Differences Between Good And Bad Leaders

A leader is a person from a group of people who is prominent because of his/her skills and personality and these qualities of make others follow him. Great leaders are visionary as they can predict about the future changes in accordance to that particular goal or objective. A major sign of a leader is that he/she has ability and skills of motivating a group of people to achieve a common goal. In business the leaders have the same job to perform. They have to interlink company’s goals by merging the people’s wishes because a group of people cannot achieve anything unless or until they have a common objective. In order to fulfill those objectives they would be requiring someone to motivate them and boost their energy level. A common direction has to be set by the leader for other to follow. He has to be organized and provide justice to his employees. Even organizations/companies are likely to fall apart in seek of its goals or objectives without a sufficient help of a leader. Infect role of a leader is one of the most important roles in the organization. He bears heavy responsibility to keep the company on track in terms of its objectives. Employees of certain level always want to follow someone’s footsteps in order to achieve their goals. A great leader can provide them this opportunity by setting an example by him. A good visionary leader can be very beneficial for the company as he/she can warn the company for upcoming hazards. He can also build a strategy against the upcoming challenges since he has sensed them ahead of time. It would allow company to have enough time to rethink on the strategy and prepare them for the hard times.

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If we refer to the previous history of the World, we will see the examples of a few of Good Leaders and a lot of Bad Leaders. “A few Good Leaders” because we are declining rapidly to over fall due to our overall Human Behavior in the Society and we do not have such qualities to deliver Good Leader to in abundant, to the World “A lot of bad Leaders” because greed of men and low tolerance with others in this rapidly falling Society in our overall Human Behavior is bound to produce Bad Leaders. But still we are manage to produce one or two or may be dozen good Leaders in the last century. Let’s see why they were good leaders and why millions of us followed them in terms of their exceptional Leadership qualities
Effective Leader
A good leader is a person who has an exemplary character. It is of utmost importance that a leader is trustworthy to lead others. A leader needs to be trusted and be known to live their life with honestly and integrity. A good leader “walks the talk” and in doing so earns the right to have responsibility for others. True authority is born from respect for the good character and trustworthiness of the person who leads. Like the Prophets, they were a true symbol of exemplary character. Life before the claim was neat and spotless because they spend their lives according to the rules of purity, honesty and Truthfulness.
Moreover Good leaders are tolerant of ambiguity and remain calm, composed and steadfast to the main purpose. Storms, emotions, and crises come and go and a good leader takes these as part of the journey and keeps a cool head and in the times when nations pass through difficult hours, these exceptional leadership qualities helps the nation pass that difficult time with great courage, steadfastness calmness.
There are three main things that make a good leader. The first is that a leader must practice what he preaches. The second is that he has to look after and protect those around him. The third is that he must be able to develop other good leaders. I will go into more detail about how to implement all three of these characteristics, so that you too can become a good leader. A good leader is excellent at practicing what he preaches. I love the quote that states, “Your actions speak so loud that I can’t hear what you are saying.” The greatest leader of all time was Jesus Christ and he was the best at practicing what he preached. This goes back to the old proverb that says, “Live by the sword, die by the sword.” This is the same with leadership and how much a leader abides by what he says. As a good leader, how can you expect people do what you say, when you don’t even do what you say?
Personal example
My personal example for good leader is my Dad. He owns a hardware store in Toronto and I had learned a lot from him. He is always very organized, patience and a good example for me. He is open hearted in its action and always response in kind to difficult situation. He is very reasonable for his employees and this why I learned a lot from him
Poor Leader
This society has been very generous in producing bad leaders in abundant if we see the examples of our current political so called leader. Their negative approach to pass through the time of crises and their destructive thinking has brought this world at the brink of destruction. It is with their blessings that we as in a state of war for the last Hundred years. At this point, there rise a lot of questions that why they become bad leaders and why they have brought us at the state of War. Here are a few point which can solve all our questions that come into our vary minds.
Very much the opposite of a good Leader, a bad leader is a person who does not possess the quality and guts to grab the hand of his nation in the time crises. And bad leaders do not have such vision and qualities to take the nation through difficult times because they lack in their innovative and analytical thinking to solve the problem their nation face at the time of crises. They spend their kingly life as they do not care about the needs and problem of their nation. At the times when a nation falls due to economic crises, they do not lower their standards of daily life and they do not care about the nation. A bad leader does not share the bad time with his nation and he continues to live comfortable life.
Nothing makes him special, because he is not known for his virtues and good abilities. He is always known as a notorious person who does not care for the Needs of his nation. Unfortunately for us all, bad leaders occupy positions of power in business and government. There are seven major traits of bad leader. And leaders fully loaded with such traits can make the life of their nation a living Hell and these traits with little definitions are as follows:-
Incompetent Leaders: – Someone who is not competent to take effective action.
Rigid Leaders: – The leader and at least some followers are stiff and unyielding”
Intemperate Leaders: – The leaders who cannot stand the theology of his neighbor and want to impose his own thoughts by force.
Callous Leaders: – A callous Leader is the one who is indifferent to the suffering of others.
Corrupt Leaders: – Leaders who misuse the power and position and utilize the resources and wealth in his possession in an ugly manner.
Insular Leaders: – The Insular Leaders do not have knowledge and awareness of his surroundings. He is unaware of the happenings around the world. Like he is living in the cave for centuries.
Evil Leaders: – Evil Leaders use their thinking in an Evil manner; they possess destructive thinking, and utilize the powers and resources in criminal activities.
Personal example
Bad leader was my boss Mr Anthoney. He was very lazy. He use to steal pizzas from work place and that’s what created a bad example for rest of employees and this also cost company too much money even he wasn’t a good example for a company because he never thinks about the whole team or a company he just think about himself.
Who is the best leader from articles and why?
I would like to choose Mr. Jim Goodnight as the best CEO through all the articles we studied because he was a great leader with great vision for the company. His strategies were extremely positive and influential for employees. He wanted to create an environment where employees would like to work and be more productive for the company. He was very motivated and supportive to his employees. According to him “When I joined SAS, I wanted to be in and help grow a company that was as much fun for the employees as it was for the ownership” (Pfeffer 1998) and this is the perfect example of great CEO. He wanted to make SAS instuite a perfect place to work. He uses to believe in intrinsic motivation of employees. He treats his employees with respect because he knew that they are the future of the company. Even for his employees he introduced so many benefits such as provided onsite medical facility for employees so they don’t have to go and search for doctors. Even doctor fee was covered till first dollar by the company or onsite child care centre for employee children so they can see them during their lunch breaks. Even junior high school onsite so they can drop of their children to work easily. Theses all facilities were very essential because beside them he also provided onsite gym and many other facilities. For employees it was more like fun place to work they use to bring their family during weekends to SAS ground for BBQ and stuff. Even he uses to motivate his employees. He wanted them to work at their best and this is why SAS employee’s turnover rate was lower than 4%. He wanted to create more convenient work environment for employees such he eliminated commission based culture for SAS because he wanted his employees to be more customer oriented then just making numbers. This is he inspired me so much. There were many other good leaders as well such as Jack Welch from General Electric who introduces strategies to eliminated bureaucratic strategies to make his employees more productive or Wolfgang Schmitt from Rubber Maid article who created an positive structure so company and be more efficient but they all worked majorly to increased the revenue of the company and solely My Jim Goodnight was the one who worked for his employees.
What changes was he able to affect at GE?
Jack Welch was the CEO of General Electric for almost two decades. In 1981 when he came on board the company was struggling through many issues but with his calm and steady nature he was able to save General Electric and uphold it to the position where the company is at now. He was one of the great leaders like Charli Eitel at Simmons Corporation, a leader who supports his company and adopts strategies to save company from any difficult situation. He adopted many strategies to bring change as General Electric.
Structural Changes
His focus was to come up with strategies to save the company and the best strategies he can adopt was first changing the organizational structure. There were about 10 groups of sub companies with 46 divisions, and 190 departments with 43 strategic business units. This structure was creating massive work load for Welch therefore he decided to introduce more effective structure like Rubber Maid company did in 1980s. He removed barriers between CEO and business by eliminating “Sector” position from SBU Structure. According to him there should be more direct communication between corporate executives and business. He didn’t want to create a huge distance between management and employees unlike Nut Island where employers had no connection with employees. Welch wanted to eliminate all the sectors so he can be more close to the business.
Cultural Changes
Cultural changes were the second most import changes what Welch bought in General Electric. He tried to introduce cultural change where there was more freedom for employees so they can express their opinion and be more productive for the company. Therefore the first thing he did was eliminated bureaucracy in the organization. He wanted to create flexible rules for employees like SAS Institute had for their employees. Their employees were working in an open environment where every employee is allowed to make a suggestions and management will value their opinion. Even according to Welch he wanted to create a culture of a small company “a place where all felt engaged and everyone had voice” (Levy, & Wonzy, 2005). This was a positive approach to the benefit the company for long term.
HOW did he make those changes?
Welch made numerous changes once he came to a board to work for General Electric. First 1981 to next five years he worked on organizing the organizational structure and for that he lay off almost half of the company’s employees because he wanted to cut the size of employees so he can give company a proper direction. Due to his extensive employee lay off magazine names him a “Neutron Jack,” (Levy, & Wonzy, 2005) which means that wherever he goes his employees were vanished from there in a large quantity. After being done with creating a proper structure he started to work on development of the company.
Establishing a sense of importance
He developed sense of urgency’s for employees. Make them realize that this is the requirement of business and without them they won’t be able to survive in the business. Such their first priority is restructuring of General Electric. He wanted his each business to be the number 1 competitor in industry or if they can’t make it then they will sell that business.
Forming effective leadership team:
In late 1980’s during the second stage of the “Rocket”, Welch convinced his employees to become better leader so they can be productive for the company. He initiated `Software’ called Work-Out and Best Practices.
Work out: It was introducing a forum so employees and employers can input their opinion in that website so they can avoid unusual bureaucratic issues. Welch invited managers and employees into New England town meetings for three days where employees from can come up with particular analyses and recommendations regarding their department and then their bosses have to make instant responses. This process was introduce to “clean up” General Electric and, to make workers more productive by avoiding unusual bureaucratic style. Regarding his this approach Bloomberg article mentioned that “Jack put his time and energy into developing people” (Levy, & Wonzy, 2005).
Best practice: This was his second method of learning from other companies so General Electric managers can learn how to achieving higher productivity growth. He wanted to create an environment of small collaborative teams so that employers can focus on developing effective strategies rather than controlling individual activity. Besides they can also focus on treating suppliers as partner so they both can perform well also emphasize on constant development to increase their productivity.
These two were important steps to overcome the existing bureaucratic style and adopt new productive ways to be successful in a business.
Create a vision of what the organization will become
Welch changed a company structure and culture by going global. He introduced how global market can influence the culture.
Going Global: Going global was a major decision that took place in era of Welch because once they had solid base at home they really moved forwarded into competing with world market. This was changing of culture and adapting of new market structure. They decided to use same strategies for international market as they used for local such as either #1 or #2 competitor or disengaged.
Developing Leadership: Leadership also had a huge influence on cultural structure of a company. He is the one who had to lead the company along with 290,000 employees. It is his job to maintain the smooth transitions at work. Usually Leaders working in a huge corporation does really work hard because it comes with a job security of lifetime. This is why it’s their duty to create an environment where people can perform their best. According to Welch leadership can be characterized in 4 ways, first who perform their duties- fulfill financial obligations and share values of the company. Second who does not fulfill their duties and does not share our values. Third who forget about commitments but does share values of a company. Fourth who does fulfill their duties, give significant profit to the company but never share values and they are the most difficult one but since they do perform very well it’s hard to find them. They also work on 360° feedback process from employees and according to Welch “people are removed for having the wrong values,” (Levy, & Wonzy, 2005) he insisted. “We don’t even talk about the numbers.” (Levy, & Wonzy, 2005) He explains what he is looking for is productive managers not people who just value numbers.
Creating a vision
Boundary less Behavior: According to Welch he wanted to create a vision for the company a vision that state in the 1990s: The Third Wave of General Electric. Over here he initiated a boundary less behavior vision for his employees. He wanted to introduce “open, anti-parochial environment.” (Levy, & Wonzy, 2005) This is basically having an open environment where every employee without regards to their salary or position can share their ideas. They want to be comfortable doing business all over the world such as they explained in the article. They want to be as comfortable doing business in Budapest as they do in Louisville USA.
Stretch: This is basically striving to achieve impossible. Over here manager are liable to set higher and unrealistic goals for their department and then try to achieve them. If they fail to react they won’t be accountable for it although if they meet that extra ordinary goal then they will be rewarded.
Service Businesses: Welch really prioritizes this issue in 1980,s he showed interest in service related companies. Before that they were the last priority of the company. Once he showed some interest and invested money in it they came up with the software called “In Site” for CT scanners and MRI equipment. It was basically a sensor installed in those equipments so they can maintain the service standard of that product. This whole investment on GE turned the whole pyramid upside down.
Empower other to take action
This process is to communicate and improve the vision on the company so they can make it a better place to work and this procedure started in the last decade of Welch employment.
Six Sigma Strategies: This strategy was used to empower employees so they can work up the standards of the company. This happened in 1994 when employees were facing problems due to poor quality of its products and processes so Welch introduced this strategy from Motorola Corporation. It was a performance scale which is used to eliminate the unnecessary actions from the working process. According to Grey Rainer, Vice president of Development process this happened to be (Levy, & Wonzy, 2005) the biggest opportunity for growth, increased profitability, and individual employee satisfaction in the history of our company.” (Levy, & Wonzy, 2005) It was a well developed plan which helped General electric in eliminating operating at error of rates 10,000 times the 6 Sigma level.
Inspire and celebrate small wins
Once the company performing better and according to the requirement of Welch, he was pleased to see their performance and felt that he had assembled a first class of leaders.
Keep interest and effort on further improvement
This effort was for the continuous improvement of the company because he still wanted to progress more because he wanted to set standards for future employees and the employees who don’t meet the standards so far. He introduced a scale for them a term called “A player with 4 E’s.”
According to him a player is someone who had a great vision of leadership, great energy to motivate employee and implement strategies and courage to change the culture.
Four E’s
Four E’s consist the following:
Energy: Encourage new ideas and apply strategy to implement them
Energize: Motivate others by his overwhelming enthusiasm to believe in new idea.
Edge: it is basically making through all the difficulties
Execution: it is a consistent ability to turn idea into results.
Institutionalize changes; reduce leader dependencies
As he was leaving the organization he made the final changes. Before leaving he introduced the e-business so that company can adopt this new business technology as well. This was his finally effort to change the culture because he believes in continuity and he knew it takes a decade to make any new strategy actually work.
Was he successful or unsuccessful (or both) at making these changes-and why do you say that
He was extremely successful in changing the organizational culture and structure of General Electric because he gave the company a whole new direction to work on. The company generated 23% annual profit and this shows he was a great leader. Changes he made for the company shows he was successful in making and implementing all his goals and strategies which he promised a decade ago with his employees.
How did Welch change and “leverage” culture at GE to achieve his objectives while CEO?
He introduced new cultures which eliminated the bureaucracy from the system so employees can work accordingly. He introduced “Workout” and “Best Practice” strategies so he can eliminate the distances between management and employers. This gave employees opportunity to argue on any fact especially if they can make any difference and this action saved millions of dollars of the company. He really supported his employees SAS Institute where he tried his best to come up with strategies to make the company more pleasant place to work. He even created a broader vision for a company by going global this way he gave his employees opportunity to compete with other nations and make work more challenging for them. Then he enforced his employees in developing appropriate leadership skills to be successful in business environment. It was his job to create a positive vision for the company and that is what he did. He worked all by his honesty and integrity to save the company by changing organizational culture and structure. He even introduce a Boundary less behaviors strategy and this was the key point of his success because it gave his employees opportunity to share ideas all across the company without the limitation or without distinct of origin. Everyone was free to participate in company decisions and that was a truly success of changing of environmental culture. Also he adopts “Stretch Strategy” to give his employees a new vision of success so they can think beyond the boundaries of facts and actual figures and try to achieve them. He adopted “sig sigma” and “four E’s” strategies to show his employees how to improve themselves if they ever lose track and this all results in enormous success of the company.
Citation:
Nut Island: Levy, P.F. (2001). The nut island effect. When Good Teams Go Wrong,
General Electric; (Levy, & Wonzy, 2005)
Levy, P.F, & Wonzy, M. (2005). GE’s two decade transformation: jack Welch’s leadership. Hardware Business School,
Hurley, R.F. (2006). Decision to trust. Harvard Business School,
Eight ways to built collaborative teams Grattan, & Erickson, 2007)
Grattan, & Erickson, 2007 Grattan, L, & Erickson, T.J. (2007). Eight ways to build collaborative teams Harvard Business Review,
SAS: ( Pfeiffer, 1998) Pfeiffer, J. (1998). SAS institute: GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS,
 

Some Leaders Are Born Some Are Made Religion Essay

Dreams float on an impatient wind, A wind that wants to create a new order. An order of strength and thundering of fire. — from a poem written by Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
Some leaders are born, some are made but all don’t have a trait that a great man like Dr. Kalam has. A great visionary, a thinker, philanthropist and overall a good human being.
The man, ascetic in looks and behaviour, belongs to a rare breed of those who dream lofty dreams, and work hard to transform vision into reality.The man who played a key role in the nuclear tests at Pokharan in the Rajasthan desert on May 11 and 13, has a favourite quotation: We must think and act like a nation of a billion people and not like that of a million people. Dream, dream, dream ! Conduct these dreams into thoughts, and then transform them into action.
Above all he is quintessentially Indian. Never allowing his astounding success as a scientist to diminish his humanity and humility. Despite having had an unparalleled career as a defense scientist and been crowned with the highest civilian award of India, the Bharat Ratna, he retains the common touch.
As the scientific and technology advisor to the prime minister, he propelled India into the select club of missile powers. He resigned from the post to take up a more ambitious programme of teaching and creating scientific temper in the minds of young inquisitive and knowledge thirsty Indians.
Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is the undisputed father of India’s missile program. He has breathed life into ballistic missiles like the Agni and Prithvi, which put China and Pakistan well under India’s missile range. It is too exhausting to track Dr Abdul Kalam’s achievements to date. In the ’60s and ’70s he was a trail blazer in the space department. In the ’80s he transformed the moribund Defence Research and Development Laboratory in Hyderabad into a highly motivated team. By the ’90s Kalam emerged as the czar of Indian science and technology and was awarded the Bharat Ratna. His life and mission is a vindication of what a determined person can achieve against extraordinary odds.
Do things yourself. Do not indulge in short-cuts by importing equipment, thundered the great scientist after the famed Pokhran-2 nuclear blasts in 1998. A strong advocate of this philosophy, he distributed newspapers at a young age to help with household expenses.
A vegetarian and a teetotaller, Abdul Kalam recites the Quran and the Bhagvad Gita with equal ease. A confirmed bachelor, his modesty is evident from the fact that he gives all the credit to his colleagues.
Abdul Kalam is a dreamer. He dreamt of a strong India. His next goal is to produce a reusable missile which no country in the world has been able to produce. And judging by his earlier achievements, this invention does not seem a distant possibility for this genius.
As a child, he was fascinated by the flight of seagulls and the interest in flight led to a degree in aeronautical engineering, and eventually to his supervising the development of India’s guided missiles. Along the way, he found time to write Tamil poetry and learned to play the veena.
Kalam believes that he has inherited honesty and self-discipline from his father, while faith in goodness and kindness is the trait inherited from his mother.
His is a classic story of the magic of democracy where a person from a humble background can expect to rise to the most prestigious position in the country through sheer dint of merit.
Kalam has the unique distinction of having received honorary doctorates from at least thirty universities. As a sign of his popularity among Indian youth, MTV-India recently nominated him as one of the prospects for its MTV India Youth Icon for the year 2006 Award.
As Dr. Kalam said:
You have to dream before your dreams can come true.
Thinking should become your capital asset, no matter whatever ups and downs you come across in your life
Climbing to the top demands strength, whether it is to the top of Mount Everest or to the top of your career
We should not give up and we should not allow the problem to defeat us.
God, our Creator, has stored within our minds and personalities, great potential strength and ability. Prayer helps us tap and develop these powers.
God, our Creator, has stored within our minds and personalities, great potential strength and ability. Prayer helps us tap and develop these powers
Man needs his difficulties because they are necessary to enjoy success
If we are not free, no one will respect us
Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam: From humble beginnings to Presidency.
The Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 at Dhanushkodi in the Rameswaram district of Tamil Nadu.
He was neither educated abroad, nor was his family financially very strong to support his academic pursuits. His father, Jainulabiddin Marakayar had to rent boats out to fishermen to pay for his school fees. His mother Ashiamma, had gained much formal education. His father possessed great innate wisdom, true generosity of spirit and was a spiritual person.
He received secondary education at the Schwartz School, a missionary institute in Ramanathapuram, and later joined the St Joseph’s College at Tiruchirrapalli, where he graduated with a Bachelor in Science. Abdul Kalam went on to study Aeronautical Engineering at the Madras Institute of Technology.
He was the first graduate in the family, with his brothers not even finishing school. He distributed newspapers at a young age to help with household expenses.
Abdul Kalam was perhaps marked out to be different right from the beginning. Since he was the youngest in the family, he got his fair share of pampering from the elders.
But neighbours remember him as a reserved boy who was very interested in reading books. In a way, library was the foundation on which Kalam built his career.
After completing his third year at MIT, Kalam joined Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Bangalore as a trainee. Here, he worked on piston and turbine engines examining as part of a team. He also received training on radial engine-cum-drum operations.
In 1958, when he came out of HAL as a graduate of aeronautical engineering, he had his long-standing dream of flying, as two alternative opportunities for employment. One was the job at Directorate of Technical Development and Production (DTD & P) of the Ministry of Defence and another was a career in the Indian Air Force. He applied at both the places, and the interview calls came simultaneously from both.

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He went to Delhi for an interview with DTD & P, which did not challenge his knowledge of the subject. Then he went to Dehra Dun for interview with the Air Force Selection Board. Here too, the interview was more on personality test, rather than testing his knowledge. He stood ninth in the batch of 25, and eight officers were selected to be commissioned in the Air Force. Kalam could feel the opportunity to join the Air Force slipping from his hands.
Dissapointed at his rejection by the IAF, Kalam visited Rishikesh where he bathed in the Ganga and met Swami Sivananda a man who looked like Buddha. He introduced himself to the Swamiji, who did not react to his Muslim identity. He asked Kalam about the reason for his sorrow. Kalam told him about his unsuccessful attempt to join the Indian Air Force and his long-cherished desire to fly. Sivananda guided him saying: Accept your destiny and go ahead with your life. You are not destined to become an Air Force pilot. What you are destined to become is not revealed now but it is predetermined. Forget this failure, as it was essential to lead you to your destined path. Search, instead, for the true purpose of your existence. Become one with yourself, my son! Surrender yourself to the wish of God.
After returning to Delhi, Kalam received an appointment letter from DTD & P. On the next day he joined as Senior Scientific Assistant, with a basic salary of Rs. 250/- per month. Here, he was posted at the Technical Center (Civil Aviation). He lost his resentment of failure, thinking he would be able to make aeroplanes airworthy if not fly aeroplanes. During his first year in the Directorate, he carried out a design assignment on supersonic target aircraft with the help of his officer-in-charge, R. Varadharajan, and won praise from the Director, Dr. Neelakantan. Then he was sent to the Aircraft and Armament Testing Unit(A & ATU) at Kanpur to get shop-floor exposure to aircraft maintenance.
Upon his return to Delhi, he was informed that the design of a DART target had been taken up at the DTD & P and he was included in the design team. After that, he undertook a preliminary design study on Human Centrifuge. He designed and developed a vertical takeoff and landing platform, and Hot Cockpit. Three years later, the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) was formed in Bangalore and he was posted there.
At ADE, Kalam served as a senior scientific assistant, heading a small team that developed a prototype hovercraft. Defence Minister Krishna Menon rode in India’s first indigenous hovercraft with Kalam at the controls. But for reasons never explained, the project which would have been a considerable international achievement in those days, was not encouraged. This was probably one of the reasons why he moved out of ADE in 1962 and joined India’s space program.
Thoroughly Indian, the only brief exposure that he got abroad was in 1963-64 when he was invited by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) to spend four months in the United States at the Wallops Island Rocketry Centre and the Langley Research Centre.
During 1963-82, he served the Indian Space Research Organisation(ISRO) in various capacities. Here Kalam initiated Fibre Reinforced Plastics (FRP) activities, then after a stint with the aerodynamics and design group, he joined the satellite launch vehicle team at Thumba, near Trivandram and soon became Project Director for SLV-3. As Project Director, he was responsible for carrying out the design, development, qualification and flight testing of 44 major sub systems. The project managed to put Rohini, a scientific satellite, into orbit in July 1980. He was honoured with a Padma Bhushan in 1981.
In 1982, as Director of DRDO, Kalam was entrusted with the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP), India’s most successful military research task to date. The programme constituted of 5 major projects for meeting the requirements of the defence services and for establishing re-entry technology.
The 5 projects were scheduled to be completed in a time frame of only 10 years and consisted of:
Nag – an anti-tank guided missile
Prithvi – a surface-to-surface battlefield missile
Akash – a swift, medium-range surface-to-air missile.
Trishul – a quick-reaction surface-to-air missile with a shorter range.
Agni – an intermediate range ballistic missile, the mightiest of them all
From his SLV-3 experience, Kalam had learned the advantages of team work and of sharing the tasks with partners in private and public sector industries. In the new management structure of the missile program, Kalam, as the Chairman of the Programme Management Board, delegated almost all executive and financial powers to five carefully selected Project Directors and kept himself free to address the core technology issues. His task was to inspire and monitor over 20 institutions and partners outside – ranging from large public and private sector suppliers to small specialist firms that needed seed money to take up the precision tasks.
The missiles went up more or less on schedule: Trishul in 1985, Prithvi in 1988, Agni in 1989 and the others in 1990. The development and successful flight test of Prithvi, Trishul, Akash, Nag, and Agni established the indigeneous capability towards self reliance in defence preparedness. The successful launching of ‘Agni’ surface-to-surface missile was a unique achievement which made India a member of an exclusive club of highly developed countries. The Trishul has the unique distinction of being capable of serving all three services.
The establishment of the Research Centre Imarat(RCI), a campus 8km from DRDL, in 1988 was perhaps the most satisfying achievement for Kalam during the missile years. He received generous funding from the Government to build the futuristic centre, which is totally geared for work in advanced missile technologies. Its state-of-the-art facilities are set in a unique ambience and the level of comfort accorded to the individual worker is matched by few R&D institutions. And Kalam’s interest in the environment saw RCI emerge as an oasis in a rocky wasteland. It has a small farm that meets the food requirements of those who stay in the RCI quarters. Kalam was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1990.
On 25th November 1997, in appreciation of his contributions to Indian defence and science, Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was awarded India’s highest civilian honour- the Bharat Ratna. In October 1998, he bagged the prestigious Indira Gandhi award for national integration(for 1997).
After 10 years in DRDL, he went to New Delhi to take over from Arunachalam as Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister – reluctantly, many in DRDL felt. But the system created by Kalam had taken a firm hold in that decade and the missile programme passed on smoothly into its final phase of production and induction.
In Delhi, Kalam as head of the DRDO had to deliver other prestigious projects, such as the Arjun MBT and the Light Combat Aircraft(LCA) projects. Strength respects strength, this is Kalam’s usual response to the question why India needs its own missiles or a battle tank or a combat aircraft. While management practices he adopted for the missile program have inevitably rubbed off on these projects, there are no miracles to be had in strategic development areas. There have been technical problems. Even in the missile program, work on the SAMs and the ATM is slower than anticipated. But Trishul’s recent multiple test flights have demonstrated that the system Kalam put in place has inherent strengths.
Kalam is by no means a miracle man. As the head of a vast network of laboratories – whose products include avalanche-controlling structures in Kashmir, water desalination kits for the Thar desert, a world class sonar submarine finder for the latest warship – INS Delhi, and infra-red night vision goggles for the Indian Army – Kalam’s attention is necessarily a bit diffused. His self-effacing persona cloaks a formidable catalyst who can make people work.
Kalam is happiest at the drawing board, in discussion with his scientists on how their dreams for the next millennium can be fulfilled. The projects envisaged include an air breathing hyperplane spacecraft that draws oxygen from the atmosphere rather than carry it all the way from the ground, reusable missiles and stealth technology. Kalam has shown that with adequate funding, freedom from procedural holdups and a people-oriented management, India can make products of internationally acceptable technical standards in a demanding arena like defence.
Science, according to Kalam, is a global phenomenon. He feels there are a few areas where India can develop its core competence. These areas are software engineering, computer products and design, agriculture and food, aviation, defence research and space technology and chemical engineering. This will lead to a highly beneficial economic and social progress for the nation.
On 25th November 1999, Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was appointed Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government of India and accorded the rank of a Cabinet Minister. His role was to advise on overall scientific development in the country on issues relating to scientific and technical policy in different sectors. Kalam also advised on matters relating to achieving technological self-reliance and foreign collaboration.
On December 8, 2000, the Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission, Shri K.C. Pant conferred the Life-time Contribution Award in Engineering 2000 on Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam at the annual function of the Indian National Academy of Engineering in New Delhi. Speaking on the occasion, Kalam said that Engineering and technology should be used for the upliftment of the people living below the poverty line.
On November 10, 2001, Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam quit as principal scientific advisor to the government. Sources close to Kalam, said he quit because of lack of executive authority. However Kalam had been for quite some time keen on pursuing academic interests and helping scientists across the country in developing their research capabilities. That’s why after quitting he took over the job as distinguished professor at Anna University.
Dr Kalam has spent the past few years developing the concept of India Millennium Missions 2020 – a blueprint for transforming India into a developed nation. He calls it the second vision of the nation and says he wants to focus on the children of India to ignite in their minds a love for science and the nation’s mission: a developed India.
On July 25, 2002, Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was sworn in as the 11th President of India by Chief Justice of India B.N. Kirpal in the Central Hall of Parliament at an impressive function telecast live across the country. Kalam took the oath in the name of God as a 21-gun salute boomed in the background
Dr. Abdul Kalam has visualized the following distinctive profile for India by the year 2020:
1. A Nation where the rural and urban divide has reduced to a thin line.
2. A Nation where there is an equitable distribution and adequate access to energy and quality water.
3. A Nation where agriculture, industry and service sector work together in symphony.
4. A Nation where education with value system is not denied to any meritorious candidates because of societal or economic discrimination.
5. A Nation which is the best destination for the most talented scholars, scientists, and investors.
6. A Nation where the best of health care is available to all.
7. A Nation where the governance is responsive, transparent and corruption free.
8. A Nation where poverty has been totally eradicated, illiteracy removed and crimes against women and children are absent and none in the society feels alienated.
9. A Nation that is prosperous, healthy, secure, peaceful and happy and continues with a sustainable growth path.
10. A Nation that is one of the best places to live in and is proud of its leadership.
Dr. Kalam: The Kind Human
A truly Inspirational Story of a boss!
On a day at TERLS:
There were about 70 scientists working on a very hectic project. All of them were really frustrated due to the pressure of work and the demands of their boss but everyone was loyal to him and did not think of quitting the job.
One day, one scientist came to his boss and told him – “Sir, I have promised to my children that I will take them to the exhibition going on in our township. So I want to leave the office at 5 30 pm”. His boss replied OK, You’re permitted to leave the office early today.
The Scientist started working. He continued his work after lunch. As usual he got involved to such an extent that he looked at his watch when he felt he was close to completion. The time was 8.30 PM. Suddenly he remembered of the promise he had given to his children.He looked for his boss, He was not there. Having told him in the morning itself, he closed everything and left for home.
Deep within himself, he was feeling guilty for having disappointed his children. He reached home. Children were not there. His wife alone was sitting in the hall and reading magazines.The situation was explosive, any talk would boomerang on him. His wife asked him Would you like to have coffee or shall I straight away serve dinner if you are hungry.The man replied If you would like to have coffee, I too will have but what about Children ?? .
Wife replied You don’t know?? , Your manager came here at 5.15 PM and has taken the children to the exhibition .What had really happened was ….: The boss who granted him permission was observing him working seriously at 5.00 PM. He thought to himself, this person will not leave the work, but if he has promised his children they should enjoy the visit to exhibition. So he took the lead in taking them to exhibition. The boss does not have to do it every time. But once it is done, loyalty is established.That is why all the scientists at Thumba continued to work under their boss even though the stress was tremendous.
The boss was none other than Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam .
Another Life incident, when Dr. Kalam was asked a question :
“Could you give an example, from your own experience, of how leaders should manage failure?”
Dr. Kalam said “Let me tell you about my experience. In 1973 I became the project director of India’s satellite launch vehicle program, commonly called the SLV-3. Our goal was to put India’s Rohini satellite into orbit by 1980. I was given funds and human resources — but was told clearly that by 1980 we had to launch the satellite into space.
Thousands of people worked together in scientific and technical teams towards that goal. By 1979 — I think the month was August — we thought we were ready. As the project director, I went to the control center for the launch. At four minutes before the satellite launch, the computer began to go through the checklist of items that needed to be checked. One minute later, the computer program put the launch on hold; the display showed that some control components were not in order.
My experts — I had four or five of them with me — told me not to worry; they had done their calculations and there was enough reserve fuel. So I bypassed the computer, switched to manual mode, and launched the rocket. In the first stage, everything worked fine. In the second stage, a problem developed. Instead of the satellite going into orbit, the whole rocket system plunged into the Bay of Bengal. It was a big failure.
That day, the chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization, Prof. Satish Dhawan, had called a press conference. The launch was at 7:00 am, and the press conference — where journalists from around the world were present — was at 7:45 am at ISRO’s satellite launch range in Sriharikota [in Andhra Pradesh in southern India]. Prof. Dhawan, the leader of the organization, conducted the press conference himself. He took responsibility for the failure — he said that the team had worked very hard, but that it needed more technological support. He assured the media that in another year, the team would definitely succeed.
Now, I was the project director, and it was my failure, but instead, he took responsibility for the failure as chairman of the organization. The next year, in July 1980, we tried again to launch the satellite and this time we succeeded. The whole nation was jubilant.
Again, there was a press conference. Prof. Dhawan called me aside and told me, You conduct the press conference today. I learned a very important lesson that day. When failure occurred, the leader of the organization owned that failure. When success came, he gave it to his team. The best management lesson I have learned did not come to me from reading a book; it came from that experience.
Dr. Kalam’s Inspirational messages:
As a child of God, I am greater than anything that can happen to me.
Be more dedicated to making solid achievements than in running after swift but synthetic happiness.
Climbing to the top demands strength, whether it is to the top of Mount Everest or to the top of your career.
Do we not realize that self respect comes with self reliance?
Educationists should build the capacities of the spirit of inquiry, creativity, entrepreneurial and moral leadership among students and become their role model.
English is necessary as at present original works of science are in English. I believe that in two decades times original works of science will start coming out in our languages. Then we can move over like the Japanese.
God, our Creator, has stored within our minds and personalities, great potential strength and ability. Prayer helps us tap and develop these powers.
Great dreams of great dreamers are always transcended.
I was willing to accept what I couldn’t change.
If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are the father, the mother and the teacher.
In India we only read about death, sickness, terrorism, crime.
It means, people who are in high and responsible positions, if they go against righteousness, righteousness itself will get transformed into a destroyer.
Let us sacrifice our today so that our children can have a better tomorrow.
Life is a difficult game. You can win it only by retaining your birthright to be a person.
Look at the sky. We are not alone. The whole universe is friendly to us and conspires only to give the best to those who dream and work.
Man needs his difficulties because they are necessary to enjoy success.
My view is that at a younger age your optimism is more and you have more imagination etc. You have less bias.
No religion has mandated killing others as a requirement for its sustenance or promotion.
Those who cannot work with their hearts achieve but a hollow, half-hearted success that breeds bitterness all around.
To succeed in your mission, you must have single-minded devotion to your goal.
Unless India stands up to the world, no one will respect us. In this world, fear has no place. Only strength respects strength.
We have not invaded anyone. We have not conquered anyone. We have not grabbed their land, their culture, their history and tried to enforce our way of life on them.
We must think and act like a nation of a billion people and not like that of a million people. Dream, dream, dream!
We should not give up and we should not allow the problem to defeat us.
We will be remembered only if we give to our younger generation a prosperous and safe India, resulting out of economic prosperity coupled with civilizational heritage.
Why are we, as a nation so obsessed with foreign things? Is it a legacy of our colonial years? We want foreign television sets. We want foreign shirts. We want foreign technology. Why this obsession with everything imported?
You have to dream before your dreams can come true.
Thinking is progress. Non-thinking is stagnation of the individual, organisation and the country. Thinking leads to action. Knowledge without action is useless and irrelevant. Knowledge with action, converts adversity into prosperity.
When you speak, speak the truth; perform when you promise; discharge your trust… Withhold your hands from striking, and from taking that which is unlawful and bad…
What actions are most excellent? To gladden the heart of a human being, to feed the hungry, to help the afflicted to lighten the sorrow of the sorrowful and to remove the wrongs of injured…
Away! Fond thoughts, and vex my soul no more! Work claimed my wakeful nights, my busy days Albeit brought memories of Rameswaram shore Yet haunt my dreaming gaze!
I will not be presumptuous enough to say that my life can be a role model for anybody; but some poor child living in an obscure place in an underprivileged social setting may find a little solace in the way my destiny has been shaped. It could perhaps help such children liberate themselves from the bondage of their illusory backwardness and hopelessness?..
My worthiness is all my doubt His Merit- all my fear- Contrasting which my quality Does however appear
 Indeed APJ Abdul Kalam is a great personality, whose contemplated words mean much more than just the literal meaning.
Some lessons in the life of Dr. Kalam.
In 1936; Kalam’s education initiated at the age of 5 years in Rameswaram Panchayat elementary school. He had a Teacher Muthu Iyer who took special interest in him as he performed very well in a class exercise. He was impressed and next day he came his house to tell his father that Abdul was a very good student. His parents were happy and he also got his favourite sweet from his mother. When he was in first class, one day he did not turn up at school. Teacher Muthu Iyer noticed his absence and same evening he went to Kalam’s father to ask what the problem was and whether he can do anything to help. On that day, Kalam was having fever. Another important thing, which he noticed was Kalam’s hand writing, was very poor. He gave a three page writing exercise ensured that Kalam did the exercise everyday regularly. By these actions of his teacher Muthu Iyer, Kalam’s father believed that Muthu Iyer was not only a good teacher but also a great influence who shaped kalam with good habits.
Kalam was studying in 5th class at the age of 10 when he was given a vision for his life. He had a teacher, Shri Siva Subramania Iyer. He was a very good teacher. One day he was teaching about bird’s flight. He drew a diagram of a bird on the blackboard depicting the wings, tail and the body structure with the head. He explained how the birds create the lift and fly. He also explained how they change direction while flying. Nearly 25 minutes he gave the lecture with various information such as lift, drag and how the birds fly in a formation of 10, 20 or 30 etc. At the end of the class, he wanted to know whether the students understood how the birds fly, to which Kalam replied he didn’t understand. When he said this, he asked the other students whether they understood or not. Many students said that they did not understand. Hence, the teacher took the students to the beach that evening and asked them to observe how the bird flapped their wings, twisted their tales to give directions to the flight and used their will, motivation and own life to act as the engine of their flight. The theory coupled with practical example gave Kalam the goal and mission in life. He worked towards joining aeronautical engineering in MIT, Chennai
Greatly inspired by Aryabhata, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Brahmagupta and Bhaskaracharya’s work as Indians who had made significant contributions to astronomy and mathematics, Kalam had found his areas of interest and motivational figures. Working under Prof. Srinivasan, the then Director of MIT, Kalam was given a project in third year of his course, he was assigned a project to design a low-level attack aircraft together with six other colleagues. He was given the responsibility of system design and system integration by integrating the team members. Also, he was responsible for aerodynamic and structural design of the project. The other five of the team took up the design of propulsion, control, guidance, avionics and instrumentation of the aircraft. He reviewed the project and declared Kalam’s work to be gloomy and disappointing. He didn’t lend an ear to Kalam’s difficulties in bringing together data base from multiple designers. Kalam asked for a month’s time and Dr. Srinivasan gave only 3 days time. Also, a warning that if the task was not completed in time, Kalam’s scholarship would be revoked. Kalam had a jolt of life, as scholarship was the lifeline, without which he could not continue with his studies. So the team, skipping the dinner
 

Two Great Leaders Martin Luther And John Calvin Religion Essay

Martin Luther and John Calvin had similar concepts of faith and justification towards God, which in consequence became Luther and Calvin’s main currency of soul salvation. The Sermon on Good Works was Luther’s first piece of writing which he writes about how only faith, not good works, benefits the soul for salvation. Luther realized that good works was not the path to take for forgiveness of sins, when he decided to achieve forgiveness by fasting many days and abstaining from sleep, but nothing happened. So from then on he discovered the bible, and found great guidance from it. He also believed that it is impossible to obey all of the proscriptions of the Old Testament thereby mercy from God and faith is the only way to salvation. “Good works do not make a good man, but a good man does good works; Bad works do not make a bad man, but a bad man does bad works,” wrote Luther, in summary of Paul. He not only said that good works were imperfect and useless, but also declared that they were sinful acts. “Thus we sin even when we do good, unless God through Christ covers this imperfection and does not impute it to us”. Not only does Luther say this but also Calvin’s idea of faith can be seen when he says “All we assign to man is that, by his impurity he pollutes and contaminates the very works which were good. The most perfect thing which proceeds from man is always polluted by some stain.  Should the Lords therefore bring to judgment the best of human works, he would indeed behold his own righteousness in them; but he would also behold man’s dishonour and disgrace”. Calvin also believed that human nature was tainted and that people could do good works but no amount of good works would be enough to earn salvation. The grace of God through faith in Jesus Christ alone is the only way for redemption of sin, was Calvin’s belief. Calvin greatly believed good works were useful, if done to help our neighbour. Calvin and Luther had mostly the same view of good works and salvation.

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Calvin’s theology was for the most part similar and on the same path as Luther’s, Calvin was on the same side as Luther for the thought that the authority and ways of life of Christians were to be followed from the Scriptures and that it was not the Church itself that would tell the people what to do, but instead it would be the Scriptures, because everyone could read it then. The Scriptures were to be read as it is and not to try and find the hidden meanings. Luther and Calvin both denounce the Pope and the churches for the used the money to create and beautify what they had instead of following the what Christ really wanted from them, which was to live in the simplest form and educated others. They both had similar view of justification to god by faith. Luther thought that no good works were enough to reach salvation. Calvin had the idea that there was two group of people; the Elect and the non-Elect, which were chosen by God to be saved or not. Predestination was a key idea in Calvin’s theology. He believed everything was already planned before even you were born.
Calvin’s ideas and theology has survived in communities in American history. The things that have been kept in notion from his works, are to have a good work ethic and strong sense of family values. Calvin has influenced many fields like economics, politics, physical sciences and more. Calvin’s religious movement has influenced the economic thinking and behaviour of people such as Max Weber, R.H. Tawney and Talcott Parsons. They believed that Calvinistic beliefs and capitalism were connected. They called this “functional fit”. Max Weber believes that Calvinism perhaps helped build an “elective affinity” for the development of capitalism, while on the other hand Tawny suggested the opposite. He thought that the Calvinist theology was adopted in capitalistic societies for this theology provided ideological explanations for economics practices which were considered morally questionable, such as interest in money. Many may think that religion and scientific progress were not connected or had no relation between them, but some sociologist say that Calvinist had a strong impact for scientific research and development. Calvinism, which came from John Calvin, was also a changing point for the form of government that’s present in our society. The American political structure was mostly copied from the British, while most of their government ideas had a Calvinistic sense. Calvinism is also to blame for causing problems and it is thought that maybe Calvinistic thought contributed to a mindset which caused the Holocaust. Martin Luther perhaps didn’t affect as many sectors of life but he was the one who influenced John Calvin for his works. Luther had a great impact, for he was the first person to make the Bible available to all people. He also influenced Europe to see religious thoughts in a different way and most of all, he was responsible for weakening the Church’s power.
Theology of the Reformers by Timothy George
Similarity
-Church born from the womb of the scriptures not the way around
-Both theologys where Christ centered
-Calvin’s foundation came from Luther
Difference
-Emphasized God’s direct involvement in procreation (calvin)
-Luther had a greater impact because of the use of printing press, illustration and language
-Luther State and church should be separated . church should be subordinate for people are able to interpret the bible for themself
-Calvin believed that the church should not be subject to the state or vise versa each one affect the other

 

Media Depictions of Female Political Leaders

It has been almost 100 years since women won suffage. 1920 is an important year that women went out to vote and some of them started to seize their position and become political leaders. Nowadays, women win success at local, state and federal levels elections (Carroll & Fox, 2014). But at the same time, men occupy most of the authoritative positions in politics. In the House of Representatives, women hold 83(19.1%) of the 435 seats and hold 22(22%) of the 100 seats in the Senate (Catalyst, 2018). In 1984, Geraldine Ferraro became the first female nominee for the White House as Democratic vice presidential candidate (Meeks, 2012). Until today, America has not had a women president or vice president. The higher the position, the harder it is for a women to win.

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 Previous research has established the importance of the media coverage of the women’s bids for office and suggested mass media made an influence on the outcome of the elections in general (Dunaway, J., Lawrence, R. G., Rose, M., & Weber, C. R. 2013). From 2008 to 2016, as candidates for vice president and president, Sarah Palin and Hillary Clinton received a large amount of media coverage.

News coverage of Sarah Palin focuses 2008 president campaign, as John McCain’s running mate. Before that time, she was the Alaska governor. 

Different from Palin, Hillary Clinton has always been the subject of the media interest since her husband Bill Clinton ran for office in 1992 (Topić & Gilmer,2017). When she ran for president and worked as Secretary of State, it was the news coverage’s high peak. These media coverage from newspaper and online media have changed as Hillary’s political identity changed. But the biases exist and persist in different ways.  

In addition, Nancy Pelosi, Michele Bachmann and Nikki Haley both made contributions in political arena as female political leaders. Nancy was the House Speaker from 2007 to 2011. Michele Bachmann served in the Minnesota Senate and is the first Republican woman to represent the state in Congress then ran for president in 2012. Nikki Haley was the first governor in South Carolina. They all get news coverage but less research studies than Sarah and Hillary.

This research brief explores and concludes how media depicts those women political leaders who run for higher positions and what traits are highlighted in depictions. Communication practitioners can use the results of this research brief to develop further study about women political leaders’ election. [important]

Literature Review

 The brief reviews literature has three parts: media coverage of Sarah Palin and media coverage of Hillary Clinton and media coverage of other women political leaders. Media coverage includes newspaper, magazines, tv and online blogs.

Media coverage of Sarah Palin

 Research indicates that during the 2008 campaign, Sarah Palin received media coverage that disadvantaged her because of her gender. After content-coding and analyzing a sample of 2,500 individual newspaper articles from the top-circulating newspapers in each of thirteen battle-ground states in 2008, Miller and Peake (2013) found though Sarah’s media coverage was more than Biden’s, the coverage of her gender, appearance and family status was disproportionately mentioned. In Newsweek and Time magazines’ news coverage focused on her personal experience and characteristics similarly rather than reporting Palin’s policy stances and frequently mentioned her lack of national political experience (Wasburn & Wasburn, 2011).

In Palin’s media coverage, there were notable differences between newspaper, television and political blogs. Bode and Hennings (2012) chose The New York Times, The Washington Post and USA Today, three major networks evening news broadcast from NBC, ABC and CBS and a purposive sampling blogs as analytical samples. They found that in foreign policy area, television news covered more Palin than Biden when Biden was chosen for his foreign policy experience. In family topic, blogs covered more in Biden when newspaper talked more in Palin.

Palin’s media depiction is not only represented but influenced by other media like late-night comedy programs like Saturday Night Live. Sarah Palin’s 2008 interview with Katie Couric and a Saturday Night Live (SNL) became the obvious watershed of her media depiction. Before SNL’s parody mimicking the interview was boardcasted, journalists from the mainstream news media like ABC, NBC and the New York Times tended to overlook the interview or blame it to McCain campaign. After parody, journalists attributed the fault to Palin and questioned her qualification (Abel& Barthel, 2013).

Media coverage of Hillary Clinton

 Research shows media coverage of Hillary Clinton during the time that she worked as the U.S Secretary of State and party nominee running for presidency does not treat her equally and influenced by the stereotype.

Harp, Loke and Bachmann (2016) chose her 2013 congressional testimony about the attack on the U.S. consulate in Benghazi, Libya as a crucial moment and went on a qualitative analysis of 93 articles from the top 8 news websites including CNN, MSNBC, New York Times and so on. They found these articles used portrayal of emotions to underline Hillary’s feminine characteristics and questioned her competence as a leader. Furthermore, her emotional displays in hearing either used to question her competence of control or blame her wants to escape blame. Visual covers are lined with the former conclusion. 21 magazine’s covers from 2010 through 2015 including different areas from political to entertainment presents Clinton rather negative and misogynistic, warning readers about her authenticity and ambition (Bachmann, Harp and Loke, 2018).

In the terrorism area, which is thought more about masculinity, media coverage of Hillary Clinton’s performance in United States’ raid on Osama bin Laden has more direct bias. Analyzing the 201 articles about the Situation Room, a conference room for raid action, from international newswires publishing a week after May,1, 2013, Clinton was depicted as emotional and stressed while her male colleague were not. As a major politician, Clinton was overlooked because press prioritized hegemonic masculinity in terrorism(Staudinger & Ortbals, 2014)

Clinton is blamed as her feminine traits in areas which press used to prefer masculinity. In addition, her feminist identity is attacked too. Gilmer and Topić (2017) chose 20 articles from the Washington Post and the New York Times from September 2015 to September 2016 during the president election to do a qualitative discourse analysis about Clinton’s feminist views. They concluded that the Washington Post endorsed that Hillary is not a feminist and the New York Times endorsed that Hillary should not win because she is a woman. The media produced new discourse that new feminism was needed to undermine Hillary’s feminist’ identity. 

Media coverage of media coverage of other women political leaders

 As the Republican presidential candidate, Michele Bachmann’s television news coverage from ABC,CBS, NBC, CNN, FOX and MSNBC was less than her male competitors in primaries stage of 2012 campaign. She was quoted in only 5% of the coverage and received less issue-related coverage. (Bystrom & Dimitrova,2014).

Dabbous and Ladley (2010) did an in-depth qualitative analysis of Nancy Pelosi’s media coverage including 115 articles from the New York Times, the Washington Post, USA Today, the Los Angeles Times and the San Francisco Chronicle from 1 November 2006 to 29 January 2007. This study confirmed that in the America cultural context, a female must adopt masculine characteristics to prove her competence. Also they indicates that masculine traits are predominant while the feminine characteristics is stereotypical in the media coverage.

South Carolina’s governor Nikki Randhawa Haley received media coverage from South Carolina’s largest media The State during her two election. During the first 100 day of her first term, she was portrayed as trailblazer in South Carolina because of her gender. Most articles emphasized her women characteristics. In the second term, she was depicted more negative and criticized directly (Ejaz, 2017).

A study of a large-scale election including the Senate election in 2006 and gubernatorial contests in 2008 also demonstrates the similar situation of women candidates meet. This study compared media coverage of contests with and without women. The outcome is that if there are female candidates, the media will yield more traits of coverage and it is less likely to generate issue coverage than trait coverage (Dunaway, Lawrence, Rose and Weber, 2013).

Conclusion

 This research brief found for women political leaders, no matter in which level authoritative positions, they both received biased media coverage. Though Sarah and Clinton’s media coverage amount are not following the characteristics that women candidates tend to receive less attention than man competitors (Wasburn & Wasburn, 2011), all of the women are more focused on traits rather than issues. The pattern of media coverage of women is not the same for every one but changes slightly according to the real situation.

References

Abel, A. D., & Barthel, M. (2013). Appropriation of Mainstream News: How Saturday Night Live Changed the Political Discussion. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 30(1), 1–16. https://doi-org.proxy1.library.jhu.edu/10.1080/15295036.2012.701011

BODE, L., & HENNINGS, V. M. (2012). Mixed Signals? Gender and the Media’s Coverage of the 2008 Vice Presidential Candidates. Politics & Policy, 40(2), 221–257. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-1346.2012.00350.x

Bystrom, D., & Dimitrova, D. V. (2013). Migraines, Marriage, and Mascara. American Behavioral Scientist, 58(9), 1169–1182. doi:10.1177/0002764213506221

Carroll, S., & Fox, R. (Eds.). (2014). Gender and elections: Shaping the future of Americanpolitics (3rd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Catalyst. (2018). Women in Government. Catalyst. Retrieved from

https://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/women-government

Dabbous, Y., & Ladley, A. (2010). A spine of steel and a heart of gold: newspaper coverage of the first female Speaker of the House. Journal of Gender Studies, 19(2), 181–194. doi:10.1080/09589231003695971

Dunaway, J., Lawrence, R. G., Rose, M., & Weber, C. R. (2013). Traits versus Issues. Political Research Quarterly, 66(3), 715–726. doi:10.1177/1065912913491464

Ingrid Bachmann, Dustin Harp & Jamie Loke (2018) Covering Clinton(2010–2015): meaning-making strategies in US magazine covers, Feminist Media Studies, 18:5,793-809, DOI: 10.1080/14680777.2017.1358204

Khadija Ejaz (2017): Good manners and high heels: newspaper coverage of South Carolina’s first female governor, Journal of Gender Studies, DOI:10.1080/09589236.2017.1316247

Meeks, L. (2012). Is She “Man Enough”? Women Candidates, Executive Political Offices, and News Coverage. Journal of Communication, 62(1), 175–193.

Miller, M., Peake, J., & Boulton, B. (2010). Testing the Saturday Night Live Hypothesis: Fairness and Bias in Newspaper Coverage of Hillary Clinton’s Presidential Campaign. Politics & Gender, 6(2), 169-198. doi:10.1017/S1743923X10000036

Miller, M. K., & Peake, J. S. (2013). Press Effects, Public Opinion, and Gender: Coverage of Sarah Palin’s Vice-Presidential Campaign. International Journal of Press/Politics, 18(4), 482–507. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161213495456

Poloni-Staudinger, L., & Ortbals, C. (2014). Gendering Abbottabad: Agency and Hegemonic Masculinity in an Age of Global Terrorism. Gender Issues, 31(1), 34–57. doi:10.1007/s12147-014-9117-y

Topić, M., & Gilmer, E. C. (2017). Hillary Clinton and the Media: From Expected Roles to the Critique of Feminism. Qualitative Report,22(10), 2533–2543.

Wasburn, P. C., & Wasburn, M. H. (2011). Media coverage of women in politics: The curious case of Sarah Palin. Media, Culture & Society, 33(7), 1027–1041. doi:10.1177/0163443711415744

 

What Leaders Must Learn From This Culture Case Study

The GM Culture Crisis: What Leaders Must Learn From This Culture Case Study

This project paper will look into the organizational behavior and how it affects the performance and sustainability of the organization using GM Company as the case study. This paper illustrates how organizational culture, leadership and organizational model can influence the operation of a company. It is evident from the case study that culture and leadership crisis can significantly affect the performance of an organization. GM concentrated on customer convenience by creating an ignition switch that would easily and efficiently allow their customers to operate their gadgets (Kupppler, 2014). Despite their focus being on convenience, they did not however take into account the safety measures of their gadgets to their customers.

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It is also evident that the company was interested in the welfare of the society as per its CEO’s submission during the House and senate subcommittees’ reports. From the case study, it can be deduced that the company had cultural issues that resulted into tragedy. Ignorance by both the employees and management is one of the key issues that were raised in the report. Most employees within the company were found to be reluctant to raise critical issues within the company and this made it difficult for the company to solve arising problems. It is also evident that the company did not address issues as they arise; no sense of urgency. The company also suffered from bureaucracy so that an issue would go through several channels without any decision being attached to an individual. Again, there was the conflict of interest between top management.

An organization model dictates the hierarchal structure of an organization, it also defines the role of the customer and how staffs develop a team (McLean, 2005). It can also be referred to as organizational structure and varies from a complex to a simple structure. From the case study, GM is based on the line and staff model. This type of organization structure is defined in such a manner that the hierarchal structure has the CEO at the top of other managers. The managers directly reports to the CEO individually or through their staffs. This model is quite different from the matrix model that is popular with most industries (Ivancevich et al., 2007). Matrix structure is a more dynamic type of organizational model and is very effective in terms of organizational operations. Under matrix model, managers are in charge of their departments where they lead and oversee the progress of such department. Matrix structure could have departments like; human resource, operations, marketing, and any other department relevant to the company.

Matrix structure is popular with industries due to its advantages relative to other forms of model structures. This structure clearly defines project’s objectives as well as the functional objectives. Each manager thus knows their roles and responsibility in the attainment of the specific projects within their departments. Human resource which is a limited resource can also be utilized optimally under matrix structure. All employees also focus on the targets set by their managers so as to realize the organization’s goals. Unlike other models which are characterized with conflicting interest and duties, this model limits such possibilities while carrying out the projects McGregor, 1960). The other benefit of this model is that it ensures that each structure retains its function thus enhancing efficiency and large scale productivity of employees without disrupting the structure. Matrix structure is also conservative in the sense that different structures within the organization can share resources without conflicts since each functional manager understands that eventually the project structure will dissolve.

Culture affects the performance of an organization in the sense that it drives behavior of individuals within the organization as well as the innovation of the companies. It also influences customer service delivery and the relationship between the customers and the organization. Culture can also be an indicator of whether a firm will succeed or fail in times of changes like during growth or mergers (McLean, 2005). Currently, culture is a factor that contributes more to the success of business compared to other factors as it shapes how work is done, instils beliefs and values in the organization (Edinger, 2012). It also puts together explicit and implicit system for rewards thus define how an organization works in real world. Culture determines the engagement level of employees to their work and to the company at large and this culture of engaging employees improve their performance and that of the company as well (Edinger, 2012).

Leadership on the other hand is an action of controlling, supervising or governing a group of individuals within an organization. There are different leadership styles like autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire, strategic, bureaucratic and transformational leadership styles that managers can use to define the performance of the business. Leadership entails putting efforts together to realize a specific common goal and the success of a business will depend on the ability of top management to control and supervise the employees. From the case study, GM Company used autocratic leadership where the CEO made all decisions without considering any input from those who reported to her and this barred decision making process that eventually resulted in the tragedy. The company also made decisions that shifted leadership style like the decision to appoint Jeff Boyer the vice-president of safety who reports directly to Mark Reuss instead of reporting to the CEO, this was in a way bureaucratic.

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The concern of the house and senate subcommittee on the GM ignition switch crisis greatly influenced the way the leadership style of the company. Safety measures department was established whose head was under no obligation to report directly to the CEO. The concern of decision making on safety measures by the senior management also influenced the decision making process of the company from lower level to senior most level. In GM Company, decision making was solely done by the top management where the opinions of those at lower levels were not incorporated in the final decision.

Disregarding of opinion of employees in the final decision or decision-making processes instilled the behavior of reluctance by employees to report issues to the top management. It was also a norm in the company that an agreement could be made to a proposed plan of action but with no intention to follow their implementation. It is also evident that individual at the top management were not ready take responsibility as they were fond of accusing each other in times of crisis. An example is evident from the report where the CEO is reported to have fired 15 workers following the crisis. The top management should have instead taken responsibility for the tragedy due to poor decisions making on the safety of the ignition switch.

Leadership style therefore influences the internal culture of an organization and a shift in leadership style means a shift in the internal culture of an organization. From the case study, the culture of low level employees being reluctant to raise issues that affect the company arises since it was the top management that exclusively made decisions. Lack of inclusion affects organization’s image and trust.

References

Dunn, J.D. and Stephens, E.C. (1972). Management of People, New York: Mcgraw Hill Book Company

Edinger, S. (2012). Don’t Innovate. Create a Culture of Innovation, Forbes, Accessed on February 22, 2019 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/scottedinger/2012/11/20/dont-innovate-reate-a-culture-of-innovation/

Ivancevich, J., Konopaske, R., Matteson, M. (2007). Organizational Behavior And Management.               New York: Mcgraw-Hill Irwin.

Katz, R. L. (1974). Skills of an Effective Administrator. Harvard Business Review 52, 90-102

Kuppler, T. (2014). The GM Culture Crisis: What Leaders Must Learn From This Culture Case Study

McGregor, D. (1960). The Human Side of Enterprise. New York: McGraw Hill

Mclean, G.N. (2005). Organization Development Principles, Processes, Performance. California: Berrett-Koehler Publishers

Transformational corporate leaders

Introduction
Leadership is a practice that has been around for very many years though there has been no single definition to completely describe it. This could be due to its continuously evolving nature and variations depending on context. Leadership is generally a complicated concept that can be applied in many areas while the results that it creates are highly dependent on the context in which it’s being applied. The term ‘transformational leaders’ was first formed by J.V. Downton in 1973. During his study of political leadership, James Macgregor introduced for the first time the concept of transformational leadership. According to Macgregor, transformational leadership is a not just a set of specific behaviours but a continuous process through which leaders and followers uplift one another to high states of motivation and morality (The transformational leadership report 2007).

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Transformational leaders provide a purpose that goes beyond the short term goals looks at the higher order intrinsic objectives. These leaders will always raise the bar by engaging to higher ideals and values of their subordinates. This way, the leaders are able to model the values themselves as well as use appealing methods to lure people to the values and to the leaders themselves. Transformational leadership requires high level of self actualization and self esteem in order to be an authetic and transformational leader. Essentially the work of a transformational leader is to induce people to be conscious of their feelings, to feel their true needs strongly and to meaningfully define their values so that they can be moved to a determined action (Chance & Chance 2002 p.79)
Macgregor was among the first scholars to insist that true transformational leadership does not just create change and attain goals within an organization but also changes the individuals involved and makes both the leaders and followers to be ennobled. According to () transformational leadership is also defined in terms of how the leader impacts his subordinates who are in turn supposed to respect, admire and trust the transformational leader. Transformational leadership has evolved from elements of preceding types for instance behavior and trait theories, situational, charismatic and transactional leadership. Transformational leaders are actually natural leaders. They automatically take charge of group of workers with great confidence and authority and they motivate their followers to do things with ease. Such leaders who are admired and envied for their natural qualities in leadership skills are actually born with leadership qualities in them.
Astrologists argue that qualities of leadership are given at birth. For instance they believe that individuals born under the Aries zodiac sign are usually natural leaders and will always find themselves in leadership positions as adults. According to ( ), its not doubtable that certain people are born with natural characteristics and traits that make it easier for them to inspire and have power over others. Some people are born with natural confidence which is an advantageous characteristic for leaders. Such people are therefore more attractive for their determination and drive which creates an impetus that other people find easy to follow. Those people with proper communication skills and empathy which are generally admired by people, and the ability to relate well with people even in stressful situations, attract a sense of respect and liking from other people.
This paper evaluates the characteristics of transformational leaders and how they are made. The paper tries to illustrate that transformational corporate leaders are actually born and not made.
Theories and models of transformational leadership
According to Gosling, Marturano & Dennison (2003), transformational leadership is procedure in which organizational leaders take actions to enhance the awareness of their associates on what is right and crucial (p.16). These leaders raise the motivational maturity of their followers which makes them to go beyond their own individual interests for the betterment of their group as well as the whole organization. Transformational leaders provide their followers with a feeling of purpose that exceeds a simple receiving of rewards for their efforts. Transformational leaders are unique leaders whose leadership qualities are believed to be natural. These leaders not only optimize the general performance of their associates but also the development of an organization. Organizational or business development involves the maturation of values, ability, attitudes and motivation (Gosling, Marturano & Dennison 2003 p.16). Transformational leaders are aimed at developing the maturity level of their followers needs from the basic security needs to the needs of self development.
Theories
A number of recent theories on leadership have tried to describe leadership effectiveness according to how leaders transform or change an organization (Chance & Chance 2002 p.94). One of the theories in leadership is the transformational leadership theory also known as the leadership theory. This theory states that leadership is interlinked or can not be separated from the needs and goals of the followers, and that it’s as a result of interaction between the followers and the leaders. According to Chance & Chance (2002), there are two important forms of leader follower interaction which are transformational and transactional (p.94). In transactional relationship the leader influences the follower through an exchange of something valued by both of them. Transformational theory assumes that the main focus of leadership should be the capacities and commitments of organizational individuals. Their should also be higher level of individual dedication to organisational objectives and greater capacities for fulfilling these objectives. According to Bush T. (2003), transformational leaders succeed by acquiring the followers’ commitment to such degree that the higher levels of accomplishment become a moral imperative (p.77).
The transformational model is for instance broad in that it gives normative approach to school leadership which aims basically on the process by which leaders endeavour to manipulate the school outcome and not the nature of those outcomes (Bush T. 2003 p.77). Transformational leadership has the capability of becoming autocratic because of its well-built heroic and charismatic features. According to Chance & Chance (2002), transformational leadership stimulates others to look at their work from new dimensions while creating the awareness of the mission and vision of the organization (p.95). Transformational leaders stimulate others to be creative and innovative. This creativity and innovation is promoted through looking for new ideas from others. These leaders attend the needs of their followers and help them in growth and development by acting as their mentors. The underlying principle of these leaders is their commitment to personal values and moral purpose which are important in bringing about organizational change.
Models in leadership
Models on leadership assist us to understand what makes leaders to operate the way they do. The different types of behaviours discussed in models help us to understand that every situation calls for a specific approach. One of the models is the four framework approach where leaders illustrate behaviours in leadership in one of the four types of frame works. These frame works are the structural, political, human resource or symbolic. The leadership style can either be effective or not depending on the behavior chosen in certain situations. In a working leadership situation the leader is usually a social architect whose style of leadership is analysis and design. On the other hand leaders in failing leadership are just tyrants whose styles of leadership consist of mere details. Structural leaders put more emphasis on strategy, structure, environment, experimentation, implementation and adaptation.
In the human resource framework, the leader in the effective leadership conditions is a catalyst and servant whose style of leadership is support, empowerment and advocation, while in a non working leadership the boss is a pushover whose style of leadership is fraud and abdication. Human resource leaders hold believe in people and they communicate that believe. They are accessible and encourage increased participation and sharing of information. These leaders involve everybody in the organization when it comes to decision making. For a political framework the leader in effective leadership circumstances is an advocate whose style of leadership is a coalition and building while in the ineffective condition the leader is a hustler whose style of leadership is manipulation. Political leaders indicate clearly what they can get and build relationship with other stake holders. They first apply persuasion then coercion and negotiation only if necessary.
In symbolic framework, the leader in working leadership is a prophet whose style of leadership is inspiration while the leader in a non performing situation a fool whose style of leadership is smoke and mirrors.
The other model in used in leadership is the managerial grid. This model uses two axes whereby ‘concern for people’ is plotted using the vertical axis while the ‘concern for task’ is plotted on the horizontal axis. The managerial behaviour is then described using the two dimensions that are drawn as a graph. Both axis’s are plotted on a range of 0 to 9 and the leaders are then grouped depending on what they score on both sides. Those who score 9 points on the task side and 1 on the people side are authoritarian, those who score 9 on both sides are team leaders, those who score 1 on both sides are impoverished while those who score 1 on task and 9 on people are country club leaders.
Authoritarian leader are more task oriented and are tough on their employees. These leaders are very tough on schedules and expect the workers to do everything without question. Team leaders lead by good examples and are concerned in promoting a team environment. They encourage their followers to attain their goals effectively and to strengthen the bonds between employees. On the other hand the country club leaders mainly use the power of reward and recognition in maintaining discipline among their employees while the impoverished leader uses delegation of duties as a management style (Chance & Chance 2002). These leaders are neither concerned with maintenance or task accomplishment.
References
Bass B. M. & Riggio R. E. (2006) Transformational leadership London: Routledge.
Hacker, S, & Roberts, T (2003) Transformational leadership: creating organizations of meaning American Society for Quality.
Avolio B. J & Bass B. M. 2002 Developing potential across a full range of leadership: cases on transactional and transformational leadership Routledge: New York.
Gosling, R .B, Marturano, A & Dennison, P. (2003) A review of the leadership theory and competency frameworks. Centre for leadership studies: Dunsford Hill.
Schwartz M. K. , Gimbel K. G. 2000 Leadership resources: a guide to training and development tools Center for Creative Leadership.
Chance, P. L. & Chance, E. W (2002) Introduction to educational leadership & organizational behavior: theory into practice Eye on Education.
Bush T. 2003 Theories of educational leadership and management SAGE.
The transformational leadership report (2007) (http://www.transformationalleadership.net/products/TransformationalLeadershipReport.pdf)
 

Effect of a Leader’s Personality on Employee Motivation

Critically discuss the ways in which a leader’s personality might affect their employees’ motivation at work.

The term ‘personality’ and ‘motivation’ holds many definitions today, the term personality is a broad term that is used when applying to a range of people. Guildford (1959) defined personality as the unique traits for the individuals look different from others, in another way this is what people either see or perceive. The term ‘personality’ also means ‘mask’ which is from the Latin persona and is used when describing the physical, mental and emotional characteristics of an individual. The concept of motivation has many theories through history, philosophers and psychologists such as Maslow, Aristotle, Locke etc analyzed their studies based on what drives and motivates mankind and the process behind human behaviour (Madsen, 1968). Motivation is where the individual feels that work is sometimes good and sometimes bad but is that is fulfilling, satisfying and capable of development in all ways. In other words, the concept of motivation comprises both the characteristics of the situation and the individuals. This essay will critically discuss whether a leaders personality may affect their employee’s motivation at work and will convey a well structured evidence-based argument which will consider a range of perspective. This essay will focus on motivation by both managers and employee and their influences on motivation.

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Having a group represents how the leader should behave towards their employee and how the employee should respond back. By doing so, there may be differences occurring which affect the leader and employee interaction. Having differences in personality and leadership styles can immensely affect motivation at work (Daft, 2011). Differences between personality styles may come from different norms, values, and attitudes. This could be because people come from different backgrounds which therefore reflects on cultural norms and values and affect employee’s motivation at work. Personality types result in behaviour change and affect the employee and leader interaction. Thus leading to an understanding that some leaders have different personality e.g strong/weak. This influences employee performance. If a leader has a weak personality, then they may find managing people emotionally difficult because managing people is emotionally difficult rather than intellectually. Leaders are expected to surround themselves with strong subordinates e.g. people who are independent and take initiative rather than with people who cause trouble e.g. back talk. Thus, if a leader has a weak personality, they would not know how to fix this issue and lead the ‘motivated’ employees to feel ‘demotivated’ overall.

Content theories of motivation are theories that identify factors which individuals may need for example task factors, individual needs and management styles that shape individual motivation. However, process theories look at motivation as the outcome between the individual and their experiences of an organization. These processes depend on the individual’s experiences at work. With the likes of process theories, (Adams, 1963) claims that inequity motivates individuals to remove discomfort and restore a sense of equity to a given situation. Inequity exists when individuals feel that rewards received for their work is unequal to the rewards other individuals may receive for their inputs e.g. they may feel they received less than others in proportion to work efforts. Those who feel that they received more from their efforts are regarded as positive inequity. Individuals who feel overpaid have been found to increase their quantity/quality of work whereas those who are underpaid do the opposite (David and Wilson). This suggests that negative inequity can damage both performance and satisfaction and therefore lead employees to feel demotivated.

Content theories are based on assumption that individuals seek to satisfy all needs. Taylor (1911) stated that if leaders were to fulfill their responsibilities then there would be a rational division of labour. Therefore, suggesting the ‘laziness’ in employees could be resolved in the service of both employee and the organization. Maslow (1943) suggested that individuals needs were organized in a hierarchy of needs starting from psychological needs e.g. food and sleep to safety needs, needs for love, the need for self-actualization etc. When self- actualization is reached, individuals continue to become motivated. (McClelland, 1961) states that with content theories individuals have needs for achievement, power, and affiliation and tend to motivate individuals at a certain time. His theory can imply that each theory can be associated with work preferences thus helping managers to create work environments for individuals.

While such needs are unsatisfied, individuals are still preoccupied with them. (Maslow, 1943) suggests that psychological need is rare. Once one level of needs is met, the ‘higher needs’ such as safety needs etc emerge and dominate thus the meeting of a need is important in allowing other needs to emerge. However, this can also mean that once a need is satisfied then this no longer can motivate an individual and they may become self-confident however if they are thwarted then this leads to feelings of weakness and inferiority and thus lead individuals to become restlessness. Maslow (1943) states that a man is motivated by his needs to develop and reach his full potential and it would ideal for individuals to have a good notion of health in an organization as this is high in demand. However, Maslow (1943) concludes that there is more sickness than health in organisations which therefore leads to individuals being demotivated and unable to reach and maximize their full potential.

There is a link between Maslow’s view on ‘sickness’ as the failure to meet one’s basic needs. McGregor (1960) created his theory that relates to human motivation which is Theory X and Theory Y which refers to people’s behaviour and attitudes towards the environment. Theory X is referred to those individuals who are lazy and avoid tasks given, suggesting that leaders may set negative assumptions about the attitudes and capabilities of employees and therefore these assumptions can shape an organization it can begin to have effects on how employees may behave. Thus this can suggest that employees must be rewarded, punished and controlled. The problem of motivation lies not in the employee but in the mind of the leader, working with negative exceptions of environment can result in lack of work performance. Whereas, theory Y states that individuals are self-motivated, work hard and accept responsibility. This theory suggests that people are co-operative if leaders provide the condition under which they can do this so that individuals can achieve their goals by being directed towards business objectives. If leaders have a positive assumption about their employees, this can affect employees motivation to be positive and therefore a business can achieve their goals. (Myers-Briggs, 1962) identifies an explanation of personality due to the way individuals accept and reject different features of the environment. It isn’t clear whether people are blessed with certain personality by birth or the environment, however, this can imply that individuals remain self-choosing agents and open to change. (Wilson, 2013) argues that there are 5 personality preferences that structure personality and these are, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, extraversion and neuroticism.  With the use of this model, a leader can choose these factors to motivate employees driven by different goals. With the likes of environmental factors, (Wright, 2008) states that public service motivation can be seen as a vocation or a calling. This can suggest that rewards are always not materialistic and people gain satisfaction by helping others.

Employees may become demotivated and unsatisfied at work because they may not feel connected to the success of the company because their daily work isn’t tied to business success, e.g. they may not deal with ‘clients’ and therefore they may have trouble relating to it. (Hertzberg, 1959) did a study at the University of Pittsburgh to ask 200 employees which is known as his dual factory theory of motivation on when individuals felt satisfied and dissatisfied. He found out that incidents including promotion recognition etc were regarded as satisfaction. However, incidents involving salary and supervisors etc were regarded as dissatisfaction. This theory and (Maslow’s 1943) is criticised because this theory cannot predict individual behaviour through analysing needs.

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It can be argued that individuals have a collective and personal unconscious, (Jung, 1968) ‘personality theory’ states that individuals form a part of an inner/outer world where individuals are driven by rational forces e.g. individuals keep reserved for a ‘role on another stage’: there are two sides of an individual’s personality e.g. leaders may want to progress in ways that would allow them to maximize their potential. An example is (Jung, 1968) theory of extroverts and Introverts, some leaders may have a personality type of an ‘introvert’, these individuals are receptive to the force of collective unconscious e.g. they are unsociable, prefer to be alone etc. This results in less ambition towards work. Some individuals are not motivators because they may not be perceived as transformational in their leadership style compared to ‘extroverts’ because these individuals are people who are practical and outgoing. If leaders hold these traits then this can hold a positive impact on employee motivation because they remain equally transformative due to problem-solving. These leaders tend to be more successful due to their communication skills and the job performance of the employees are enhancing when they are being motivated by their job satisfaction. Controlled (extrinsic) motivation is one type of motivation, these are verbal rewards and are tangible which are provided by leaders. Employee satisfaction doesn’t derive from work itself but of a well-performed job. (Brundin Fet al, 2006). Another type is intrinsic which is driven by a sense of dedication for example self-interest in work and enjoyment.

Furthermore, Individuals can become demotivated when their work isn’t acknowledged and if they aren’t given the opportunities. Negative feelings such as stress can disrupt work balance (Brundin et al, 2006). Innovative companies like Google make their employees interact to work on side projects because they want them to have a habit of thinking. This allows employees to not perform tasks over and over again but rather to pitch in their own ideas and this can lead to motivation.  It can also be argued that employees may not see the value of the business because they may not believe in their work, and in order to change this, leaders need to motivate employees over the long term. This is because they could be insecure about their job or because as a company they may have poor communication skills which can result in poor performance and lead employers to hate their job due to the fact they don’t enjoy it. It is not just the leader’s personality that can demotivate employers but also due to the fact they need their own self-motivation.

People have an ‘ego deal’ (Levninson, 2003) which is compromised by values, skills, and expectations, thus implying that an individual can have a driving force to achieve their personal aspiration. If a leaders objective is not in favour of the employee then the employee may not be at their potential and therefore it is not a leader’s personality that can affect an employers motivation but a leaders decision. With the likes of (Bandura’s, 1977) ‘social cognitive theory’ some people doubt that they don’t have what it takes to succeed and thus it can lead to lack of motivation and achieve limited success even in environments that may provide many opportunities. (Locke and Latham, 1990) conducted a test on over 40,000 people in several countries to explain why certain individuals perform better than others. They found out that if leaders give praise, feedback etc then this makes a difference to employees commitment to a difficult goal. The higher the goal the higher the performance rather than having easy goals and less motivation. Employees need to set their own goals in order to motivate themselves and the leader can support this by self-management skills e.g. giving positive feedback as this can increase an employees sense of self- efficacy and setting ‘SMART’ objectives. By doing this employees goals can be specific, measurable etc and thus a leader’s own expectation of an employee could be regarded as significant as they shape the goals they set themselves.

Therefore, in conclusion, having considered all of the relevant factors, it is evident that both leader’s personality can affect an employee’s motivation as well as employees self-motivation. To be successful both employee and leaders needs to have strong personal traits such as communication and self-confidence. If a leader doesn’t show strong skills, this can reflect poorly on the employees and if employees show a lack of motivation this can lead leaders to have a negative personality and thus leading business failure. Employee and leaders need to balance in a management team. Both Maslow’s and Hertzberg theory has methodological problems, for example, it can be argued that these researches have not been conducted under controlled conditions, therefore, these suggestions on whether employee motivation can be invalid e.g. Hertzberg’s theory; they could’ve attributed the good things to themselves and the negative things to the situation. Even though, leaders job is to give guidance towards achieving goals, shouldn’t employees be able to find motivation without the help of a leader? Employees are adults and can motivate themselves, however, having leadership and employee relationship needs to balance and people who have great personalities have the motivation, those who desire and fight for their goals are able to attain their goals.

“8 Common Causes Of Workplace Demotivation”, Forbes.Com, 2019 https://www.forbes.com/sites/work-in-progress/2014/01/20/8-common-causes-of-workplace-demotivation/#682ea54342c6  [Accessed 22 February 2019]

“Four Types Of Business Personalities”, Smallbusiness.Chron.Com, 2019 https://smallbusiness.chron.com/four-types-business-personalities-26162.html [Accessed 22 February 2019]

“How Personality Affects Work Behavior”, Smallbusiness.Chron.Com, 2019 [Accessed 22 February 2019]

Youshan, Baiduri & Hassan, Zubair. (2015). The Effect of Employees Personality on Organizational Performance: Study on Insurance Company. International Journal of Accounting and Business Management

Mcleod, Saul, “Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs”, Simply Psychology, 2019 [Accessed 22 February 2019]

Leaders and Management in the Early Childhood Setting

This essay looks into the quote by Rodd (2013), ‘Understanding leadership in early childhood has been plagued by its confusion with the concept of management’.  The roles of leaders and management in the early childhood setting are investigated and studied, considering how their abilities and characters are interconnected amid the two sides, adding to the perplexity. Modern philosophies of leadership and styles are reviewed, alongside their implementation to early childhood settings.

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Within the last thirty years, the Early Childcare Education [ECE] division has grown into a strong organization, that comprises of a large number of managers and leaders encompassed in a worldwide industry. The addition of the National Quality Framework [NQF], by the Australian Children’s Education and Care Quality Authority [ACECQA] (2017), the composition of Early Childhood Education has altered from staff being guided by the director of the centre, to a collective management sensation (Nupponen 2005).

Quality Area 7 of the National Quality Standards [NQS], (ACECQA, 2017) covers Governance and leadership. The quality area includes three standards; 7.1: Successful leadership advocating for a constructive organisational culture which develops a professional learning group. Standard 7.2: commitment to enhance and reflect on one’s knowledge and development, and finally standard 7.3: where the centre is to be proficiently and successfully steered towards producing a quality Early Childhood Educational setting. These directly affect all other facets of the National Quality Standards, towards producing a successful Early Childhood Educational setting, that is attaining improved outcomes for children’s education and development (ACECQA, 2017).

Leadership is intricate and complex owing to the sector’s diversity (Waniganayake, Cheeseman, Fenech, Hadley and Shepherd, 2012). Moreover, leadership proficiencies will be contingent upon individual principles, philosophical systems, qualifications and training, the actual setting, and its community structure, along with the position held within it. The sector consists of a majority of females most of which are young, and less experienced, increasing the complexity of the sector (Scrivens, 2002). Leadership does not have one clear definition in an early childhood setting, as each person in the setting should contribute to the leadership, however, it lacks due to a deficiency in staff education in this area, leaving little information on what it requires, adding to the misperception of roles (Waniganayake et al., 2012).

Leaders generally concentrate on the future, steering the routine success of the setting, forming aims and a vision for the setting (Rodd, 2013). The definition of leadership is a progression of engagement; persuading and inspiring peers to collaborate and share in the values and vision of the setting, supporting, and meeting the needs of all the shareholders in the setting (Rodd, 2013). Educators are normally seen as enthusiastic, inventive, creative, considerate, compassionate, open-minded, amicable, loving, and flexible. However, a manager, is driven by the routine governing of the setting, its procedures, continuing and supporting the philosophies, and are described as being organised and professional.  Characteristics additionally comprise of being assertive, realistic, governing, however, remaining accessible and compassionate. It is disputed that management and leadership exist implanted within each other, intersecting and exchangeable (Nupponen 2005).  Kagan and Bowman (1997) state there are five sides of leadership which also integrate managerial functions, adding to the perplexity that the quotation emphasises (Rodd, 2013).  A pedagogical leader is the initial role; being knowledgeable with research, ideas and have a comprehensive understanding of early childhood development.  Pedagogical leaders are accountable for sharing the practices with children’s families and the community.  This position is usually executed by the educational leader but can done by room leaders too.

The next side of a leader in early childhood settings is clerical management, which is normally executed by the director.   Responsibilities comprise of accounting, rostering, and maintaining staff and ratios, policy application, development of staff, keeping records and sustaining the legislative and regulatory obligations (Kagan & Bowman, 1997).

The third side is support leadership, this is safeguarding social justice and equity are maintained in the setting and in the future.  This may incorporate the expansion of policies, accomplishing transformation and enhancements for children, families, and society (Kagan & Bowman, 1997).  Management and leadership roles both may execute this function.

The fourth side is community leadership, which connects to cultivating and establishing networks to assist families and children, along with linking others with the centre (Kagan and Bowman, 1997).  This position has both leaders and management both contributing.

The final side of the leadership position is theoretical leadership (Kagan and Bowman, 1997).  This denotes mostly to the early childhood industry, with respects to conditions of work, disagreements with wages and professionalism.  The leader needs to be imaginative, to improve policies, and investigate was at refining every one of the areas, the director or curriculum leader would normally preform this position.

Educators may be aware that they are leading on a routine day, requiring them to be both a leader and an educator at the same time (Rodd, 2013).  Characteristically, educators will do what is necessary, for the setting to progress efficiently and abide by the authority configurations. It is not obvious what distinguishes the two positions (Rodd, 2013). Typically, leaders guide people to inspire and improve others, while managers manage the clerical aspect, all of the purposes, procedures and people included in the centre (Rodd, 2013).     

To be a productive leader, it is imperative to be a well organised manager (Rodd, 2013). In contrary, not all managers make successful leaders, nonetheless management intersects that of leadership, as the area is specialised, proving the misperception as referred to in the quote (Rodd, 2013).  There are arguments that both positions have equivalent significance and ought to be a cooperative contribution, flattering one another, so all can make a transformation in the lives of children (Waniganayake et al., 2012).  Rodd (2013) believes that all staff in the setting ought to share in the leadership every day, to enable the setting to run efficiently and profitably for all encompassed in the setting.

Philosophies and theories deliver a framework for educators to utilise to cultivate their leadership and managerial abilities. These are historically male derived, and do not denote to the early childhood education division. Thus, adding to the complexity in distinguishing leadership in the field, in accord with the quote by Rodd (2013).  Research is however developing and according to Rodd (2013), has described some that are applicable to the early childhood sector.

A popular notion of leadership used today in early childhood settings is Distributed Leadership.  It understands that staff have particular comprehension, abilities, and proficiencies, and decisively delivers the roles and responsibilities onto the staff that hold those skills, where they can focus on, creating a cooperative ethos.   It is debated that there can be challenges, as it necessitates designations of jobs, or for a person to wait for a position to open, where their abilities can be applied. Educators can get irritated about their abilities not being used and relocate to other centres.  Co-workers may also rival with each other and cause bad choices to be made (Rodd 2013).

The Transformational theory is thought to be more operative, as it motivates, inspires, and gives power to co-workers with mutual philosophies and a foresight to attain greater results for everyone (Rodd 2013).  Leaders will use their individual qualities of ‘enthusiasm, energy, drive, ethics and commitment’ (Rodd, 2013, p.47), to allow others to pursue, and motivate themselves to look for new original ways of doing things, to take initiative and add worth to the setting.  Leaders who are predisposed by the transformational theory will have qualities of being open minded, compassionate, and unbiased, normally in the position of curriculum leader (Rodd, 2013).  Additionally, they can tutor others, guide, and deliver motivation.  A leader well-versed by the transformational theory, may also converse possible personal development prospects to expand on areas of interest. 

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Not all theories will suit every person or every setting, as it is reliant on each person’s motivations, principles, ambitions, and ethics, where leaders and managers must be adaptable when managing philosophies and policies and modify the method.  Likewise, to there not being one distinct classification of leadership and managers in early childhood education, there is no single philosophy or theory that clarifies how to lead or manage, furthering the misperception (Rodd, 2013).

Katz (1979) established a successive phase that early childhood educators advance through when joining the industry.  Firstly, entering the industry in the survival phase, where the educator is concentrating on getting through the day, hopeful that all responsibilities are achieved.  This survival focused educator will consequently be mentored and educated by a more knowledgeable educator/s and possibly be in need of help and reinforcement in periods of pressure, apprehension and/or crisis.

The educator then transfers on to the consolidation phase as they achieve more comprehension and experience (Rodd, 2013).  This phase is explained as examining deeper in to their position, recognising children who are struggling and require extra assistance, as well as working together with other educators to find solutions and present their own contribution, it is now where an educator might take on the community leadership (Kagan and Bowman’s 1997).  

The third phase is the renewal stage, in which an educator, generally in their third or fourth year in the industry, begins to explore the development of their abilities and joining professional development courses, communicating with other educators, and studying articles to develop pedagogy (Katz 1979).  At this phase they are additionally accepting leadership responsibilities (Kagan & Bowman, 1997).

The maturity phase is the concluding phase in Katz’s (1979) model, normally in an educators fifth year, educators are confident and proficient in their work.  The majority of these educators will be leading and/or managing others, implementing administrative responsibilities, and usually advocating for children, along with the profession in an entirety (Kagan & Bowman, 1997).  Experienced educators might additionally be participating in personal development courses, conferences, and symposiums to expand their expertise and comprehension with more convolution (Katz, 1997).

In similarity to Katz (1997) model of early childhood educator’s advancement in the sector, Collins (2001) suggests a model which explains the stages of leadership that an early childhood educator will proceed through.  Level five is the peak of the hierarchy that the majority of educational leaders, aim to attain (Rodd, 2013).

An early childhood educator at stage one in the chain of command is a proficient person Collins (2001). Adding to the daily operations of the centre, ensuring that the children and family’s requirements met (Rodd, 2013).  At stage two, the early childhood educator is developing proficiencies and comprehension that advances them to be a participating colleague, helping the team to work collaboratively.  At this stage they are perhaps now possessing the label of room leader, as they may have obtained personal development courses and attained abilities that they impart and communicate to co-workers (Rodd, 2013).

Stage three of the ladder of leadership, denotes to this stage as being a proficient manager, an example of this being, an educator in a senior position such as a director of the centre (Collins 2001). Most early childhood educators will be ‘observed in levels 1 – 3’, with smaller quantities of educators desiring to reach level four or five (Rodd, 2013).  Stage four is an efficient and successful leader; this phase as imaginative, with a spotlight on the upcoming (Collins, 2001).  The early childhood educator is most likely to be a part of a considerably bigger and more cooperative progression, where transformation can develop and evolve for the centre.

Stage five is explained as an executive leader, owning all the abilities and proficiencies necessary for all the former stages, but additionally showing more developed comprehension.  An individual educator at this level may have a perplexing consciousness of individual modesty, combined with personal resolve (PowurPBC, 2016).  A large number of individuals are not able to attain this level, as they retain too much ego.  This stage comprises of an individual that is the definitive team player, assuming culpability and accountability for any malfunctions.  These educators hold an aspiration to get matters done, and the resolve and confidence to make it transpire, these educators understand how to lead and are effective at it.  PowurPBC (2016) states that this is the greatest model of leadership, as it imparts how individuals can progress from being decent to remarkable.

ACECQA (2017) encourage all early childhood educators to participate in leadership responsibilities, along with managerial tasks.  This conception is triggering misunderstanding, as Rodd (2013) articulates in the quotation, where early childhood educators are uncertain of the exact functions and obligations, with several roles coinciding and interlacing amongst leadership and management. There is no one solitary theory, philosophy, or model that early childhood educators ought to use, but they should take on a holistic methodology and employ all of them with particular co-workers and within the suitable situations, heading towards accomplishing the greatest possible outcomes for the children (Rodd 2013).

References:

Australian Children’s Education and Care Quality Authority [ACECQA], (2018). Leadership and management in education and care services: An analysis of Quality Area 7 of the National Quality Standard.  Retrieved from https://www.acecqa.gov.au/sites/default/files/2018-02/OccasionalPaper5-LeadershipManagementEducationCareServices.PDF

Kagan, S.L., & Bowman, B. T. (1997). Leadership in early care and education. Washington, DC: NAEYC.

Katz, Lilian, G. (1979). The developmental stages of teachers.  Retrieved from http://ecap.crc.uiuc.edu/pubs/katz-dev-stages/index.html

Nupponen, H., (2005). Leadership and Management in Child Care Services: Contextual factors and their Impact on Practice. Retrieved from https://eprints.qut.edu.au/16094/1/Hannele_Nupponen_Thesis.pdf

Rodd, J. (2006). Leadership in early childhood. (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Rodd, J. (2013). Leadership in early childhood: the pathway to professionalism (4th ed.). Berkshire, England: Open University Press.

Scrivens, C. (2002). Constructions of leadership; Does gender make a difference? In V. Nivala & E. Gujala (Eds.), Leadership in early childhood (pp. 23-32). Retrieved from http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514268539/isbn9514268539.pdf

PowurPBC (2016). Level 5 leadership. Retrieved from      https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=10&v=dNffaXdeiPY

Waniganayake, M., Cheeseman, S., Fenech, M., Hadley, F. & Shepherd, W. (2012). Leadership: contexts and complexities in early childhood education. South Melbourne, VIC: Oxford.

Blaming and Praising Leaders and their Followers

Under what conditions (if any) is it correct to blame or praise leaders for what their followers do? (Be sure to illustrate your answer with examples.

Introduction

The definition of leader, according Winston and Patterson ( 2006) is someone who “selects, equips, trains, and influences one or more follower(s) who have diverse gifts, abilities, and skills and focuses the follower(s) to the organization’s mission and objectives causing the follower(s) to willingly and enthusiastically expend spiritual, emotional, and physical energy in a concerted coordinated effort to achieve the organizational mission and objectives”. Therefore, one would agree that the behaviour and actions of a leader has serious impact on the actions of their followers. A leader is responsible for the moral culture in an organisation by demonstrating discernment between appropriate and unacceptable rules of proper behaviour (Thomas, 2008) and sets the foundation for organisational culture. Reeves-Ellington (1998) further highlights the importance of the ethical actions of a leader, emphasising that if effective ethical leadership is not exhibited by leaders themselves, employees in the lower levels of the organisation will not comprehend the importance of ethics in business thus undermining moral culture. This sort of ethical leadership mentioned by Reeves-Ellington (1998) brings a more modern approach to moral responsibility in organisations as compared to Aristotle’s views on moral responsibility. Aristotle provides a different outlook on blameworthiness and praiseworthiness using the terms voluntary and involuntary actions to justify his views (Nichomachean Ethics, Book 3). The terms voluntary and involuntary actions and how it approached blameworthiness and praiseworthiness will be discussed below. There is two sides to a coin and the below discussion would dwell into the two contrasting views of ethical leadership and responsibility.

 

A Modern Society Approach to Blameworthiness and Praiseworthiness

 

The setting of an organisational culture is essential in imparting core beliefs and ethical practices into a company. As mentioned in Thomas ( 2008), a leader is liable for the moral culture in an organisation and the actions of the followers is a direct representation (Gibori, 2017) of the beliefs and morals a leader has instil upon. Hence, leaders should be subjected to the blame for the actions of their subordinates as this is necessary to send a strong message (Barthélemy, 2014) to the public and also to employees within the organisation. Taking the blame might not necessarily be a terrible thing, as this gives leader the ability to take control of the problem ( Vidotto, n,d) and it also enables the leader to express the importance of bonds that have been forged (Abudato, n,d). The actions of Scott Waddle, former navy commander is a great example of taking responsibility. He took full responsibility for his ship’s collision with a Japanese vessel which resulted in death of 9 civilians. Though his men were the ones at fault, he took all the blame because he was their captain 9 Horsager, 2014). Under such situations, the leader is blameworthy as Manwaring (1997) implies that by taking full responsibility of the fault, a leader would be regarded as a scapegoat but further suggest that an utilitarian leader would readily take up full responsibility for the achievement or downfall of the group under his/her control.

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Leaders, have the most influence in a team or organization, as a result, there is a higher level expectation and accountability. They undertake the responsibility and right to lead the community, decision making and acts on behalf of the group ( Chaffee, 1997). This emphasises the idea of taking the blame because a leader should be prepared to be held accountable, and being in a leadership position suggest that a leader has accepted the obligations to be held accountable and should be prepared to assume all criticism ( Bavly, 1999). If top management is not aware of the ins and outs of a business, they are not being responsible to the business and also to their employees. Thus if a mistake were to occur, the leader is equally, if not more responsible for the fault. The notion that a leader has to exercise accountability and responsibility might involve a hidden motive, which is to salvage the reputation of the business and themselves. As suggested by Kouzes and Posner (1993), leaders publicly recognize their mistakes and avert from temptation to dismiss their involvement and publicly apologize to all who were at the receiving end of the mistake. Kouzes and Posner (1993) also added that any act of trying to mask or disclaim any fault would result in further damage to the leader’s reputation as compared to acknowledging the mistake from the beginning. In such situations, it is advisable for leaders to assume the blame and pass the credit to their followers. Praiseworthiness can be said differently from a leaders perspective. As stated by Folkman (2017), when a leader passes credit to his/her followers, they would look good too and in the process creates a better impression and would be seem as a more competent leader. Though a leader is ought to be praised for the good done by his followers, passing the credit to fellow peers creates a positive image for the leader and that he/she acknowledges the effort and accomplishments of their followers. Fredberg (2011) also points out that aspiring CEOs take responsibility for mistakes and credit/praise when there is success. When such leadership is in place and used appropriately, it is crucial for bringing about economic and social value. Thus based on this modern approach, leaders should take the blame and pass credit to followers as this would have an overall benefit for the team and organisation.

Aristotle’s approach to Blameworthiness and Praiseworthiness

 

Aristotle’s view on blameworthiness and praiseworthiness provides an alternative perspective to whether a leader is to be blamed or praised for the actions of their followers. Aristotle’s view is mainly explained by voluntary and involuntary actions. Voluntary actions are actions when they are “neither forced nor caused by ignorance- that is when the principle of the action is in the agent and she acts with knowledge of the particulars of her action” (Nichomachean Ethics, Book 3, 1111a22-24) This explains that a leader can be subjected to blame only if he/she is fully aware of the situation and the actions leading up to the consequences. The case for involuntary action is either acting under coercion or disregarding the fact that the agent does not comprehend the situation he/she is embroiled in and is upset and remorseful subsequently. (Nichomachean Ethics, Book 3, 1110b11-12). It is arguable that leaders do not have to be at fault for the action of their followers. Strictly speaking, leaders are only liable for blame if their actions are voluntary, which means if they knowingly act despite knowing the consequences. Aristotle’s voluntary views conflicts the views of modern society in relation to leaders taking the blame for their followers. Modern society challenged Aristotle’s views in such, people or leaders are often expected to be answerable to actions that were unintended ( Williams, n.d). Johnson and Johnson’s Credo is a perfect example of being responsible for ones actions disregarding leadership positions. The company initiated a “standards of leadership” program to ensure that leaders across all levels are culpable to the credo values instilled by the company ( Brown, Hartman and Treviño, 2000). Johnson and Johnson prioritised its Credo values and those who violated these values were subjected to punishment and disciplinary action as seen in the case where certain employees had engaged in improper activities that violated their policies (Brown, Hartman and Treviño, 2000). Johnson and Johnson no nonsense attitude towards unethical behaviour can be seen as ruthless but in the view of Aristotle, the accused were responsible because their actions were voluntary, thus they are blameworthy and faced further consequences. The implementation of Aristotle’s approach to ethical and moral leadership is rarely seen in today’s society as many organisations would have opted for the more sought after approach of having leaders taking blame and passing credit to their followers.

Conclusion

 

According to the Centre for Creative Leadership (n.d), how leaders are credited and blamed and the steps taken by leaders to deal with these situations have a tremendous influence on the standard of work produced and the overall success of the organisation. Thus organisations these days are moving towards such form of ethical leadership, where leaders are encouraged to pass the credit to employees and would cover for their followers, should any fault arises. Thus this foster a more united organisation, with less finger pointing because a leader who shifts the blame increases uncertainty among their followers ( Fredberg, 2011) This does not mean that one person does not take ownership of their mistakes but I would say that the application of Aristotle’s views would be better used depending on the severity of the situation and would not suggest that leaders to build an organisational culture based on Aristotle’s views as it might not be the most effective approach to get the best out of his/her followers. Thus the decision of which approach to implement would depend on the type of culture leaders have built and depending on the severity of the situation on hand as there is so much a leader can cover for their followers.

 

References

Adubato, S. [no date]. Great Leaders Admit Their Mistakes. [Online]. [Accessed 11 May 2019]. Available from: https://www.stand-deliver.com/columns/team-building-mentoring-and-coaching/824-great-leaders-admit-their-mistakes.html

Aristotle. 1999. Nichomachean Ethics, trans. Irwin, H.T. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co

Barthélemy, J. 2014. Why Leaders Should Accept Responsibilities For Their Behaviour.[Online]. [Accessed 10 May 2019]. Available from: http://knowledge.essec.edu/en/leadership/why-leaders-should-accept-responsibility-their-fai.html

Bavly, D. A. 1999. Corporate accountability and governance: What role for the regulator, director, and auditor? Westport, CT: Quorum

Brown, M., Hartman, P.L and Treviño, K.L. 2000. Moral Person and Moral Manager: How Executives Develop A Reputation For Ethical Leadership. California Management Review. 42(4),pp.128-142.

Centre for Creative Leadership. [no date]. Stop The Blame Game.[Online]. [Accessed 12 May 2019]. Available from: https://www.ccl.org/articles/leading-effectively-articles/stop-the-blame-game/

Chaffee, P. 1997. Accountable leadership: A resource guide for sustaining legal, financial, and ethical integrity in today’s congregations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Folkman, J. 2017. It’s All About Me! What Happens When A Leader Takes All The Credit? [Online]. [Accessed 12 May 2019]. Available from: https://www.forbes.com/sites/joefolkman/2017/11/10/its-all-about-me-what-happens-when-a-leader-takes-all-the-credit/#53e0fef6312e

Fredberg, T. 2011. Why Good Leaders Pass The Credit and Take The Blame.[Online]. [Accessed 13 May 2019]. Available from: https://hbr.org/2011/10/why-good-leaders-pass-the-cred

Gibori, R. 2017. The 1 Thing Greater Leaders Don’t Do : Why great leaders take the blame and pass on the credit. [Online]. [Accessed 10 May 2019]. Available from: https://www.inc.com/ron-gibori/great-leaders-take-blame-pass-along-credit.html

Horsager, D. 2014. Great Leaders Take Responsibility- Trust In Leadership. [Online]. [Accessed 12 May 2019]. Available from: https://davidhorsager.com/great-leaders-take-responsibility-trust-in-leadership/

Kouzes, J. M. & Posner, B. Z. 1993. Credibility: How leaders gain and lose it, why people demand it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Manwaring, P. A. 1997. Building trust in educational leadership, and a new instrument to measure subordinates’ trust: A study conducted in the church educational system. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Brigham Young University

Reeves-Ellington, R. H. 1998. Leadership for Socially Responsible Organisations. Leadership and Organisational Development Journal. 19(2), pp.97–105.

 Thomas, C.J. 2008. Ethical Integrity in Leadership and Organisational Moral Culture. Leadership. 4(4),pp.419-442.

Vidotto, A. [no date]. As a Leader , Do You Take Responsibility? [Online]. [Accessed 10 May 2019]. Available from: https://richtopia.com/effective-leadership/leadership-responsibility

William, G. [no date]. Praise and Blame. [Online]. [Accessed 12 May 2019]. Available from: https://www.iep.utm.edu/praise/#SH3a

Winston, E.B and Patterson, K. 2006. An Integrative Definition of Leadership. International Journal of Leadership Studies. 1(2),pp. 6-66.

 

Leaders Are Born Not Made

Introduction:
The factual analysis about leader ship in this essay is based on results published in Journals and books published in various time-periods and by a variety of respected people belonging to the Psychological societies around the world. The fact being that no Leader is identical to an other so deriving a conclusion from any particular theory has always been a question mark. Although one may comment about the innate genetic factors which has given raise to “Born Leaders” and the “Made Leaders” by their choice and opportunities to improve their skills and work towards a goal.

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Born and Made Concept:
According to “Fielder”, leader is defined as a person who is “appointed, elected, or informally chosen to direct and co-ordinate the work of others in a group”. So one has to understand leader and leader-ship are two very different concepts. With reference to the statement leaders are “born not made”, certain predispositions such as personality characteristics, could add an additional advantage of being a leader. The other factors such as family genes which one may procure are definitely cannot be argued upon. Intelligence, religion-growth-status, society, education, training, job etc… remain as external factors influencing ones Leadership. Therefore a change and a conflict is simply evident. The recent break through of a concept called “Cloning” has stirred a wider controversy about replicating a “LEADER”. Although the research is banned in most countries, a possibility of “BORN” leader in every Human mind is very much an innate quality.
According to William A Cohen (Cohen, 1998), “Lack of leadership ability” can most of the time be corrected with training and a little motivation. An other interesting article about leadership published by the American Psychological Association (June 94), about how a leader is made? Is an intresting topic to discuss upon. Lets take an example for a cause is “Freedom” , wars where fought from stonage to industial age under this concept, a person who had a “Vision to Liberate” became a leader. So one may even draw to a conclusion that a Leader can just persuade to make another leader or in a sense LEADER makes an OTHER LEADER.
Analysis:
The approach which has been used in the Psychological field in the early 1940’s is called the “Greatman’s” approach . It significantly emphasis a non-factual idea which was believed to be correct until Stogdill’s (1948) litrature gave a new pradigm shift to abandon the “Greatman’s approach” to innate leadership approach.
The current leadership studies is about Transformational and Transactional leadership , this study is broadly based on interpersonal and interactions about people (Burns 1978). These Transformational leadership behaviour comprises of four main components : Inspirational motivation, Idealised infulence, Individualised consideration and Intellectual stimulation. A charismatic Model of leadership gave birth from the first two of the components (Max Weber).
Five Factor Model : Developed in the 1990’s suggests that a person’s is unlikely to change much so a new theory of elements came into place. The elements are classified as follows

Extroversion
Emotionality
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Openess to experience

According to this model it became to some extent that Leaders where born with TRAITS. The openess to experience moulds a person according to his surroundings.
Posner published “The Leadership Challenge” to address issues they uncovered in research on ordinary people achieving individual leadership standards of excellence. Where he says a novel way of a leader to motivate for a cause and to understand and accept his failure for his miscalculations.
Sir Richard Branson- “having a personality of caring about people is important,” says Branson. “You can’t be a good leader unless you generally like people. That is how you bring out the best in them.”
A Person like Sir Branson with absolutely no education as a Manager is a very efficient manager, but he accepted the criticism which he faced of being a lousy manager has turned him into a good leader during his time frame of his success. So a good leader even accepts his own flaws and understands his need to change himself according to the circumstances.
House and Podsakoff(1994) managed to analyse the behaviours and approaches of “outstanding leaders” that they obtained from some of the above mentioned theories and research findings. There findings and summarisation is not based on one’s Leadership skills, but an effective or most effective styles of leaders and managers of today. The listed leadership “styles” cover, Some of the examples of leader ship styles used by the leader I have used is highlighted across each skills,
Vision – “I have a Dream” – Martin Luther King
Passion and self-sacrifice. – “Apartheid” – Sir. Nelson Mandela
Confidence, – “Freedom struggle” – Mahatma Gandhi
Image-building, – “Mac Donald’s” – Dick and Mac McDonald
Role-modelling, – Nobel Laureates
External representation (spokes person) – Sir Winston Churchill
Expectations of and confidence in followers – Jesus Christ
Selective motive-arousal – Adolf Hitler
Frame alignment – Barack Obama – “Change You Can Trust”
Inspirational communication – Mother Theresa – “Kind words can be short and easy to speak, but their echoes are truly endless”
The examples of leaders I have mentioned does not predominantly mean a Leader’s style, but the character which persuaded their followers on their style depends on their sole uniqueness.
(Adopted from: (Podsakoff, 1994).
Whilist keeping the above in mind, lets analyse some of the Leadership skills present in the shipping industry:
A person in a position or office – “Maersk Mc-kinney Moller”-A.P.Moller Group Founder
A person with associated expertise, skill or experience – ship’s captain, a chief engineer.
A group of person in the forefront in any movement, field, activity.- A Naval Admiral
Global Head of Marine Technology for Lloyds – “Mr.John Carlton”
The earlier theories of leadership rejected the idea of Leaders where born, because they identified the leadership with the ability to influence and their styles to persuade others. A creative adventurous part of a leader is considered if he either has it or not?. If a blood analysis by Gene is carried out to findout if a person is a leader or not?, one would fail miserably in the analysis taking into account the complexity of the human mind to learn and develop itself, is well beyond science to slove in an equation.
Howerver a guidelines can be prescribed as :Developing people, being able to influence others, encouraging team work, empowering poeople, using multiple options of thinking, taking intelligent risks, being passonate about work, having a strong and clear vision, streaching one’s personal creativity. So it is very much possible for a person to learn such skills in any enviornment which could be in a classroom, in a society, in a business, or in a work-place. The only obstacle is his or her mindset to learn and develop his or her skills.
“ Born to Lead” is a correct assesment, If everyone is born in a Royal Family, an elite group of people who thinks like scientists could become scientists, who thinks like Doctors could become Doctors, who thinks like LEADERS would become LEADERS. All one needs is the drive and motivation from their parents, societies and the urge to become a leader.To conclude my analysis : I would like to quote Vincent Lombardi (Football coach), “ Winners expect to win and losers expect to loose”, to compare and contrast a Born or a Made Leader is expected to win but not to loose. It is the skill of a leader which attracts his followers. So Leader- ship is taught “Made” but Leaders to some extent are “Born”, keeping the innate personalities that one may posses.
Conclusion:
Everyone is born with a ability to lead, the question is, to what level we can take our ability?. For example a mother bringing up a child is an ultimate form of leadership, where rearing, managing and instilling values in a child to some extent is leadership. So one may see leadership could some extent is very clear that it is born with a person.
Leadership can be learnt, the question of Leadership whether it can be taught to a person is a critical to be analysed upon!. The responsibilities lies within each indivial to learn leadership. So everyday a leader is born, keeping in mind every child who is born on Earth is a leader. Each one of them has to learn how to develop their skills of being a leader and learn where to apply the ability to lead and in what circumstances?.
A King or Queen who rules a monarch, would consider leadership in their blood. People have been accepting them as their rulers based on their blood line. I would like to quote Shakespeare’s thoughts of leadership

“Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them.”– William Shakespeare

I would like to end my essay saying that the “born” argument doesnot take into account the effect that experience and learning has on personalities, behaviours and on our inner selves. Leadership is a skill and a habit. Like most skills “Practice makes man perfect”. As one becomes more skilled, the habit takes over. In hindsight, it is therefore clear that leaders are both born and made. Leaders may be born with genetic personality and intellectual predispositions, which give them the potential to become an effective leader. However as I have mentioned earlier a greatness of leadership can be derived from practicing the above mentioned skills. It is therfore clear that an interrelation of both genetics and learning, which builds a muliti dimentional leadership approach(Bass 1998: Yukl 1998), which creates leaders.