Culture of Hispanic Latino Americans

One of the fastest growing and the most interesting of origins come from is Hispanic/Latino Americans. I preferred this ethnic group as it the biggest growing populations in the US so I can healthier relate to them. Additionally, my attention upon achieving my Paralegal degree is inside Human Trafficking as well as Sex Trade which engage this Hispanic/Latino Americans in the midst of others. Furthermore, my son-in-law is Hispanic American also for that reason I would like to know more concerning his culture.

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Being a fast growing community, one way or another, we as Anglo-Non Hispanic Americans have an association with them. For my part, my son-in-law is a Hispanic American, and I want to learn more of his very rich culture. Also, we can observe that a lot of actions are being undertaken to make their presence more pronounced in the community. It would no longer come as a surprise then, if the status and acknowledgment of their presence would significantly change in the future. Thus, their culture is worth studying. In retrospect, I can say that my reasons for wanting to study this group and their culture are not just for these reasons. I am interested in a more specific are, which is the involvement of ethnic groups in Human Trafficking and Sex Trade. It can be observed that these unlawful activities primarily targets individuals from the minority group, and in obtaining my Paralegal degree, I have more than a passing fancy for these concerns.
Language and Population: we should first have a basic understanding and appreciation of their culture before going into detail about the concerns that are currently being faced by the people with Hispanic origin. This will then be our reference in the kind of life they are generally living. It was mentioned before that the Hispanic population is the fastest growing community in the United States. They constitute 11% of the country’s population, and surveys have shown that there are approximately 31 million people who have Hispanic origins (Clutter and Nieto). If most races are being identified primarily because of their physical attributes, the Hispanic Americans have a different reason that bind them together. Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese, among others, and basicaly Asians are being identified because of their eyes and physical appearance. Africans are distinguished because of the color of their skin. For the Latinos, it is different. They cannot trace their origins in just one country (Garcia). When we combine a Cuban, an Argentine and an Argentine, we will see various cultures that do not necessarily coincide. One thing binds them together, and that is their language (Arana). Admittedly, like most other communities who are adapting to new cultures, this is increasingly becoming forgotten. However, it cannot be denied that they are being bound by one language, and this is Spanish (Arana). This is the point of reference for the mixed and diverse cultures that the Hispanos have.
Even so, there had been a steady decline in the fluency of speaking Spanish among the Latinos. This is because of their continuous and increasing interaction with non-Hispanics, which made their practice of their native tongue very limited. At this point, it is very helpful to note the evolution of way the Hispanic Americans see themselves. Increasingly, they are becoming determined to be called in a manner they think befit them. For one, less and less of them have been refer to themselves as Americans (Englekirk and Marin). Most of them are more comfortable in still referring to themselves as Mexicans. Being Hispanic or Latino, seems to be more acceptable to them, than be identified to be the Americans.
Differences and similarities between Anglo-Non Hispanic Americans and Hispanics/ Latino American are not several sometimes people attribute who and what they are today to where they came from, and what kind of family brought them up. Many studies have tried to link one’s behavior, health, and other things with family history and genetics. There still exist the debates and discussions about nature as opposed to nurture. In all these things, family history, including one’s family tree, becomes prominent. Indeed, in my own case as an Anglo-Non Hispanic American, my family became very influential in the person that I have become.
Raised as a Methodist, celebrations of Christian holidays such as Christmas and Easter happen in our homes as Anglo-Non Hispanic Americans, Perhaps this added joy to childhood, as I cannot imagine one without the festivities which brought simple joys to me then. Admittedly, ours was not a very religious family, and I can say that it is more so now than then, as we stopped going to church as a family while I was still in high school.
As far as working is concerned, I can honestly say that the work ethic in my family is indeed very strong as Anglo-Non Hispanic Americans. This seems to be the natural tendency for the women in the family. Proof to show, all the women in our family worked outside the home. This is in addition to the responsibility of taking care of the children and of the homes themselves. My adoptive father and mother, although the latter is not very close to me, were teachers/administrators. My stepmother was employed in the same profession as my adoptive parents. Even my grandmothers on both sides worked as well. This is not to say, though, that ours has broken away from the traditional way of living that has been in existence during our time. While I was growing up, girls were not groomed for college. They were not encouraged to pursue higher education in order to have careers of their own. We have not been set to conquer the world, as the boys in the family do. What came about in my life was the trend during those days. I started working while I was still in high school, married afterwards, and raised my own children. At this day and age, women no longer do that. Careers are being established as much by men as by women.
The closest similarity between Anglo-Non Hispanic Americans and Hispanics/ Latino American is probably the feeling of not being accepted in addition to often being rejected. I have felt that way as an Anglo-Non Hispanic American at times, being adopted but I am sure it does not compare to the degree of their circumstances. It is like salsa and ketchup, which are two very different condiments but both have their own significant and striking features. For their part, the Latinos have distinct family values that are very admirable indeed. Family is the very essence of their living, and this importance and respect that is being accorded to the concept of familial usually extends to more than the immediate family. They go by the conventional norm regarding the father as the head of the family. The mother then, is in charge of everything that is concerned with matters of the home. They feel a strong sense of responsibility for familiar concerns that include, but are not limited to, financial problems, health issues, and such other concerns that affect the state of living at home.
Also, they have certain etiquettes and beliefs that distinguish the Anglo-Non Hispanic Americans and Hispanics/ Latino American from most cultures is the way they talk to each other is one, as they tend to treat each other with formality. If we are to compare this with the American way, which is usually informal and casual in nature, there is indeed a significant difference. It is to be noted that Latinos speak in a loud, fast and animated manner when the conversation is informal in nature. When that is not the case, each conversation is then punctuated in the beginning and in the end, of firm handshakes. Body language and gestures like a peck in the cheek signifies how close a Hispanic individual is to the person one is talking to. Most notable also is the particular attention given by Latinos to their looks and appearance. This, for them, is very much in connection with honor, pride and dignity (Clutter and Nieto). Thus, it is common to see well-groomed and impeccably dressed Hispanic people during social gatherings, church events, and in work. This code of etiquette relaxes during informal events, and tennis shoes and jeans are becoming the popular choice of the people also. In terms of time management though, they are more flexible and less conscious of punctuality than most Americans. Being late is a socially acceptable behavior for the Hispanic people, because that is the kind of culture that they are used to. Also, we have discussed earlier that what binds the people is their language. They remain connected, despite the cultural and historical differences, because of this factor. Considering this, it would be understood then, if they try to lessen their public speaking. It was noted that generally, most Latinos are reserved in public speaking, and this is because of their heavy accent (Clutter and Nieto). Although this may still be true until now, we can say that this is rapidly changing, as most of the younger generations who are immersed in the American culture, have the tendency to be less fluent of their native language, than of English.
Religion is aspect of their culture that is worth noting is the religion of the Hispanic community. Most of them are Roman Catholics, constituting more than 90% of the population, and this somehow influences the other cultural traditions, practices, and beliefs of said individuals. The core of the Hispanic culture, thus, does not just mean music and food. There is a spiritual foundation in most of the things that they do and believe in. For instance, these people are known for the creativity and hype that is present in their festivities and celebrations. What we do not realize is that they put more weight and significance to the celebrations that is related with religion, like patron saints’ days, rather than birthdays and personal festivities.
The same goes true for the situation that the community in question, and my own. Despite being an adopted child, I believe that I lived a privileged life, and I think the same cannot be said for the Latinos. Everything that they have, they have to work for-from the acceptance, trust and respect of the people around them, the food that they place in the table and to the status that they have in society, socially and economically.
There is one very common misconception for Hispanic Americans, and this is their seeming simple-mindedness (Englekirk and Marin). This is mainly due to the initial impression for those who have first settled in the country. This perception was somehow a root, or a trace for that matter, of the low impression and general distrust for the Hispanic Americans. They were thought to be of inferior class than the natives.
This view aids in the initial labor and employment opportunities for most Hispanic Americans. They have been involved in agriculture, mining and transportation, nature of work that requires physical, rather than mental abilities. They had more opportunities as compared with the Japanese and other Asians who were banned from working in and migrating in the United States. Thus, it was the Mexicans who had the most opportunities. They were the ideal candidates to work on these manual labors at a lesser cost. During these times, Mexicans flock states like Texas and California, as these are the places where those jobs were in demand. This was during the 1930s. Their employment opportunities improved along with the change in the perception of people of their abilities and skills. Especially with the Equal Employment Opportunity in effect, their rights in the working environment have changed dramatically and brought immense economic and financial security. These new opportunities, the better treatment, and generally the improved situation, was brought about by the after effects of World War II. All aspects of the Hispanic Americans living dramatically improved after said event.
Political Situation and Immigration Concerns
Hispanics/ Latino American political standing and voice as a people is not handed-in in a silver platter. Latinos still are struggling for representation politically, although this would seem to take more time because their bet in the gubernatorial election against Arnold Schwarzenegger has lost (Masci). This is the very person who held the torch in this aspect of recognizance for Latinos all over the United States. On a lighter note, their campaign for more participation in the political arena seems to continue, as the Democratic candidate in New York is most likely going to hold a position in the House of Representatives (Griffin). With these events and circumstances in mind, we can see that their campaigns and advocacies to make their standing in society better are getting results, albeit being small and seemingly insignificant at first.
This advocacy for better representation in government seems to have stemmed from several reasons. Leaders of the Hispanic communities claim that they are underrepresented in virtually all aspects. In jobs, they are short-listed, and this results from their limited access to job training programs (Griffin). We cannot say that just because there had been a significant development in the economic and political situation of the Latinos, that the situation no longer needs analysis. If we are to look into the lives of the majority of the Latinos, we will see that there are various flaws that really need attention. One of these would again be the limited access of these people to many of the social programs of the government (Griffin).
There is also the aspect of civil rights implementation and effect on the Hispanic communities in the United States. “Federal enforcement of civil rights in education, for example, relies on victims of discrimination to file complaints” (Griffin). This remains to be an unexploited avenue for the Latinos, as there are many of them who are hesitant to file complaints against people who slighted them. There are several reasons for this, and one of the major ones would be the consequences that it would bring. No Latino in his right mind would prefer the ill will of the members of the community, and this would cause such person to just keep quiet. Also, there are instances, and many of them for that matter, when the Hispanics do not complain simply because they are not familiar or are unaware of the grievance process. What more, there are many who cannot complain because they, themselves are not eligible to. This is when Human Trafficking and other abuses would come into play. There had been many instances in the past when the news carried reports on illegal immigrants. These people have not entered the country through the approved and legal process of the American Embassy. This concern has been one of the primary concerns of the Hispanics then. Many of them entered the country unlawfully and are residing in the United States without proper documents. This makes them prone to abuses, as they would not be able to complain, and neither do they really have the legal backing of the government to protect them from abuses. This immigration concern of the Latinos brought legislators to propose that there be more rigid immigration laws to implement (Griffin). This would certainly affect the chances of many Hispanics who want to enter the country, for their own chance for success. This is one of the issues that are being faced by the community. Along with the social concerns that have been discussed early in this paper, it would no longer come as a surprise if there would be health concerns that the Latin communities in the United States face. Because the majority still faces financial difficulties, health issues are prevalent. This is to be expected because these families would not concern themselves much about basic nutrition and regular check-ups. These are basic factors that make good health, and these basic standards are not being met by these families. Health concerns take the back seat, and survival becomes the priority.
Works Cited
Arana, Marie. “The Elusive Hisapanic / Latino Identity.” Nieman Repeorts Volume 55.Issue 2 (2002): 8.
Clutter, Anne W. and Ruben D. Nieto. “Understanding the Hispanic Culture.” The Ohio State University Extension. 23 July 2009 .
Englekirk, Allan and Marguerite Marin. Mexican Americans. RoohIt!. 28 July 2009
Garcia, Jorge J.E. Hispanic/Latino Identity. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Limited, 2000.
Griffin, Rodman D. “Hispanic Americans: Can they find economic prosperity and political power?” CQ Researcher Volume 2.Issue 40 (1992).
Masci, David. “Latinos’ Future.” CQ Researcher Volume 13.Issue 36 (2003).

Importance of Latino and African-American Parental Engagement

Disengagement of parents is a critical issue that can cripple the success of a school. It’s well known in education that engaged parents generally increase and enhances the attitude and experience of their child.  Engaged families create a welcoming environment and allow families to feel as they are part of the school community. I have attended schools where there was minimal parent engagement opportunities. I have also attended schools that had parent engagement opportunities, but they weren’t culturally engaging to their main demographic. Lastly, I have worked in schools that have begun to scratch the surface of culturally competent and successful parent engagement.  In my experience I have worked with predominantly Latino and Black families. It isn’t particularly challenging to individually connect with these families, but systematically I have encountered obstacles. School’s not providing strong engagement opportunities for families of color is an issue in many schools, even those that predominantly serve minority populations. Culturally contextual family programming has the ability to create strong, diverse communities which would enhance the fabric of that community. I have experienced this in my educational workplaces and have not always had the answers to combat disengagement and the lack of opportunities provided by the school. I have also witnessed this issue in schools that are predominantly white. The families of color already feel at a distance, and lack of good programming only pushes them further away. As the demographics of our country shift, we are often slow to adapt to the different needs of our rising minority families. I am specifically thinking about minority families who attend predominantly white schools for this proposed intervention. Minority, at risk students would benefit from stronger engagement between the school and their parents. This would increase school trust, participation and communication. All factors that could help decrease a transfer or dropping out.

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This paper will address the issue of Latino and African-American ( I will also refer to as black and brown in the paper) families not being engaged in their high school community. My suggestions will hopefully be applicable in any school that has the necessary staffing to address these issues. A specific staff person would need to lead the charge, ideally someone who is not always in the classroom and has time to work with families throughout the day. Administration would be needed for approval and support and teachers would be a necessary component as they could also assist in this intervention. Teachers would also help market the engagement opportunities to students and use the groups as a way to further connect with parents outside of parent teacher conferences.
Literature Review
The literature confirms the importance of strong parent engagement and the dangers of its absence. Latunde’s article (2016) about black parents as untapped resources identify the lack of culturally relevant parent engagement opportunities. Latunde also mentions that the majority of schools operate with old irrelevant models of parent engagement. Latunde’s (2018) other article about the Black Parent Council highlights how Black parents use their own networks to solve issues, due to distrust of school administration. This demonstrates the dangers of not having strong parent engagement with Black parents, which leads them to use their resources without the support of the school. Terriquez (2013) describes the obstacles that Latino parents, specifically fathers, face. The case study revealed that although Latino fathers wanted to have high levels of involvement, they often couldn’t based on income level, or even more if they were immigrants. Other research demonstrates that even schools which have existing programs can still miss the mark on engaging families, particularly Latino parents (Pena, 2001) While a lot of the literature doesn’t necessarily give a lot of concrete examples on how to close these gaps, it does confirm the dangers of the lack of proper, culturally engaging parent involvement opportunities. The literature establishes the differences in engaging Latino and Black parents in comparison to a white majority and how even attempts at providing different support isn’t always successful.
The issue is being attempted to be addressed at my school by me and a few co-workers. However, this does not mean we have found the perfect solution for engaging families of color. Prior to my arrival at the school, there were a few programs put in place to help engage our black and brown families. The Building Bridges program was created as a space for Black families to network, connect and speak with school staff members about issues impacting their sons. What I inherited was a  parental group that met often, with little guidance and aired more grievances without looking to address them. I concluded that this culture was set by mismanagement by my predecessor, who may have aimed to fire people up but not enable them to create a better climate for their son. The Latino parents did and do not have a dedicated parent group. There was a few meetings a year, where the families would come in to receive information. I felt that they were being underutilized, but ran into issues organizing them since they were not accustomed to it historically at our school. Although I cannot statistically prove it, I felt that this lack of constructive engagement carried over to negative experiences for their sons at our school.
The literature used for this article clearly identifies issues that are relevant to my school. A major theme in almost all of the articles states that parents must be brought in and seen as a partner in order for them to be fully utilized. Utilized is used in the sense that they can bring their resources to the table, instead of participating in a school sponsored initiative or event without any of their input.
Article Summaries
Tite: Untapped Resources Black Parent Engagement that Contributes to Learning
Yvette LatundeAzusa,Pacific University
Angela Clark-Louque, California State University San Bernardino
This study focuses on the often untapped resources of black parents, which is often caused by outdated and culturally ignorant practices held by schools. The authors used two frameworks for their study which include the theory of multiple influences and cultural reciprocity.  The authors surveyed 130 black parents of K-12 black students throughout the US. The parent participants were identified through a number of Black serving organizations. The survey aims to identify strategies and resources that are being used to engage with their child’s education. The results were ultimately tabulated and presented as percentages.
The results reveal that Black Parents are involved in their children’s education in two major ways. First, by assisting with teaching at home by reading stories, helping with homework and tutoring when possible. Secondly, by involving their student in outside educational experiences which involves various community based activities. These results imply that schools and community agencies could further explore opportunities to engage parents as partners in already existent outside learning systems. The authors also conclude that Black parents could be more deeply connected if the schools adopted more culturally relevant practices and viewed them as partners and not simply respondents. I believe that this article gives concrete steps to how to engage Black parents in a school, a task that I have seen often limited educators attempt to enhance. These steps would push against treating all parents the same and adopting more culturally inclusive practices for different parent groups.
Article 2
Latino Fathers’ Involvement in Their Children’s Schools
Veronica Terriquez
This article focuses on identifying the impact of fathers’ participation in chidlren’s schools, particularly Latino fathers. The author also focuses on the differences and similarities in participation between white and latino fathers The author used the National Household Education Survey (NHES) Data was submitted through phone calls, where one adult was interviewed. The survey was limited to two parent households, which included stepfathers. The author also used logistic analysis to compare the involvement of white and Latino fathers. The results reveal that white and Latino fathers demonstrate similar levels of paternal responsibility in regards to parent meetings. The survey also concluded that the fathers with higher income levels and educational background were more likely to participate in school activities. The study also revealed that immigrant father were less likely to participate in all activities.
This study gives evidence that there exists some obstacles for immigrant Latino parents. I was particularly drawn to the data which demonstrated the impact socioeconomic status has on parent participation. This can help understand the role certain fathers can play in school involvement, and hopefully allow schools to create equitable and sensitive ways to bring them into the school building.
Article 3
Expanding their Opportunities to Engage: A Case of the African American Parent Council
Yvette Latunde
This case study focuses on African American parents and how schools can encourage and support their engagement. The study is fueled by the fact that there is a lack of literature on how Black parents create opportunities to be engaged within their child’s schooling. This case study was descriptive and focused on the strategies used by Black parents in the Doe Unified school district in california. The study also identifies the district’s efforts to promote Black parent involvement. The author then applies Critical Race Theory, to allow the case study to be presented as counter-storytelling. The case study concludes that Black parents had a lack of trust towards the district, which caused them to use their own networks to solve issues. Black parents also wanted to be more involved in the decision making processes within the school. This case study makes it clear that Black parents have a lot of cultural and community capital to bring to the table, but school’s often fail to recognize their funds of knowledge. This study can help guide school leaders to not fall into the same trap and instead utilize the vast resources that this group of parents can bring to the table.
Article 4
Parent Involvement : Influencing Factors and Implications
Dolors C Pena
This case study covers the involvement of mexican American parents in their children’s education. This year long case study was executed in a middle school in Texas that has a large population of Mexican American families, at least seventy percent The main question fueling this study was how are Mexican American parents involved or not involved and what are the factors that influence that decision. The middle school which was used had an existing parental involvement program. Data was collected through parent interviews, surveys and direct observation of parent meeting at school. The study found that parent involvement was driven by factors that included: language, cultural influences, attitude of staff members, parent cliques and more. School staff addressed some of these issues, but failed to recognize the influence that these factors had on their involvement and participation levels. This study demonstrates that even schools with implemented parent programs can sometimes miss the mark, by not properly addressing some of the issues that Latino parents are facing.
The significance
The issue I’m addressing is how to appropriately and successfully engage our black and brown families in order to better serve their at risk students. The ideas shared in this paper will likely be applicable to public or charter schools with similar demographics. Attempts to address this issue have been partially successful in the eyes of the administration, but I view them as half done and futile. I came to this conclusion after taking over parent groups and speaking with many of the parents.
My intervention will be creating specific parent organizations  for the Black and Latino families, that will create a direct line between the administration and the families. Each group will have specific resources and programming tailored to utilize their cultural capital. These groups will also create a space to build a bridge between administration and parents. This would increase trust and allow parents to feel more comfortable confronting issues together. We know from the readings that Black families already bring their own wealth of educational resources to use at home (Latunde, 2016) Therefore, their group would exit to allow them to share those resources with other families and to allow staff to inherit some of those skills as well to enhance the student’s academic achievement. Each group would have specific programming tailored to their cultural realities or needs. For example, we might give a presentation about HBCU’s to our Black families. This would be in addition to the regularly scheduled college programming  provided by the school. For our Latino families we could provide presentations on the current status of DACA, or immigration resources as well. We would also rotate the presentations to allow different stakeholders to share ideas. This would allow staff members, parents and administrators to present about issues they are knowledgeable about. These specific groups would hopefully also serve as a launching pad. I would want leaders in the group to also be leaders in the larger school community. It would be unsuccessful if these families only siloed themselves in these smaller groups. I would also want the students present, even if they were doing homework in the same room. I would want them to see their parents being active in the school community, as this can help change their attitude and perception about school. These groups would also allow for each meeting to have a dedicated time to discuss challenging issues or questions. With staff members and administration present, they can directly discuss these issues and not have to wait on an answer. Lastly, these parent groups would be present in the larger school community, and would assist in attending larger school events or hosting their own for others to join. Active and visible parents create a winning attitude for everyone in the school community. I believe these parent groups will be significant, because often groups like this only exist for students during the school day. To expand these opportunities to parents would demonstrate the cultural competency a school needs to contextually serve all of their families.
Based on the literature, handing over more control to parents can be beneficial for the school community. The case studies confirm that sometimes parents can feel disenfranchised and do not trust the adults in the school. (Latunde, 2018) This leads me to believe that inviting parents to have more power can actually be a positive action that can lead to change. Instead of always working at them, it’s important for schools to work side to side with families. It’s also clear through the readings that socioeconomic status impacts the ability to be actively engaged (Terriquez 2013.) Because of this, schools should be sensitive and adaptive when choosing meeting times for families. For example, an 11am meeting on a school day would not work for most parents.
Program Implementation
I would implement my specific intervention by scheduling the parent meetings prior to each year. This will ensure continuity and avoid any scrambling for date setting and meeting frequency. I would also have to meet with key staff members and administration to ensure that we are supported and receive the financial backing to host these meetings. Outlining a tentative mission statement for each group would be a necessary step, which can later be edited by the parents in the meetings. I would also begin to market the group as early as possible, and survey parents to see if they have any specific ideas ahead of time.
Ideally, various staff members could be involved or serve as guest speakers. I would attempt to match staff skills with the needs of the group. For example, having a bilingual staff member present at the Latino parent group would be key. Administration would attend the meetings, but largely provide institutional support for the group and its initiatives. Students would participate by watching the parents in action, as the group is largely for the parents and not directly for the students. Families can attend as little or as much as they like, and they are welcome to assume larger roles within the group. It would be perfectly acceptable for a family to come once and not come for the rest of the year. The group exists so that a parent can come at any time and not feel left out or disengages.
Challenges and Conclusion
An obstacle I would foresee could potentially be low participation from parents. Parents are busy and if our programming is not strong, they will not be incentivized to participate or even show up to meetings. I have seen this happen in some parent groups, were a mom or dad will attend for the first time and not come back because they were not impressed. Another obstacle could be lack of institutional support from administration. I could also see non minority parents become defensive at the idea of these groups and asking something like “why are we secluding them?” or “What about a group for the white parents?” These are similar sentiments that I’ve actually heard before and could be consistent in the creation of these groups. A quite different obstacle we could face would involve the parents having too much control, which reduce a balance between the school and the parent group. This could allow the group to feel like anything they say goes, and put staff an administration consistently ont he defensive. I’ve witnessed this before, which is why I believe it’s possible. However, if  the group is created and executed properly, this should not be the mentality of the parent group.
Assessments can be identified through leadership committees within the groups and through surveys. If an open dialogue exists between myself, the staff and the parents, we should always have a good idea of what the pulse of the group is. To officially quantify that pulse of the parent community, we will also provide surveys that allow for honest feedback. We would also track the students of the parents involved to see how the parent engagement might be impacting their school grades and activities.
Ideally this intervention could be planned over a year and implemented the next. The reason for a year of planning would be to allow faculty and staff to understand the value of the groups and to assist in its creation. Administration would also have to feel confident in putting time and resources behind this initiative. This time is needed to schedule the future meetings, create topics, schedule speakers, and reach out to parents and families that could serve as leaders and liaisons to the group. If rushed, this initiative could be unveiled in a diluted state, which might disengage families when they attend.
Reference List