd .
[4] Fibre Optic Essentials by Casimer M. DeCusatis and Carolyn J. Sher DeCusatis .
[5] Optical Fibers and RF: A Natural Combination by Malcolm Romeiser .
[6] New functionalities for advanced optical interfaces (Dispersion compensation) byKazuo Yamane Photonic systems development dept. FUJITSU.
[7] I. P. Kaminow, et al, ―A Wideband All-Optical WDM Networkâ€-, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol.14, No. 5, June 1996, pp. 780 – 799.)
[8] Melián, B., Laguna, M., and Moreno, J.A., “Capacity expansion of fiber optic networks with WDM systems: Problem formulation and comparative analysis”, Computers and Operations Research, 31(3) (2004) 461-472.
[9] E. Lowe, “Current European WDM Deployment Trends”, IEEE Communications Magazine, Feburary 1998, pp. 46-50.

Hobbes’ International Relations Theory

Is the international system a Hobbesian ‘war of all against all’?
The aim of the paper is to examine the influence of the political theory of Thomas Hobbes which in International Relations has been seen as the basis for the realist understanding on the case of “anarchy” (Heller, 1980, p.21) in the international system. In his work “Leviathan”, Hobbes provides us with the idea of the man and the state of nature which he link with the political community. Although he has been criticized because some argue that he creates confusion between nature of the man and the political state, Hobbes is seen as an important figure of realism and realist approaches. The essay starts with a brief information about Hobbes and “Leviathan” followed by a definition of anarchy and anarchy of the international state of nature. Observing the implication of state of nature, anarchy, sovereignty in the international system I will link them with different criticism in order to be able to determine whether or not the international system is a Hobbesian state of war.

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After the English Civil War, Hobbes wrote “Leviathan” to warn Englishmen for the consequences of insubordination (Heller, 1980, p21). This led to significant change in the political views of Hobbes. In Chapter 13, as Donelly (2000, p.13) points out, he presents examples of a “strong” realism. He attempts to model and explain the political relations between the man and the state of nature by describing it as a state of war, where “every man is against every man” (Hobbes, 1660; Hackety, 1994). In “Leviathan”, the state of nature is not government and therefore everyone is entitles with the same status which gives the individual the right to do everything without restrictions. However having “no moral restrains” (Korab-Karpowicz & W. Julian, 2013) and also being greedy for goods makes the individuals invade others to gain.
Hobbes describes anarchy as a “condition” where there is no culture, no industry, no knowledge, no account of time but there is a constant fear and violence and the life of man is “poor, nasty, brutish, and short” (Leviathan Ref). Despite the critical definition, to avoid such “condition” men have organized in political orders that provide “a common power to keep them in awe” – it is the state of international relations that bring the danger of anarchy (Hobbes, Heller, 1980, p.24). Hobbes says that the “kings, and persons of sovereign authority” are in constant conflict because of their “jealousies” (Hobbes Quoted in Heller, 1980, p24). This could be described as a condition of war among states but they do not violate each other constantly. Moreover in relations between states there is no permanent common authority (Heller, 1980) which means that war remains permanent threat.
This condition differs from the state of war – “every man against every man”, because Yurdusev (2006, p315) suggest that in the international state of nature, states uphold the industry of their subjects which frees the individuals from the misery they experience. Hobbes says that man are equal capable to do things, so even “the weakest can kill the strongest“(Hobbes; Heller, 1980, 20-25). In comparison to the men in their nature, state are not equal to each other. United States and Soviet Union work as example because these two states held industry, navigation, culture giving them more power and control over the individuals during the Second World War and The Cold War. Therefore there is a possibility of order by strong states which summarized means that since states are not equal, they would not be equally intolerable (Vincent, 1981; Yurdusey, 2006, p.316). However there is also a possibility that states are equal as men are, because if there was universal nuclear proliferation this would have created the “equality of fear” giving the chance and capability of a state to “kill” other state (Gauthier, 1957; Heller, 1980, p.24-27).
However, the Hobbesian meaning of “life” and “death” could be misunderstood when it comes to states. According to Hobbes (1660; Hackety, 1994), “life” is the “artificial soul” which gives “life and motion to the whole body”. Therefore, states are not killed when a big part of its population and territory are destroyed, but the they loose their sovereign power to make and amend laws (Morgenthau, 1947, Heller, 1980). This condition could be achieved with a minimal amount of force or by threat. States are “alive” (Heller, 1980) when they are able to maintain its authority over citizens and also the ability to protect them like no other government. Boucher (1998, p.293-95) suggests that state’s actions are easy to predict if motivated by their interests, but on the other hand states follow their momentary interests making them a big threat because we never know when they would attack. For example, Kuwait was invaded by Iraq in 1990, on the grounds of interest over Kuwait’s natural resource – petroleum. This proves us again that states have more wants and needs, and that Hobbes’s idea of equality within states does not occur.
States are constructed to provide men with internal peace and protect them from external affairs (Yurdusev, 2006, 313). To maintain their sovereignty, they have to protect their rights and their territory. According to Heller (1980, p.26), Hobbes’s condition of equality of ability is “satisfied” only when the weakest can actually ‘kill’ the strongest state. The idea of universal nuclear proliferation could be furthermore seen as the solution and however bring anarchy within states. With nuclear weapons the weaker states will have the capability to attack the stronger one, but on the other hand it might cause destruction to sovereignty (Heller 1980, 26). For example, if we suppose that a less powerful state as Nicaragua or any Middle East country, are able to obtain nuclear weapons they would actually lay them down in order to gain freedom from the world Leviathan – e.g., United States, Russia. Therefore, until this case of fear exists among states, equality of ability and fear would not exists.
Life of the state is defined by Hobbes (Leviathan, 1660; Hackety, 1994) as the existing of sovereignty. Since life and state are “congruent” (Hobbes quoted by Heller, 1980, p.27), survival has been seen as a “necessary value” (McNeilly, 1968, p.178-81) and death as its ultimate aversion. Simply, while the state works in favor to survive it will achieve its objectives and vice versa, state must accomplish their objectives in order to survive. As Heller (1980, 27) suggests, this calls in question the capability of states to tolerate the state of nature because as it has occurred in the past, whole nations such as Rome, has disappeared. Therefore we cannot argue that the international state of nature has prevailed because it has not been intolerable, but it has been fatal (Heller, 1980) for its victims – Rome.
In the international state of nature, the weakest fear from the others because of their low capability to defend themselves. If there is no equality between weak and strong states, then this would further undermine the capacity to state to defend itself (Heller, 1980, 24-26). Strong states have no fear of the weaker states but they do fear the other limited number of strong states because they are enough to “threaten the survival of any strong state” (Heller, 1980, 27-30). The war against all might exists and torment only the weaker state because they are defenseless. Heller (1980) suggests a situation where one state is stronger than the others, and these other states are trying to improve their position and so the chance to survive. This would lead to the creation of international anarchy where we have on main Leviathan.
Leviathan is a “corporate body” (Williams, 1996, p227) and its strengths are the strengths of the others. It never sleeps or dies making it immortal. As immortal, “it transcend the limitations that simple individuals encounter in their attempts to survive in the state of nature” (Williams, 1996). Williams (1996) suggests that the result is that “the radical equality that defines the state of nature composed of individuals is not present in the relations between states”. Therefore since the states and individuals do not have the same conditions, states can use these anarchic qualities among themselves to form more stable form of “coexistence” (Hobbes; Williams, 1996; Heller, 1980). Despite the continuing absence of the Leviathan in the international system, this absence has not stated an anarchic state of nature.
Hobbes present to us the idea that “the right of sovereigns are designed to ensure the indivisibility and absolute character of the sovereign’s power (Hobbes; Heller, 1980). Furthermore, he adds that the divided sovereignty is no sovereignty at all. Clark and Sohn (Heller 1980, p.25-30) suggest that if a world organization is created, war might be prevented because of the monopoly power and military power which the central law-making power holds. Therefore this idea of a world commonwealth is untenable because it looks at the state as a negotiator between individual men and word sovereignty (Heller 1980). However even though a world organization was created this would have led to a destruction.
Hoffmann (1967) presents to us the “halfway house” argument where Goldsmith (Quoted by Heller, 1980) further explains it as if states are to get out of the state of nature, they must agree on the laws of nature. However if states could agree on the laws of nature, there would be no need to get out of the state of nature. (Goldsmith, 1966; Gauthier, 1969) In the international system nowadays there are inter-governmental organizations – formed only from governments, which are similar to the idea of Leviathan. League of Nations and United Nations are organization where security and peace are promoted. They try to establish a “collective security” (Heller, 1980, p31). In the doctrine of collective security, as Heller (1980) further explains, the states have to “alienate” their sovereignty and join against aggressive states and participate in implication of restriction on them. However this whole idea of “collective security” did not really work out well in the League of Nations because it could only work if the states have actually transferred their sovereign power to the “supra-national” entity.
To summarize, we first looked at the implication of Hobbesian theory about the nature of state, the man and anarchy. We saw how this “condition” of anarchy can differs and how it links with the war against all within the international system. Furthermore, we looked at the meaning of the Hobbesian “life” and “death” to the state which helps us to understand why states actions are easy to predict. Boucher (1998) and Heller (1980) has introduced different arguments to explain the concepts of anarchic state of nature and the “Leviathan” and the link between them. However Hoffmans (1967) “halfway house” argument clearly proves that the international anarchy wants to overtake the states sovereignty.
Boucher: ‘Intercommunity and International Relations in the Political Philosophy of Hobbes’, KRIR, pp 145-169
Goldsmith, M.M. “Hobbes’s Science of Politics”; Columbia University Press, 1966
Heller, Mark A.; The Use & Abuse of Hobbes: The State of Nature in International Relations; “Polity“ Vol. 13, No. 1 (Autumn, 1980), pp. 21-32 ;Published by: Palgrave Macmillan Journals; Stable URL:; Accessed on 8/03/2014
Hobbes, Thomas, 1660,Leviathan, Edwin Curley (ed.), Indianapolis: Hackett, 1994.
Hoffmann, Stanley (1967) “The State of War: Essays in the Theory and Practice of International Politics” ;Review by:K. J. Holsti; The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science / Revue canadienne d’Economique et de Science politique, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Feb., 1967) , pp. 161-163; Published by:Wileyon behalf ofCanadian Economics Association; Article DOI: 10.2307/139882; Article Stable URL: Accessed on 09/03/2014
Korab-Karpowicz, W. Julian, “Political Realism in International Relations”,The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy(Summer 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta(ed.), URL =>. Accessed on 09/03/2014
Moloney Pat (2011). Hobbes, Savagery, and International Anarchy. American Political Science Review, 105, pp 189-204. doi:10.1017/S0003055410000511. Accessed on: 10/03/2014
Morgenthau, Hans J. “Scientific Man vs. Power Politics” ;Review by:William Anderson Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 250, Communication and Social Action (Mar., 1947) , pp. 135-136 Published by:Sage Publications, association with theAmerican Academy of Political and Social Science Article Stable URL: Accessed on 10/03/2014
Malcolm, Noel (2004):Aspects of Hobbes, Oxford: Oxford University Press URL: Accessed on 08/03/2014
Martinich (2005) Leviathan, British Journal for the History of Philosophy, 13:2, 349-359, DOI: 10.1080/09608780500093277 To link to this article: Accessed on 09/03/2014
Yurdusev, A.Nuri Australian Journal of International Affairs Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 305/321, June 2006 URL: Accessed on 8/03/2014
Williams, Michael C. (1996). Hobbes and international relations: a reconsideration. International Organization, 50, pp 213-236 doi:10.1017/S002081830002854X Accessed on 09/03/2014

Caucasian Christian And International Muslim Interview Religion Essay

This paper examines a cross-cultural interview between a Caucasian Christian person and International Muslim student. The Muslim student interviewed the Caucasian Christian person on issues dealing with differing religions, especially the backgrounds and the viewpoint of marriage as a merging of two spiritual journeys and how the spirituality is often avoided in secular counseling settings. The answers were written down and then interpreted based on readings done regarding Christian and Muslim religions, the awareness model, and Systemic Influences on Mental Health Counseling.

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A Cross-Cultural Interview
Religious identity conflicts are among the most difficult faced by the individuals in our society and raise important clinical, ethical, and conceptual problems for mental health professionals. This is why I chose to chose this important topic for this cultural interview. M is a Caucasian Christian male and I am a Muslim female. The interview was conducted on the different points of view about religions; Muslim religion versus Christianity. I decided to interview him because I have some bias towards the Christian religion. I also would like to be more aware about these issues and to be more knowledgeable and to deal with these differences. This individual is my boyfriend’s friend. The interview was conducted at M’s house and lasted about two hours.
I have known M since last year when my boyfriend introduced M to me. M is the middle child of three. He was born and raised in Indianapolis. His family is American with a prominent German background. M’s grandparents came to the United States from Germany looking for a new start. M’s grandparents brought with them part of the German culture, and this was an integrative part of his growing up. M’s family is practicing Evangelical Christianity (e.g., belief in the Bible, Holy Spirit, and Rapture,
Interview summary
During the interview, M discussed relationships, family, and cultural differences. M shared some things about his childhood that I probed into more since I am now writing a paper. One particular story was about his father’s absence. Mike’s father ran away from his family when Mike was 2. From childbirth, he lived with his mother and other two brothers. His mother had three children and worked hard to raise them.
M and I had also an interesting talk about how his mother mixed the American and German cultures together while she was raising him as a Christian. He told me that they were conformed to the American culture, and he considered himself as 100% American. It seems to follow an identifiable sequence.
M added that the family should be an important thing in a person’s life. He has different cultures within his family group, which has a big influence on him. He thinks that living with an extended family is a weird thing, but he can deal with it. M said that he would be more comfortable seeking counseling services within churches or by Christian counselors. He believes that a different background and culture is a bias, and he believes that capable individuals are those who are able to solve their life problems and be able to counsel others with the Scripture.
As we were discussing the cultural differences, M said that the primary difference between American culture and other cultures is the religion. He tried to express that he is open to other cultures by discussing their differences in all kinds of areas such as religion, food, and clothing. He also said that he loves eating Chinese and Mexican food, besides the American food. M also has a girlfriend from Burma, which is located in southeastern Asia between Bangladesh and Thailand.
M classified Christmas and Easter as the important holidays and traditions in his culture that help him to confirm his Christianity and identity as a pure Christian American. Since there is countless dissimilarity between me and him, I wanted to be more focused on his religion which is Christianity. I wanted to try to show the differences and the similarities with Islam, which is my religion.
We started our conversation about his relationship with his girlfriend, who is from another culture and Christian. We talked about the way they met and what are their plans as a couple. The discussion was really so deep in terms of mixed marriage and religious insight. In his point of view, Christian women must be careful about marrying Muslim men. Islam does not give the same rights to women as it does to men. In fact, the Quran clearly says that women are inferior to men. M said that Muslim men are permitted to have sex with their slave-girls, Islam is not the religion of peace, and Islam does not honor women. Therefore, if a Christian woman marries a Muslim; the children would be Muslims. He experienced this with his best friend who married a Muslim male whose wife converted to his religion. He asked me to see the New Testament in 1 Corinthians 7:39 which says that a Christian woman may marry only a Christian man (and vice-versa).
M added that at the first glance, this divine counsel seems to him too restrictive but if looked at more deeply it demonstrates a lot of wisdom. If a married couple starts their walk together with the same faith and theology, then this takes the pressure off of possibly converting the partner to the other’s faith. One partner does not have to “evangelize” the other partner. Neither partner starts off as an “infidel” or “heretic.”
M said that in Biblical Christianity, the man and the woman must have a deep, spiritual relationship with Jesus Christ, individually, through the power of the Holy Spirit before they become one flesh in marriage. This means their spiritual intimacy with the Lord will be shared in the couple’s own intimacy with each other. Also, this true spiritual equality takes away any patriarchy. The woman already agrees with the husband in matters of religion, so what need does he have to control the relationship and lay down religious law? M was holding some stereotypes about Islam which are not true. He said that Islam wrongly demotes Jesus to a mere prophet and the New Testament everywhere affirms he is the Son of God. M stated that the Muslim religion does not receive the Holy Spirit, because they do not receive Christ as Savior and Lord. In fact, Islamic theology erroneously reduces the Holy Spirit to the angel Gabriel. This means that a marriage between a Muslim and a Christian would be unequal. This is risky for Christian; since she would be most vulnerable to a particularly strong patriarchy that may rear its ugly head later on in the marriage. He also was telling me that the Quran gives permission to husbands to hit their wives. In M’s point of view, if a Christian understands the New Testament, then he or she must not marry a Muslim, for spiritual and theological reasons. He added that a Christian couple must keep spiritual unity. They must raise their children in spiritual harmony as followers of Christ. It is especially popular tradition that puts all the weight of the family honor on the chastity of the women.
M was also stated that Islam allows Muslim men to marry Christian women, but it does not allow a Christian man to marry a Muslim woman. He believes that Islam is allegedly using “openness, tolerance, and non-discrimination”. He added that men are in control. It may be true that individual Muslim men may not control things, and they may even be saintly.
When the interviewer was asking about the dissimilarities according to the Christian point of view, M says that a married Christian couple should be equally yoked together spiritually, in Christ. This means that the couple does not have to worry about deep theological differences. They start off in unity. The man does not have to worry about her being an infidel. The man does not have to exert patriarchal control just to keep a semblance of unity. The children are raised Christians, little followers of Christ. The family is therefore harmonious. According to M’s experience with the Muslim community, M told me that he has many Muslim friends and one of them is marrying his best Christian friend who converted her religion to Islam. He also mentioned that a Catholic cannot marry a Muslim in the Church. His best friend was in this situation, left the Catholic Church because the priest would not marry her and her Muslim fiancé. But he had no intention of converting and the Church cannot give a Christian sacrament to a non-Christian. M was mad, because he was thinking that his Muslim friend did not respect his wife’s religion and he forced her to convert her religion. He also stated that his Muslim friend was always telling them that he will never marry a Christian woman if she will not be a Muslim, and M did not appreciate that. M said that he cannot imagine being married to and loving someone whom does not also love Jesus Christ, and is ultimately destined for the fires of hell.
M told me about hearing an interview on the radio with a Muslim, a few months ago. As the interview began the host asked the Muslim guest whether he was married. He replied that Islam is so open and tolerant that he is married to a Christian. Islam means equality and no discrimination. However, the interviewer asked him if Islam allows a Christian man to marry a Muslim woman. And the Muslim individual’s enthusiasm dropped a little, because he had to concede that Islam does not allow this. M added that the guy on the radio also said that Islam is the best and final religion for all humankind, and the Muslim man may convert his submissive wife. Then he mentioned that those are the reasons to call Muslim Arabs terrorist and it may be true that they are responsible of September 11, 2001 terrorist.
Interviewer’s reaction
I was not surprised to hear from M the kinds of statements about Islam, because my boyfriend was telling me about his point of view from the beginning and I prepared myself to be more professional and respect his point of view and awareness. I wanted to interview M in order to have an experience working with the different and the dominant religious and racial community in the United States. According to Sue and Sue (2007), there is an assumption that White Americans who are born and raised in the United States may move through levels of consciousness regarding their own identity as racial beings The reaction I had from the beginning is that I wished to explain to M that marriage holds a major place in Islam as the basic structure of Islamic society, which is the family. I felt so bad and awkward meeting a person that has these stereotypes about Islam. I felt awful interviewing him at times, especially when he was defensive about Christianity. I think that M is one of the people who has these stereotypes in his culture. I felt awful to be limited and do not know much about Christianity, which kept me silent. Some counselors may avoid discussing clients’ spiritual or religious values or experiences due to the lack of their own training (Weinstein, Parker, & Archer, 2002). Therefore, these counselors may not see the need to examine their own spiritual or religious values. As Muslims, I believe in other religions and I respect them. As a professional, it is important to be aware of the other religions’ identity as well as experiences of discrimination and harassment (Sue & Sue).
The Koran and the tradition advise to marry in order to finish our religion’s rules. According to McGoldrick and Garcia-Preto (2005) Muslim man is allowed to marry non-Muslim women, but a Muslim girl is not permitted to marry non-Muslims, because the man is supposed to be the spiritual leader of the home, a girl is thought vulnerable to oppression for her beliefs if she marries a non-Muslim. Quran is equivalent to the Bible in Christianity (Sue & Sue chap 19). I think that M showed some negative feelings towards Islam and Muslims, which made me feel bad and angry. I agree with him that the Muslim woman cannot marry a Non-Muslim man according to Islamic law; while a Muslim man may marry a woman who is from “the people of the book”, who are Christians and Jews who received the God of the Old Testament. Mormons and Hindu’s would not be considered “the people of the book”. I believe that the reason that he revealed such strong attitudes is because of his best friend who got married and then converted her to Islam. At this point I felt somehow better, because there is something true about Islam which prompts her to convert. M related the topic of conversion in upcoming conversations. Each one was trying to convince the other. He stated that he was always praying for his other friends to convert to Christianity, because, in his opinion that they will go to Hell. At this point, I felt so bad that he had those things on his mind and it is extremely sad when people have negative attitude about Islam.
M stated during the interview that he is a spiritual person; M believed that spirituality is a belief in a higher power which allows him to make meaning of life and the universe. It may or may not be linked to a formal religion, but there is little doubt that it is a powerful force in the human condition. Therefore, the spirituality must be seen as an intimate aspect of the human condition and legitimate aspect of mental health work. Sue & Sue (2007). Many groups accept the prevalence of spirituality in nearly all aspects of life.
As a counselor, I can gain more insight into how to respond creatively and effectively to tremendous mental health challenges, even with limited resources. It is impressive how the Muslim counselors have mobilized to proactively deal with emerging mental health problems without the relative affluence of their American counterparts (Paul E. Priester 2008). Counselors could learn from their counterparts’ examples of how to provide mental health services to a population that is unfamiliar with the counseling process. Some of these practices are suggested, but rarely implemented in the context of cross-cultural counseling in the United States (Sue & Sue, 2005).Western counselors could also learn how to better integrate religion with counseling. American counseling researchers and practitioners may endorse the integration of religious issues into the counseling process without consideration for the theoretical presuppositions that they may have to change prior to being able to unify these areas in a nonpathologizing manner.
In hearing M’s beliefs, he thought that the common view is that Christian counselors are the experts or the most qualified to offer solutions to life problems such as anxiety, marital and parenting problems, depression, family conflict, and interpersonal problems. He believes that Christian books explain life problems and offer solutions like self-esteem, self-pity, self-love, self-confidence, my inner needs, self-acceptance, self-control, and self-help. There is an urgent challenge to evangelical seminaries to equip ministers to be biblical counselors, people who are capable of solving their life problems with the Scripture, and be able to counsel others by applying God’s Word to human problems (Adams, 1970). As a counselor, I think it is important to have clients who need help and I would feel proud and competent to work with them. M’s beliefs make it hard to convince him to seek services which made feel me how incompetent I am. I would feel uncomfortable working with him, since we are from different religions.
In M’s beliefs, as well, it is correct that there can only be a Sacrament between two Baptized parties. However, there can still be a valid marriage between the Christian and the non-Christian, who are recognized by the Church, and then the marriage would be “valid” in the sense of being a valid social contract with the children not being considered illegitimate. It is not valid in the sense of being a Sacrament. I think that is what M was saying. He let me wonder how I will be helping a Muslim and Christian couple looking for services, and how I will be the instrument to make them integrate and live within both societies. This made feel how hard and painful it will be and what those couples will be facing. I think that marrying a Muslim has been really disheartening by the negative views expressed everywhere in regards to Catholic/Muslim marriage. The inappropriate and mistaken views of how Muslim men view women made me feel horrible to witness those people who love each other deal with some issues, because of the stereotypes that everyone has. I have an Islamic friend (who converted from Christian) who told me that she had never been treated with respect by any of the Catholic men that she had dated in the past, and she is in awe daily of her Muslim husband’s honesty and devotion to religion and others. This couple discussed religion constantly and had a mutual respect for each other’s religions. M had feelings of sorrow and anger towards his friends, and he showed his fear to the interviewer.
In sum, it appears to me that even if a counselor does not self-identify as a “faith-based” practitioner, there exists a need for a certain level of competency in addressing spiritual matters. Especially, given that all counselors practicing in contemporary American culture will inevitably treat individuals who consider themselves spiritual and/or religious. Additionally, I think that clients are seeking spiritual guidance during the therapy process to a greater extent than ever previously noted (Hagedorn & Gutierrez; Weld & Eriksen, 2007). In fact, Dale and Hunt (2008) and Rowling (2008) both noted clients’ desire for integrated, holistic counseling services that include discussions of spiritual and religious issues. Cashwell and Young (2005) agreed with this assertion when they hypothesized that all counselors, including those who work in secular settings, have an ethical responsibility to “use every approach available that will support a client’s progress, including interventions oriented to promote spiritual development” Cashwell and Young, 2005, p.3).
In terms of terrorist attacks, I agree that it had a negative impact on people who appear “foreign,” Sue & Sue (2007), especially Muslims. It is obvious that these stereotypes of Muslims came from September 11, 2001. People hear so much negative propaganda against Islam, but if people actually research the subject they will find the exact opposite. Islam has also been portrayed as a violent religion.
In our increasingly global and diverse world, counselors need to develop an ability to work with individuals whose backgrounds and experiences are different from their own.  Cross-cultural knowledge and skills are a must for counselors who work with culturally different people and their families.  Counselors must sharpen their skills in how to listen, how to value different cultural norms, and how to question their own culturally conditioned values (Diller & Moule, 2005). 
Sue and Sue (2007, chap. 20), Hines and Boyed-Franklin(1996), and Fuller (1995) discuss the importance of being aware of one’s own culture, bias, and limitation regarding culture. As a Muslim, It is important to be aware of the Christian identity as well as experiences of discrimination and harassment, be knowledgeable about Christian holidays in the same way as Muslim holidays, and become aware of my own biases and assumptions about Christians. After interviewing M, I feel I am more capable to work with Christian people, because I got to understand our differences. It helped me to become more culturally aware. I would never expect to watch someone who hates Islam and stay calm. This interview has led me to examine our differences and realized that they exist.
Sue and Sue (2007, Chp.1) discussed the awareness of self as an important element in learning to work with culturally different individuals whose backgrounds differ from that of the counselor. To work effectively with culturally different people, it is important for counselors to be aware of their own socio-cultural backgrounds, assumptions, biases, values and perspectives with regard to culturally different individuals.  As a counselor, I must come to grips with issues such as racism, sexism, economic and social class, and other realities that cannot be ignored if I want to understand diversity and the experiences of other from diverse backgrounds (Baird, 1996). Now, I am more aware of where my client culture is about and where my beliefs and values are. From recognizing this, I can be more conscious of where it is M., along with others are coming from. I am now able to recognize that the difference exists.

International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000

Transformation coordinates from International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 to World Geodetic System 1984
Geodetic network is an essential frame of spatial data. Also it is an information system for geodetic and engineering surveys, land management, geodetic support of construction, monitoring of buildings and structures deformations, topographical mapping, development of geographical information systems, transport navigation. There are several coordinate systems to solve tasks as described above. Using Global Navigation Satellite Systems cause a problem of installing communication between coordinate systems. G.I.S. specialists should know how to work with various kinds of geospatial data, that are acquired from terrestrial surveying, Global Navigation Satellite System observations and online GNSS processing service. Besides coordinates can relate to global, regional and local reference systems (Bosy J., 2014). Geodesists should understand and be able to handle with reference frame conversions in order to get high-quality geospatial data: maps, digital models of the Earth. The aim of this research is to find better transformation model between ITRF2000 and WGS84 by comparison Bursa-Wolf and Molodensky-Badekas models.

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First of all, short definitions on two reference frames should be done. The ITRF is stands for International Terrestrial Reference Frame. It is earth-centered and earth-fixed datum. It was presented in 1988. Coordinates are based on the GRS80 ellipsoid, which was designed to suit the shape of the geoid. The geoid is an irregular surface, which coincides with the surface of the water in the seas and oceans. It is perpendicular to the direction of gravity at any point. ITRF is sustained by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (Altamimi Z., 2011). Also it is a global network with points that have accurate coordinates. Coordinates are derived from geodetic measurements using GNSS and different laser rangings (Jannsen V., 2009). This network contains 800 stations that are distributed over the globe. The latest realization of the ITRF was done in 2008. The realization is a defining of stations’ coordinates and linear velocities (Altamimi Z., 2011).
In contrast, WGS84 is a regular Terrestrial Reference System. It is geocentric, right-handed, orthogonal coordinate system used in geodesy and navigation (NIMA, 2000). The WGS84 Coordinate System center is a geometric center of the WGS84 Ellipsoid. The National Geospatial Intelligence Agency operates this common Terrestrial Reference System. Due to National Imagery and Mapping Agency (1997) the last reference system is developed in order to match International Reference System. The X and Z axes are consonant with the Reference Meridian, Reference Pole consequently. Also Y axis is stationed on ninety degrees from X and Z axes (NIMA, 2000).
Furthermore, ITRF coordinates might differ from WGS84 coordinates in different regions at sub-metre level (Winter S., 2014). Consequently, two reference systems’ convention increases with time (Jannsen V., 2009). Aghamohammadi in his work stated that those varieties might be solved at the centimeter level by using seven-parameter conversion (Aghamohammadi A.).
Therefore, one datum can be transferred to another datum by the Helmert 7-parameter transformation (Knippers R., 1998). Those parameters are: three rotations (α, β, γ), origin shift of three coordinates (ΔX, ΔYandΔZ) and scale (s). The Helmert transformation model is a seven parameter transformation. It is either a position vector and coordinate frame conversion. In the coordinate frame transformation parameters are transformed for the whole reference system. The Bursa-Wolf transformation model is the position vector transformation (Deakin R., 2006). In contrast to the coordinate frame transformation it uses rotations that are refer to the point’s vector. These two models are almost the same. Yet their rotations have reversible signs.
Moreover, Aghamohammadi tested two transformation models – Bursa-Wolf and Molodensky-Badekas (Aghamohammadi A.). The first model’s formulas were done by Bursa in 1962. In 1963 Wolf had improved it. It is a seven-parameter model. It transfers three dimensional Cartesian coordinates between two datums. This model uses origin shifts of coordinates, rotation angles and scale change. Below its matrix-vector form:

The second model is Molodensky-Badekas model. It was introduced by Molodensky in 1962, then developed in 1969. It is also seven-parameter conformal conversion of Cartesian coordinates between different datums. The formula of transformation is:

Where ΔX, ΔY, ΔZ are the shifts between the barycenter and centroid of two networks. And rx, ry, rz are rotation of positions, ds – is a scale change.
Moreover, Aghamohammadi stated that Molodensky-Badekas model dissimilar from Bursa-Wolf model by the point about which axes are rotate and scale is changed (Aghamohammadi A.).The Molodensky-badekas model is often used for the conversion coordinates between terrestrial and satellite datums. Yet for that condition the central point should be the barycentre (Aghamohammadi A.).
In contrast the Bursa-Wolf transformation model does not need the centroid coordinates as in the Molodensky-Badekas model. Aghamohammadi described those two models in his work (Aghamohammadi A.). That author wrote that research was done in Iran region, where he compared transformation models to find appropriate model. The main issue of that work was that Iranian Permanent Network’s coordinates are estimated in ITRF. National GPS network coordinates are in WGS84 coordinate system. And differences from two reference systems can be more than ± meter. Due to results and some parameters concluded that Bursa-Wolf model is better that Molodensky-Badekas model (Aghamohammadi A.). The author wrote that the first model is simpler and easier to use than the second. Also it is better suits to the satellite datums.
Finally, there are many computer programs that allow us to transfer coordinates from one system to another. However, it is important to know which method you will choose in order to achieve expected result. I suppose that this work covered theoretical part of the issue. Besides the Bursa-Wolf model can be proposed as good model due to its simplicity. In the future work I can choose this model to transform coordinates from ITRF2000 to WGS84.

Aghamohammadi A., Nankali H. R., Djamour Y. Transformation from ITRF2000 to WGS84. [e-journal] Available though: National Cartographic Center of Iran website [Accessed 2 November 2014].
Altamimi Z., Boucher C., Sillard P. (2011) New Trends for the Realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System. [e-journal] Available through: University of Liege website [Accessed 2 November 2014].
Bosy J., (2014) Global, Regional and National Geodetic Reference Frames for Geodesy and Geodynamics. [e-journal] Available through: scientific publisher Springer [Accessed 2 November 2014].
NIMA (2000) Its Definition and Relationships with Local Geodetic Systems. [e-journal] Available through National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency website [Accessed 2 November 2014].
Deakin R., (2006) A note on the Bursa-Wolf and Molodensky-Badekas transformations. [e-journal] Available through ResearchGate social networking website [Accessed 1 November 2014].
Knippers R., (1998) Coordinate systems and Map projections, ITC-notes. [e-journal] Available through: International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation website [Accessed 1 November 2014].
Jannsen V.,(2009) Understanding Coordinate Systems, Datums and Transformations in Australia. [e-journal] Available through: University of Tasmania Library website [Accessed 1 November 2014].
Winter S., Rizos C., (2014) Dynamic Datum Transformations in Australia and New Zealand. [e-journal] Available through: CEUR Workshop Proceedings publication service [Accessed 2 November 2014].


Tesco PLC International Communication

Tesco plc is the fourth largest retailer in the world after Wal-Mart, Carrefour and Home Depot, and the largest supermarket retailer in the UK, McLoughlin & Aaker (2010, p126). The company was founded after WW1, and is widely recognised for having expanded its services during the 1990s away from groceries. In the last quarter of 2009 the company had a 31% share of the entire UK grocery market, with a reported gross turnover of 59.4 billion for the fiscal year 2008/2009.

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Cornelissen (2005, p32) provides an alternative synopsis of corporate communications via a historical perspective, defining five central or core themes. The realisation by the 1990s that organizations so as to ‘stay afloat’ had to practice and engage through communications with a number of groups in the environment. For the larger part of the 20th century, managing communications had been defined predominantly via public relations and marketing divisions, this being an intrinsically limited approach, thus contemporary forms of communications management have integrated these divisions into the wider corporate communications function. Furthermore the shift from rigid to flexible market landscapes, and increasingly competitive marketplaces, ‘this together with a greater call from society for ‘corporate citizenship’, pushing many organizations into stakeholder management strategies’, and finally the relationship of corporate communications with the stakeholder era, and the ‘need to build and manage relationships with stakeholder groups upon which the organization is economically and socially dependent’.
External and Internal communications
Hargie D & Tourish D (2004, p3) outline the scope of communication strategy and organizational success with an emphasis on internal communications proposing ‘a systematic approach to the construction of a seaworthy communications strategy and the rigorous evaluation of all steps taken along the way’. In the same way that Cornelissen J (2005), in the context of a historical understanding defines a shift in communications strategies and practices, the authors spell out a contemporary paradigm. Quirke, (1995, p76) is cited to have defined the traditionally bound or understood terms of organizational communication, such as the announcement of management conclusions, and the ensuring of consistent information, ‘making messages easily comprehensible, and easy to disseminate’. The authors go on to cite Quirke’s further suggestions relative to the attempt to widen organizational participation and involvement, inclusive of the stimulation of thinking, participation and ideas, the networking of know how and learning across the organisation, the involvement of all employees in improving processes, the identification of ways of providing additional value to customer and lastly the expansion of what all employees believe is possible, Hargie D & Tourish D (2004, p19), also see Quirke, (1995, p77). Quirke is further cited in so as to summarize this contemporary view of communications, ‘the role of communication becomes not the top-down dissemination of management thinking, but the bottom-up means of connecting those who know what needs to change to those who have authority to make change happen’.
With respect to issues of external communications a number of fundamental questions are defined; who is communicating with whom? Which issues receive the most attention and arouse the most anxiety? How much information are people are receiving and sending on crucial issues? how much interpersonal trust exists; and how the overall quality of working relationships can be characterized? ‘such issues are among the core concerns of efforts to establish what has been termed ‘organisational climate (Lammers, 1994)’. The authors go on to outline the way in which a communications audit can be implemented citing a five stage sequential model devised by Baker, (1999) beginning with the selection of a topic, followed by an outlining of desired performance in relation to criteria and standards. The third stage entailing collection of objective data, fourthly the implementation of appropriate changes to improve performance, and lastly the collection of data to check for changes induced by the model.
Van Riel suggests a framework for the coexistence of a number of communications functions in a single organization, this being particularly relevant to a company such as Tesco which as a result of its product and market diversification is concerned with a number or varying communication channels. Van Riel’s framework relates to internal concerns of an organization or company, as described by Barker & Angelopulu (p371), ‘Van Riel proposes a framework for organizations to stimulate cooperation among all relevant communication functions by defining the baseline of corporate communication’. Three ultimate stages are devised by Van Riel, the definition of common starting points, the use of common operational systems and lastly the coordination of decision making.
Identity, reputation and image
McLoughlin, & Aaker (2010) define Tesco’s success and growth over the past three decades directly in relation to its strategy and image, further relating it to market segmentation. The authors outline a number of strategic initiatives such as its managed range of four differing level brand product, finest range of premium products, Tesco healthy living, value range and Tesco organic range and furthermore describing the way in which the company changed customer perceptions of the brand itself, ‘Secondly the company mantra has shifted form maximising shareholder value to maximising customer value. While the underlying objective is naturally to make higher profits this is specifically done while focusing on customer service’ (2010, p127). The third term which Damien McLoughlin, David A define is that of its diversification strategy which as outlined is based on four key principles, these being the innovation and expansion into the core UK grocery market and into areas like convenience stores; innovating through expansion into non food business like consumer electrics, clothing health beauty CDs and DVDs and even developing its non food finest and value ranges; expanding into retail services like personal finance telecoms and utilities by entering into joint ventures with major players in these industry sectors; finally, expanding internally which accounted for more than 25% of sales in 2008/9 with plans for further expansion in international markets including India and China, Damien McLoughlin, David A. Aaker (2010)
Culture and its influence in corporate communications
Considering the expansion and diversification of Tesco’s services and products, in addition to the widening of its potential targeted market landscape, the initially defined terms of corporate communications devised by Cornelissen J (2005) and Hargie D & Tourish D (2004), central to which are ideas of integration, and the crossing of functional boundaries, seem most appropriate. Despite the broad range of services and products offered by Tesco, there are in existence a number of unifying terms to which the organization would need adhere to, such as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and an overall brand value. The organizations present a number of terms which embody the core purpose of Tesco as a business, Value via competitive prices, product choice and high food quality, helpfulness via customer service, availability and customer communications, inclusiveness via the means of ensuring that the organization appeals to a broad range of customers, ‘something for everybody’, and innovation via new product development and retails services technology.
The role of technology in corporate communication
Chaffey et al (2009) outline Tesco’s strategy of diversification predominantly in terms of internet marketing and implementation, citing the chief executive of Tesco’s Terry Leahy from the Sunday Times, ‘we will be the worlds biggest online grocery retailer and we intend to become the UKs No.1 e-commerce business’ (Lorenz and Nuki, 1999), further defining the way in which Tesco’s affirmed expansion was aligned to its expansion in providing wider products and services, ‘in 2000, the online services diversified, offering many non food product ranges and financial services’. The terms of diversification are understood predominantly in relation to internet shopping and service innovations, ‘By 2003 96% of the UK population could shop online with giving the commonly 65% of the UK online grocery shopping market and further diversification of product ranges, e.g. financial services and telecoms’. Specific innovations such as DVD services to the door, a rental film DVD service, the provision of energy utilities whereby customers can save money on their house bills, initiatives and schemes to promote better health such as online -diet services which help customers to tailor their food shopping and diets, and telephone services, ‘Currently Tesco is focusing on the development of TESCO direct, which offers customers a wide range of non-food goods as well as launching a range of own brand computer software. Currently Tesco accounts for approximately 66% of the UKs online shopping market’. Dave Chaffey et al (640; 2009).
Oliver (1997, p128) suggests a communications framework in relation to IT technology which ultimately aligns terms of cultural values and beliefs of an organization with the organizations vision. The author presents a model devised by Goldberg & Sifonis (1993) titled ‘communication framework’, which relies on the assumptions of management which are adopted on an intuitive basis and that need to be communicated with internal and external stakeholders, as described by the author, ‘from that, a dynamic campaign plan or communication framework is produced which clearly represents the cultural values and beliefs of an organization aligned to its vision, Oliver (1997, p128).
Internal-the role of HR corporate Communication
It is widely referred to throughout literature that the role of HR in terms of wider communications strategies is immensely under emphasised, HR departments most often not being considered under the scope of a communications department. The U.S. society for HRM asserts the way in which communications and HR should be closely related within any organizational framework, specifying the role of HR in terms of communication as a way by which to assert any given culture as alive and healthy. HR is predominantly responsible for and concerned with internal communications in this respect. Turner (2003, p20) proposes a model which adapts the traditional framework of linking HRM and performance. Turner’s model incorporates communications into the entire model. For example at the stage of HR strategy, the author suggests good communication as a tool by which to join up HR policies and strategies. In terms of HR practices, the author outlines, ‘effective people management practices to be communicated to line managers’, and directly in relation to terms of financial performance, the author suggests efficient communication of a culture of good people practice, this being particularly important to an organization such as Tesco plc, which falls into the category of a dominant, large multi-national corporation, at risk of gaining a bad reputation for this very reason.
Pelsmacker P et al (2005, p228) define a number of channels adopted by the Tesco organization so as to communicate to as wide a consumer market as possible. For example the authors define the Tesco club card magazine, describing the aims as the creation of fun and information, managing the ‘communicated core Tesco brand values and services’. The authors further outline the engendering of lasting brand loyalty, ‘and contribute significantly to customer awareness of new areas’ and lastly the increase up take of other Tesco ventures particularly in non food, the authors go onto to describe, ‘At forward publishing, they realised very quickly that you can’t talk to someone in their twenties in the same way that you would to a person in their sixties’, resulting in various targeted, specific magazines. The organization identified five life stages from Club card data, creating five different copies of the clubcard magazine. This is defined as just one initiative amongst many more such as Tesco lifestyle scheme and the Tesco loyalty program which gave the organization the ability to customize and further optimize the customer expertise. As an international organization, concerned with such a diverse range of services the Tesco organization embody and epitomize the very need to diversify and integrate communications approaches, as described by Cornelissen and to implement the bottom up means of connecting those who know what needs to change to those who have the authority to make change happen as defined by Quirke (1995).
Further analysis of Tesco plc in terms of corporate communications would need to incorporate quantitative data in addition to a qualitative assessment, furthermore the role of a communications strategy would need to be discussed further, directly in relation to Tesco’s brand and product diversification.