Conflict Theory and K-12 Education in Hong Kong

Conflict Theory and K-12 Education in Hong Kong

Education is the process of facilitating the transfer of knowledge, skills, and values. It is widely accepted as a fundamental human right across the world because of the important role it plays in the well-being of a nation. Education not only equips individuals with skills and knowledge that can be monetized in the future, but also imparts social values, traditions, and code of conduct that are crucial to living in society. Countries with a highly educated population tend to be economically stable and peaceful. The importance of education is evident, however, the specific role of education in society remains a topic that raises plenty of debate. Several theories have been proposed to explain the role of education, such as functionalist and conflict theories. Functionalists believe that education serves to address the needs of society. Conflict theorists, on the contrary, see education as a means of maintaining social inequality while conserving power with those who dominate society. This paper will focus on the conflict theory of education to determine its relevance to the Hong Kong education system. The education program in Hong Kong, 3-3-4 scheme, is one of the most celebrated in the world. Nevertheless, the curriculum relies heavily on examination scores to evaluate a learner’s ability raising concerns over its ultimate impact on the student. Learners are not interested in the content of their teachings and would rather focus on how to achieve high scores. Good scores ensure entrance into a good course in the limited number of institutions of higher learning. The pressure to pass is high leading to students seeking costly tutoring services to gain an advantage. A tuition culture has become rampant in the city with parents paying high tuition fees to ensure that their children are better prepared for the examination raising concerns over inequality in the education system. Learners from poor backgrounds lack access to these tutoring services leaving them at a disadvantage. The current K-12 education in Hong Kong is clearly elitist and favors learners from upper and middle classes.

Literature Review

Conflict Theory in Education

 Conflict theory was a concept that was first introduce by Karl Max and looks at society as a competition for limited resources. Karl Max saw society as a stratified entity made up of people from different social classes who have to compete for a limited number of resources. People in different classes compete for needs such as food, shelter, employment, and education amongst other socio-political and material resources (Pruitt, 2018). Karl Max was interested in understanding the cause and consequence of the class tension that existed between the owners of capital and the working class. The conflict theory was proposed as he was observing the impact of the rise of capitalism across Europe at the turn of the 19th century. The theory is based on the prerequisite that a small and powerful minority class known as the bourgeoisie is oppressing the majority class of proletariats (Pruitt, 2018). Social institutions are skewed in favor of the bourgeoisie with the government, education, and religion intrinsically unequal.

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According to the conflict theory, social institutions are also created to help maintain the status quo.  The unequal social order is maintained through ideological manipulation to create consensus, an acceptance of the values as dictated by the bourgeoisie (Dolby & Dimitriadis, 2013). Social institutions, culture, and political institutions are used to pass values that guarantee preservation of the privilege of the bourgeoisie at the expense of the poor. Marx theorized that if circumstances continue to worsen for the underprivileged a conscious awareness of their exploitation by the bourgeoisie would arise leading to an uprising against the system with the working class calling for changes. Even if the changes were to be implemented but capitalism maintained, the pattern of conflict would repeat.

Chernoff (2016) states that the aim of education was to maintain social inequality and keeping power among those who rule. The education system perpetuates the status quo by conditioning those from a lower class into obedient employees. Functionalists and conflict theorists both agree that education employs a sorting strategy but where functionalists believe that the sorting is based on merit while conflict theorists believe it is based on social class.  This sorting system creates a situation where students from lower social status are trained to accept their diminished role in society. The students from the upper class are at an advantage since they have access to better teaching environments, better trained teachers, and better equipped schools. The advantage translates into higher education setting up students from privileged backgrounds for lucrative careers.

Education in Hong Kong

 Wong (2017) recognizes that the Hong Kong education system closely resembles the one in the UK given it was under British rule until 1997 before the special zone was handed back to the Chinese government. Education was free and compulsory for primary and junior secondary education from 1970. Originally, the education system incorporated a “3-2-2-3” secondary and higher education n structure after the compulsory six-year primary school period. In the old system, students in Hong Kong were expected to complete three years of junior secondary school, followed by a further two years in senior secondary school (Raygan, 2016). To proceed to the next level, students had to sit and pass the Hong Kong Education Examination (HKEE). Passing the HKEE allowed students to go to the last two years of advanced secondary education before sitting for a final paper, Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination (HKALE), which determines progress to the university which lasted for three years.

Spires (2017) acknowledges the reforms of 2000 in the Hong Kong education system that gave rise to the 3-3-4 curriculum for secondary and higher education.  After analyzing the education system for ten years prior, the curriculum development council identified gaps in the old system and suggested for a change in the structure of secondary education. The old system was bulky with the two exams placing unnecessary pressure on students at an early point in their lives. The system also had a high filtration rate with students who failed in the first exam prematurely entering the job market or pursuing other opportunities outside of education. Rather than spending seven years in secondary school, the new system advocates for a total of six years with three spent in junior secondary and another three years of senior secondary education. The number of examinations were also reduced with HKCEE and HKALE scrapped off in favor of a single exam: the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE). The aim of this move is to shift teaching practice from memorization and exam preparations to teaching that is focused self-discovery, talent exploration, and experiential learning.

Examinations and Tutoring

 Although the intention of the 3-3-4 reforms in the education system was meant to improve the learning experience of students it has created more pressure on them to perform well in the single all-important examination (Wong, 2017). In the K-12 setting, the 3-3-4 system allows has made the HKDSE the single most important determinant for success in secondary school. The results of this examination determine the future course in university one can enter playing a crucial role in shaping the academic life of students. The stress generated by this examination has led to the tutoring arms race in secondary schools with emphasis placed on how best to pass the examinations rather than imparting the necessary skills to the learner. The education system in Hong Kong has been characterized as a rigid, competitive, and hierarchical pathway that leads a single high-stake final examination that has significant impact on the future of the student. Examinations, therefore, hold great importance in Hong Kong’s education system.

 According to Feinburg at al. (2015) private tutoring is a common ways of supplementing one’s education to increase the chances of success in schools. A survey conducted in England revealed that there was an increase in the number of parents who paid for private tutoring services between 2013 and 2015. The survey indicated that parents who were already paying a premium by sending their children to private school were more likely to fork out more for tutoring compared with parents whose students attend state schools. Tutoring, therefore, is a privy of the upper- and middle-class students. Feinburg further demonstrated that one-on-one tutoring was more popular in private schools than in state-run facilities. A comparative analysis of two different schools was done whereby data was collected from a private school and public school on the number of children had private tutoring. The results showed that almost 21% of children in private school had a tutor compared to 17% of students I state sponsored schools (Feinberg & Soltis, 2015). The study identified a gap in the tutoring market created because of inequality. Students from well-off families were more likely to engage a personal tutor compared with those from poor backgrounds.

Inequality in the K-12 Education in Hong Kong

The exam-based education system in Hong Kong has created a tutoring arms race that favors children from upper- and middle-class homes.  The education system in Hong Kong is heavily centered on assessments and examinations with students from as low as the kindergarten level expected to attend rigorous interview workshops. The results of these assessments determine the trajectory of the life and academic future of the student. In the K-12 education space, the two qualifying examinations of the old 3-2-2-3 higher education system were scrapped and replaced with only one HKDSE paper in the new 3-3-4 structure. Students must sit for this public test which is crucial in determining the academic progression and course qualification in institutions of higher learning. Hong Kong’s education system is likened to a rigid hierarchical pathway that culminates in an all-important examination that will determine placement into a limited number of local universities (Wong, 2017).  The pressure to succeed in these examinations has increased consumer uptake of tutoring services. The high demand for the services has in turn led to a rise in the price of good tutors. Private tutoring in Hong Kong has rapidly grown into a multimillion-dollar industry with celebrity tutors raking in millions annually. The average cost of a private class ranges from HK$150 to HK$200 with each class running for an hour to 75 minutes (Zheng, 2018). Therefore, the families that can afford private tutoring are in the middle and upper classes of society. These costly tutoring services quickly become inaccessible for students from low income households. Students from middle-class and upper-class homes are at an advantage because they have better access to tutors increasing their chances of attaining a good score. Inequality in accessing tutoring services demonstrates elitism in the K-12 education system since students from affluent and middle-class homes have an advantage over students from working class families. K-12 education in Hong Kong is elitist, favoring those students with means.

Students from low income households have less time to study compared with their counterparts. Low income households cannot afford to hire professional help so some students often have to contend with helping out at home while others are expected to contribute financially at home for their younger siblings. Wong (2017) also noted that a significant proportion of students from poor backgrounds at the K-12 level had to engage in some form of labor activity on the side as a means of raising funds. This is a challenge students from middle class and upper class homes do not face creating a disparity between the time each group of student can spend reading, revising, and preparing for an examination.  In a scenario where the teacher gives an assignment to two students in the same class from different backgrounds that takes a week to complete, the student from the affluent background is more likely to dedicate more time to the project compared to his or her counterpart from a poorer background because of the extra responsibilities he may have. The exam-oriented nature of the K-12 education system requires that the student dedicate enough time and effort into revising for the DSE. In the scenario elaborated above, students from affluent backgrounds are more likely to have more revision time compared to those from poorer neighborhoods with a myriad of responsibilities. The K-12 education system in Hong Kong does not factor these attributes in its final examination with all students subjected to the same standard test. Hong Kong’s secondary education could be considered beneficial to students from affluent homes and unfair to students from low income households.

Students from low income areas may have a poorer studying environment making it harder to study and do assignments compared with others. The low-income areas of the city of Hong Kong are often overpopulated and noisy compared with high income neighborhoods. Schools and students in such poor areas of the city do not have the same amenities and environment that promotes studying as seen in the private schools on the wealthier areas of Hong Kong. Even when at home, students from upper- and middle-class homes tend to have more opportunities to study. The environment, therefore, favors students from middle class and upper-class homes since their schools and homes are located in areas with little pollution, low population, and more quieter streets. The Hong Kong authorities in charge of education, however, fail to factor in these conditions when subjecting the students to examinations. The system, therefore, can be deemed elitists since students from poor backgrounds are at a disadvantage.

Lack of family support in their educational pursuits is also more common in working class homes.  Students from middle and upper social classes often go to the very best schools where competent and committed teachers put in the work to help students learn well and achieve success in their examination. Students from these social strata tend to have a good support system in parents, family members, and guardians. On the other hand, students from working homes cannot go to top schools and statistics show that family support in this cohort is slightly reduced compared with middle class and upper-class homes. This reduction can be attributed to the family’s attention being split between the varying needs of day to day living. All these factors lead to poor performance for children in poor homes as a result. The education system, therefore, is elitist with students from middle- and upper-class society afforded better learning conditions and support.

Poor families struggle to meet the financial needs of their children unlike middle class and affluent families. An education gap exists between learners from affluent backgrounds and those from poor ones (Siraj & Mayo, 2016). Students from low-income households are less likely to participate in extra-curricular activities due to financial restrains. Activities such as swimming, playing musical instruments, and dancing help children grow, develop skills, and socialize (Siraj & Mayo, 2016). Poorer students may not gain these crucial skills and connections when they fail to take part. Low income students are less likely to go on educational trips and holidays as well. Some working-class families cannot afford essential educational materials such as books and stationery. The lack of these basic things leaves such students at a disadvantage further elaborating the elitism that exist in Hong Kong’s education system.

Students from low-income backgrounds have lower cultural capital compared to those from middle- and upper-income homes. Cultural capital is knowledge that helps one navigate a certain culture creating more opportunity for the individual within society. Members of the upper-class and those from the middle-class have more cultural capital than members of the working class (Wiseman, 2018). The instructions and tests in Hong Kong’s education tend to carter to the dominant cultural values of these upper social classes (Wong, 2017b). Students from low income backgrounds may struggle with identifying with the values and competencies that may be foreign to their social circle. The rewards for cultural capital extend beyond the classroom. Nonacademic knowledge transferred through cultural transmission and informal learning favor the upper classes. Students from poorer backgrounds tend to have less comprehension of these cultural traits that would lead to their success demonstrating the elitism that exist in the K-12 school system.

Finally, the sorting of students according to social class favors the middle- and upper-class students more than those from working families. Sorting occurs in the Hong Kong education system based on social class. Top performing schools and International schools are often located in affluent neighborhoods and attract people from the upper class. The top learning facilities in the city are private and expensive leading to a situation where only students from high-income families can afford to attend. Students from low income households often end up studying in state sponsored schools around the city that might not have similar facilities, staff, and stellar reputations as the private and expensive big schools. This stratification and grouping of students from similar backgrounds leads to a situation where wealthier students receive better education, create more beneficial social networks, and have better chances of succeeding compared to students living in the poorer sides of the city. The setup of Hong Kong’s secondary education system is, therefore, elitist since students from elite backgrounds have access to better schools and have the chance of forming more valuable connections and networks.

Conclusion

 Education is a crucial aspect of society that helps shape the future of generations and improve the performance of a nation.  However, according to the conflict theory proposed by Karl Max, education is a social construct designed to ensure that society remains stratified with power and influence preserved amongst the top brass while those from lower social status are programmed to accept the values and rules of the owners of capital. Hong Kong’s education system is modeled after the British one with six years of compulsory and free primary education before a 3-3-4 structure is applied in secondary school and college education. The 3-3-4 structure has brought about changes in the examination pattern at K-12 level with the two previous qualifying exams being eliminated and replaced with a single HKDSE paper. An analysis of the education system revealed several cases of inequality that supports the thesis of the paper. One such inequality is seen in the utilization of private tutors to pass the all-important HKDSE, with only students from middle class and upper-class homes affording a tutor giving them an advantage over those from working homes. Other factors that make Hong Kong’s education elitist include poor children having less time to study, poor studying environment, and a lack of crucial resources in low-income schools. The system favors students from high income families since examinations are set according to the cultural capital of this social group, they have access to better equipment, staff, and can form more valuable social circles compared to their counterparts. The study concludes that Hong Kong’s K-12 education system remains elitist.

References

Chernoff, C. (2016). Conflict theory of education. Sociology of Education: An A-to-Z Guide. doi:10.4135/9781452276151.n84

Dolby, N., & Dimitriadis, G. (2013). Learning to labor in new times. London, England: Routledge.

Feinberg, W., & Soltis, J. F. (2015). School and society, 5th Edition. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Pruitt, D. G. (2018). Tom Schelling’s contributions to conflict theory and research. Negotiation Journal, 34(3), 283-290. doi:10.1111/nejo.12230

Raygan, M. (2016, Nov. 28). Effectiveness of Hong Kong’s ‘3-3-4 Education Reform’: A policy evaluation. Retrieved from https://smarkbites.wordpress.com/2016/11/28/effectiveness-of-hong-kongs-3-3-4-education-reform/

Siraj, I., & Mayo, A. (2016). Social class and educational inequality: The impact of parents and schools. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Spires, R. (2017). Hong Kong’s postcolonial education reform. International Journal of Educational Reform, 26(2), 154-173. doi:10.1177/105678791702600204

Wiseman, A. W. (2018). Annual review of comparative and international education 2017. West Yorkshire, England: Emerald Group Publishing.

Wong, L. (2017). An analysis of Hong Kong’s tertiary education policy, 1989-1996. doi:10.5353/th_b3196568

Wong, Y. C. (2017a). Education, divorce, and household income inequality in Hong Kong. In Y.C. Wong, Fixing inequality in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Wong, Y. C. (2017b). The challenge of poverty, near-poverty, and inequality in 21st-century Hong Kong. In Y.C. Wong, Fixing inequality in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Zheng, M. (2018, June 7). Why is private tutoring such a big deal in Hong Kong? Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/education/article/2149572/why-private-tutoring-such-big-deal-hong-kong

 

The Hong Kong – Zhuhai – Macao Bridge (HZMB) Analysis

Introduction

The Hong Kong – Zhuhai – Macao Bridge (HZMB) is a megaproject in South China and the longest man-made sea-crossing bridge in the world. Megaprojects are defined as ‘large-scale, complex ventures that typically cost a billion dollars or more, take many years to develop and build, involve multiple public and private stakeholders, are transformational, and impact millions of people’.[1]

The HZMB is a 55-kilometer-long bridge-tunnel system situated at the waters of Lingdingyang on the Pearl River Estuary in southern China. Construction of the bridge began in December 2009 and the bridge was officially opened nine years after the construction first began. It is the link connecting the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to the Macao Special Administrative Region and the Zhuhai Chinese mainland. This long link consists of three cable-stayed bridges, two artificial islands, an immersed tube tunnel with associated viaducts, relevant link roads, and the necessary boundary crossing facilities. This aspiring megaproject has overtaken the Stonecutters bridge in Hong Kong, previously the longest bridge in Hong Kong, becoming the longest bridge in Hong Kong and in the world. It was decades in the planning and cost billions, the actual need for this project was a big discussion point. It provides direct link between the east and west of the Pearl River Estuary and can facilitate the development of industries that rely on fast transportation, for example logistics, hence boosting the development of the three vibrant cities in the Pearl River Delta region economically and sustainably. Besides this there is the political ambition of China for HZMB to be a feat of human endeavour on a historic scale.

 

Overview

 

In this essay, I will talk about different sections of the bridge: Tuen Mun Western Bypass, Tuen Mun – Chek Lap Kok Link, the Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities, Hong Kong Link Road and Hong Kong Link Road and Hong Kong – Zhuhai – Macao Bridge Main Bridge, deep diving on the Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities.

 

Tuen Mun Western Bypass (TMWB)

The TMWB is a 9-kilometre double 2-lane expressway, consisting of twin tunnels, a toll plaza and associated administration buildings in Pillar Point. It links together the Tuen Mun – Chek Lap Kok Link and the Kong Sham Western Highway.

Tuen Mun – Chek Lap Kok Link (TM-CLKL)

The Tuen Mun – Chek Lap Kok Link is a 9.7-kilometre double 2-lane route between the between North Lantau and Tuen Mun South. It is divided into two main sections: Northern Connection and Southern Connection. The Northern Connection consists of a 5-kilometre long sub-sea tunnel deep under the seabed at a water head of above five bars crossing a reclamation area while the Southern Connection includes a 1.9-kilometre long land viaduct and a 1.6-kilometre long sea viaduct.

Viaducts are a form of bridge interconnected in a series of small spans. They are used to connect two areas which are similar in height with the purpose of carrying road traffic whereas traditional bridges are constructed exclusively for crossing physical impediments. Hence, using viaducts over bridges are better as they connect the two land areas of similar heights and help reducing the traffic congestion to minimal. Friction bored piles are employed. The piles were designed as end-bearing piles and the top level of the pile caps are made from reinforced concrete structures.

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For the construction of the undersea tunnel, three Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM) were deployed: one with diameter of 17.6, which is currently the largest TBM in the world and two identical mix-shield TBMs with smaller diameter. A tunnel boring machine is a tube-like machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata. With the use of TBMs, a smooth tunnel wall can be produced, making them suitable to use in Hong Kong, a heavily urbanised area. Apart from boring the tunnels, TBMs also provide support. Selecting the TBM tunnelling as the method instead of the traditional Drill and Blast technique was in part due to lower environmental impact as TBM would create a much lower ground vibration than D&B, which requires steps such as explosive charging and blasting. Furthermore, due to the tight schedules of the construction, TBM has a quicker excavation rate which allows the construction to be finished in a shorter period of time.

Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities (HKBCF)

The Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities is situated on an artificial island of about 150 hectares and is served as a transportation hub which provides clearance facilities for passengers and goods. The HKBCF will be discussed in greater detail in the main focus section.

Hong Kong Link Road (HKLR)

The Hong Kong Link Road includes a dual 3-lane road, comprising of a 9.4-kilometre long viaduct section going from the HKSAR boundary to the Airport Island; followed by a 1-kilometre tunnel section to the reclaimed area formed along the east coast of the Airport Island and a 1.6-kilometre long at-grade road section on the reclaimed area connecting to the HKBCF.

To minimize the visual and environmental impacts to the nearby residents, the majority of the tunnel section was constructed undersea. Pile caps of the viaduct have been buried below the sea bed to minimise the disturbance to the existing current flow of Airport Channel. The substructure construction was comprised of reinforced columns on marine bored piles, surrounded by casings. This helps protect the marine environment against spilling or leaking. The superstructure of the viaduct is composed of a dual-3 lane with hard shoulders. The viaduct required having spans longer than 75 metres for navigation purpose. Three different construction methods were available: the precast segmental method, the precast spans method and the In-situ balanced-cantilever method. Precast segmental methods and In-situ balanced-cantilever methods were adopted. The precast segmental method involves the elevating onto place precast segments of less than 80 metres long whilst the In-situ balanced-cantilever method can span greater distances. It involves constructing on place the different segments of the viaduct and to pre-stress them onto the segments. Some reclamation work was done on the eastern part of the HKLR tunnel. A non-dredge reclamation method which had more benefits over the conventional dredging method, was introduced, eliminates dredging and greatly reducing backfilling material.

Main Bridge

The HZMB Main Bridge consists of a 29.6-kilometre dual 3-lane roadway in the form of bridge-cum-tunnel structure consisting of an immersed tunnel and two artificial islands for the tunnel landings on the western coast of the HKSAR boundary.

Due to the non-uniform soil types which are mainly plastic clays and very hard marine clay, as well as the extensive dual-3-lane road layout that had to be accommodated with an ample operational safety level, the traditional tunnel option was practically not feasible. This was because the foundation would made it intricate to construct machinery with the risk of material changing from sand to clay and so forth. Other reasons behind were that it would require an 80-metre high bridge and a high bridge tower with height of 200 metres, yet the Hong Kong International Airport does not allow anything higher than 88 metres. Owing to the above restrictions, traditional sea-crossing bridge could not be built and immersion was the only option. An immersed tube tunnel is a tunnel constructed directly under a waterway. This underground tunnel is the longest and deepest immersed tunnel ever built in China, as well as the most technically advanced part of the project. It has a length of 6.7 kilometres and is 44.5 metres below sea level. The tunnel comprises of 33 immersed segments of 180-metre long and weighing 76,000 tonnes each, linked by a butt joint in the middle. The segments are made of reinforced water-proof concrete and each has a segmental structure with a cross-sectional profile of two bores and one middle gallery. Unlike the undersea tunnels in TM-CLKL, this tunnel requires a greater depth below water that immersed-tube method is the most preferred method as it is mainly used for constructing tunnels that cross deep water.

Main focus – HKBCF

Traditionally, reclamation requires dredging and dumping a large amount of soft marine mud so that the seawalls are constructed on a firm foundation by replacing the soft marine mud in the seabed by sand fill. As mentioned before, the non-dredge reclamation method was used to build the artificial islands, this was chosen for the purpose of minimizing the ecological impacts caused by dredging. Dredging, disposal of marine mud and bulk filling activities can give rise to many potential impacts on water quality, affecting marine wildlife. Comparing the traditional reclamation method to the non-dredge method, less environmental impacts are created. However, the procedures for construction of steel cellular seawalls are more complex with the use of more technical and advanced equipment when compared with that for the construction of traditional rubble mound seawalls. In conclusion, although the non-dredge method is far costlier than the traditional one, it is certainly a better choice for reclamation in the prospective of sustainability.

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Among several types of non-dredged methods: stone column, sand compaction pile (SCP), deep cement mixing (DCM) and cofferdam type seawall, DCM and cofferdam type seawall were adopted. This was to improve the overall stability by reducing sliding, overturning and bearing failures and global instability. It was also to enhance internal stability by keeping the tension failure of interlocks between sheet pile at the most favourable tension.

DCM has never been adopted in Hong Kong due to the lengthy process to carry out field trial and the high mobilisation cost. DCM involves the process of ground heaving which is to dredge and dispose the upheaved soil, uplifting it to the surface. The biggest concern of using this method is that it can impact the marine environment significantly.  It can lead to cement slurry leakage from the slurry pump and mixing shaft, as well as seepage during slurry mixing. Moreover, it can cause long-term deterioration or soil mix and dissolution into seawater is not well-defined. Lastly, during the process, the heat emitted from the chemical reaction is undefined that the possible impacts on marine is difficult to be controlled. For the cofferdam type seawall, a series of circular steel cylinders which were 55-metre high and weighed 550 tonnes, were vibrated directly into existing seabed without dredging. They acted as a massive gravity retaining structure when backfilled to its top level. Part of the seawall of the artificial island was formed by sinking large steel circular caissons through the soft marine mud. It was innovative to use a combination of different non-dredge approaches. However, it would be even better if sand compaction pile was used instead of DCM. SCP is one of the most environmentally friendly non-dredge methods compared to the others that it requires lesser rockfill and it is also a similar process to the DCM. However, the major drawback to this method is that the working height is limited. The height of SCP plant can be modified to the minimum which is 40metres, by cutting out the top frame if height is a problem.

The largest building of the HKBCF, the Passenger Clearance Building (PCB) has a construction floor area of over 90,000 square metres. The PCB is designed to be aesthetically pleasing, energy efficient and sustainable. The roof is designed in wavy form and is supported by tree-like structural columns with few interior structural columns. Due to the large-scale construction, the roof was prefabricated in vast modules at the prefabrication yard to speed up the construction progress. The roof modules were composed of structural steel frame and also the pre-installed building service works, architectural builder works and finishes, including smoke vents, baffle ceilings, aluminium claddings, drainage and lighting system. A horizontal launching method was adopted during the delivery and installation of such massive roof components. It involved 4 sets of self-propelled modular transporters and horizontal hydraulic jacks pushing the modules into position to the top of PCB in which the components were then installed one after another. Using this method, the accuracy of installation was greatly improved so that the connection of all modules was made smoother.

A megaproject can’t be built without overcoming serious physical challenges, the HZMB project is of no exception because the project was so ambitious. The HZMB is designed to have a service life of 120 years. This is the first ever time for such an extended period of time has been specified for infrastructure in China, given that it has to have the ability to withstand magnitude-eight earthquakes and super-hurricanes. Problems were mainly encountered during and after the construction of the artificial island. Two massive problems were encountered. One was the consequence of adopting the non-dredging reclamation method. Part of the artificial island moved 20 metres and movements of up to 7 metres had also been observed in several parts of the island. This was a result of the tight schedule of given to the construction, the reclaimed land should have been left to settle for between 5 and 15 years in order to obtain a firm foundation before building on it. As the soft mud varied in thickness from 10 to 30 metres, the caissons settled at different rate therefore reached the hard stratum at different time. Since the caissons are still settling, they can distort and move, and consequently, the sea wall may not hold the proposed shape. Another challenge was that the wave-absorbing concrete blocks, which are called ‘dolosse’, surrounding the artificial island appear to have drifted away and become partly submerged. The propose of the dolosse is to prevent the island from being eroded by the sea. However, if the blocks are submerging and some are already below water, how can they absorb waves effectively? Each dolosse weighs 5 tonnes, which is too light, it would be more secure if 30-tonne blocks were used.

Conclusion

 

Whether or not it is considered to be successful, the Hong Kong – Zhuhai – Macao Bridge is certainly a milestone in the structural and civil engineering’s history. Overall this marvellous piece of engineering delivers on its keys promises. The connectivity brought by the HZMB has connected the Pearl River Delta region and its neighbouring provinces, resulting in better economic integration and competitiveness. From the political point of view, it has brought China enormous prestige. However, it is not performing as it was intended to due to the factors discussed above in which the majority of problems are concerned with the artificial island. Nevertheless, the innovative methods that were developed to build HZMB will have a strong positive impact on future constructions. There are even more megaprojects being planned already, taking engineering to another level. Has the race of building the world’s longest bridge just begun?

Bibliography

Human Capital Hong Kong

This report is given an analysis after reading the article “Taking Stock of Hong Kong’s Human Resources” given by lecturer and other related online materials. The scope of analysis include the factors driving Government to develop its Human Capital, the role of Government to increase Hong Kong competitiveness, what kind of human resources are demanded in Hong Kong, pros and cons of talents and mainland professional scheme, and given recommendations of long-term HR strategy to Government.
Part 1: Case Analyses
Principal of Developing Human Capital
The Government has been investing heavily to develop its human capital because of key areas as below:
(1) Economic Restructuring and Transformation
Hong Kong has moved towards a knowledge-based economy since 2003. And, Government pushed value-add industries: finance, logistics, tourism and manufacturing services. Harmony with the restructuring and transformation it is necessary optimizing the specialized skill or labour pools to reinforce the strengths of these four main economic pillars policy.
(2) Competitiveness of Neighbours
The opening marketplace attracts more businesses shift their production cost to Chain or other fall behind countries. It made an aspect of facing out the human resources of non-knowledge skilled labour. Those kinds of people may require retraining programme to get with environmental change.
The rising competitiveness of other countries such as neighboruing ports in Shenzhen. Hong Kong requires knowledge skill person to enhance the logistic workflow for retaining the leading position. Beside, the neighbours also move towards a knowledge-based economy in the meantime, like Macau transform into a comprehensive tourism and service support centre for trade and manufacturing. Hong Kong would stay behind if government did nothing in human capital development.
(3) Socio-Economic Condition
The population characteristics are driving the economic development. Like the increase in foreign domestic helpers did a good turn in female labour growing. Forecasting the future ageing proportion and control the migrant scheme can scope for particular talents. Analyst the group of proportion and specify a suitable HR strategy for each division is vital importance. For example, balance the human resources by matching the projection of manpower demand and supply by educational attainment.
Enhancing Competitiveness by Government
The government proactive boosts the workforce performance and reforms the local human resources through education to meet the market transformation and fulfill the vision of particular economy. Seeking for new opportunities by promoting creative industries and training local citizen possess specialized skills.
Moreover, government ensure the manpower demand and supply can be matched by adopt a multi-pronged strategy – upgrade workforce, improve business environment, embrace new technology and enhance employment opportunities.
Private and Public Sector Coordination
Government set up the human resources policy and work together with the private and public sectors. Encourage tertiary institutions to strive toward the achievements of international standard. Incentives for company investment in training, increase job security by helping their employees develop new skills for adopt the challenges in rapidly changing world.
The government and individuals subsidize or endow the public and private education institutions. The local universities help the public to perform research reports and set up a research institute for invent new products. After that the organizations promote and utilize the new invention. All parties share their human resources for creating a cooperation network.
Demand of Human Resources in Hong Kong
The manpower requirements can be found in population analysis. In article shown the growth in industries of financing, insurance, real estate and business services sector are increased most in economic sector, and community, social and personal services are the second largest sector. Also, the occupation category projected the growth of demand for managers, administrator, professionals and associate professionals.
Admission of Talents and Mainland Professionals Scheme
The government carries out immigration policy can fill in the human capital shortage. The people from different countries formed an internationalization community and commercial centre. It is strengthen the positing of international city. On the other hand, it causes intense competition of local worker take up an occupation. Therefore, it influences the local employment. The contributions of these two schemes are dependence on the classification of talents and professional admission.
Part 2: Recommendations: Long-term Policy of Hong Kong
The long-term policy is vital important for a city to develop a sustainable economic growth. Hong Kong is a large community and its organic entity has life and needs to be sustainable survive by increasing globalizing and competitive environment. The key underpinnings are economic growth, employment, education and immigration scheme, etc.
Economic Development
For economic development, Hong Kong should work closer together with the Pearl River Delta Region (PRDR) and Macau to extend her competitive advantage as the leading financial and trading center in Asia. The government better to evaluate economic trends and adverse it’s political, such as examine the benefits of taking into account the pace of economic integration with the Pearl River Delta.
Human Resources Mobilization
Integrate Hong Kong and PRD in partnership with each other by develop a shared human resources and commitment. Greater the mobility of quality people – Hong Kong talents relocate to the PRD and admit talents from the mainland to connect with the mainland’s business network. It will strengthen the connection between Hong Kong’s and China’s system.
Immigration Policy
The immigration policy should be review for building talents to contribute to Hong Kong, avoid the people use it as an employment policy tool. Government should recognize the qualification from the mainland universities. Attract the quality mainlanders and best talents around the world to fill in the talents or professional shortage in Hong Kong. In the meanwhile, protect the local workers and ensure the scheme will not reinforce the competition of occupation.
Native Education
For education, government should review the local education system to match-up the internationalization commerce centre. Like, develop internationalize public examinations or education services exports. It could increase the quality of people with great ability and tremendous potential.
Quality of Life
The quality of life is also important, a reasonable wage is one of factor for motivating the workers to work harder and be more productive. The long working hour but receives a very low wage will constitute lower morale at work. The workers do not have time to rest, take care of his or her family and cover the basic family expenses. It will decrease the working performance, and citizen will have poor purchasing power and deflation will become more serious and bog down the market.
Thus, government has the duty and responsibility to control the minimum wage for protecting the local worker to meet their basic living standards, build up a harmonious community.
Implication on Population
Hong Kong is facing the aging of population and social community problems. Although the childbirth showed slightly increased last year, it cannot cover the future human capitals and aging of population (Figure shown appendix). The government will burden with heavy medical treatment expenses and should be focus on insurance policies.
The main reason of lower childbirth is unstable economic and stress on long time working. Government should ensure the living standards and review the taxation policy to attract more family planning the childbirth. The domestic helper could help the citizen in the middle income level, however, nothing assistance in the lower income level. It is better encouraged private or public sector to create family care business like baby sitter.
The statistics report also projected numerous new arrivals with lower education. In the past few years, there is so much news shown that they cannot adapt the horizontal livelihood. On the other hand, the intense competition leads to increase the living pressure of local citizen. Both segments may require psychology consultations.
Government should address the training needs and encourage the adult of new arrivals to be self-reliance. And invest more on training social workers to solve the social livelihood problem. For relief the mentality pressure of both segments, it better admitting psychology specialist and emphasize the training of mental philosophy.
Conclusion
The role of government and the long-term policy is vital important for Hong Kong to develop a sustainable economic growth. Hong Kong is a large community and its organic entity has life and needs to be sustainable survive by increasing globalizing and competitive environment. The economic growth relies on the residents of a city to develop. Balancing the talents and professional workers is necessary for economic restructuring or transformation. Therefore, government, private sector and public sector should focus on human capital development and investment on education and training.
References

Gov.hk Budget Speech, [Online], Available: http://www.budget.gov.hk/2008/eng/speech.html

Gov.hk Developing Human Capital, [Online], Available: http://www.budget.gov.hk/2008/eng/budget40.html

Gov.hk THE 2008-09 BUDGET, [Online], Available: http://www.budget.gov.hk/2008/eng/pdf/ebudget.pdf

HKPRI Economic Recession, Government Policy and Workers’ Welfare, [Online], Available: http://www.hkpri.org.hk/bulletin/7/shtang.html

HKPRI Macau: Preparing For Sustainable Development, [Online], Available: http://www.hkpri.org.hk/bulletin/13/eric_yeung.html

IDRC Policies on Ageing and Long-term Care in Hong Kong, [Online], Available: http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-28474-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html

Info.gov.hk Press Release – 2005-06 Policy Address by Chief Executive, [Online], Available: http://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/200510/12/P200510120126.htm [12 Oct 2005]

 

Hong Kong Postcolonial Memory and Ambivalence to China

Transcultural memory

 

 

“I am Hongkongese, not Chinese” : Hong Kong postcolonial memory and ambivalence to China

“I am Chinese, not Hongkongese”

It was summer in 1978, Dongguan (one of cities in south China) had just been through the Cultural Revolution, the city has not climbed out of shadow of torment of famine and poverty. The faces on people were skinniness, paleness and fatigue from social unrest. It seemed that nobody cared about what future ambitions would be realized or whether or not their clothes were fashionable. People just cared about if they could fill their stomach and if they could harvest enough grains to support the whole families.

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The entire city was haunted by desolation and bewilderment. So some family started to discuss about the plans of stowaway to Hong Kong, hoping to get rid of the hopelessness the place left to them. One of these people was a twenty-two years old boy. It was the pushing hand of destiny as well as personal will. He was also the oldest kid of the family. Except his parents, he had six siblings whose futures counted on him. Like this, one day early morning, he departed to the harbor with many people like him, standing alongside the coast waiting rubber dinghies like refugees. Yes, they were indeed refugees, they were seeking hope and chances of survival. However, It was not that lucky for the first time, he was caught by police on the way and put into Dongguan’s local jail for two nights. The police shaved all his hair that night and released the following morning. He didn’t go back to his home. Instead, he headed to a nearby river and had a shower to wash all his misfortunes away. His sister got a message from the jail and rode a bike to pick him up. When she saw him, she tried to see him through the mist of tears but barely recognized this man standing in front of her with skinhead and pale face. With dim eyes, he said, “let’s go home.”

The second time of stowaway was a success, the boy finally arrived in Hong Kong. However, as an illegal migrant, he couldn’t do anything but stay in relative’s for the first couple weeks. After many twists and turns, he finally got a jobs and legal identity card and settled down. It’s been 40 years, just like the movie “Comrades: Almost a Love Story”, he had to start from scratch and went through difficulties all by himself then married a Hong Kong girl.

Now, he is 62 years old and still living in Hong Kong. He sometimes goes back to his hometown to visit his parents and relatives. Hong Kong is still a well-developed and wealthy city, however Dongguan is no longer boundless fields and hopeless small town but a populous industrial city with well-developed infrastructure. Also, in order to keep in touch with his siblings in mainland, he learned to use Chinese social media app. However, despite spending more than half of his life living in Hong Kong, he gained no sense of belonging as if he is standing in the grey area between mainland China and Hong Kong. Sometimes he still feel confused if he is Chinese in Hong Kong or Hongkonger in China, but none of these identities can precisely describe who he is. He has every welfare and civil rights as any other Hong Kong people does, he almost recognizes every roads in Hong Kong but he never regards himself as “Hong Kong people”. Nevertheless, when he sees news about China on TV, the prosperous and bustling cityscapes and revolutionary songs, he feels nothing but unfamiliarity. He thinks he is still Chinese as always, but he is getting unsure of so-called “national identity” as if he has missed the upbringing of a child. This man is my uncle, and the sister is my mother.

The ambiguity of “national memory”

Since the handover in 1997, Hong Kong, as Special Administration Region(SAR), has become a part of China’s territory again. However, Hong Kong ,a British colony for 150 years and it became an international metropolis and politically disputing area simultaneously. The word “identity” became ambiguous since Hong Kong people have mixed sentiment to their home country. On the one hand, Hong Kong people have adopted the British the legal, judicatory system for a long time, which kept reminding them of the distance they have from China. On the other hand, the shared ancestral roots and ethnic culture also have embedded in Hong Kong people’s mind, which still are the main connection of Hong Kong with China. In other words, for most people in the world, they take their national identity for granted and thus cannot easily examine it critically; they may disagree with their country’s policies, but they still have subliminal felling of attachment to their homeland.[1] But national identity, for Hong Kong people, is something they need to “learn” and “practice” after the resumption. Besides, the ambiguity of “identity” refers not only to the transition from colony to part of China, but also is the embodiment of ambivalence to postcolonial “Chineseness” and governance of People’s Republic of China (PRC). In this way, it seems like the more postcolonial Hong Kong government and Communism advocated the sense of belonging to their nation, the more Hong Kong people feel resistant to their country.

According to the poll conducted annually by The University of Hong Kong, 40% of people consider themselves as “Hongkonger” (Hongkongese) which has increased nearly 20% from 2007(the first post-handover decade) while only 15.1% respondents call themselves “Chinese” which has declined from 27.2% in 2007. Besides, some people have mixed identities like “Hongkonger in China”(26.3%) and “Chinese in Hong Kong”(16.9%)[2]. That is to say, people in Hong Kong have difficulty in articulating their identities even after the reversion. In addition, more and more people consider themselves as “Hongkongese” rather than Chinese which means China are continuously losing the new generation of the city.

Obviously, issues between Hong Kong and China have several dimensions. Vertically, “national identity” and “local and national memory” vary between generations. For generation of those who, like my uncle, were originally from mainland China and moved to Hong Kong before the retrocession, they still have strong bond with China and national identity. And some Hong Kong residents also grew their pride because of the remarkable economic growth in China. On the contrary, some of the offspring from mainlanders or new generation of Hong Kong people have different view of China. They regard Chinese as “others” and feel no connection with China because of the regimes of Communist and the dark side of Chinese politics such as crackdown on the pro-democratic movement in 1989.[3] Horizontally, Hong Kong people have different opinions towards China. Some think China’s vast development provides lots of opportunities for business and working while some have antipathy to China because more and more mainlanders come to Hong Kong and lead to shortage of necessities such as milk powder.What’s more, Hong Kong people also accuse mainlanders’ negative influences like “uncivilized” behaviors, which became one of the factors that Hong Kong people have resentful feelings and reject to claim themselves as one of these Chinese. The third dimension is Hong Kong people have different views and emotion towards different aspects of China. People in Hong Kong have more affinity and pride with “cultural-economic” China due to the shared ethnic roots and history but they also distanced themselves from “political China” because of the Chinese regime.[4]

Nowadays, “national identity” is getting ambiguous and disputing in Hong Kong. This complex phenomenon can be attributed to local culture as well as side effects from renationalization under the rule of the PRC. And all these factors invisibly formed Hong Kong people’s memories in various ways. In this way, people in Hong Kong and their mainland counterparts have different memories of experiencing post-1997 times and it caused series of and different levels of conflicts.

 

 

“Learning” to “renationalize” memory

To quote Lebel’s words in Exile from national identity: memory exclusion as political, “National memory are not social institutions that formed spontaneously, democratically or pluralistically, but rational projects featuring power relationships, shaped by actors promoting political interests through it and legitimizing their preferential political dominance.”[5] In the first postcolonial decade in Hong Kong, both PRC and Hong Kong government were trying to emphasize national identity and patriotism of citizen since Hong Kong people had lived under colony for decades. Education, as one of the most ubiquitous soft power, became political apparatus to teach young generations about patriotism.

Schooling is one of the most obvious and important societal institutions shaping senses of national identity.[6] Therefore, after the handover, the urgent task for the government was to inculcate patriotism to the new generation of Hong Kong and increase the sense of belonging in order to promote the integration. To execute this task, one of the policies was reconstructing the education curriculum. From 1945 to 1965, the civic education in Hong Kong had been largely kept curriculum away from politics. And between 1966 to 1984( the year when the resumption to China was settled), civic education still remained depoliticized but tended to promote sense of belonging and national values.[7] After the handover, according to Morris(2002) and Tse(2004), Tung Chee-hwa, as Hong Kong’s executive, advocated “Chineseness” and tried to raise the national pride as Chinese of young generation.[8] He believed that “teaching Hong Kong’s younger generation to recognize and identify with the culture of the Chinese nation is the most important task of education in Hong Kong”(quoted in Edward Vickers, Flora Kan and Paul Morris,2003). Since then, the school curriculum has changed gradually by some policies, for instance, pedagogic approaches have involved emphasis of national identity as well as patriotism both in primary schools and secondary schools, Mandarin has been taught in schools more widely.[9] What’s more, flag hoisting and the singing of the national anthem in schools became more prevalent. [10]Apparently, Hongkong post-colonial government had emphasized the national history and introduced patriotic education in planned ways in order to foster students’ ethnic sentiments with the nation. In this way, it could reconstruct citizens’ national memory profoundly.

Of course, patriotic education has not bred full loyalty to China. Rather, it has triggered increasing skepticism over the years. Instead, the pedagogic approaches triggered Hong Kong people’s skepticism as well as antipathy to Chinese government. For example, according to Angelina Y. Chin, many ‘post-80s’( those who born in 1980s in Hong Kong) become activists who are concerned with autonomy in Hong Kong and are critical of the PRC’s incremental interference in Hong Kong politics.[11] Besides, Hong Kong education still remains its scope of freedom compared to national education in mainland China. “ Whilst the textbooks used in mainland China rationalize why a market economy works in a Communist country and try to reconcile the earlier ideology of Communism and capitalist reform, the textbooks in Hong Kong do not have to bear this burden because they have no history of praising Communism and Mao.”[12] This educative difference allows Hong Kong people shape their more critical and skeptical memory than their mainland counterparts, namely, it to some extent raises social conflicts and confrontation of Hong Kong young generation,For example, an anti-national education movement occurred in September 2012. Hong kong activists gathered together and tried to stop the introduction of compulsory classes that critics say is brainwashing education by the Chinese government.[13] The curriculum,which consists of general civic education and controversial lessons on praising mainland China, is due to be introduced in primary schools in September and secondary schools in 2013.[14] Finally, Hong Kong people successfully pushed the government to suspend introduction of a new curriculum in this regard.[15]

However, from government perspectives, national education is rather natural thing than controversial because people around the world need to learn history in their country. Americans learn American history, British learn a great deal about their loyal family, thus it is not “brainwashing” if Chinese learn their own national history. But for Hong Kong people, they had hard time believing in national history that they are excluded from because of being colonized by Britain. Also, some people criticized that, “In fact, those who oppose it are likely to be more ‘brainwashed’ by Western ideology, as Hong Kong used to be a British colony.”[16] What Hong Kong activists called for was freedom and the new curriculum that can expend their horizon and enable them to adapt more smoothly to the national environment. In the case of Hong Kong, national education doesn’t work as easily as other countries, and as pivotal apparatus, it can be effective shaping people’s national attachment and intensifies unrest simultaneously.

To recapitulate, renationalizing the local’s memory of “national identity” or “nationalism” didn’t turn out a good way in Hong Kong. According to Zaretsky(1994), “The process of renationalization can be regarded as rationalization of domination vis à vis social actor. How the local reacts to this is the identity politics that in turn defines their cultural identity”.[17] It is worth noting that after undergoing the intensified patriotic education and series of Chinese cultural propagation, Hong Kong people’s cultural identity has already been hybridized. On the one hand, they were taught about Chinese ethos and established their national memories consciously. On the other hand, they still remained the local cultural identity because of Hong Kong local media and culture cultivation ,which differentiates them and the mainlanders. This hybridized memory has put Hong Kong people into a dilemma that they lost sense of belonging of their motherland but also, they have already been baptized by renationalization.

 

 

The Hong Kong spirit

As mentioned earlier, ambivalence and resistance of Hong Kong people are the result of hybridization of postcolonial memory-making, Chinese political authority and their local identity of being “Hongkongese”. “When Hong Kong was still under British colonial rule, Hong Kong was modernized and formed a distinct cultural identity despite its longstanding historical, cultural, and ethnic ties with China. Consequently, Hong Kong citizens regard Chinese identity as culturally acceptable but politically controversial.”(E. K. W. Ma & Fung, 2007; Mathews et al., 2008; Sinn, 1995 cited in Fung and Chan)[18]. Therefore, Hong Kong identity embodies and manifests both cultural attachment with and resistance to “Chineseness”. This ambivalence was further complicated in the transition period from the 1990s to the early years after the handover because of the increasing socio-economic integration of China and Hong Kong, and the cross-border experience of Hong Kong citizens living in Mainland China.[19] In this process, Hong Kong people have already formed their postcolonial memory with their “Hong Kong ethos” and in turn, China are losing the new generation of the city as a result of, ironically, its post-handover renationalization and interference in Hong Kong’s autonomy.

I was born in Shenzhen, China, which is the major city that connects Hong Kong and mainland China. Somehow I always feel mentally close to Hong Kong because we both speak Cantonese, I spent my holidays in my uncle’s in Hong Kong. For me, Hong Kong is more than a city, it contained my childhood memory and kinship. In 2017, I was obsessed with one Hong Kong indie band called “My little airport” whose music depicts the perplexity and sense of hopelessness of young generation in Hong Kong so subtly. Their music appealed to me so much until I saw a video that they were playing British national anthem in a musical event . I felt complexed because I, as Chinese, couldn’t agree what they were doing because playing British anthem doesn’t help change the situation of Hong Kong but on the other hand, it was the reflection of how Hong Kong people feel under the rule of PRC. I was not surprised that Chinese government banned the band after that. Apart from large-scale counter-movements such as “Occupy Central with Love and Peace” which aimed to fight for Hong Kong’s autonomy and true democracy, conflicts between “Hongkongese” and “Chinese” escalated. Hong Kong young generation keeps fighting for democracy and even resist mainlander’s tourism while China state media show how Hong Kong people embrace China and how intimate “Hongkongese” and “Chinese” are. While prevailing media narratives about relationship between these two areas are quite positive and hopeful, China indeed is losing the trust and affinity of the city both politically and culturally.

 

Bibliography

Chan Chi Kit, “China as “other”: Resistance to and ambivalence toward national identity in Hong Kong”,China perspectives No.(2014/1):25-34.

Chin Angelina Y. “Diasporic Memories and Conceptual Geography in Post-colonial Hong Kong”,Modern Asian Studies 48,6,(2014),1566-1593. doi:10.1017/S0026749X13000577

Chui Ping and Iris Kam, “Personal identity versus national identity among Hong Kong youths – personal and social education reform after reunification”, Social Identities, 18:6, (2012),649-661, https://doi.org/10.1080/13504630.2012.708994

Fung Anthony, “Postcolonial Hong Kong identity: hybridising the local and the national”, Social identities,10:3, (2004), 399-414. https://doi.org/10.1080/1350463042000230854

Fung Anthony Y. H. and Chan, Chi Kit, “Post handover identity contested cultural bonding between China and Hong Kong”,Chinese Journal of Communication, 10:4, (2017),395-412, https://doi.org/10.1080/17544750.2017.1371782

hkupop.hku.hk, “You would identify yourself as a Hongkonger/Chinese/Chinese in Hong Kong/Hongkonger in China : (per poll)”, HKU POP SITE, last modified 7 December 2018.https://www.hkupop.hku.hk/chinese/popexpress/ethnic/eidentity/poll/datatables.html

Juliana Liu, “Hong Kong debates ‘national education’ classes”, 1 September 2012,https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-china-19407425

Lebel Udi, “Exile from national identity: memory exclusion as political” ,National Identities,Vol.11 No.3, (2009), 241-262. https://doi.org/10.1080/14608940903081150

Mathews, Gordon, Jiewei Ma, and Dale Lü. Hong Kong, China Learning to belong to a nation. Milton Park: Routledge, 2008.

Rivers Zhang, Nannerl Yau and Avery Tsui, “‘I am a Hongkonger’:How China loses the hearts of the city’s young generation, HONG KONG FREE PRESS, 25 March 2017, https://www.hongkongfp.com/2017/03/25/i-hongkonger-china-loses-hearts-citys-young-generation/, (https://www.hkupop.hku.hk/chinese/popexpress/ethnic/eidentity/poll/datatables.html

Vickers Edward ,Flora Kan and Paul Morris , “Colonialism and the Politics of ‘Chinese History’ in Hong Kong’s Schools”, Oxford Review of Education, 29:1, (2003), 95-111, https://doi.org/10.1080/03054980307432

Extensive Reading With Young Learners in Hong Kong

In this essay, I will discuss extensive reading with Young Learners, and how extensive reading can be promoted, with reference to young learners in Hong Kong. Children learn to read in English in schools in Hong Kong at an early age, but there is little encouragement for them to read for purposes other than to learn the language. I will examine the benefits of extensive reading, in particular children’s stories, and how these can be used to promote extensive reading with primary learners in my teaching context at the British Council Hong Kong.
Why extensive reading?
Day and Bamford (1998, 4) contend that the type of reading done in ESL classes bears little resemblance to reading done in the real world, and that in fact “students learning to read a second language do not read and they do not like reading”. Reading in the classroom tends to be done purely in order to teach or review a language point, or to train students for an exam. However, “It is simplistic but true that the more students read, the better they become at it” (Day and Bamford 1998, 4). Teachers therefore need to find ways of encouraging students to read that are enjoyable and motivating for them, and more closely resemble the kind of reading that is done outside the classroom.

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Extensive reading, “is any reading that is done either for pleasure or not explicitly for the purposes of teaching reading”. (Emery 2009, 38). This can be any type of text, whether fiction or factual. With this type of reading, the “reader’s attention should be on the meaning, not the language, of the text” (Day and Bamford 1998, 5). As children focus on meaning when learning a language, extensive reading should then particularly appeal to them as a way of learning English, especially if the texts are of types that they would normally read in their first language. Language learning from reading comes from exposure to the language, but is not the primary aim of extensive reading.
Clark and Rumbold (2006, 9) list the following benefits of reading for pleasure;

reading attainment and writing ability
text comprehension and grammar
breadth of vocabulary
positive reading attitudes, which are linked to achievement in reading
greater self-confidence as a reader
pleasure in reading later in life

Although their report was regarding native speaker children in the UK, they note that these benefits are equally true for second language acquisition. It appears, then, that extensive reading is crucial for literacy development.
In Hong Kong, there is little interest in reading for pleasure, particularly in English (Ho 2008, Leung 2005). Taking into account the above benefits of reading for pleasure, it seems crucial to encourage a love of reading extensively in our students in Hong Kong, both inside and outside the classroom.
Why stories?
First and foremost, children enjoy stories. “Stories are particularly important in the lives of our children … Children’s hunger for stories is constant” (Wright 1995, 3). If we provide children with stories, they will be motivated to read and listen to them. Reading stories in the classroom is a shared event, which encourages “social skills, such as cooperation, collaboration, listening and turn taking and helps to create appropriate affective conditions for learning to take place” (Read 2008, 7). We can also provide them with the means to read stories for themselves outside the classroom, increasing their exposure to language further.
Children are also aware of and enjoy stories in their first language; “From their early experience, children are likely to be familiar with story or narrative structure” (Cameron 2001, 129). This means that, unlike many classroom activities, the telling or reading of a story will be a familiar activity. Even if reading books and stories are not commonplace in the home, children will have had exposure to stories through a variety of other media, e.g. films and cartoons. Children are therefore more likely to be receptive to a story than an activity which is not so familiar and therefore potentially confusing. Stories fulfill children’s need for ‘security and novelty’ (Cameron 2001), as there is the security of the familiar structure of the story, with a beginning, introduction to characters, a problem which is resolved, and an ending, and also the novelty of new stories, characters and plot surprises.
Stories provide a clear context from which children can find meaning. The meaning and enjoyment of the story are the most important for children, and the meaning of the language is supported by the context. “They work out the meaning first and tend not to pay attention to the words that are used to express the meaning” (Moon 2000, 5).
Stories are a rich source of language. “Because stories are designed to entertain, writers and tellers choose and use words with particular care to keep the audience interested” (Cameron 2001, 163). Many words and phrases are often repeated throughout a story, increasing students’ exposure to them, and also helping to create the sense of security and familiarity. Through such exposure to language children are learning new vocabulary, often without realising it (Cameron 2001, 164), and the teacher can also exploit this vocabulary in classroom activities. Moreover, this vocabulary is used within a clear context, so “Children have the ability to grasp meaning even if they don’t understand all the words” (Ellis and Brewster 2002, 8). Heathfield (2009, 17) refers to his own experience of storytelling with elementary Italian learners, who were able to follow and understand the general meaning of stories told in English.
Attention can be paid to vocabulary and students’ accuracy once the context and meaning have been established. Stories provide children with exposure to not only vocabulary, but also to the structure of sentences and the “general ‘feel’ and sound of the foreign language” (Wright 1995, 5). If stories are read aloud, children have exposure to the pronunciation of the language, its rhythm and intonation. This exposure helps them with their fluency, both written and spoken, when they are later ready to move to more productive use of the language.
Stories also contain a variety of themes and topics which can be interesting and relevant to the students themselves, or can be exploited in the class. These themes can be linked to other subjects across the curriculum. They can also help develop children’s awareness of the world around them, or of different cultures. Stories can also be used as a stimulus for speaking and writing, and “exercise the imagination” (Ellis and Brewster 2002, 1).
Cameron (2001, 160), warns, however, that we should not allow our feelings of nostalgia and fond memories of childhood stories to colour our perceptions of the ‘magic’ of stories. She notes that the classroom is not the same as the family home, and the teacher is not a parent, so we should adopt a more “critical stance” to using stories in class, both in our choices of stories and the way that we use them, and to be open to using other text types which may be equally appealing to children. We should also be aware that stories are also available through other media than books, e.g. animated cartoons or TV programmes, and it is very likely that children may be even more receptive to these forms of media than traditional books.
Choosing stories
The stories used with children should first of all appeal to them (Phillips, 1993, 46), whether it is the theme, the illustrations, or the fact that it is a story which is familiar to them and they know they will enjoy it. “A good story … is simply one that listeners or readers enjoy” (Cameron 2001, 166). The story should have interesting characters that the children can relate to and a clear plot, with possibly a surprise at the end.
The length of the text should be appropriate, i.e. for beginning readers using books with shorter texts will promote success and motivation. The language used in the book should also be simple enough for them to understand, but also contain some language which is beyond their current level in order to develop learning and language development. The child should be able to build on familiar language with new language, but not be demotivated by reading something beyond their level. A story which uses a lot of repeated structures and vocabulary will help reinforce meaning, and children also enjoy the repetition.
The illustrations used in a book are also important, as they not only make the book more appealing to a child, but can also support the meaning of the text and new vocabulary and stimulate their imagination (Hsiu-Chih 2008). The themes of the story can also help children to understand more about the world, but should have appropriate values and portrayals of characters. If a story is being used in class, one could be used which fits the topic of the lesson.
There are many graded readers available for young learners, in which language is carefully selected to match the child’s level of English. However, the language is often simplified in these readers to such an extent that the language becomes unnatural, for example present tenses are used throughout, whereas in authentic literature a story is nearly always told using past tenses. As Cameron (2001, 166) comments, “It seems a pity to deprive learners of opportunities to hear authentic uses of past tense forms … I can see no intrinsic reason for supposing that use of the past tense would prevent children understanding a story”. Cameron also points out that although many text books for young EFL learners contain stories, they often lack the ‘prototypical features’ of a story, such as a plot with a a problem to be resolved, and a satisfactory ending. These stories are unlikely to “capture children’s imaginations in the same way that stories can do” (Cameron 2001, 162). “Quality stories have characters and a plot that engage children, often the art work is as important as the text in telling the story, and they create a strong feeling of satisfaction when the end is reached” (Cameron 2001, 166).
There are many arguments for providing children learning English as a second language with ‘real’ books “offering a rich source of authentic input and challenge” (Ellis and Brewster 2002, 8). These stories are more likely to contain the elements necessary in a ‘quality story’ as described by Cameron, and children can feel highly motivated by being able to understand a story which has not been simplified. There is also such a wide variety of authentic story books which makes it easier to choose something which will appeal to many different children.
Ellis and Brewster (2002, 8) note that it can be argued that the language in authentic story books can be too complex for children learning English, while the content may be too simplistic for their age if a book is chosen which has been written for a younger target age. They argue that “In a foreign language, however, children are often very happy to accept stories which they may reject in their mother tongue”. Although care needs to be taken to select books which will appeal to the child, what is important is the way that the story is exploited and the language learning supported for the children’s particular level. “It is what we expect the children to do which determines the proficiency level required, not the story itself” (Wright 1995, 3).
It is also important that the child, not just the teacher or parent, chooses the books that they would like to read. Clark and Rumbold (2006, 22) stress the importance of children choosing their own reading material on motivation and acheivement. They refer to Krashen, saying that “students who choose what they read … tend to be more motivated, read more and show greater language and literacy development”. Cameron (2001, 164) believes that children may learn vocabulary while listening to stories without realising it, and “learner involvement with a story may be what makes a difference … letting children choose the stories they want to hear may help maximise the learning that takes place”. They will be more likely to choose books that interest them, and therefore be more motivated to understand and engage with the text. “It is difficult to place too much emphasis on the role interesting material plays in the desire to read” (Day and Bamford 1998, 29).
Using stories and promoting extensive reading
There are many ways in which extensive reading and reading stories can be promoted both inside and outside of the classroom, which I will discuss in relation to my current teaching context.
In the classroom, the teacher can use stories in a variety of ways, both to promote reading and to exploit stories for further language work. Reading stories aloud to the class is an effective way of exposing children to story books and their narrative structure. “From listening and watching an adult read aloud, children can see how texts are handled, how texts encode words and ideas, how words and sentences are set out on a page … Affectively, reading aloud can motivate children to want to read themselves” (Cameron 2001, 141). The telling of the story should be an enjoyable experience, and, if possible, the classroom arranged so that all children are sitting around the teacher, maybe on the floor, so that everyone can see the book (Wright 1995). The teacher should take care to hold the book so everyone in the class can see it, and use mime, gestures, facial expressions, the stress and intonation of their voice, and the pictures in the book, to help students’ understanding (Ellis and Brewster 2002, Read 2008). Students should be encouraged to participate in the story reading through questions which reinforce understanding, e.g. describing the pictures, or making predictions about what happens next. The teacher can help students with new and difficult vocabulary by providing tasks to pre-teach vocabulary, and follow up with activities which consolidate the language and help students to recall the story. Above all, the story and related activities should be enjoyable for the students. “Favorable feelings for and experiences with the teacher, classmates, materials, tasks, procedures, and so on, can forge positive attitudes toward reading in the second language” (Day and Bamford 1998, 25).
At the British Council Hong Kong literacy texts have been incorporated into the syllabuses for the higher level primary classes for students aged 8 and above. These are generally texts which are used in schools in the UK to teach literacy in the British National Curriculum, with accompanying teacher’s notes and materials – these are usually adapted to suit the EFL and local contexts. The texts chosen are for a younger age group than they would be in the UK, i.e. materials for British children aged 8 to 9 are used in classes for Hong Kong learners aged 10 to 11. These have proved to be overwhelmingly popular with teachers, who report that they enjoy using them and find that students also enjoy the stories whilst being stretched, because they can see that the materials are authentic and feel a sense of achievement.
Many teachers also use storytelling in class, as story books are readily available in Hong Kong. These teachers appreciate the value of using story books in class, and find storytelling an enjoyable activity in class themselves. Some teachers use story books not just for teaching purposes, e.g. the introduction/consolidation of language or to complement the course book materials, but also for a ‘story time’ slot. Often at the end of the lesson, the story time slot is used as part of the classroom routine and settles children. The stories are read purely for enjoyment, and if enough books are available (some teachers have their own story book collection) students are able to choose which stories they would like to hear.
For younger primary students ‘book boxes’ are provided with a selection of suitable books, which teachers are encouraged to use with their classes. One advantage of the book boxes is that with a selection of books children are able to choose for themselves what the would like to read, or what they would like the teacher to read. Other ways of encouraging children to choose and read books would be to have a book corner in the classroom or a lending library for children, so that children could enjoy reading by themselves either in class or at home. Unfortunately, neither of these are currently feasible at British Council Hong Kong. The classrooms are used by many different classes, including adults, so it would not be practical to set up a corner of the classroom with books. There is also the issue of funding book corners or a library; with approximately 3,500 primary students currently taking courses at the British Council, the cost of buying sufficient books for either scheme is prohibitive.
One scheme which has been successfully introduced for primary classes is a ‘Reading Challenge’. Students are encouraged to read books in English and write brief reviews of them. After they have read six they receive a prize of a certificate and a book. The success of the scheme seems to depend largely on how much the individual teacher promotes it, but prizes have been earned by students across a range of classes, not only in the highest levels or older age groups. Clark and Rumbold (2006, 20), in a review of studies examining the effect of reward on motivation, conclude that we cannot be certain that rewarding children for reading actually motivates them to read more, or if they do so, that they are reading purely to get a prize and will not continue to read widely in the future. However, if a reward is given for reading, it “appears that literacy-targeted rewards, such as books or book vouchers, are more effective in developing reading motivation than rewards that are unrelated to the activity”.
The most important factor, however, in developing children’s literacy and enjoyment of reading is the involvement of their parents (Clark 2007, Clark and Rumbold 2006, 24, Wood 1998, 220). The British Council Hong Kong has recently introduced ‘parent workshops’ to encourage parents to read with their children, emphasising the importance of reading not only for literacy and educational attainment but also social and emotional development. Parents are also shown how to choose appropriate books and how to read them with their children, exploiting the stories and the pictures. These workshops are proving to be very popular with parents, who, while keen to encourage their children academically, had previously not realised the benefits of reading for pleasure.
Conclusion
There is not on the whole a ‘culture of reading’ in Hong Kong, but, given the advantages outlined of extensive reading, it is particularly important to encourage our students to read for pleasure, and using story books can be particularly effective. This requires not only access to suitable texts, but also training for teachers and parents on how to read books with children and develop further language use.
 

Feasibility Study of Hong Kong Style Tea Cafes

This feasibility study of the Hong Kong-style tea cafe was conducted over a period of 8 weeks with careful analysis of market. The accurate budget has been conceived for the feasibility and practicality of this project.
The goals of the Hong Kong-style tea cafe include providing a convenient place for consumers to eat and rest, making a profit as well as make the cafe famous in this region and further in Adelaide.
The feasibility research report contains the SWOT and 4Ps analysis, that is, the strength, weakness, opportunities, threats, product, price, place and promotion are analyzed. The strength and competition of the Hong Kong-style tea café are also researched.
Products and market analysis
Products and services
Cafe as the public code name, witnessed the changes in Hong Kong for half a century, it was full of civilians in the atmosphere, and carries the local culture, giving the consumers an intimacy of “neighborhood”. No wonder many people say: Once leave Hong Kong, we will also miss the cafe.
Cafe is convenient, fast, and accommodates with the rhythm of modern life. The café price is affordable to the average consumption, which is about $A 10 – 15 per person per meal, so that even patronize every day, ordinary white-collar workers are also affordable.
The food style in this cafe is various, it supplies not only meat, seafood which is readily available in Chinese restaurants, but also steak, ham, salads, coffee and tea provided in western restaurant . The tea cafe also sells local traditional food such as noodles, fried snacks, oven fried dishes. In addition, there are some unique characteristics of tea food, including “Couples”, which may be “the most Hong Kong-style tea café drinks, so-called “Couples” is the mixture of milk tea and coffee, such unique drinks embodies the modern fusion of East and West.

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With the accelerating pace of life in city, the pressure of work is also growing, and eating food has become another mode of relaxation for tired people. The fun of eating for city people is no longer confined in a simple color, smell and taste, and if the cafe is particular in its feature, it will be able to attract many customers. Casual cafe is so popular mainly attributes to random combinations. Firstly, the café has leisure environment, people can attain leisure and adequate food and enjoy the relaxation. Secondly, the price is moderate, about $A 10-15 per person, which is affordable for the average consumer. You can go with 3 – 5 friends, get a cup of tea and some casual food. In addition, it has a space for a long time rest, and consumers can sit there for two hours, or even half a day. With the development of leisure spending, cafes are becoming the trend of consumption for modern urbanites.
Target market analysis
According to the survey, our target consumers are mainly young white-collar workers and students and the main push is the cheap and good tea, snacks and convenience – based food.
Because in this market there are a few high-grade and low-grade cafe, so the market position of the Hong Kong – style café is mid-grade, so that the main consumers of the cafe such as working people and students can afford it. However, the food in the cafe is divided into three grades, high, medium, and low. The high-grade food is business package target at white-collars; the mid-grade is distinctive dessert for the students; the low-grade mainly refers to drinks such as tea, so that shopping people can be attracted into our cafe. The cafe can also push a chocolate hot pot, which is different from the traditional hot pot. The chocolate hot pot make chocolate as the main material, the main taste is sweet. The consumers can put in any fruits they like such as grapes, strawberries, bananas, apples, pineapple. The papaya and other dried fruit are also good choices.
Analysis of site
Analysis of traffic
King William Street is a part of a major arterial road, and the width of it is 42 m, which is the widest main street among all the capital cities of Australian State. It separates Adelaide from south to north and it continues to cross over the Torrens River into the North Adelaide as King William Road, which is with the same width. It nears Chinatown, Rundle Mall and Victoria.
Analysis of consumption
The main target of this cafe is the young working people and students. The King William Street nears Chinatown, Rundle Mall and Victoria, which is the most famous business circle, and it the first choice for office workers and students to relax and spend their holidays, so customers come to our shop will be certainly not less and even more in weekends, summer and winter vacations. Students and working people may choose to have dinner in the cafe, contacting the friends.
Analysis of competitors
The competitor of the cafe is OBUN CHEF, which is on the King William Street, along the direction from Rundle Mall to Victoria, and it is on the left of the second intersection. The OBUN CHEF also provides sweet tea and dessert. Other cafes do not supply this kind of food. However, if the food in this Hong Kong-style tea cafe is unique, it will certainly attract customers.
As it is now KFC and McDonald’s is very popular all over the world, but with the ideas to enhance the health, people now increasingly focus on health and further on food choices. This tea cafe is pushing the health food, which is attractive to consumers.
SWOT analysis
Strength
The Biggest advantage is the team’s wisdom, and the ability to do integrated marketing innovation. The chef and marketing talents are superior to other cafes in this region, which provides the greatest protection for the cafes to enter this industry.
Weakness
The absence of experience in this region is the most weakness for the cafe. But we know how to insight into consumers’ demand, and then transported through the marketing to meet the needs of consumers, we know how to create a distinctive brand. We can employ the informed person who is familiar with the target market to enhance the produce process and management.
Opportunities
Product homogeneity in the industry is serious, the product is colorless, and the market segmentation and positioning is of no depth. All brands are lack of a clear position, no brand with a clear personality and characteristics, and they do not attach importance to build and shape the brand image, also, the marketing is basically identical, so the entire industry market is lack of clear differences in personality of the brand, which are our market opportunities. We can draw our comprehensive marketing innovation and to build our own unique brand.
Threats
The imitation and follow-up of competitors are the biggest threat to our development. If we have the innovative marketing approach, competitors certainly will imitate and follow-up. The solution when face the threats is to predict the imitation of competitors in advance, so we need to stay one step ahead on marketing strategy, the innovation must be fast, always keeping the leader of marketing innovation.
Marketing strategy
Brand strategy
Brand position must be clear, it is the first step into the market, and it must be fresh for the consumer s’ awareness of brand image.
Product strategy
Combine the food type of competitors to classify the food and indicate on menus and promotional materials. At the same time, the soup must be diversified (specific soup is determined after the investigation of competitors). To enhance the added value of dishes, each meal is designed with a special single-page newspaper, the contents of which are jokes, or how to improve nutrition, or how to relax. It is under lunch boxes, and can meet the food habits of reading the newspaper as well as promote the brand. The Package of products like soy milk is best to seal, and it is better to collect the boxes of competitors, and then consider our distinctive package to avoid the leakage of vegetable soup.
Price strategy
Our price must always a litter higher than competitors, and match the value of nutrition, health, fun, and higher speed we provide.
Sales channels

Publicize it through traditional direct marketing methods
Build our corporate website, through online order
Bundling promotion with delivery of milk and water
Co-marketing with other places such as offices around the cafe

Advertise strategy

Deliver a single page through the business office staff; collect contact information to consider post; consider publicity through the network.
Make the personnel wear uniform clothing, ride a bike with standard color and signs of the brand (consider advertising on bicycle wheel), or walk on the main streets at noon time. Maintain a certain frequency in more than a few days.

Promotion strategy

To stimulate the early order of consumers and achieve brand awareness as soon as possible, it can provide a free meal, and the number is controlled at about 1500 copies.
When the cumulative order reaches 6 – 10 copies, supply a free meal (it is determined after considering the cost). This action aims at consolidating the existing consumer awareness and expanding the brand and the impact, which are helpful to quickly grab market share from competitors.
In order to stimulate the spending frequency and loyalty of consumers, in the promotion process, consider the accumulated awards (online at the same time), such as if the consumption of a consumer reaches 100, he/she can get some gifts.

Brand planning and communications
Brand planning

The core values of the brand
The core values of the brand are nutrition, speed, and short pleasure of dining.
Brand name
The name must be distinctive, easy to remember and understand, easy to read and spread.
Brand image carrier

Under the brand name, consider the corresponding brand mascot, and it must be easy to strengthen brand awareness and improve brand affinity. This is the difference between our brand and competition brands. Now most of competitors do not pay attention to the overall brand image.
Visual identity system design
Design the Visual identity system, contains the standard color logo, brand slogan portfolio, mascot, cycling and distribution of automotive, propagation and promotion of a single page of meal reports, work clothes, lunch boxes (need characteristics) and others.
Brand communication
Release supply information online with high frequency, and preferably releases soft paper news to enhance the credibility and publicity through msn and blog; set up a business and corporate web sites.
7.0 Analysis of management
Estimation of investment
The Hong Kong – style tea café is in King William Street, according to the monthly rent in that area, the cafe needs to afford about $A 15000 per month. Store tables and chairs, air conditions are also needed. The cost also contains the decoration soft decoration cost. The estimated cost is about 300 thousand.
Estimation of operating profit
 Monthly profit
If the cafe daily average sales is $A 30 per square, the area of the cafe is 140, then the whole sales is $A 4,200 per day.
 

English Language Education Is Critical For Hong Kong

Hong Kong is a former British crown colony ,and is currently a Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China. Hong Kong had been a British crown colony for more than 100 years (“Hong Kong”). Hong Kong’s legal system, financial system, educational system, and culture have been influenced by the British, and Hong Kong is now one of the important financial centres in Asia (Meyer 219). Hong Kong’s official language is mandated as Chinese and English according to the Basic Law (“Hong Kong”). After the return of sovereignty to China, Hong Kong’s secondary education system shifted twice, in 1997 nearly eighty percent of the schools were forced to use Chinese as a “medium of instruction” (MoI) known as the “mother-tongue education policy” (Choi 673-674). In 2008, the secondary schools were assigned their MoI with the reference to the admission grades of grade 6 students known as the “fine-tuning policy” (Suen 1). Medium of Instruction is defined as a language variety which is used in educational settings for purposes of teaching and learning (“Medium of Instruction”).There have been repercussions among the stakeholders of the educational system including parents, university professors, corporations, etc., as students’ English competency has been declined due to the education policy change (Flowerdew Li and Miller). Thus, should English should be used as a MoI in hong Kong secondary and tertiart education? English should be used rather than Chinese in secondary and post-secondary education because it can foster economic development (Ng 1), it is beneficial for student career paths (Flowerdew, Li and Miller 206), and it is an international language (Shen 112).

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Hong Kong language education policy has long been a political issue rather than an educational issue (Tsui et al. 200). Under the rule of the Great Britain, “colonial educational policy” has been adopted (Flowerdew, Li, and Miller 204). This is used for educating a small group of local elites who act as the middleperson between the British officials and the local Hong Kong citizens (Flowerdew, Li, and Miller 205). For elementary education, schools are under the “laissez-faire policy”, which the schools can pick and choose their own MoI (Lai and Byram 316). From secondary to post-secondary level, English is mostly used as the MoI. Flowerdew, Li ,and Miller has indicated that during the 1980s, 90% of the secondary schools are used in English. At the same time, the colonial Hong Kong government had disagreed with the” mixed-mode approach” on teaching, which is described as using Cantonese to explain terms and definitions, and using English on teaching and testing materials (Flowerdew, Li, and Miller 205). In the early 1990s, the colonial government had increased the number of universities in order to meet the demand of the needs of the professionals in the flourishing economy (Flowerdew, Li, and Miller 206). The number of universities had increased from two to eight, and six out of eight are used English as MoI for lectures and tutorials. On 1997, Hong Kong became a part of the Chinese territory. On September, 1997, the “mother-tongue education policy” had been enforced (Lee 13). Only 114 secondary schools are allowed to use English as MoI, and more than 300 secondary schools had to use Chinese as MoI (Lee 13). On 2008, “fine-tuning policy” had been enforced, as the Hong Kong government tried to eliminate the negative labelling effect of the English and the Chinese schools (Suen 6).
Even though currently Hong Kong is a part of the Chinese territory, English should be used as the MoI in the secondary and post-secondary education system. First, English as MoI can boost the economic growth of Hong Kong. Hong Kong is one of the Asia’s international financial centres, and English is commonly used as the medium of communication in Business, the local workforce has to be fluent in English to communicate with investors and clients (Lee 98). The future generation are exposed more to the English language environment because MoI is English. Because of this, the prospective international companies may consider Hong Kong as the regional headquarters which can strengthen economic development, and create more jobs . Besides, as China’s economy is growing rapidly, many international corporations see Hong Kong as a gateway to China (Lee 98). China opens its door to the world in the mid-1980s, Hong Kong has firstly became as an entrepot, and now becomes the middleperson between China and the world. Entrepot is defined as a centre at which goods are received for subsequent distribution (“Entrepot”). In order to keep the current position as the middleperson and the gateway of China, English is more important than ever. Moreover, using English as MoI can train students to think in the language and use as a lingua franca, so that they can easily adapt the western cultures and beliefs (Ng 5). Lingua franca is any form of language serving as a means of communication between speakers of different languages (“Lingua franca”). That can make international corporations to enter Hong Kong at ease because citizens are already exposed to the western cultures and thoughts.
Second, English as MoI is critical to student career prospective. In the competitive city like Hong Kong, higher foreign language ability, for example, English can ensure a secured employment and financial future for the students (Lee 25). As mentioned above, Hong Kong is an international city, and English is used as MoI in university, it is crucial for students to use English as MoI. When the “mother-tongue education” policy is compulsorily implemented, some parents broke into tears that their children cannot go to those English schools (Lee 26). Apart from that, university lecturers from the City University of Hong Kong also complained that students’ English ability is weak, sometimes the situation makes lecturers difficult to communicate with their fellow students and explore new ideas with their students (Flowerdew, Li ,and Miller 213). As a whole, this can dampen the knowledge that students receive, and affect the creditability of the Hong Kong university graduates. Flowerdew, Li, and Miller quoted from different surveys that secondary school students, university students, and teaching professionals are prone to English as MoI (qtd. in Pennington and Yue; Hylan; Lin et al.; Richard, Tung, and Ng). Lau, a secondary school English department chair also indicated English is important for students’ future in the long-run. Therefore, Hong Kong government should use English as MoI in secondary and post-secondary education.
Third, English is an international language. International language is described as a language that can achieve a genuinely global status, when it develops a special role that is recognized in every country (Nunan 590). English is a lingua franca because it is widely used in world politics, telecommunications, business, mass media, technology, and education (Shen 113). For international relations, there are 85 percent of the world organizations using English. For popular music, 99 percent of the work is in English (Shen 113). In order to broaden students’ horizons, education in Hong Kong should be used in English as MoI. By broadening their horizons, students’ learning can be enhanced.
On the contrary, there are challenges on using English as MoI. Although English as MoI benefits students, first language teaching is the most effective way to learn (Suen). First language is defined as the first language that an individual learns, also known as L1 (“First language”). On the other hand, using English as MoI will create the rising of “elitism” which refers to a description of attitudes that are ascribed to a higher social class, or to anyone in a superordinate position (“elitism”; Flowerdew, Li, and Miller). Hong Kong is well-known for its social strata gap. According to the Gini index, which is an index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country, Hong Kong has ranked in 17 among 135 countries, and Hong Kong has the highest rank among developed nations (“Distribution of family income- Gini index”). If English again has been enforced as the MoI, the gap between the rich and the poor will be widened, and the situation will create social unrest.
Despite the fact that English as MoI has its disadvantages, its benefits still outweigh the disadvantages. Hong Kong educational system should be used English as the Medium of Instruction not only in secondary and post-secondary schools, but also in elementary schools or even pre-schools. Hong Kong government should examine ways to develop English as the L1 for their citizens, and they should learn the experience from Singapore (Ng). Hong Kong government should also maintain a consistent and sustainable education system. As I have said, Hong Kong has shifted its educational system at least twice over the past 10 years. In order to produce a knowledgeable workforce, a stable system should be used. Before making any changes to the educational system, Hong Kong government should examine the pros and cons of the changes to the educational system thoroughly and publish the policy in a more transparent way.
Format: MLA/ Word Count: 1484
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Ocean park hong kong

Introduction
History of Ocean Park Hong Kong
Ocean Park was opened on 10 January 1977 by the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Murray MacLehose. It took HK$150 million, which was funded by The Hong Kong Jockey Club and the Hong Kong Government, to be built. Between 1982 and 1984, The Hong Kong Jockey Club gave a further HK$240 million to develop the facilities at Tai Shue Wan and thrill rides at the Summit.
The Hong Kong Jockey Club stopped subsidizing Ocean Park on 1 July 1987 Ocean Park became its own statutory body, with a Government-appointed Board. The Hong Kong Jockey Club established a HK$200 million trust to ensure the Park’s continued development. At present, Ocean Park is managed by the Ocean Park Corporation, a financially-independent, not-for-profit organisation.
Background of Ocean Park Hong Kong
In Hong Kong, there are two theme parks which are most popular and visitors should visit if they come to Hong Kong. They are Ocean Park and Hong Kong Disneyland. In this essay, we will mainly focus on discussing Ocean Park.
Ocean Park Hong Kong , commonly known as Ocean Park, is an animal theme park, situated in Wong Chuk Hang and Nam Long Shan in the Southern District of Hong Kong. It is founded in 1977 by the Governor of Hong Kong Sir Murray MacLehose, Ocean Park has now got about 35 attractions and rides. The park has won several awards, including The World’s Seventh Most Popular Amusement Park and the 33rd Most Visited Tourist Attractions in the World by Forbes. In year 2007/2008, Ocean Park had 5.03 million visitors. It was awarded “the worlds number 15 theme parks”. It has the annual attendance ahead of rival Hong Kong Disneyland’s 4.5 million visitors.

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Covering an area of 870,000 square meters of land, the park is separated by a large mountain into two areas, The Summit (Headland) and The Waterfront (Lowland) respectively. The two areas can be reached by a 1.5km long cable car system, a shuttle bus, or the Ocean Express (train). As the Headland consists of several hills, visitors can also take the world’s second longest outdoor escalator to go from one side of the mountain to the other side..
The theme park now has 19 rides, including two roller coasters. It also consists of 11 animal exhibits, such as a Giant panda habitat, a jelly fish and Chinese sturgeon aquarium, as well as a four-story aquarium showing more than 2,000 fish.
Besides being an amusement park, Ocean Park also operates observatories, well-developed laboratories, an education department and a Whales and Dolphins Fund. Ocean Park Hong Kong was the first institution in the world to have success in artificial insemination of bottlenose dolphins, and developed numerous new breeds of goldfish.
In September 2007, Ocean Park Hong Kong increased its ticket prices by 12% and 14% to take advantage of the Golden Week Holidays. In July 2009, Ocean Park Hong Kong announced that they would increase their ticket prices again by 20% and 25%.
Attractions park of ocean park Hong Kong

Headlines Rides
Lowland Gardens
Whisker’s Harbor
Tai Shu Wan Entrance
Theatre Shows

A statement of the problem or critical issues for the study
A statement of the problem or critical issues for the Ocean Park opened over 28 years. Allan Zeman, a person who changed the destiny of Ocean Park, was the Chairman since 2004. Before Allan Zeman joined Ocean Park, the Park was only matched the break-even point of their revenue. It is because the facilities are getting old and no new games built in the Park. The Park only maintains all the common facilities like Cable Car, Ocean Theatre, Pacific Pier, Atoll Reef, Whiskers Theater, etc. All the shows are old and not interesting to old visitors at all.
After Allan Zeman becoming the Chairman of the Ocean Park, he introduced lots of new element to the Park. The most popular is the Sea Jelly Spectacular, Giant Panda Adventure, The HKJC Giant Panda Habitat and Chinese Sturgeon Aquarium. The Government of Mainland China gives the Chinese Sturgeon and pandas to the Ocean Park which shows friendship between China and Hong Kong. It attracts lots of visitors to visit the Park because of the rare species of animals.
Ocean Park target customers have a wider range than the Hong Kong Disneyland. It is because the games are more excited than those in the Hong Kong Disneyland. For example, the Abyss Turbo Drop and Mine Train are too scary if children play. Allan Zeman introduced these games most likely attracting teenagers over 15. On the other hand, families which have elderly and children are also significant in his project. The SkyFair, Giant Panda Adventure, Goldfish Treasures, Emperors of the Sky and lots of shows are provided to the families to visit. Children can learn from the shows and the boards in the aquarium or the show rooms to know more knowledge outside classrooms.
Ocean Park started the Ocean Park Academy Hong Kong for students to learn in nature. Students can feed parrots or dolphins in the lessons. Also, Ocean Park will provide their staff as tour guide to lead students to visit the aquarium and show rooms in order to provide an interesting learning environment to them. They provide at least five courses to difference classes of students from kindergarten to secondary school. Each level gives students different ways to learn the nature, for example, games, bring students to observe the animals, fish, sea lions, seals and pandas, etc and role play and so forth.
Ocean Express commenced in the early 2010. It provides a new way and faster way to travel between the Ocean Park’s Waterfront to the excitement at the Summit. It eases the burden of Cable Car. It can bring 5,000 people per hour in each direction between two main lands in Ocean Park within 3 minutes. It saves the traveling time for visitors and let them have more time to play in the Park. The Ocean Express designed like a submarine and offers a vivid experience that simulates a journey through the ocean’s depths. It carries through the idea of people in the ocean. On the other hand, some elderly or people may afraid of riding cable cars as they have acrophobia. The commencement of Ocean Express is a good choice for them that travel between two main lands in the Park. It targets all ranges of their customers.
Since Allan Zeman joined the Ocean Park, he raised lots of themes to the Park in difference seasons to satisfy kids and big kids’ wants. In summer, Ocean Park set up a temporary water war game site to kids and big kids. Kids can play in a small playground with water and slides. Big kids can bring water guns which provided by the Park to have an exciting water war game in a safe temporary site. It is not only cooling down in the hot summer, but also giving a good place for families and friends to play something that they cannot easily find in Hong Kong. One of the most successful projects brought out by Allan Zeman is Halloween. This event attracts at least 50% more visitors to the Park every year at that period. Most of them are teenagers and big kids. The level of scary in Ocean Park is much higher then the Hong Kong Disneyland and therefore it becomes famous to teenagers and big kids. Lots of foreign visitors come to visit Ocean Park in Halloween as they are attracted by the level of scary and the mood of this funny and horrifying festival. In Christmas, Ocean Park injects another theme which is called “Ocean Park Christmas Sensation”. As Christmas is a romantic festival, Ocean Park provides a romance atmosphere for couples in love. It is totally different from the Hong Kong Disneyland that only providing funds to kids.
In conclusion, Ocean Park takes care of wide range of their customers. No matter students, elderly, families, friends, couples, kids, big kids, etc, they used to provide variety themes to its target customers and make them fresh in every visit.
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Purpose of the study
According to the Tourism Development Bureau, 2009 Visitor Arrivals Summary by Country / Territory of Residence of the show, visitors from Mainland China had 1,848,832, accounting for the total number of visitors in Hong Kong 60.4%, 14.1% increase over 2008, statistics show Chinese mainland tourists are our most important visitors.
In February 2005, the Ocean Park Corporation submitted to the Government a $5.55 billion master plan to redevelop the park into a world-class marine-themed park featuring more than 70 attractions. The redevelopment plan continues to emphasise the importance of community involvement and the park’s role in supporting conservation and educational initiatives in Hong Kong. First to the second phase has been completed, some new rides and attractions have facilities open to the re-development project is expected to be in the final stages of completion in 2014.
Consolidated basis of the above information, the purpose of the investigation is to understand the mainland tourists for the satisfaction of the current park, which re-development projects of the impact on the marine park. Through empirical data, we hope to show whether the re-development project had brought about the expected effectiveness and benefits to make a survey and analysis
Contribution of the study
Our research will focus on mainland visitors entering the park satisfaction, motivation and behavior in the park re-development project between the impact of mainland tourists as the park’s main target, to bring the benefits of the park’s contribution through the studyexpect to learn more about the expectations of mainland tourists to the park, the facilities of the park today, attractions, transport and surrounding infrastructure, based on the above criteria, and wanted to come up with behavioral intention Ocean Park visitors, tourist motivation, satisfaction
Behavioral intention
Behavioral intention is the consumer’s behavior or actions, including the recommendations of others and revisits.Boulding, Kalr, Staelin, and Zeithaml (1993) as interpreted by the “repurchase intentions”, and “would recommend to others” to measure consumer behavior, intent, intention to act on behalf of tourists

Consumer product or service behavioral tendencies, the main response to the possibility of a future purchase, whether the possibility of renewal or conversion;
Customer willingthe establishment of positive word of mouth support tendencies.It can be seen, recreation and tourist industry in customer loyalty should have

Revisiting the meaning
Positive appreciation
Intention to recommend behavior

The intention in this study as a basis to measure three aspects
Tourism motivation
Human activities, has its inherent psychological reasons, it is Motivation, it is one of the Motivation will inevitably produce a certain kind of behavior.Therefore, the “motivation = behavior” is a psychological causation.Because of the psychological long-term incentives, including the requirements, needs, drives, excitement, attitude, interests, aspirations and so the definition, towards the goal and guidance to the activities of the process,
TO Select Hong Kong as “Ocean Park” personal activities arising from what motives caused. Scope of this study of travel motivations, the Department of the subjects in the “tourist motivation scale”, said the scores on it. That including physical and mental relaxation, leisure, social, self-affirmation, and four levels of learning new knowledge.Subjects, the higher the score, indicating that the strength of its tourism motivation is stronger, lower scores, indicating the strength of tourism motivation is weaker.
Satisfaction
The concept of consumer satisfaction theory, consumers will pay to bring it reasonable and practical to obtain satisfied with the kind of feeling.Open before the “expected experience” opened “gain experience”, and in the overall recreation experience visitors as satisfactory.The satisfaction of the Institute for the tourists call it entertainment environment, the properties of each level,
This is the Ocean Park visitors engage in recreation environment, tourism, services, and results of subsequent experience.the satisfaction of tourists, including all the major services, entertainment, environment, landscape experience, ideas exchange, to recreational activities around the six areas. Department of subjects in the “experience satisfaction”, said the scores on it.The higher the score, which indicates that Ocean Park had a higher degree of satisfaction, on the contrary, a lower score is expressed not satisfied with that.
To achieve the purpose, the following objectives are set:

Personal characteristics of mainland tourists travel Motivation
Motivation of tourism impact on satisfaction
To discuss redevelopment plans adopted will revisit the impact
Satisfaction, the impact on the willingness to revisit

Results of the analysis, review the direction and objectives of the present park effectiveness, to re-formulate the future direction and policies of the park, as the view or policy-making foundation, is an important part of policy formulation.
Scope and limitations of the study
Scopes
The research will determine the motivation and satisfaction of the guests of the Ocean Park Hong Kong. The implementation of the research will be analyzed and discussed.
In the research, the ranges of study will be divided into three areas:
Areas of study
All the enabled facilities, including the attractions and shows, dining area and shopping stores in the Ocean Park, and the surrounding facilities related to the Ocean Park will be the areas of study. The facilities which are under construction will not be included in this research.
Objects of study
According to the press release announced by Ocean Park on 25 June 2010, the Ocean Park attained 5.1 million of attendance for year 2009/2010. The data indicated that there are more than 53% of guests are tourists from Mainland China, which are the biggest portion of the attendance. Thus, the research will focus on the tourists from Mainland China (both tour group visitors and individual visitors), in family basis and the head of the family, who visit the Ocean Park during the sampling time frame.
Variables of study
This research will focus on analyzing the background characteristics (e.g. ages, occupations, education and place of residence) of the tourists from Mainland China, and their travel motivations, satisfactions and expectations to the Ocean Park.
Limitations
This research will be limited by a variety of factors as below:

The redevelopment work of the Ocean Park is still in progress. It will be delivered in phases by 2012. Consequently, the areas of this research will only cover the developed and enabled facilities. The research result will not include all parts in Ocean Park. Furthermore, the level of satisfaction of the visitors will be affected by the redevelopment work.
For those Mainland tourists who visit the Ocean Park before or after the time frame of this research, will not be considered as the objects of the study. Since the research will only focus on a group of people and there will be time frame for the research, the research result can only reflect the analysis of a portion of the total population.
The credibility of the collected data depends on the honesty of the respondents which is the situation we cannot control. This will affect the accuracy of the research result.

Methodologies to be used
We will obtain primary data through the process of direct observations, questionnaires and survey/personal interview. At the same time, information will be collected from secondary sources.
Primary Data
Observations
We will conduct observations in order to acquire accurate data. The tourists from Mainland China in the Ocean Park will be observed and recorded as much of their behavior as possible. Observation is an easy but a time consuming task. Observational research techniques are required for collecting the data. The observers will be aware of not letting the targeted subjects know they are being observed. The findings are considered high degree of validity because the observer will be able to collect a depth of information about the behavior of the targeted subjects.
Questionnaire
A questionnaire (see Appendix I) is designed for obtaining the survey/personal interview. We intend to use the questionnaire as a tool for collecting data from at least 300 tourists from Mainland China who have visited the Ocean Park. The questionnaire is divided into three parts. Part one is to collect personal information and their motivation for visiting Ocean Park, which helps us to get the different background of the tourists. The other part is to assemble their level of satisfaction to the Ocean Park. The remaining part of the questionnaire is to gather the expectations and opinions on the strengths and limitations of the Ocean Park for further improvement. The questionnaire is designed based on the following questions:
What is the factor attracted you to visit the Ocean Park?
Do you satisfy with the current facilities of Ocean Park?
What do you expect for the future development of Ocean Park?
What do you suggest the Ocean Park for improvement?
Will you visit the Ocean Park again?
The questionnaire will be tested in a pilot study for checking the quality of the questions and estimating the response rate, so as to modify the questionnaire if necessary.
Conduct of Survey/Personal Interview
In the study, we intend to collect the data from three groups of people. The first group of targeted interviewees is the tourists from China who have visited the Ocean Park and within the ages of 18-60; the second group is the representative of the Ocean Park; and the third group is the Hong Kong Receiving Agents for Chinese Tours.
We will use the questionnaire as a tool and conducting the survey with the first group of people. We expect to interview at least 300 people in the first group (tourists from China who have visited the Ocean Park) in order to collect their background, motivations and satisfactions of visiting the Ocean Park. The survey/personal interview will be carried out from 13 November 2010
On the other hand, we will invite the Chairman of the Ocean Park, Dr. Allan Zeman, for an informational interview (see Appendix II). This interview aims to gather his insights of the future development of the Ocean Park and his view on the continuing growth of the guests from Mainland China. Besides, we will search the list of Hong Kong Receiving Agents for Chinese Tours through the website of Travel Industry Council of Hong Kong. We will invite the agents for an interview (see Appendix III), to get the sales information for the Ocean Park tickets and their view on the continuing growth of the tourists from Mainland China.
Sampling Methods
Not all members of the population will be sampled. Only the guests who are inside or outside the Ocean Park will be sampled randomly. A screening question will be asked to determine whether the respondent is qualified to answer the questionnaire. We target to talk only to the “head of the family” or “head of the group of people”. If the person we would like to interview is unwilling or unable to participate, we will invite the other ‘family members” or “group members” to be interviewed.
Problems Occurred
There will be a variety of problems occurred while conducting the research:

Time availability – How long should the survey be taken? Do we have enough time for doing the interviews? Lengthy questionnaire may scare away the interviewees, especially the tourists.
Geographic restrictions – The targeted interviewees are over too broad a geographic range for us to carry out a personal interview.
Language issues – The tourists from Mainland China not only speak in Mandarin and Cantonese. Parts of them speak in Chinese dialect.
Low response rate – Some interviewees are unwilling to be interviewed and surveyed. They will refuse to respond. The low response rates are among the most difficult of problems in the research.
Incomplete questionnaire – There will be insufficient data for the analysis.

Problems Solving
The following strategies will be set for solving the problem:

The questionnaire should not be too long and too complicated. The content should be easy for understanding.
We will obtain the interview and survey inside or outside the Ocean Park. It is easier for sampling the targeted interviewees.
The interviewers should be multilingual and speak Chinese dialect.
We will not expect all the respondents to cooperate.

Secondary Data
Secondary data is important for this study. The research of the secondary data will be attained through the various channels:
Annual Report
The annual report of the Ocean Park will be searched. The report will provide the most accurate information on the guests’ attendance, current situation and future development.
Internet Search
We will conduct the internet search in order to find the relevant articles, background and objectives of the Ocean Park.
Reference Books
We will search the reference books in libraries for collecting the information of Ocean Park or relevant information.
Newspapers
Newspapers will be searched for collecting the relevant articles and news of the Ocean Park.
Data Analysis
A variety of data and information will be attained through the observations, survey/personal interview and secondary sources research. The different characteristics of the respondents, e,g, ages, occupations, education and place of residence, the travel motivations, the satisfactions and expectations of the Ocean Park will be the major data collected. The implementation of the research and survey will be analyzed by our team members.
The result of the analysis will show the Mainland tourists’ willingness to revisit the Ocean Park. Also, it will illustrate the direction and objectives of the current effectiveness of the Ocean Park, and suggest the future direction and polices of the park.
A trial table of contents with chapter outlines
 

Energy Usage and Renewable Energy in Hong Kong

There is a raising concern of extreme weather, flooding, draught that happening more frequently in these decades. The main reason that lead to the undesired weather is the climate change caused by the increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The growing number of GHG in the environment obstructs the break of the infrared radiation out of the air. This raises worldwide temperature and henceforth environmental change result. Information from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report in 2014 demonstrates that discharges of CO2, one of the GHG, from petroleum product ignition and mechanical procedures added to 78% of the all-out GHG outflows increment from 1970 to 2010. This mirrors the earnestness of petroleum derivative ignition on environmental change. Along these lines, in this report, the vitality sources and its use in Hong Kong, the extraordinary authoritative district of China, will be talked about. Till the end, to what degree are Hong Kong arranged for environmental change will likewise be dissected.

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Fossil fuel, namely petroleum, natural gas and coal, the potential energy stored within can be withdrawn by burning them in respective power plants. The energy is the fundamental to support humanity activities, support domestic activities, support business development, provide power to vehicle, so on and so forth. Aside from the bright side that utilizing the energy, undesired impact brought by the fuel is making the environment unpleasant to live in. With this in mind, a statistics mirrored that electricity generation is the largest source of local GHG emission (mainly in the form of CO2), accounting for about 68% of the total in 2015. About 90% of Hong Kong’s electricity is related to our 42,000 buildings, in other words, 61% of Hong Kong GHG emission is contributed by the building sector. Transport is the second greatest source, which account for 17% of Hong Kong GHG emission, and it is by cause of the fuel usage for vehicles. For the rest of the emission, they include waste treatment (5%), industrial process (4%).
According to a report conducted by the Environment Bureau of HKSAR Government in 2015, in the year 2012, coal accounts for 53% of energy supply, follow by nuclear 23%, natural gas 22% and renewable energy 2%. It reflected the truth that the majority of Hong Kong energy supply relies on a non-renewable and unclean energy source. In the hope of compiling the terms of the Paris Agreement, the government has set a mission, the Hong Kong’s Climate Action Plan 2030+, to reduce carbon intensity by 65% to 70% while benchmarking with the data of 2005.
The urgent demand of climate action
Hong Kong individuals consume much more per individual than in numerous different nations. All that we do in our day by day lives, from purchasing garments, to turning on lights and going on board, expends the world’s regular assets. The proportion of this utilization of the inexhaustible regular assets is called our Ecological Footprint. In year 2016, WWF had conducted a survey showing that Hong Kong’s ecological footprint per capita has reached a historic peak, which is the second largest in Asia, and 17th in the globe. It also shows the fact that if the entire world shares the living style as Hong Kong people do, approximately 3.9 earths is needed to meet the demands on nature. Unsustainable utilization practice is one of the real supporters of an unnatural weather change and over-abuse of species.
As far as a littler scale, as per the Hong Kong Observatory, our normal temperature has expanded by 0.12 oC every decade from 1885 to 2017. In addition, the quantity of hot (day with temperature of 33 oC or above) has expanded from 8 days in 1884 to 29 days in 2018. This up surging number mirrors the issue of an Earth-wide temperature boost.
Current local action
As mentioned above, the building sector accounts for the greatest proportion of GHG emission in Hong Kong. Due to the fact that some buildings in Hong Kong fall short of proper energy management, energy in those building is being used unnecessarily. To improve building energy efficiency, the Hong Kong Government planned a Buildings Energy Efficiency Ordinance which was passed by the Legislative Council in November 2010. Under the Ordinance, certain recommended sorts of structures need to agree to Building Energy Code (BEC) or potentially Energy Audit Code (EAC). The Ordinance came into full task on 21 September 2012.
Under the Ordinance, building administrations establishments including electrical, cooling, lighting and lift and elevator establishments in recently built structures are required to meet the base vitality proficiency benchmarks and prerequisites as indicated in the Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Building Services Installation. Existing structures will likewise be required to follow the prerequisite while experiencing major retrofitting works. The norms stipulated in the Code, which was distributed in February 2012 are more stringent than those in the last form proclaimed in 2007, which have been actualized on an intentional premise. A large portion of the new guidelines are tantamount to those received in the US, Europe and the Asia-Pacific locale, while a few principles are not indicated in abroad wards.
Moreover, the focal structure administrations establishments of business structures and business parts of composite structures are required to do vitality reviews as per the Code of Practice for Building Energy Audit at regular intervals, and the outcomes must be shown in an obvious position at the principle passageway of the structures worried for open investigation.
Aside from cutting down unnecessary energy usage, the local power generation company, China Light and Power Company (CLP) and Hong Kong Electric have also introduced a feed-in tariff (FIT) program to promote the use of renewable energy in citizen level.

Figure 1. Illustration of the feed-in tariff scheme
Residential customers and business customers can install renewable energy equipment like solar panel, wind turbine system up to power generation capacity of 1MW, as long as they are connected to either one of the utility companies. The
FIT scheme, the individuals or companies that have installed the renewable energy facilities, are allowed to sell the electricity generated back to the power grid at a rate higher than the market rate based on the power capacity.  In no doubt, it would encourage the public to take the initiative to install the renewable energy as the FIT increase the economic incentive and shorten the payback period of the investment.
Like other metropolis in the world, Hong Kong has a serious problem of waste. Despite the work of recycling and waste reduction, in year 2012, there were some 9,278 tonnes of MSW disposed of at landfills each day. Of these, about 3,337 tonnes (36%) were food waste, constituting the largest MSW category being landfilled.
In order to ease the problems of waste and sludge in the city, two waste-to-power facilities are being built, the T-park and IWMF.
The difference between the two waste-to-power plant and traditional coal power plant is that there are various cutting edge contamination controls set up. That incorporates a baghouse to catch particulate issue, (for example, mercury), carbon infusions to assimilate overwhelming metals, dioxins and furans, and the expansion of lime to kill corrosive gases. PC frameworks intently screen toxin levels to ensure they stay as low as could be expected under the circumstances. Meanwhile, the waste-to-power plant can make use of the greenhouse gases, methan for instance, to consume as energy sources instead of being release to the atmosphere to intensify the global warming.

Fig 2. The illustration of sludge treatment process in T-park
Potential Climate Action
Due to the fact that technologies available of renewable energy and improvement of energy usage is limited, for the potential climate action to execute in the future will be policy regulation of the government.
As mentioned above, the city is an amateur in the feed-in-tariff solution, to utilize the technology and take advantage of the solution. The government should deliberate with the utility companies to confirm a easy-to-follow guidelines of the application process, as consequence, the society will get a clear guidelines on the implementation.  Aside from giving clear instruction, financial incentive will also boost the implementation dramatically. Currently, the interested individuals have to pay for the solar panels on their own and the one-time payment is stopping some interested individuals to install the panels. If the government can provide any form of financial incentives, for instance, tax reduction, loan or even granting the citizen to implement the plans.

Figure 3. Frequency of perceived barriers to PV in Hong Kong
According to a research of barriers to adopting solar photovoltaic systems in Hong Kong. It states that for residential investors, one of the most common problems encountered is the technical and environmental challenge.
The environmental challenge they are facing is that the Hong Kong citizen living in detached houses tend to utilize their rooftop for entertainment and domestic uses, like hanging out the laundry to dry.

Figure 4. Typical detached house rooftop in Hong Kong
If the government can loosen the law and allow the house owners to install a canopy and put the solar panel on top, the household will be able to utilize the rooftop as usual meanwhile being able to harvest the solar energy.
References:

Environnent Bureau. 2017. Hong Kong’s Climate Action Plan 2030+. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.enb.gov.hk/sites/default/files/pdf/ClimateActionPlanEng.pdf
IPCC. 2014. Climate Change Synthesis Report. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/SYR_AR5_FINAL_full_wcover.pdf
Rais Akhtar, Cosimo Palagiano(2017).Climate Change and Air Pollution: The Impact on Human Health in Developed and Developing Countries. Springer,
Report on the Public Consultation on Future Fuel Mix for Electricity Generation in Hong Kong. [ONLINE] Available at:https://www.enb.gov.hk/sites/default/files/en/node2605/Report_on_the_Public_Consultationon_e.pdf
WWF-Hong Kong 35 Years Of Conservation. [ONLINE] Available at:

http://awsassets.wwfhk.panda.org/downloads/wwf_footprint_leaflet_eng_20oct.pdf

EMSD,(2018)Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency of Building Services Installation . Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government
Feed-In Tariff Scheme Introduction.[ONLINE] Available at: https://re.emsd.gov.hk/english/fit/int/fit_int.html
Food Waste Challenge. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/environmentinhk/waste/prob_solutions/food_waste_challenge.html
Integrated Waste Management Facilities Project Profile. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.epd.gov.hk/eia/register/profile/latest/esb184/esb184.pdf
Environment Hong Kong 2017.[ONLINE] Available at:https://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/misc/ehk17/en/pdf1/web/EPD_AR_EHK2017.pdf
T-Park, Waste-to-energy process.[ONLINE] Available at: https://www.tpark.hk/en/process/
Barriers to adopting solar photovoltaic systems in Hong Kong.[ONLINE] Available at:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322954139_Barriers_to_adopting_solar_photovoltaic_systems_in_Hong_Kong
 

The Hong Kong Government Commerce Essay

The Hong Kong Government had decided to build the new runway in HKIA. It will bring the advantage and the disadvantage to Hong Kong. It will identify the third runway’s impact by review the literatures. Moreover, it will do the survey with the Hong Kong citizen to identify what factor they are concern with build the third runway and whether support to build the new runway. It also review the case study to identify which factor needs to concern during construct the third runway in Hong Kong. After doing the survey and review the literature and case study, I expect to find out the answer whether to build up the third runway and the reason to support the answer.
Aim
This project will identify the impact of the new runway in HKIA and find the answer which is whether to build the new runway. I will find out the answer through review the literatures and do the survey. The third runway is an issue which we need to concern. In the past, HKIA had contributed directly to Hong Kong’s economy. Hong Kong’s aviation industry generated HK$78 billion in value added contribution in 2008. It represents 4.6% of Hong Kong’s GDP. In 2010, it supports the four pillar industries of HK. They are tourism, trading and logistics, financial services, producer and professional services which together accounted for 58% of Hong Kong’s GDP in 2010 (Airport Authority Hong Kong n.d.a). The new runway will bring the advantage and the disadvantage to Hong Kong. We need to analysis it whether it is better or not after build the new runway.
Objective
1. Find the reason of the HKIA need to build up the new runway.
2. Finding literatures for the discussion or information about the third runway, such as any positive and negative views, suggestions, analysis the impact which the third runway will bring about the HKIA to build up the third runway.
3. Gathering the view of people support and oppose to build the third runway in Hong Kong International Airport by work out a questionnaire/survey.
4. Gathering the concern factor in Hong Kong International Airport by review the case study.
5. Analyse the data of (3), (4) and compare with literatures to determine problems that is impact of build the third runway which is Hong Kong local concern.
6. Suggestion of recommendations and conclusions will be based on the above data.
Background
Table -1 tentative layout of the Three Runway System
(Airport Authority Hong Kong n.d.e)The Hong Kong International Airport is the world’s busiest cargo gateway and one of the world’s 10 busiest passenger airports. In 2011, 53.9 million passengers used HKIA and 3.9 million tonnes of air cargo passed through Hong Kong (Airport Authority Hong Kong n.d.b). The AA had considered the long term development of HKIA. To cope with the increasing air traffic demand and competition, Airport Authority has published “Master Plan 2030” and makes a three-month consultation to gauge public opinion on HKIA’s future development. 73% of respondents supported the proposal to build the third runway to meet the airport’s long-term growth demand (Airport Authority Hong Kong n.d.c). The development of the third runway is involves construction of a third runway, related taxiway systems and navigation aids, and airfield facilities, the third runway aprons and passenger concourses, expansion of the existing Terminal 2 etc. Tentative Layout of the Three-Runway System
Critical review of literature
The reason of build the third runway
The demand of HKIA in the 2030
The International Air Transport Association Consulting had estimated by 2030: the flight movements are estimated to reach 602,000 flights with a CAGR of 3.2 %( Airport Authority Hong Kong n.d.d). It reflects the demand of the HKIA is increase in the future.
Table -2 the demand of flight movement (Airport Authority Hong Kong n.d.e)
HKIA Flight Movement Projection (Up to 2030) – The base-case demand forecast shows that annual flight movements at HKIA will reach 602,000 by 2030
The capacity of two runway in HKIA
For the capacity of the two existing runway in HKIA, it is 54 flights/ per hour in 2007, 55flights/ per hour in 2008, 58 flights/ per hour in 2009, 62 flights/ per hour in 2011, 68 flights / per hour in 2015. It is the ultimate capacity of the two runways in 2015. If no action taken, the ultimate capacity would be saturated around 2020 and it would take more than 10 years to complete a new runway (Dr. C.K. Law 2012).
The airport competition
The HKIA have competitors in Asia. The nearly all major hubs in the region are having plan or complete to build more runways. The Seoul Incheon Airport’s third runway taxiway system began in 2002 and was completed in 2008. It currently service with forty four million passengers. For capacity of the flights, it cans capacity of 410,000 flights and nearly 4.5 million tonnes of cargo per year. The Seoul Incheon Airport is continued to expand. The construction is set to continue until 2020. After the construction, it will be able to handle one hundred million passengers, 700 million tonnes of cargo and 530,000 flights per year (Halcrow 2011). The Construction cost is about US$1.22 billion (Aviation Policy and Research Center, Department of Decision Sciences and Managerial Economics 2007:8). In Mainland China, GuangZhou Baiyun Airport also implement the third runway and will be completed in 2015(Dr. C.K. Law 2012).
The view of different people in Hong Kong for build the third runway
The view of Hong Kong Government
In March 2012, the secretary for transport and housing Eva Cheng stated that the HK government would show the support to the Airport Authority. The Airport Authority can proceed an environmental impact assessment which is expected to take two years, must cover marine ecology, noise and air quality, and plan design details and financial arrangements (Alisha Haridasani 2012).”
The view of the airline
Cathay Pacific has been rooted in Hong Kong for more than 66 years and today connects the city to 170 destinations around the world (Cathay Pacific 2012). For the view of Cathay Pacific, it believes that a third runway is the only viable way to ensure the long-term competitiveness of Hong Kong as an important international airport. John Slosar, the Chief Executive of Cathay Pacific, stated that the third runway is importance for Hong Kong citizen. It can bring the welfare for them. Moreover, the third runway is vital the sustainability of the Hong Kong economy. The demand of build the third runway is become increasing. He also mentioned that the existing runways are already heavily used through most of the operating day that finding take-off and landing slots for additional flights is increasingly difficult. The existing runways will saturate between fifteen and twenty years early before the forecast of 2040. Mr Slosar said that as the airport becomes busier and busier, the capacity of the two runways will soon be saturated. If Hong Kong does not decisively to build the new runway, it will lose its advantage for competitive in aviation industry (Cathay Pacific 2011).
The view of environmental group in HK
The WWF is the one of the environmental group in HK. It supports the sustainable development of Hong Kong, and the associated benefits for its citizens (WWF n.d.a). However, it has a number of serious environmental concerns about the third runway proposal. The Chinese Dolphins, the fisheries and carbon emission are the WWF hopes the Hong Kong government will consider during build the third runway (WWF n.d.b).
The view of the citizens in Hong Kong
The Hong Kong Airport Authority was held the three- month public consultation on Hong Kong International Airport Master Plan 2030. It was held between 3 June and 2 September 2011. It was done 24,242 of the questionnaire during the public consultation. For the result of the questionnaire, it indicated that the majority of respondents 80% agree or strongly agree that Hong Kong Airport Authority should make a decision urgently on Hong Kong International Airport’s future expansion plans. There are 73% of respondents prefer the three-runway option, with 11% opting to maintain the two-runway system and 16% remaining neutral(Airport Authority Hong Kong 2011).
The impact of the third runway in Hong Kong International Airport
Economic impact
In fact, the aviation industry is essential role in Hong Kong’s development of economic. The professional services, trading and logistics, financial services and tourism are affecting mostly by the aviation industry (James Tong 2011). The new runway can increase the economy. After the Enright, Scott & Associates Ltd analysis, it estimate the direct, indirect and induced contribution of HKIA to Hong Kong’s GDP in 2030 will be HK$167 billion, equivalent to around 4.6% of the HKSAR’s GDP forecast for 2030. For the job opportunity, it estimates the direct employment associated with HKIA would reach 141,000 and indirect/induced employment would be about 199,000(Airport Authority Hong Kong n.d.g:189).
Keep Hong Kong ‘s position as aviation hub
James Tong stated that the upcoming third runway construction is to maintain lead in the aviation industry. The geographic location is the Hong Kong’s advantage. The main advantage of the location of Hong Kong is its international connections in destinations and flights. It can be connected to 160 destinations. The third runway can increases capacity. It is enhanced the Hong Kong’s aviation position by keep up with the growing trends of aviation industry and handle with the strong demand in aviation industry. The overall of Hong Kong economic also be increased after construct the new runway. If not to build the new runway, Hong Kong may lose the position as aviation hub in Asia .The competitors in Asia is aggressive to enhance its aviation position and exceed the Hong Kong’s aviation position (James Tong 2011).
Environmental impact
The WWF had stated some of the environmental impact during constructing the third runway in Hong Kong International Airport. The construction brings the negative effect for the Chinese dolphins. During the construction of third runway, it is increased activity in the water. The Chinese dolphins will increase the risk. It is because dolphins in the nearby marine park. It is less than 1 km away from the proposed construction site. It will undoubtedly be disturbed by the construction. The construction may changes in water quality and affects their food supply. The WWF stated that the carbon emission is the concern. The third runway will increase the number of aircraft movements per day. It is leading to a massive increase in Hong Kong’s carbon emissions. The third runway will only drive them higher (WWF n.d.b).
Research Methods
In the research, it will be implemented the inductive approach. The purpose of this research will collect different view, opinion and the concern factor about build the new runway in HKIA.
Survey
For the survey, the research will collect the data through the questionnaire. A non-probability sampling techniques like convenience sampling and snowball sampling would be adopt for the questionnaire. For the types of questionnaire, it will be used Internet-mediated questionnaires and delivery and collection questionnaires. For the Internet-mediated questionnaires, it would post the questionnaires on the internet. It is mainly post on the Hong Kong website. For the delivery and collection questionnaires, it is going to ask 200 interviewers to collect the data. It would analysis the data after data has been collected.
Case Study
There are similar situation with Hong Kong International Airport in other country. It will review the cases which are about construct the new runway. Identify the factor which needs to concern for the Hong Kong International Airport during the case study.
Project Plan
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