Health Three Levels Of Promotion Health And Social Care Essay

The three levels of health promotion include primary, secondary, and tertiary. All levels are equally important and key in preventing disease and providing starting points for health care providers to offer patients positive, effective change. All levels are important in nursing because nurses are able to take part in almost every step of the promotion. Within the three levels of promotion, there are five steps. These steps include “health promotion and specific protection (primary prevention); early diagnosis, prompt treatment, and disability limitation (secondary prevention); and restoration and rehabilitation (tertiary prevention)” (Edelman & Mandel, pg. 18).

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Primary prevention includes “health promotion and specific protection” (Edelman et al, pg. 18). In primary prevention, the main focus is to avoid the development of the disease and to focus on interventions to maintain a healthy life. “Its purpose is to [also] decrease the vulnerability of the individual or population to disease or dysfunction” (Edelman et al, p. 14). Nurses must do their part in encouraging preventative and appropriate interventions to improve patient health. Primary prevention also involves two further subdivisions that include health promotion and health protection. An example of health promotion would be educating a patient on their health or on nutrition. This type of promotion includes any type of education that would promote a healthy lifestyle. Health protection would be anything that would protect the patient from a disease. For example, health protection can include administering immunizations to reduce exposure the influenza virus this winter.
Secondary prevention refers to activities like screening and early diagnosis that aid in treatment of the existing health problem, disease, or harmful situation. “Secondary prevention ranges from providing screening activities and treating early stages of disease to limiting disability by averting or delaying the consequences of advanced disease” (Edelman et al, p. 18). It is during secondary prevention when “early detection occurs in the window of time just before symptoms are apparent, which fosters early treatment and delays onset of more serious symptoms” (Murray, R., Zentner, J., Yakimo, p. 42). The difference between primary prevention and secondary prevention is simple. In primary prevention, the focus is more on how to prevent or decrease the probability of the disease or problem before it precedes and allots different suggestions to promote a healthy lifestyle. In secondary prevention however, the preventative methods are more focused on the actually screening and encourages early detection and treatment before a serious disease occurs.
Tertiary prevention is the last level of promotion that promotes health. “Tertiary prevention refers the person to optimum function or maintenance of life skills through long-term treatment and rehabilitation” (Murray et al, p. 42). This form of prevention involves treatment, rehabilitation, prompt treatment, and patient education. Usually, tertiary prevention is used when the disability or disease cannot be reversed or is permanent. This level of prevention is easier to look at more as treatment rather than prevention. At this point, the disease has already been established, and the main focus is to minimize the detrimental effects of the disease process and maintain optimal health. It is important that the nurse “ensure[s] that persons with disabilities receive services that enable them to live and work according to the resources that are still available to them” (Edelman et al, p 19). In primary and secondary prevention, the treatment is geared more towards preventing the actual disease and early diagnosis and detection. In tertiary treatment, the focus turns toward the reduction of any further complications once the disease process has already progressed. All three levels are equally important to prevent disease, but also have a key impact in health promotion in nursing.
Health promotion and purpose for nursing
Health promotion is “behavior motivated by the person’s desire to increase well-being and health potential” (Murray et al pg. 42). Individually, patients must find that motivation to ensure and attain optimal health. Nurses, as well as many other health care providers play an important role in motivating and encouraging patients to maintain and strive towards better health. Here is where nurses can use all skills learned to use primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention to encourage healthy lifestyles.
Nursing roles and responsibilities
The role of the nurse in health care promotion can be demanding, and tiresome, but in the end is simply gratifying. Nurses must take on many different roles to ensure that the patients are promoting and maximizing they health. These roles may include: educator, advocate, provider of care, researcher, care manager, and consultant. By incorporating all these different roles, nurses teach people how to remain healthy. “Nurses must have an evidence-based understanding of the significant effect that can be made through health promotion interventions and communicate this understanding to the public at large” (Murray et al, pg.42). The goal is for people to become more aware of lifestyle changes that can consequently worsen their health status and make the lifestyle changes to maintain a healthier lifestyle.
Nurses can assist in promoting health in many different ways. Nurses are the educators in providing patients and their families with the proper resources to maintain a healthy life. Whether it means teaching on nutrition, immunizations, or diseases, nurses provide most of the teaching. Nurses can also be advocators by making sure the patient is receiving what they are entitled to in the health care system and from their provider. The nurse is to “go to” person when the provider is not available. Nurses also aid in providing the delivery of care, consulting the patient when any problem exists, and researching and relaying message to the provider when a problem or question exists. For example, in Healthy People 2010, nurses must take on the role in all of these situations to promote a healthier, better lifestyle.
Implementation methods for health promotion
In order to implement health promotion, nurses are taught to properly find alternative methods that personalize every patient in contact with their delivery of care. Not all forms of health promotion are done by the bedside nurse, but can also be encompassed by the clinic nurse and the community nurses. These levels of promotion can be brought on by the clinic and community nurse by offering different presentations regarding what is directly affecting the specific community. By involving the community in different methods of health care promotion and prevention, the nurse is doing his/her part to assist in primary and secondary promotion. Then, if the assistance is needed, tertiary prevention can be used. The nurse must learn to encompass and become familiar with every aspect of prevention and promotion in order to do his/her part in preventing and promoting healthier lifestyles. In order to facilitate and accommodate to patients needs, evidence based practice is key. There are many articles that can justify and help solidify the need for prevention and promoting in patient lifestyles.
Compares the three levels of health promotion prevention
First article
The article that I found from the Grand Canyon University Library discussing primary prevention is called Opportunities for the Primary Prevention of Obesity during Infancy. This article discusses the opportunities that physicians have to decrease and prevent obesity during infancy. The article proved that through “early intervention and prevention, great promise [holds] for interrupting the vicious cycle of obese children becoming obese adults who subsequently have obese offspring themselves” (Paul, Bartok, Downs, Stifter, Ventura, and Birch). Evidenced proved that if providers instructed parents on different strategies to promote healthy behaviors, that the infants will have long lasting obesity preventive effects. By using primary prevention, obesity during infancy and possibly throughout the lifetime may be decreased by primary intervention. This article would be beneficial to nursing practice because throughout pregnancy, nurses would be able to show how vital it is to continue to maintain and continue to show healthy eating habits to pregnant mothers and their children to potentially avoid obesity and other health problems for the child.
Second article
The second article that I found from the Grand Canyon University Library discussing secondary prevention was called Running nurse-led secondary prevention clinics for coronary heart disease in primary care: qualitative study of health professionals’ perspective. This article was based on a nurse led trial that used secondary prevention to improve coronary heart disease and lower all-cause mortality during a four year follow up. This article emphasized on how this clinic was run by nurses and whether or not it was effective. Studies showed how it was viewed “positively by most healthcare professionals that had been involved in running them, but barriers to their implementation had led most to stop running them at some point” (Campbell & Murcia). It also proved that although it might have been effective, many of variables interrupted in proving the study effective. Issues like lack of space and staff shortages, funding training, and communication arose within the practice and eventually ended the study. The study still showed how effective the nurses ran the clinic and seemed to be able to do their part in preventing and lowering the occurrence of coronary heart diseases.
Third article
The third article I found in the Grand Canyon University Library on tertiary prevention is called Applying epidemiologic concepts of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention to the elimination of racial disparities in asthma. This article emphasized the importance in prevention in asthma. It stated that the “primary prevention targets reductions in asthma incidence; secondary prevention is the mitigation of established disease and involves disease detection, management, and control; and tertiary prevention is the reduction of complications caused by severe disease,” (Joseph, Williams, Own by, Saltzgaber, and Johnson). This article is good because it is able to illustrate all of the effects of proper primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The article showed how by managing, and understanding the disease, “changes that could reduce asthma morbidity in US minorities and ultimately mitigate disparities” (Joseph, et al).
This purpose of this paper was to inform the reader of the different levels of health promotion and the role that nurses must play in encouraging this care. Nurses can do their part in promoting a healthier lifestyle for their patients by using alternative methods of prevention. Primary prevention involves health promotion and protection, secondary prevention involves screening and early diagnosis, and tertiary prevention focuses on treating the actual disease and preventing any further complications. It is important for nurses to understand that the role they play on patient health care is vital. Patients rely on nurses to help alleviate and advocate for them when any sort of ailment or sickness occurs. In order for nurses to promote health they must become familiar with the different ways of helping to prevent and promote healthier lifestyles. The articles that were chosen in this article illustrated the different positive effects of prevention and the different ways nurses and health care providers can promote a healthier lifestyle.

Effects of Noise Levels in Urban Parks on Species Richness

 Noise level in urban parks effects of specie richness


  Urban areas are expanding. Researching urban areas and the effect off wildlife is becoming important. The amount of noise-level can impact species richness in urban parks. Motion-activated cameras were able to spot the wildlife richness in the Urban Parks. To collect the noise-level in each urban park we recorded the amount of decibels 4 times and took the average to. There was a variety of specie richness that was found. All the site were mid noise-levels. When combined noise-level average (independent) and specie richness (dependent) there was no trends or correlation. The result were inconclusive. The experiment showed no relationship between noise-level and specie richness.


 Human environment is continuously growing. Urban areas are expanding and becoming a threat to wildlife ecosystems and biodiversity. Through urban parks human and wildlife interactions are increasing. Researching and keeping track of urban wildlife is important. The benefits of tracking urban wildlife is to make sure ecosystem and biodiversity is cared for and maintained. Humans could possibly help wildlife they can maintain population and lower risks of diseases. Urban areas could child proof properties and reduce damages and create safer neighborhoods for wildlife and humans. Studying wildlife would allow people will be able to properly educate other people and create a mutually beneficial association with wildlife. Human and wildlife conflict as well as stresses could possibly decrease from taking into consideration urban animal habitats and temporal behaviors (Urban Wildlife Working Group 2002). Keeping track of animals will help humans to not interfere with biodiversity and to help stop invasive species from interfering with nature. Policy and laws can authorized to help decrease wildlife and human interaction. City planning’s can planned better that don’t effect wildlife as much. The type of noise-level in urban parks interfere with specie richness. Undesirable or unnatural sound in an environments is often associated with human activities or development (Francis and Barber 2013). Taking away a sensory ability, especially sound, would severally hinder any creature that would normally use that ability on a regular basis. For an animal it could be dangerous and possibly life threatening. Sound impacts a great variety of natural behaviors and reactions ranging from predatory stealth and detection to animal mating calls and vocal deterrents. Lowering the amount of unnecessary sound exposure for future environmental planning would greatly benefit the surrounding ecology and ecosystems of the already existing animals (Francis and Barber 2013).

 Keeping track of the specie richness and measuring noise-level in urban wildlife is crucial for biodiversity. The next step would be to take a look at the correlation between the noise level effects on the wildlife richness.


Materials needed: (Some optional)

Decibels meter app on phone

Transportation to get to parks (optional)

Spartan-Go Camera (need proper permits and approvals to place camera in parks)

Cable wires or Nylon straps

FAS Tablet

Mesh screen Pouch

Site Selection:

Pins=location of Urban Parks (Total=40 Parks)

Orange Pins=Jefferson County Park

Green Pins=Pleasant Valley Metropolitan District

Purple Pins=Prospect Recreation and Park District

Blue Pins=Lakewood Parks

Red Pins=Denver Parks

Yellow Pins=Aurora Parks

Figure 1. Urban Parks Map Locations in Colorado

Along Colfax (the line above) are pins that represents 40 Urban/ partially rural parks from East to West.

Each color switch along the line represent 5km ranging from urban and rural areas.

Yellow and Green line =20km

Orange and Blue line=20km

 Each sites was distributed at least 1km apart for independence 

The site are picked by picking sites in a city. Then the sites will eventually expand to rural areas from East to West. The sites stay among a transect line that is East to West. Denver is the city and Colfax is the transect line (Figure 1). The closer the sites are to the city the more Urban the parks will be. The parks will become rural as the sites get farther away from the city.

Camera Deployment:

Each site a Spartan Go-Cam was placed on a tree or post. Permits were registered to allow cameras in camera sites. These cameras are motion-activated and heat censored. Every time they are set off they take a picture. Also the cameras take pictures every 30 seconds (Figure 2). In front of the Spartan Go-Cam is a Fatty Acid Scent tablets that is 3-5 meters away. These tablets let off a foul odor that targets and attract carnivores. The specie richness will be collected through the camera’s taking pictures of the wildlife. The camera show the type of wildlife species that are around these urban/rural parks.

Data Collection:

To collect the noise-level data each group was randomly assigned a camera location of the 40 sites. Within a week each group recorded the amount of decibels at a random time at their park. The app Decibel X for Android or free decibel meter app for Apple was used to take 4 measurements of the camera sites. After the measurements were averaged to get the most accurate noise level in the park.

Data Analysis:

The type of research that we are doings is finding out if the amount of noise-level in urban parks affect wildlife richness. Results and a correlation will be able to spotted collecting the average noise-level for each site and the camera collecting the specie richness. Collecting data of noise-level in urban parks and collecting data of amount of specie richness through the Spartan Go-Cam we could place these variables in a scatterplot graph and see if there is a visual correlation.


  Longitude was used to organize the sites to go east to west. Each camera at the set location picked up the Specie Richness (dependent variable). Each site had at least 1 in specie richness. The mode of Specie richness in the city (Denver) was 1 to 2. There was a few of higher specie richness in the city between 3 and 5. The sites in the west “The aurora parks” had higher amounts of specie richness up to 4 to 5 and those parks were urban/ partially rural the farther the went out west. The farther out the sites were from city the higher amount of specie richness there was of course with a few exceptions of some with low specie richness. The east there wasn’t much of a difference from the city the most common specie richness was 1 to 2. There were a few of parks that had 3 to 5 specie richness. Based off the graph there was a variety of different wildlife species richness across all 40 sites (Figure 3. Longitude vs Specie Richness)

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 Longitude was used to organize parks to go east to west. The most common noise level was ranging from 50 to 75dB. Which would describe the noise level at the parks as a mid-noise level. There was a variety of range of different noises-levels at the park. They were all mid-noise level (40 to 90 decibels). None of the sites were low-noise level (0-40 decibels) or high noise-level (90+ decibels). (Figure 4. Longitude vs. Noise-level)

 The independent variable is the average noise-level and that would affect dependent variable amount of specie richness. Based off the scatterplot the amount of noise-level didn’t affect the amount of specie richness. There was no trend or correlation that was visible in the graph. The amount of specie richness was not affected by the amount noise-level. The results on the scatterplot was inconclusive.  (Figure 5. Noise-Level vs. Specie Richness)

Figure 3. Longitude vs. Specie Richness

The scatter plot above shows the sites were organized from east to west with the amount of wildlife species richness were seen. Each site had different varieties of specie richness that the camera picked up at each park location. 

Figure 4. Longitude vs. Average Noise-Level

Above is a scatterplot. On the x-axis is the longitude of the sites from East to West. The y-axis is the average noise-level in decibels. By looking at the graph and using the key each site ranges is mid noise-level. The sites are especially grouped to 50 to 75 decibels range. From each site there is not a variety of different noise-levels. There is no high or low noise-level to compare our sites data to

 Low Noise-Level= 0-40 Decibels

Mid Noise-Level=40-90 Decibels

High Noise-Level= 90+ Decibels

Trend line of Noise-Levels

Figure 5. Average Noise-Level vs. Specie Richness

Both variables from the research questions “Does the amount of noise-level affect wildlife richness?” were put in a scatter plot. The average noise-level was the independent variable and was put on the x-axis. The Specie Richness was the dependent variable and was put on the y-axis. Based off the data there was no correlation or trend. The results were inconclusive.

Low Noise-Level= 0-40 Decibels

Mid Noise-Level=40-90 Decibels

High Noise-Level= 90+ Decibels



 As urban areas are growing understanding how noise-level effects wildlife richness is a huge factor to make sure human are not disrupting wildlife biodiversity and ecosystems. 


 Based off the results there is no conclusive evidence that noise-level effects species richness. There is no pattern, trend or correlation that is shown. According to graph Figure 5 each site was mid noise-level. In urban parks mid-noise level does not affect specie richness. Overall the results in the experiment proved that noise-level and specie richness have no relationship in urban parks.

Assumptions and Limitations:

Some important limitations that are linked to an inconclusive conclusions is all the site locations was mid noise-level; there was no high or low noise-level. Without high or low noise level there is nothing to compare are mid-noise-levels data to. To come to a better conclusion and possibly find a relationship between noise-level and specie richness more data and research will have to be completed. A crucial reason that the results were inconclusive is there could be an abundant of variables that interfered with the project. Outer variables and variables that aren’t known is hard to control in the experiments. Creating a controlled experiment and coming out with the same results will be very difficult and almost impossible to replicate. Ecology systems are complicated and difficult to understand. Especially urban ecology where it depends on the influences of humans and human activity that could impact the urban areas (Frid and Dil 2002). Another factor could be the FAS tablets could possibly be a variable that is affecting the experiment. The FAS tablets could be repelling species from the camera locations. The time of year and season could affect the specie richness. Some animals could be in hibernation or migrate during the winter time. Winter overall could affect the specie richness and noise-level in urban parks. There were multiple assumptions and limitations that affected the experiment.

Future Directions:

 To create this experiment to be more informative to the research question “If noise-level would affect species richness?” a suggestion that would provide better results would be if the Spartan go-cams can have a microphone that records the noise-levels throughout the whole day. Then finding the average noise-level will be more ideal and accurate to each urban park.


Erin C. McCance, Daniel J. Decker, Anne M. Colturi, Richard K. Baydack,  William F. Siemer, Paul D. Curtis, and Thomas Eason. 2017 Importance of Urban Wildlife Management in the United States and Canada. Mammal Study 42(1) : 1-16

[accessed 2018 Dec 10]

Francis, C. D., and J. R. Barber. 2013. A framework for understanding noise impacts on wildlife: an urgent conservation priority. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11:305-313. [accessed 2018 Dec 10].

Frid A and Dill LM. 2002. Human-caused disturbance stimuli as a form of predation risk. Conserv Ecol 6: 11. [accessed 2018 Dec 10]

The Urban Wildlife Working Group. 2012. [accessed 2018 Dec 10]

Issues with Determining Levels of Crime

Can researchers accurately determine the levels of crime committed within a society?

In this essay I aim to outline the strengths and weaknesses of different sources of crime data and explain whether a combination of these methods can create a fully reflective picture of crime in society.

Official statistics of crime in England and Wales are produced by the Home Office in the form of report titled ‘Criminal Statistic, England and Wales’ pre 2002 or ‘Crime in England and Wales’ post 2002. This publication outlines offences committed in categories such as legal categories or the areas in which they were committed (Maguire, 2012). This data is collated from the police, courts, and prisons (Newburn, 2017). These statistics can create an accurate picture of the crimes that are recorded and sentenced throughout time however, this method does allow for the emergence of the dark figure of crime.

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The dark figure of crime is a term used to describe the crimes that are not officially captured in official statistics (Wilson, 2009). There are multiple reasons as to why offences committed may not make it into the official police statistics, most of which cause the crime to either go unreported to the police, or unrecorded by the police themselves. Some reasons for crimes going unreported as outlined by Young (1988 cited in Newburn, 2017), when looking at the British Crime Survey, are that the felt their concerns were too trivial (55%), they felt that the police would be unable to do anything (16%), or that they had a fear of the police (2%). Further to this, Black (1970) identifies several reasons why a reported crime may go unrecorded by the police such as the severity of the allegations, the relative distance between the complainant and the offender, the level of respect shown to police,  and the race or social class of the complainant.

The crimes that do not get captured by the official statistics can be measured in alternate ways, such as the British Crime Survey (BCS), now known as the ‘Crime Survey for England and Wales’, and other victimisation surveys. These surveys ask respondents a series of questions about crimes they may have been victims of throughout the last year (Newburn, 2017). They often aim to measure the gap between reported and unreported crimes, assess public attitudes towards crime, assess the effectiveness of crime prevention measures, and to measure fear of, and responses to, crime (Sparks et al, cited in Newburn 2017). However, these surveys do have limitations regarding who can report victimisation for example, until recently it didn’t include those under 16 so didn’t account for youth victimisation, it uses a household sampling method therefore does not account for homeless victimisation, and it doesn’t include businesses so corporate and commercial victimisation is not accounted for. Additionally, the self report aspect of the survey may mean that not all data collected is fully truthful for example, a person may not report crimes relating to controlled substances as the possession of these items themselves is criminal (Newburn, 2017). Further to this point Hope (2005, cited in Newburn) suggests that other factors such as knowledge of incidents, memory decay, education of the respondent, and interview conditions may also affect the accuracy of the data that is gathered.

Overall, it can be concluded that although the new publication ‘Crime in England in Wales’ uses information that has been collected both as official statistics from the government and the BCS, it may still not paint a full accurate picture of crime. This is due to the fact that whilst victimisation surveys can help fill in gaps in knowledge of unreported crime this too has its weaknesses, therefore the data collected may still not be a full reflection of society.


Black, D. J. (1970) “Production of Crime Rates,” American Sociological Review, 35(4), pp. 736.

Newburn, T. (2017). Criminology. New York: Routledge

Maguire, M., Morgan, R. & Reiner, R. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Wilson, J.(2009).  The Praegar Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: ABC Clio

What causes the difference in the rates of offending between genders?

Biological theories of offending suggest that the difference in crime rates occur due to physical differences between men and women. These theories suggest reasons why women may be less likely commit crime, less likely to have their crimes discovered, or less likely to be prosecuted for their crimes. Lombroso and Ferrero (1895, cited in Heidensohn, 1996) suggested that women commit less crime than me because they are less evolved and are more primitive therefore are less able to commit crime. Alternatively, Pollak (1950, cited in Silvestri and Crowther-Dowey, 2016) claimed that women are deceitful and cunning by nature therefore can hide their crimes. However, many studies of biological theories have been criticised for over-reliance on stereotypes of the criminal woman (Mallicoat, 2019)

Sex role theories of crime suggest that the difference in crime rates is best explained through sex-role socialisation (Pollock, 2014). This theory sees a biological difference between men and women which then have specific behavioural sets, or ‘sex-roles’ applied to them via the process of socialisation (Walklate, 2007). Sutherland (1947, cited in Walklate, 2004) suggested that boys were more likely to become delinquent than girls for two reasons, because boys are less strictly controlled than girls, and that boys are socialised to be tough, aggressive, and risk takers, which he believed to be factors in the development of criminal behaviour. On a similar note, Parsons (1937, cited in Walklate, 2007) explains that due to the role mothers play in the household, raising children, girls have little problem finding appropriate role models whereas, boys do not have a male role model available as frequently therefore they reject any expressions of feminism and and pursue expressions of masculinity.These expressions of masculinity, being powerful and rough, often lead to anti-social behaviour which can develop into criminal behaviour. These theories have been criticised for assuming that the roles assigned to each gender are equal within society thus drawing away attention from the social reality of power relationships (Connell, 1987, cited in Walklate, 2007).

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Social control theory presents the idea that women are controlled in society by a shared value system in society and by ideologies of how women should behave (Heidensohn, 1986. Cited in Abbot, Wallace, and Tyler, 2005). Heidensohn (1985) suggests that women have heavy-responsibilities at the domestic level and that these preoccupations can act as a constraint to crime. Similarly, she has been outlined that women are controlled in the home, in public, and at work. Dahl and Snare (1978, cited in Heidensohn 1985) explain that at home women are too heavily supervised by their husbands and families to commit crime. In terms of in public appropriate behaviour for women is defined more narrowly defined than it is for men. Women are controlled in public through fear of male violence, fear of acquiring a bad reputation, and by the separation of the private and public spheres (Heidensohn, 1985). Furthermore, women at work carry the burden of dual roles, work and housework, which limits what she can do. Additionally hierarchies in work are often headed by men which reinforces women’s roles as subordinate to men. On this note, women are often subjected to sexual harassment at work which reinforces mens authority and control (Hadjifotiou, 1983, cited in Heidensohn, 1985).

Liberation theory is the concept that as women become emancipated, or liberated, the rates of female crime will increase. Bishop (1931, cited in Heidensohn, 1985) argued that as women became more emancipated they began to realise that they could never be equal to their male counterparts, making them frustrated, leading to a life of crime. Alternatively, Adler (1975, cited in Heidensohn, 1985) argued that as women become emancipated they are allowed new opportunities into masculine areas of experience and thus can commit traditionally male crimes such as violence.


Heidensohn, F. (1996). Women and Crime. Second Edn. London: Macmillan Press Ltd

Silvestri, M. and Crowther-Dowey, C. (2016) Gender & crime : a human rights approach. Second edn. London: Sage (Key approaches to criminology).

Walklate, S. (2007) Understanding Criminology : Current Theoretical Debates. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education (Crime and Justice).

Mallicoat, S. L. (2019) Women, gender, and crime : core concepts. First edn. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications

Walklate, S. (2004). Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice. Second edn. Devon: Willan Publishing

Walklate, S. (2007). Understanding Criminology: Current Theoretical Debates. Third Edn. Berkshire: Open University Press.Abbot, P, Wallace, C & Tyler, M. (2005). An Introduction to Sociology: Feminist Perspectives. Third edn. London: Routledge

Heidensohn, F. (1985). Women and Crime. First edn. London. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.

Is there such a thing as victimless crime?

Victimless crime can be defined as ‘behaviours that violate the criminal law but inflicts no harm on the consenting parties’ (Coomber et al, 2015). Some crimes such as drug use, abortion, and homosexuality have been suggested to be victimless crimes as they involve ‘voluntary participants rather than crime victims or complainants’ (Schur, 1965. Cited in Coomber et al, 2014).. Coomber et al (2015) suggest that whether a crime can be seen as victimless depends on whether the involved parties are consenting and whether the act causes harm.  In this essay I will discuss whether crimes can be truly seen as victimless by discussing these two factors.

Paul Barnes (2009) identifies market abuse as ‘the actions of investors that unfairly take advantage of other investors’. One form of this is insider trading which is ‘the illegal buying and selling of securities by persons acting on privileged information’ (, 2019) . It has been stated that the potential victims of insider trading are the sellers of the stock ahead of a raise in value however, it can be said that, despite these being sold to those with insider knowledge, they would have sold their stocks anyway therefore, the insider knowledge held by the purchaser does not directly affect them (McGee, R, W. 2008. Quoted in, 2008). Alternatively, Barnes (2009) suggests that there are clear ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ relating to insider trading as those with insider knowledge can sell their shares ahead of bad news, and that the buyer of these shares loses out as they are set to lose money on tainted stocks. This leads us to the assumption that whilst insider trading to purchase rising stocks may be a victimless crime but using it to sell falling stocks can be seen as having victims as the purchaser receives financial harm.


Pollution Levels In The River Nile

River Nile is the most important rivers. It passes through many countries. It has historical, economic, agricultural important for these countries. In the last period, the River Nile pollution exposure to many pollutants. I will talk in this report about the importance of the River Nile and River, Nile pollution and damage to these pollutants. Finally I will mention the solutions.
Nile River:
The Nile is a major river in Africa .It the longest river in the world. The total length of the river is 6650 km (4132 miles). Nile Basin covers an area of 3.4 million km ². Nile Basin countries are Uganda, Ethiopia , Sudan and DRC. Also Burundi , Tanzania , Rwanda , Kenya, Egypt and Eritrea. The Nile has two major tributaries, White and Blue Nile. The river flows through desert almost, from Sudan into Egypt. Egypt civilization has depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along Nile river .Most the historical and cultural sites of Egypt are found along the Nile river. The Nile ends in a large delta and it is go into the Mediterranean Sea.
Important of Nile River:
Nile Basin constitutes has unique diversified geographically, starting from the highlands in the south and at least freshly hit even up to the spacious plains in the far north. Therefore, the Nile River is the only river which flows from south to north due to the tendency of the earth.
Nile is of great importance in the economies of the Nile Basin, in the field of agriculture : in all countries of the Nile Basin water farmers depends on nile water as resources to irrigate their crops. Among the most famous of these crops: cotton, wheat, sugarcane, dates, legumes, and citrus fruits.
In fishing, many type of fish abundance in Nile water. fish are favorite dishes of many of the peoples in these countries. the Nile River has many aquaculture animals such as Nile crocodile, which presence in most of the path of the Nile.
In the field of tourism in Egypt and Sudan are based upon a type of tourism, ” Nile Tourism “, in both Egypt and Sudan, many ship carrying tourists and visitors to the country each of Qena, Luxor and Aswan, Egypt, and between two mountains, the third and fourth in the north of Sudan, between the Juba and Kochi.
Causes of Nile pollution
The River Nile is exposed to many types of pollutants from the waste characteristics and makes it invalid to use for drinking and irrigation, which is detrimental to humans and animals. Nile river pollution mean there is a change in physical properties, chemical properties or biological properties of water.
*Biological waste:
Biological waste mean is the present of organisms with visible or invisible eye that cause pollution in water such as: bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, animal and there are phases of minutes (eggs, larvae stages).
Some of these organisms are seen bye naked eye, such as some algae and aquatic plants, and others organism can not be seen by naked eye (only with a microscope), such as bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The degree of proliferation of these organisms depends on the nature and size of these organisms.
*Organic pollution
Organic pollution is a waste of plant and animal which contain chemically into seven groups of substances, namely:
1. Soluble substances in the water, including Algelokoseidat, sugars , amino acids , salts, nitrates, sulfates, chlorides and potassium salts.
2 soluble substances in the ether, including alcohol, include fats, oils and waxes.
3. Alselliozat.
4 .Alheimciliozat.
5. Alganinat.
6. proteins.
7. Minerals that do not dissolve in water including potassium magnesium.
*Toxic metals pollution
The number of chemical elements are manufactured that more than (1500) type. Many heavy metals are found in industrial .They have bad effects to humans and organisms .For example:
It is come from waste generated through electrolysis in the manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine gas. It was found that the microbiologist turned inorganic mercury into methylmercury, which binds with the protein strain found in the body by a group (-SH), which exist, and this leads to focus on the food chain.
Cadmium Cd
It is one of the most dangerous pollutants of comparison .It inhibits the activity of enzymes containing a group replace zinc in some enzymes containing it.
Lead pb
It is an inhibitor of the functions of many enzymes
Symptoms of lead poisoning:
Colic, and anemia, headaches, convulsions, and renal colic.
Arsenic: As
It is enter in many industries, such as: the pesticide industry. Like the rest of the other heavy metals and their compounds, it has a detrimental effect and toxic on living organisms, when concentrations of it up to a certain extent. We see the harmful effect of heavy metals in drainage water, which led to the pollution of crops.
*Residues, animal waste and garbage:
It is people’s ignorance of the fact of the Nile River and that the source of water .They got rid of the bodies of dead farm animals , disposal of waste and garbage “dead birds and infected by bird flu ,”and throw them in the river.
Long time ago, the Nile flood “before the establishment of the High Dam,” the constant motion of water and volatile help to out expulsion of contaminants.
Effect of Nile Pollution:
*Biological waste:
Waste waters are carrying many of the microbes especially bacteria. These microbes cause water pollution. The contamination of the water leads to pollute fish, molluscs, crustaceans and others aquatic animals. The contaminated water may lead to poisoning or killing human.
The most important disease-causing bacteria:
The contaminated water may lead to poisoning or killing of human beings is the most important disease-causing bacteria:
It is a type of bacteria causes typhoid .
The most important parasites that pollute the water are Ascaris worms and schistosomes .
One of the main viruses that found in water pollution is hepatitis virus, which leads to infection of larvae (yellow).
*Organic pollution:
$ Lead to a lack of Oxgen. That are effecting to organism that live in water.
$ Increasing number of microbes significantly in the Availability of organic materials and that is lead to serious damage.
$ Anaerobic conditions lead to the formation of toxic compounds affect the growth of Plants.
$ Spread of weeds , nematodes, fungal bacterial diseases.
*Toxic metals pollution
Toxicity of inorganic compounds of mercury lead to “Nervous Disorder” . Injury element mercury leads headache, chills and inflammation of the bladder, memory loss.
Organic mercury compounds, especially methylmercury, it is more toxic because of the easy to go in porous membranes. It is concentrated in the blood and affects the mind and central system, the witness here, Minamata’s disaster in Japan in 1952, which died in which more than (52) people. The reason for that was the people of this village ate fish in their food, which contained concentrations of mercury compound (CH3.HgS.CH3).
Cadmium Cd, Lead pb
They inhibit the activity of enzymes in the body of living organisms.
Arsenic: As
It has a detrimental effect and toxic on living organisms.
*Residues, animal waste and garbage:
The spread of diseases between humans and animals who depend on drinking water of the Nile.
إظهØر Øلتحويل إلى Øلحروف ØللØتينية
1 . Work necessary precautions to prevent the leakage of sewage to the waters of the Nile.
2. Emphasis on not throw factory waste in the river, whether liquid or solid in the river.
3. Prohibition and criminalization of dead animals in the River Nile.
4. Do not throw waste solids and plastic in the River Nile.
5. Spread health awareness among the farmer.
6 Spreading awareness among farmers to not wash tools and equipment for spraying pesticides in the waters of River Nile water (irrigation).
7. Take all measures towards the implementation of law to protect of waterways, especially rivers.
8. Built centers measurements fixed the waterways, to control pollution that occurs on them.
9. The need to do special place for the sewage and assembled away from the Nile.
10. Control the pollution which leads to acid rain, which polluted the Nile.
11. Prevent use of water (the Nile and other) to clean the animals and laundered.
12. Don’t do wrong practices such as some people on the banks of the Nile, such as washing dishes and clothes.
Water is very important element we need to live and it is part of our lives. Nile River is impotent source for water. Many reasons cause water pollution. These will destroy the water we drink and will destroy our lives. To prevent Nile water pollution the government should provide strict penalties for people or factories who try to pollute the water.

2014 Somerset Levels Floods: Causes and Future Strategies

Following the 2014 Somerset Levels floods, Communities Secretary Eric Pickles publicly apologised for the lack of dredging of the Levels and criticised the Environment Agencies management strategy. Examine the causes of the Somerset Levels floods, and evaluate the flood management solutions.
During the autumn and winter of 2013 – 2014, an unusually high frequency of depressions moved across the Somerset Levels, causing both fluvial and pluvial flooding on a prodigious scale. The two main rivers which flow through the Levels, The River Tone and Parrett, burst their banks, spilling into the already heavily saturated flood plain. A major incident was declared and subsequently allowed the Somerset council to request financial, and physical, aid to the region (House of Commons, 2014).This essay highlights the key reasons the Somerset Levels flooded, as well as evaluating the main management solutions that were put forward during the peak of the flooding.

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The autumn to winter period saw a record-breaking Jet Stream, fuelled by a diving cold Polar Vortex across the United States. With this, brought powerful storms across the United Kingdom (MetOffice, 2014). As the Polar Vortex moved southward, it interacted with the Jet Stream. This caused powerful Jet Streaks to form, thus producing rapid cyclogenesis in the mid-Atlantic. This pattern lasted several months, exacerbating the flooding issues across the Somerset Levels.
As the storms became more frequent, the water table filled up exponentially, as the majority of the soil inside in the Somerset Levels consists of clay and, further inland, peat (North Somerset Council, 2008). Every year the area experiences pluvial flooding due to its impermeable calcareous clays, which drains water very slowly (Soilscapes, n.d.). In places, parts of the rivers that run through the Levels sit above farmland, which allowed broken river banks to spill water onto the neighbouring fields. Combined with the waterlogged land, it makes the area incessantly prone to flooding (House of Commons, 2014).
The flooding eventually became a serious threat to residents and farmland which coerced the government to initialise flood management in the area, introducing extensive dredging upon the main rivers (Hartwell-Naguib and Roberts, 2014). This process takes silt deposits out from the river bed to increase the volume of the river. There has been a divide amongst the government and the Environment Agency as to whether this is a feasible and financially secure approach to flood management. The Environment Agency rejects that dredging rivers is the most important approach, as Lord Smith, chairman of the EA, claims that dredging the rivers would only make a small difference and that other management solutions would need to be applied (Guardian, 2014). The Environment Agency (Environment Agency, 2014) retains the idea that dredging would only work on a short-term basis, and the silt on the riverbed would soon return and need to be dredged once again, adding to the growing financial cost. Dredging also has a detrimental effect on the ecosystems that run within the river, as the UK Marine Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) adds that dredging causes a range of potentially damaging environmental effects on our rivers (UK Marine, n.d.). These effects include the removal of certain species and poor quality of water for those species, primarily caused by suspended sediment after the dredging process (UK Marine, n.d.). Although there appears to be a strong basis of negativity towards the process of dredging, it can also reduce the time that flooding occurs due to the increase of water conveyance within the river (CIWEM, 2014). Another idea to limit river levels was to introduce natural filter strips; vegetation is introduced to the banks of rivers to slow down rain water from running into the river. This could in turn slow down the rise of river levels, and limit the amount of water that breaks the river bank (North Somerset Council, 2008).
Another flood management solution that was recommended by the Environment Agency during the height of the floods was the use of high-capacity pumps from Holland. These pumps can drain up to 7.3 million tonnes of water each day out of the worst affected areas, into the River Sowey which then feeds into the River Parrett (CIWEM, 2014)(BBC News, 2014). The idea was to relieve pressure on the River Tone, as the surrounding areas were completely underwater. This system was highly effective at reducing water levels, however it unfortunately resulted in the displacement of water to other areas. This concluded in the areas, which previously were less affected, now being at a potential risk of flooding which caused a disposition in government.
The government had been heavily criticised by the media, organisations and local residents for not acting sooner. The Committee on Climate Change (CCC) had warned the government that cuts to annual flood risk management had left a hole in financial investment in flood management across the UK, and in particular, Somerset (Hartwell-Naguib and Roberts, 2014). The Environment Agency also commented that the 10-15% cut in funding could overshadow the Somerset Levels as it’s not seen as a main threat (Alex Marshall, 2014). Responding to these concerns, the government have recently announced that a number of temporary flood defences and pumping sites will be made permanent by supporting farmers to manage flood risk better, to ensure all new developments in the area have suitable drainage systems. (Department for Environment, 2014).
In summary the flood management solutions that were used to alleviate the Somerset floods came in far too late. The Somerset Levels are prone for flooding, yet only a small amount of preventative measures were put forward to protect those who were in potential danger. The dredging process has been the most popular form of flood management in the area, but due to its high cost and small effect on flood levels, it remains an issue as to whether it can continue as the main preventative system. A more permanent solution will need to be put forward that is both financially economic and suitable for the area, to ensure both residents and farmland are better protected.
Environment Agency. (2014).Dredging and Flood Risk.Available: Leaflet.pdf. Last accessed 07/12/2014.
House of Commons. (2014).Winter Floods 2013/14.Available: [Accessed 06/12/2014.]
North Somerset Council. (2008).Strategic Flood Risk Assessment: Level 1.Available: 1 study of North Somerset (pdf).pdf. [Accessed 06/12/2014.]
Department for Environment. (2014).New action plan to protect Somerset from flooding.Available: [Accessed 30/11/2014.]
BBC. (2014).What are the Somerset Levels?.Available: [Accessed 28/11/20.]
BBC. (2014).UK floods: Somerset Levels Dutch pumps start work.Available: [Accessed 25/11/2014.]
UK Marine. (n.d.).Dredging and disposal: Suspended sediments and turbidity.Available: [Accessed 27/11/2014.]
Landis. (n.d.).Soilscapes.Available: [Accessed 27/11/2014.]
Meteorological Office. (2014).MetOffice.Available: [Accessed 22/11/2014.]
Hartwell-Naguib, S & Roberts, N. (2014).Winter Floods 2013/14.Available: [Accessed 24/11/2014.]
CIWEM. (2014).Floods and Dredging – a reality check.Available: [Accessed 26/11/2014.]
Alex Marshall. (2014).Environment Agency cuts: surviving the surgeon’s knife.Available: [Accessed 29/11/2014.]
Guardian. (2014).Lord Smith: ‘EA staff know 100 times more than any politician about flooding’.Available: [Accessed 30/11/2014.]
Structure your paragraphs! One point per paragraph. Make the essay flow. Every paragraph should link to the next. Theoretically you should be able to read it backwards and it’ll make sense.
Point – make your point
Evidence – give your evidence
Explain – explain its relevance
Link- link to the next paragraph
Be careful with abbreviations. You can abbreviate only after you have written it in full once with the abbreviation after i.e. United Kingdom (UK). Then later you can use UK.
Be careful not to be too chatty, be formal! You’re not talking to a friend.
Don’t add new points in your conclusion paragraph. This is a summary of what you’ve already discussed. Summarise!
Make sure your referencing everything! You can’t just know something, you have to prove how you know it and who it’s from. Try to use credited references from research papers/articles, don’t use Wikipedia or web pages, BBC news isn’t great either.
Write all numbers in long hand, i.e. one hundred not 100.
Remember 10% of your mark is in presentation. How does your uni want your essays presented? Font. Format etc.

Effect of Increased Levels of Car Ownership

Increased levels of car ownership – is it driving places to the point of no return?
In the past century, the car has become an everyday essential item for increasing numbers of people globally.
There are 5 people in my house and we own one car. It has a diesel engine, and it is used for the school run every Monday to Friday. My dad then takes the car to Wolverhampton to work. He uses more fuel travelling 6 miles in the town to drop me and my brothers off at our schools and my mum at work, than he does travelling 22 miles on the motorway to go to work. The journey time isn’t much different either.
Map 1: Car Ownership Levels7

The map shows that in most MEDC’s, there are over 301 cars per capita, whereas in LEDC’s, there are considerably less (mostly Map2 (below) from Worldmapper8 shows car ownership levels from a different perspective. ‘Larger than life’ areas e.g. North America, Japan and the UK have high levels, whereas ‘shrunken’ areas have fewer, hence why Africa and parts of Asia are visually smaller than Europe and America. This may be a necessity in some areas eg remote rural areas where public transport links are limited (Cumbria, UK) or a luxury in others, where public transport networks are seamless eg Germany.
Map 2: Car Ownership – a different view!

Over time, cars have become increasingly common place but can the existing roads and related infrastructure cope with the extreme increase of car ownership? Will the extent of road coverage become over-run in the future? Is it indeed driving places to the point of no return?
The number of cars available in the UK (known as the car parc) has risen from 17 million in 1971, to 31 million in 2007 according to the RAC. That’s almost doubled in 36 years (average annual increase of 3%).

Car Ownership on the increase – what are the causes?
What are the effects of increased car ownership?
The effects of car ownership are beneficial for some, but not for others. Socially, the car is an easy commute, and is accessible to all, regardless to age or height (persons under 17 in the UK cannot drive, however they can be passengers). There are impacts in regard to health, because CO2 emissions in UK cities are too high according to EU rules, meaning potential impacts for those with breathing related ailments.

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Economically, the effects are positive because it creates transport related employment; generates income from fuel duty and road tax, which help the UK government to provide a safer driving environment. However, there is a negative effect economically. When a vehicle collides with another, or crashes into property, insurance companies pay for the damage, which costs them a lot of money.
Environmentally, there are only downsides to car ownership; the largest being the emissions released from a cars’ exhaust, and because car ownership is increasing, the problem will only develop and cause more problems, unless car designs improve. Noise pollution is an additional problem. Toll roads also cause environment problems. This is because many are built over green-field land (land not built on) and they are used by a small amount of people in the UK, therefore not only is it bad for the environment, but it’s also a waste of money and land. According to a campaigner for better transport in the UK, the M6 toll has “no net benefit for drivers whilst causing huge and irreversible environmental damage.”11 The M6 Toll carries 55,000 vehicles per day12, out of the 2 ½ million vehicles in the West Midlands. That’s 0.022% of vehicles in the West Midlands per day – that arguably makes it an expensive race track.
Also, oil consumption becomes a problem, especially with the car ownership rates increasing in China: “We project that the total vehicle stock will increase from about 800 million in 2002 to over 2 billion units in 2030. In particular, China’s vehicle stock will increase nearly twenty-fold, to 390 million in 2030. This fast speed of vehicle ownership expansion implies rapid growth in oil demand.”13
Oil is a non renewable fossil fuel. We have gone beyond ‘peak oil’ and will need to find alternatives, potentially this will help the environment. This could be rectified by manufacturing car that use biofuels made of organic matter and other materials, and electric cars. Again, public transport falls into this category, however, in the UK especially, we need to work on the reputation of public transport in terms of cost, friendliness of employees and late arrivals.
Globally, car ownership is increasing; however different countries are increasing at different rates. Map 3 (p6) shows how many cars the country had per 1000 people in 2010.

The map shows that the U.S. has the highest amount of cars to 1000 people and Kenya have the lowest with 24 cars to 1000 people. What I find very surprising from this data is how low China’s and India’s cars per capita is, however I believe this is a good move by China and India from an environmental perspective because of their flourishing economy and workforce, they already emit high levels of carbon dioxide emissions in the world. Having a lower car ownership rate than other countries per 1000 people assists in bringing the amount of carbon emissions down. In addition to this, China is a NIC (newly industrialised country), and so is India, so they may not be able to command such a large car ownership per capita. Because this data is 4 years old, the numbers would have changed. My prediction in 2014 is that the NIC’s (See table below) would have increased car ownership per capita, as their countries are developing and transport is much needed. MEDC’s are trying to reduce the amount of cars on the road due to climate change targets needing to be met, especially the case in the EU. LEDC’s would have stayed the same or increased if more cars are bought or as they begin to become a developing country.

MEDC Country

Cars per Capita

NIC Country

Cars per Capita

LEDC Country






South Africa








New Zealand















In comparison to MEDC’s and LEDC’s, it is clear that MEDC’s have a higher number of cars per capita than LEDC’s.
The main causes of car levels rising is a population increase. With 7 billion people on the planet now, people want an easy method of transport and the car is the obvious solution for most. If the world’s population carries on increasing at the predicted rate of 1 billion people every approximately 12 years in the world, the effects of increased car ownership could be increased congestion, more grid lock, and an unhealthy effect of the Earth’s climate.
What if we …………..

increase the price of cars when the customer already has 2 cars to their household. This could discourage customers from purchasing extra cars and will result in fewer cars on the roads. In addition, fewer cars mean less repairs and refurnishing on the roads, making less congestion and traffic jams. This will also decrease the risk of collision if there are fewer cars.
Increase road taxes. Although this will be extremely unpopular with motorists, it will mean they have less disposable income to spend on additional cars. Furthermore, the extra money is going to the government, and they put the money back in to making driving safer by placing safety cameras.

enforce a law which limits a household to 2 cars. This will be effective because it prevents excessive car ownership and will aid in the sustainability of road structures because there will be fewer cars to damage the road. The knock on effect here is reduced employment in the car industry.
build additional roads on unused land. Although this is definitely not environmentally friendly, it will mean that vehicles have more roads to use. This will assist in making less grid locks and less congestion. This scenario isn’t fully sustainable because car ownership is always rising (if predicted rate happens), and eventually those roads will be used up too.
Create more public transport capacity. Even though a household may own 3 cars, they will be used less if we tempt them onto the bus or train. The solution is great if you live in an urban area where these services are available; however this may not be a viable solution to people living in a rural area where a bus service or train station isn’t available.
Develop more cycle routes and pedestrian pathways to encourage people to walk to their destination or cycle there. Not only will this help with the congestion and grid lock problem, it is also helping the environment because fewer emissions from cars will be released into the atmosphere. This also helps with the UK obesity issue too.

If we look to Germany and Switzerland, their public transport systems are developed and provide an excellent service, as I can say because of personal experiences and comparisons between the UK’s. However it seems that the UK are taking steps forward in improving public transport, as the government have confirmed a £2.7bn deal to build new ‘state of the art’ trains between London and Scotland. UK Transport Secretary Patrick McLoughlin said:
“These new trains will transform rail travel between many of the great towns and cities of England and Scotland. This deal is further proof that our long-term economic plans are on track, creating jobs and breathing new life into the UK’s train-building industry.”
In conclusion, I feel that we need to tempt drivers from their cars and convince them to use public transport or cycle and walk as an alternative. Walking brings health benefits to the individual and in terms of reduced emissions. Car ownership is driving us to the point of no return, we cannot escape that fact, however with careful direction and thought we could ‘turn the corner’ and become more sustainable.
As a result of my research, when I am older and able to drive, I will try to only own one car, two only if it absolutely necessary. This is to help the levels of car ownership stay the same or decrease in my area, helping my and others’ health. Ideally I will live close to work, cutting commuting time and improving the chance of viable public transport use.
Bibliography/Sources FOR INDEPENDENT REPORT 2 – TRANSPORT$majorMode=chart$is;shi=t;ly=2003;lb=f;il=t;fs=11;al=30;stl=t;st=t;nsl=t;se=t$wst;tts=C$ts;sp=5.59290322580644;ti=2007$zpv;v=0$inc_x;mmid=XCOORDS;iid=phAwcNAVuyj1jiMAkmq1iMg;by=ind$inc_y;mmid=YCOORDS;iid=tu0H0unnUriNvMXwH_qOqzw;by=ind$inc_s;uniValue=8.21;iid=phAwcNAVuyj0XOoBL_n5tAQ;by=ind$inc_c;uniValue=255;gid=CATID0;by=grp$map_x;scale=log;dataMin=194;dataMax=96846$map_y;scale=lin;dataMin=0.2955;dataMax=1214$map_s;sma=50;smi=2$cd;bd=0$inds=


Effects of Income Levels on Incarceration Rates


It’s no secret that incarceration rates continue to be an issue in the United States and are ever rising, but what has become more apparent in the recent years is that there is a plethora of variables that have begun to come into play as being the cause for such trends. For my research proposal I would like to uncover the effect of income levels on incarceration rates. To do so I will address the empirical data of incarceration rates across various cities throughout the U.S which is the dependent variable of interest. Then I will evaluate the empirical data of income levels prior to incarceration which will be signified by child poverty rates which shows levels of income that individual is born into within the given city. This will represent the independent variable of interest. The unit of analysis will be the percentage of those incarcerated. By juxtaposing the data and running a regression of said variables, I look to answer the question of the role that income has on one’s likelihood of being incarcerated. Furthermore, by understanding patterns of poverty and cycles that exist due to one’s status after being incarcerated, I will suggest policy implications that may either aid the previously incarcerated to bounce back financially, or aid certain groups with already low incomes to break themselves from the institutional temptations that may enter them into the incarceration/poverty cycle.

Literature Review

The research paper titled “Prisons of Poverty: Uncovering the pre-incarceration incomes of the imprisoned,” by Bernadette Rabuy and Daniel Kopf, looked to analyze the earnings of individuals who were incarcerated (Prior to incarceration) and those who were not incarcerated. The authors chose to organize the data by race and gender and found that incarcerated people had a “median annual income of $19,185 prior to their incarceration which was 41% less than non-incarcerated people of similar ages”. Furthermore, not only are the median incomes of incarcerated people prior to incarceration lower than non-incarcerated people, but “incarcerated people are dramatically concentrated at the lowest ends of the national income distribution.” Another paper that discusses this same connection titled “Work and opportunity before and after incarceration,” by Adam Looney and Nicholas Turner examines economic characteristics of the incarcerated population.  They find that three years prior to incarceration, only “49 percent of prime-age men are employed, and, when employed, their median earnings were only $6,250”. Furthermore, they continue to look deeper into the past to understand whether these conditions that lead to incarceration begin much earlier than three years prior. They find that boys who grew up in families in the “bottom 10 percent of the income distribution-families earning less than about $14,000- are 20 times more likely to be in prison on a given day in their early 30s than children born to the wealthiest families- those earning more than $143,000”. The authors estimate that almost “one in ten boys born to lowest income families are incarcerated at age 30 and make up about 27 percent of prisoners” at that age. Ultimately the two articles work to conjure up the fact that the poorer your parents are, the more likely you are to be incarcerated. Both portraying the fact that pre-incarceration income has a large correlation with your likelihood of being incarcerated.

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 The next two sources have to deal with the effects of this loss of income and how becoming incarcerated yields so many other factors that breakdown individual’s ability to recover or progress financially. One source called “Incarceration’s Effect on Economic Mobility,” by The Pew Charitable Trusts analyzes data of incarceration rates by age, race, and education to uncover the growth, scale, and concentration of incarceration and furthermore, the various effects it has generationally. This paper includes a lot more variables of interest than simply pre-incarcerated income, and also dives deeper into the results and this idea of a cycle that begins to form as one is less likely to make substantial income after release from incarceration, and thus will have kids who will grow up with a lower income level, and since children born into lower income levels have higher risks of becoming incarcerated, they will simply fall into the same trap as their parents and the cycle will become hard to break. Additionally, the next source titled “Incarceration & Social Inequality,” by Bruce Western & Becky Pettit explain how the contours of American social inequality have been transformed by the rapid growth of incarceration rates. This paper focuses on the idea that America’s prisons and jails have produced a new social group, a group of social outcasts who are joined by the shared experience of incarceration, crime, poverty, racial minority, and low education. By analyzing data that show gaps in a variety of different areas that come together to depict one’s overall earnings mobility, the authors are able to assert the fact that although there are many effects of incarceration rates, all effects lead to one common denominator and it’s the fact that certain specific groups most of which are African American continue to suffer the most from incarceration rates and income levels and everything in between. I will juxtapose the data from the first two sources and the analytical interpretations of the second two sources to conjure up the overall hypothesis that pre-determined income levels, if low enough at one’s birth, may make us to be more likely to become incarcerated and lead us into one of the most detrimental poverty cycles we know in this country.

Empirical Model

Linear regression is used to estimate the relationship between incarceration rates and childhood poverty rates. In this paper we estimate the following regression model:

 Inc. Rt =  + 1Poverty Rt.+ 2SingleParent+  3College Attend.+4Race + u

In the model above ‘Inc. Rt’ measures the percentage of population that is incarcerated in a given city. Household variables include ‘Poverty Rt.’ which measures proportion of children who are born into poverty, and ‘SingleParent’ which measures percentage of households run by a single parent.

 ‘College’ variable measures percentage of population that attended a college or university. Finally, the ‘Race’ variable measures percentage of population that belongs to either one of three dummy variables: Black, Asian, or Other.


Incarceration rate is the author’s estimate of the share of the 1980-1986 cohort living in these neighborhoods in 1996-2000 who were later incarcerated at age 30. Demographic and economic variables from the 2000 Decennial Census.

 Dependent variable defines incarceration rates as percentage of individuals who are incarcerated in any form of imprisonment.

 Independent variable of interest measures percentage of population that are born into poverty in a given city. The rate shows proportion of individuals who are considered below the federal poverty line at their time of birth. Meaning, the variable does not include those who may have entered below the poverty line at some point in their life, even though they were not born into poverty or low income. Bankruptcy, shortcomings, financial disasters are not included in the variable.

 City characteristics include single parent household percentage, college attendance, and race divided into three subgroups (Black, Asian, other).

Table 1 – Descriptive Statistics

   Variable |      Obs        Mean    Std. Dev.       Min        Max


        City |           0

       IncRt |          51    .0684706    .0453878          0        .1

 PovertyRt |        51    .2685098    .1755738       .012     .56

     SingleP |         51    .1227451    .0450368        .06      .27

     College |         51    .4231373    .2625147        .13      .89


       Black |         51    .4672549    .3309627          0         .98

       Asian |         51    .0282353      .04385            0         .24

       Other |         51    .0684314    .0691194        .01       .26

 Table 1 above shows a substantial variance in college attendance rates ranging as low as 13 % to as high as 89% with a mean of 42.3%.  Child poverty rates show a wide variance as well with a low of 1.2%, a high of 56%, and with a mean of 26.9%. Single Parent percentage has the smallest variance with a low of 6% and a high of 27%, meaning across the cities in the sample, there were no significant differences in the percentage of individuals with only one parent.


Empirical Results

Regression results in Table 2 iterate that child poverty rates are a key contributor to incarceration rates. Higher rates of child poverty lead to higher rates of incarceration across the U.S. When child poverty rates increase by 1%, incarceration rates grow by 8% illustrating a substantial positive correlation between the two variables. The race variable of being black also showed significance as a 1% increase in population of black individuals would lead to a 5.9% increase in incarceration rates.

Table 2

        Source |       SS            df         MS         Number of obs   =        51

 ————-+———————————-      F(6, 44)        =    121.17

        Model |     .097124776           6     .016187463     Prob > F        =    0.0000

     Residual |   .00587793           44    .000133589     R-squared       =    0.9429

 ————-+———————————-      Adj R-squared   =    0.9352

        Total |    .103002706          50    .002060054     Root MSE        =    .01156


       IncRt |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]


   PovertyRt |   .0803865   .0204823     3.92   0.000     .0391071    .1216658

     SingleP |  -.1125419   .0419052    -2.69   0.010    -.1969963   -.0280876

     College |  -.0499585   .0257766    -1.94   0.059     -.101908    .0019909

       Black |   .0588606   .0149253     3.94   0.000     .0287807    .0889405

       Asian |  -.0013029   .0515896    -0.03   0.980     -.105275    .1026692

       Other |   .0563438   .0429333     1.31   0.196    -.0301826    .1428703

       _cons |   .0505175   .0200744     2.52   0.016     .0100602    .0909749

It is also important to note that although the coefficients of ‘povertyrt’ and ‘black’ seem small, they are the only variables that are positively correlated with incarceration rates. This means that holding all other things equal, black people and those who are born into poverty suffer higher incarceration rates that any other group. Coincidentally, historical data shows us that these two groups have been linked for quite some time as black people statistically have a higher percentage of children born into poverty. The ‘other’ race variable is ambiguous as it’s inclusive of the White and Hispanic races who possess different levels of poverty and incarceration rates. Single parent percentage, college attendance percentage, and the variable of being Asian are all proven to be insignificant toward incarceration rates.

Conclusion & Policy Implications

 This research question is significant, because our society has, in the name of being tough on crime, made a series of policy choices that have fueled a cycle of poverty and incarceration. We send large numbers of people with low levels of education and low skills to prison, and then when they leave just as penniless as they were when they went in, we expect them to bear the burden of legally-acceptable employment discrimination. Acknowledging, as this report makes possible, that the people in prison were, before they went to prison, some of the poorest people in this country makes it even more important that we make policy choices that can break the cycle of poverty and incarceration. We have to put into understanding that although there are limited variables in this empirical model, there are a substantial amount of variables that oppose those who become incarcerated, and it’s these subtle variables like the ability to gain employment as a felon that stand in the way of one’s ability to make financial progress following incarceration. We call these institutional obstacles, because they are all the result of historical policies that were made decades ago that all work to hinder and outcast a specific group of people simply because they’ve been incarcerated. Furthermore, when we address the variable of race it becomes clear that the black race is a group that has felt the effects of this ‘cycle’ of poverty and incarceration the most. Conclusively, when we make this realization and juxtapose the fact that there are institutional as well as racial obstacles, we reach a new entity called ‘institutional racism’ that emerges as a deeper and more complex situation to deal with. This type of racism is a result of years of anti-black attitudes that have circled the world for centuries dating back to slavery. Moreover, when you have societies that are governed by individuals who possess this anti-black mindset, they create rules in light of this way of thinking and create a nation that is inevitably governed by this same way of thinking. Ultimately, a nation is created in spite of the black race, and all the rules and regulations that govern it institutionally work against the black race.  Therefore, policy implications that may lend increased aid to black people may be able to improve their financial state before being incarcerated, and may consequentially help improve the racial wage gaps that exist in this country. Re-trial of black people already incarcerated may be necessary as it is a true fact that racial profiling exists in the judicial system and many black people behind bars are not worthy of the sentenced they were given, but worthy of another chance. A real chance at a real American Dream.



Adam Looney and Nicholas Turner. “Work and Opportunity Before and After incarceration”. The Brookings Institute, March 2018

Bernadette Rabuy and Daniel Kopf. Prisons of Poverty: “Uncovering the pre-incarceration income of the imprisoned”. July 2015

The Pew Charitable Trusts, 2010. “Collateral Costs: Incarceration’s Effect on Economic Mobility”. Washington, DC: The Pew Charitable Trusts.

American Academy of Arts & Science, 2010. “Incarceration & Social Inequality”. Bruce Western & Becky Pettit

Decennial Census (2000). “neighborhood Rates of Incarceration”. Economic Studies at Brookings


Effects of Changing Levels of Market Concentration on the Australian Economy

Executive Summary  
 In the last decades, the growing trend of rising market concentration around the globe has created key concern as many industries become less competitive and more concentrated. Similar  observations have been noted in the Australian economy where big firms are usually dominating the market. This paper examines the increasing market concentration in the Australian economy by taking into account the things that influence its existing competition, naming industries that have become more concentrated, and the effects of such economic trends. Two major factors found to make the Australian markets weak are economies of scale and heavy regulation. Not so many industries have contributed to the growing market concentration and Manufacturing takes the first spot. Lastly, as detailed in the last part of the paper, there are three primary areas impacted by the rising market concentration in Australia. These include productivity, profitability, and wage growth.

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 Through the use of Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, the Australian economy can still be considered as competitive. It scored with lower than 0.23 for over 90% of the industry and smaller than 0.04 for over half of the industry (Bakhtiari, 2019). It was claimed that a significant change in market concentration that can harm competition and restricts firm entry spurs concern for job creation and future growth of the economy. The focus of this report is to show the effects of increasing levels of market concentration on the Australian economy by looking at highly concentrated industries.
In the modern economy, high competition or competitive pressure is equated to good economic performance. It prompts firms to be innovative and utilise resources to their best use. However, in the past years, Australia and other countries around the globe have been worrying that competition is not as healthy as it should be. More specifically, big concerns were expressed over findings showing that industrialised nations have been controlled in the hands of fewer firms. The concept of market concentration is very essential as it is taken as a proxy measure of the intensity of competition in an economy. In Australia, has competition weakened? If so, how? Which industries have turned more concentrated? The report will address these questions.
Analysis of Market Concentration in the Australian Economy
Many studies reveal that the increasing trend in market concentration is responsible for explaining the decreasing labour share of production. This was documented in the economies of the U.S., North America, and Europe, as well as across the OECD nations (Autor et al, 2017; Guschanski & Onaran, 2018; & Bajgar et al., 2019). It is, therefore, in the interest of this paper to analyse the case of Australia.
Factors Shaping Competition in the Australian Economy
There are a number of factors that shape competition in the market, also referred to as ‘barriers to entry’. The most significant factor that shapes the Australian economy is economies of scale wherein larger firms incurred lower costs than smaller ones. This is very prevalent in sectors that are often served by a few firms while remote and relatively small economies in Australia have lower productivity as they are not equipped to exploit economies of scale (Minifie, 2017). If there are very high or powerful economies of scale, the market is characterized by a natural monopoly, which, in turn, adversely affects competition (Gittins, 2018).
 Another key factor impacting competition, in many ways, is heavy regulation. First, it can potentially increase the costs of business operations in particular sectors, most especially the smaller ones. Additionally, it can also restrict the number of firms and explicitly limit competition between firms by strictly controlling where competitors can open their businesses (Azar et al., 2017). In market sectors where these barriers to entry are present, there may be weaker competition. In the Australian economy, market sectors identified with those barriers relatively have a comparably little share of the entire gross value added (15%) according to the National Accounts reported by the ABS (2017).
Figure 1. Majority has lower entry barriers,               Figure 2. Concentration is more in sectors with barriers to entry.
is trade-exposed, or is mostly publicly provided.

Source: ABS (2017).     Source: Grattan Analysis of IBISWorld (2017).
 As illustrated in Figure 1 above, most of the sectors identified with barriers to entry are considered to be highly concentrated. In fact, on average, the biggest four firms under those marked sectors provide more than half the market share, supplying around 70% of firms with strong economies of scale, over 60% of those with heavy regulation. Whereas market players in the sector of natural monopoly provide 100% of their local markets. However, it can also mean that not a single firm holds the monopoly but various firms do in different locations. On the contrary, the same firms supply lower than 20% of the market in the bigger low barriers sectors.
Measuring Market Concentration Through HHI
While there are many ways to measure market concentration, most of them present errors and problems but one tool remains to be widely accepted in academia – the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index or HHI. This measure calculates the square of the market share of every firm competing and sums up the resulting figures, giving a score that ranges from almost zero to 10,000 (DAF, 2018). One of its greatest advantages is that it considers the relative size distribution of the firms existing in the market. Essentially, it rises as the number of firms competing in the market goes down as well as the variation in firm size goes up. In this case, the study of Bakhtiari (2019) revealed that very few industries in Australia are dominated by a small number of big firms as shown by the skewness in the graph of the distribution of HHI on Figure 3. Moreover, the HHI (less than 0.23 for over 90% of the industry and smaller than 0.04 for over half of the industry) statistics also further confirmed that Australian industries are not that concentrated.                                                                     

Figure 3. The distribution of HHI.
Australian Industries That Have Become More Concentrated
 It is imperative to emphasise that on average, market concentration in Australia prior to 2007 has been going lower but from that year onwards until 2016, HHI results have shown an increasing trend (Bakhtiari, 2019). Interestingly, industries with HHI lower than the median demonstrated no noticeable changes in market concentration but for those with HHI higher than the median, nearly all the rise in concentration occurred among them. The following graph (Figure 4) illustrates the changes in market concentration levels in various industries according to Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification or ANZSIC divisions.
   Figure 4. The shift in HHI from 2012-2016 by ANZSIC divisions.

Industries above the 45-degree line have increased in their concentration, with the manufacturing industry as the leading one while those below have dropped from 2002 until 2016 (Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, 2019). Other concentrated industries include Healthcare, Professional, Scientific & Technical, Retail, and Agriculture. Market concentration in most other industries that experience very little change in HHI does not incur significant change from 2002 to 2016. They are from the Construction ANZSIC division.
 While it is established that barriers to entry play the biggest role in making certain industries highly concentrated, it is crucial to consider that the rising market concentration is not directly related to a diminishing demand (Kollmorgen, 2016). In fact, the majority of the increase in market concentration among the concentrated sectors occurs where there is an expansion in the demand side of the market (Department of Industry. Innovation and Science, 2019). This suggests that a big chunk of the increase in demand has been absorbed by some firms. Thus, it is imperative to determine what particular industry characteristics have been contributing to increasing concentration.              
  Bakhtiari (2019) attempted to consider digital maturity as one possible contributing factor as innovation on digital technologies is a key driver of growth and productivity. However, his findings revealed that digital maturity is not likely to be causing the observed rising pattern in market concentration. Another factor looked into is productivity distribution. Theoretically, when resources in the industry reallocate into the most productive units, the dominance of such units is expected to grow, resulting in higher market concentration (ACCC, 2013). In effect, higher productivity dispersion provides more space for better reallocating resources. An alternative interpretation would be a larger productivity skewness in indicates the existence of firms that have the advantage to control the industry. However, the same conclusion was reached that both the productivity dispersion and productivity skewness do not contribute to the increasing average HHI (Bakhtiari, 2019).
One last factor considered is export orientation. Several researchers argued that export-oriented industries have higher market power because they are in an advantaged position to undercut the prices of their rivals while still able to get high markups exporting firms (De Loecker & Warzynski, 2012; Zingales, 2017). As such, these exporting industries can curb competition and are capable of controlling the market. According to the same data from the DIIS (2019), as reflected in Table 1 below, the most export intensive firms are those from the Manufacturing and Mining industries. On average, the manufacturing and mining industries export no less than 50% and 60% of their outputs, respectively. The analysis of the connection between export intensity and HHI exhibits a positive result, suggesting that market concentration is increasing where an industry is export-oriented and highly concentrated (Bakhtiari, 2019).             
   Table 1. Most export intensive industries
In sum, market concentration in Australia started to increase post-2007 and it happens in industries that are already concentrated or those with HHI higher than the median. However, only a few industries, with Manufacturing on the lead, that have an increasing trend of market concentration while others have decreased. Among three possible contributing factors evaluated, the export intensity has a substantial correlation with increasing average HHI in concentrated industries like manufacturing and mining.
The Impact of Increasing Market Concentration on 3 Key Economic Areas
Now, how does this rising trend in market concentration has impacted the Australian economy? This report identifies and discusses three key areas where the effects of this changing level of concentration have the most impact. These include productivity, profitability, and wage growth.
#1. Effects on productivity. As shown in the tested analysis of Bakhtiari (2019) on the effects of rising market concentration on the productivity of firms, the two variables change in opposite directions. This means at times when market concentration grows, the average productivity of firms goes down. Conversely, in cases where market concentration is decreasing, productivity increases. This verifies the assumption of most studies that increase in market concentration harms competition. However, it is a noteworthy finding that when great performance or innovation and export intensity go hand-in-hand in highly concentrated industries, such as manufacturing, the average productivity of firms rises. Finally, as found by Campbell et al. (2019) in their working paper with ABS and the Treasury, there has been a significant decline in labour productivity dispersion among the six Australian industries from 2001 to 2014. These include the Manufacturing which has been found out earlier to be the top industry that gained the highest increase in market concentration.
#2. Effects on profitability. With their market power, some big firms in Australia are deemed to make high profits and these earnings are even higher behind barriers to entry. As presented in the report of Minifie from Grattan Institute (2017), firms in high-barrier sectors all enjoy above-average returns whereas those competing in low-barrier sectors get below-average returns. The report indicated that average profitability is about 20% higher in the sectors with barriers to entry. Moreover, highly concentrated industries are more profitable on average and markets expect profits in these sectors to remain higher than those elsewhere (Bakhtiari, 2019). Despite this higher profitability of firms in high-barrier sectors and highly-concentrated industries, the presence of concentration explains lower than 10% of the disparity in returns across industrial sectors (Minifie, 2017). This only means that firms competing in a concentrated industry that has weak competition is not a guarantee of great profitability. However, the fact still stands that more than $10 billion of super-normal profit (above average) is earned in monopoly and other regulated industries. This only implies that regulators have not done everything to make sure that consumers’ welfare is not highly considered in these industries.                                         

  Figure 5. Wage growth
#3. Effects on wage growth. While corporate profits in Australia have been increasing
in the last ten years, the opposite is happening with wage growth that has been stagnant and remains low as seen in Figure 5. This same pattern is also observed not just in Australia but in other advanced or high-income economies like the U.S. (Ayala, 2018). One significant finding corroborates with the results reported by the Grattan Institute discussed above, that is highly-concentrated industries do earn higher returns compared to non-concentrated ones (Azar et al., 2017). As large firms have the power to affect prices in markets, they can also do so in the case of wages in the labour market. More specifically, a study by Benmelech et al. (2018) that uses HHI showed that firms with monopsony power are able to lower wages by up to 3% yearly. Thinking about its long-term effects, it can be a huge reduction in the future if the same trend in wage growth in Australia is observed.
 The increasing trend of market concentration has caused major concern across countries. The same pattern is being observed in the Australian economy in which the top four large industries are dominating the market while earning too much bigger than other industries. This paper analysed the issues associated with the rising market concentration in Australia through the lens of the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index. It further identified the factors that shape the competition in the Australian market, particularly economies of scale and heavy regulation. The findings show that only a few industries have seen an increase in their concentration with Manufacturing at the top list. It was also discovered that export intensive industries are more likely to contribute to such an increase. Lastly, the report discussed the biggest impact of the increasing market concentration on three economic aspects of firms among the different Australian industries. These include firm productivity, profitability, and wage growth.
Reference List

Autor, D., et al., 2017. Concentrating on the fall of the labor share, NBER Working Paper No. 23108. American Economic Review, 107(5), 180–185. DOI: 10.3386/w23108.
Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2017. Australian System of National Accounts, 2016-17. cat. no. 5204.0.
Australian Competition & Consumer Commission, 2013. Thoughts on market concentration issues. Retrieved from
Ayala, M., 2018. Is market concentration undermining wage growth? Essa. retrieved from
Azar, J., Marinescu, I. & Steinbaum, M. I., 2017. Labor market concentration. NBER Working Paper No. 24147. DOI: 10.3386/w24147.
Bajgar, M, et al., 2019. Industry concentration in Europe and North America, OECD, Productivity Working Paper, No.18.
Bakhtiari, S., 2019. Trends in market concentration of Australian industries. Department of Industry, Science, Energy, and Resources, Office of the Chief Economist. Retrieved from
Benmelech, E., Bergman, N., & Kim, H., 2018. Strong employers and weak employees: How does employer concentration affect wages? NBER Working Paper No. 24307. DOI: 10.3386/w24307.
De Loecker, J. & Warzynski, F., 2012. Markups and firm-level export status, American Economic Review, 102(6), 2437–2471. DOI: 10.1257/aer.102.6.2437.
Directorate For Financial And Enterprise Affairs Competition Committee, 2018. Market concentration. OECD Secretariat. Retrieved from 
Gittins, R., 2018. Weak competition may be key to economy’s problems. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from
Guschanski, A. & Onaran, O., 2018. The labour share and financialisation: Evidence from publicly listed firms, Greenwich Papers in Political Economy 19371, University of Greenwich, Paper No. GPERC59, Greenwich Political Economy Research Centre.
Kollmorgen, A., 2016. Market monopolies in Australia: Is Australian suffering from a market concentration crisis? CHOICE. Retrieved from
Minifie, J., 2017. Competition in Australia Too little of a good thing? Grattan Institute, Report No. 2017-12. Retrieved from
Zingales L (2017) Towards a Political Theory of the Firm, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31(3), 113–130.


Youth Fitness And Obesity Levels Physical Education Essay

The figure of obesity children is rapidly increasing due to their unhealthy lifestyle and eating habit such as addicted to fast food, video games, and online games which occur in most of the children community nowadays. Unhealthy lifestyle caused most of the children dislike physical bodily movement and lack of physical fitness. A number of researchers involved in teaching physical classes always emphasize the relationship between decreasing of participation in physical activity towards increasing of health-related risks such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease (Domangue, 2009). We as physical teachers have to understand factors leading to children physical inactivity. It is very important to understand why youngsters withdraw themselves from physical activity as they get matured. In physical education classes, fitness testing act as a very crucial component which help to create awareness of health concerns on physical inactivity cases especially among children (Domangue, 2009). Physical activity is defined as any type (mild, moderate, vigorous) of bodily movement for instance jumping rope, soccer, weight lifting, running, walking, taking stairs and others which can be our daily routine activities, recreational activities, as well as sport activities. Literally, health-related physical fitness means physical activity that involved mild or adverse physical body movement that contribute to their general body health (Karinharju, 2005). School-based physical class explains when participant is physically active, heart pumping rate increases and produces heavier breathing than normal breathing. Unfortunately, a lot of schools neglected physical education class and only focus on physical class. In fact, physical education and physical activity are equally important elements that contribute towards children health development.

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In Silverman (2008) paper stated youth fitness testing was designed to embarrass those children who are less capable in physical activity. Those children who cannot perform well especially those obese children will be insulted by their peers and eventually they will withdraw themselves from involving in physical activity. We should not turn children down in physical activity by right as a school teacher we should help children to cultivate interest in physical activity. For instance, a plump children will feel embarrass while doing stretching. They might unable to reach the desired point and will be laughed by their peers. Girls might not like to play soccer, running around the field fighting for a ball. They might prefer jumping rope. So while designing fitness testing, more consideration should be taken such as gender, body size and fitness. As a physical teacher, we should help students to learn more about fitness and physical activity in order to promote positive attitudes on physical activity.
I further belief if fitness testing was used in positive and appropriate ways it will enhance students’ physical educational experience as well as promote good attitudes and interest. There is few discussion on fitness testing has been done in recent years and the discussions were basically taken in three forms. First, some researchers suggest discontinuing school-based youth fitness testing in physical education program. Because school teachers are more focus on students’ activity performance instead of health-related fitness (Silverman, 2008; Rowland, 1995; Corbin et al., 1995). Second, researchers suggested that school-based physical classes should emphasize on educational aspects. Tests and teaching should carried out together to help to improve students’ fitness and knowledge (Silverman, 2008; Cale & Harris, 2002; Corbin & Pangrazi, 1993). Lastly, thorough examination of student fitness achievement testing is needed before designing and making decision on the future of physical class context and tests. (Silverman, 2008; Cale et al., 2007; Corbin et al., 1995; Keating & Silverman, 2004).
To be physically fit, one has to be physically active. Definition for physical fitness is an “adaptive state that varies with the individual’s growth and maturity status and with habitual activity and lifestyle” (Domangue, 2009; Malina, Bouchard & Bar-Or, 2004). Furthermore, physical fitness can be categorized into two categories which is health-related fitness and performance-related fitness. Health-related fitness is fitness that everyone needs which contributes to maintain and improve health status of our body. Performance-related fitness refers to skilled athletes or performers who need to be success or excel in their performance in sports activities. Basically, health-related fitness is assessed by measuring cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, muscular endurance, strength, and body fat content or body mass index (BMI) (Hale, 2005; Corbin, 2005).
Rowland, 1995 drew a conclusion that physical teachers should not stop fitness testing, but should implement fitness tests in the physical education curriculum. Children and adults have different used of fitness test. So, while planning physical activities, this should be taken in concern. Children cannot decide whether to participate in fitness testing or how to use the results of those physical assessments. Whereas, adults are able to decide and choose whether to use fitness testing as a summative assessment to check their current health-related fitness levels of how fit they are at the period of time or as formative assessment to continuously assess health-related fitness level in order to modify fitness program as part of program planning. Adults who decided to go for either formal (with trainers) or informal training (self-training) already ready and have some commitment to do physical activity. But children do not have such commitment and do not know how to make decision. Therefore, youth fitness testing can have opposite result if it is not perform appropriately, and will have consequences to develop negative attitude and patterns of physical activity among children. But, youth fitness testing should play an important role in school physical education setting in order to enhance students fitness (Silverman, 2008; Bar-Or, 1993; Cale & Harris, 2002; Whitehead, Pemberton & Corbin, 1990), and implementation of fitness testing should be examined often to prevent any deviation that will result in the misuse of fitness tests (Silverman, 2008).
In order to have positive impact of physical testing in school, silverman has suggested some guidelines to implement a positive impact fitness test. First, youth fitness testing should be integrated as a part of fitness instruction in curriculum. Although assessment is important goal of teaching but without a solid curriculum it is merely testing (Stewart, Elliot, Boyce & Block, 2005). Second, fitness testing result should be used by teachers to assess their fitness instruction and enhance students’ learning (Corbin, 1981) while physical classes. Long-term and short-term outcomes of fitness testing of children should be taken into concern by teachers and curriculum planners planning for future activities. Third, the point of having physical class is for students to improve their body fitness and towards meeting their healthy zone standard. We should teach students not to assume that fitness testing will automatically increase their physical activity levels but it is just to test their body fitness. It is important to understand their body fitness and help to design future activities. If fitness testing was used appropriately and used as an educational tool, it has the potential to promote physical activity and also help to improve health-related fitness. In many schools in Malaysia, students are only required to be tested on fitness test once in a year. Compare to academic tests physical test is far lesser. During fitness tests, Instructional time spent on fitness testing should not be ignored. Without positively increasing youngsters’ physical activity levels and health-related fitness does not make sound use of fitness tests.
Health-related fitness testing should be carried out in school, and it is important to include both physical activity and also health-related fitness in physical education class so that student will able to understand the difference and complementary nature of the concepts (Silverman, 2008). Health-related fitness has to be taught as part of curriculum so that student able to understand the concept and the purpose of the test. Health-related fitness testing also can be used as a tool to examine concepts and components of health-related fitness and physical activity. For example, while teacher introducing the sit-up test, teacher can discuss on the anatomy of the body and the function of the muscles involved and how the body perform the activity and how to improve their strength and endurance. Provide important information and knowledge while doing the activity, student can understand better the purpose of having each test and also prevent to get injured. Without proper knowledge, students are more tend to get injured, due to lack of knowledge of proper posture undergoing particular activity. Teacher has to educate students the correct posture and way to perform those activity to protect our body muscle and anatomy. Lacking important knowledge might influence students’ performance, motivation and interest as well. Eventually, they will cultivate negative attitude and their bad experiences in physical education will influence their attitudes towards future assessment and physical activity and eventually cause them to withdraw from physical activity.
Another reason why teaching both health-related fitness and physical activity is important, because the current examination of physical activity assessment program may mislead students into thinking that regular participation in any mild to moderate physical activity for 30-60 minutes is sufficient to maintain their health. NASPE recommends those children aged 5 to 12 years should be physically active for at least 60 minutes to several hours of per day (Domangue, 2009). As children get matured, the recommended duration for physical activity varies. Adolescents need lesser hour to be physically active compare to children. They need only 30-60 minutes daily (Yesalonia, 2009). Unfortunately, many school-aged students have too little opportunity to participate in these recommended physical activities during school hour. In this situation, students are required to balance their physical activity levels outside the school as extra-curriculum.
Outside the regular school hours, many children could be physically active in sedentary activities such as homework, computers and video-games which children only required to sit on chair. This can affect activity levels of school-aged children. Perhaps the most important time for children to be active is after school is between three and six p.m. But often children nowadays are not, they will rather spend time on sedentary activities or their academic curriculum. Parents have press more on their academic rather than their physical achievements and also safety issues parents stop letting children to involve in physical activities. . As a school teacher, we should encourage parents to allow their children to be physically active instead of filling all those active hours with tuitions, piano classes and homework. Children can have opportunity to be active after school hours by participating in extra-curricular activity programs, such as basket ball, soccer, as well as community-based activity programs. Remember, physical activity and health-related fitness is both equally important. We should not too emphasize on physical achievement and ignore the basic understanding on health-related fitness.
Through the health-related fitness testing, teacher is responsible to educate students the purpose of participating in a variety of physical activity form and methods to improve corresponding health-related fitness components as well as the recommended duration in performing physical activity. Health-related fitness testing is an excellent context to teach students to examine on both health-related fitness and physical activity concept. Students can understand health-related fitness not only improve their health level (Silverman, 2008; Simons-Morton et al., 1988) but also their cognitive skills (Hillman, Castelli, & Buck 2005). School-based physical classes may not done an adequate job in teaching students on the importance of health-related fitness or have taught separately with physical activity. If health-related fitness testing is done separately, there is no way that student will develop the knowledge that can be developed from an understanding of both health-related fitness and physical activity assessment.
Teacher should teach assessment skills to students. If student able to use fitness test for self-assessment, they are able to use the understanding of health-related fitness learned during physical class and able to plan their own physical activity programs according to their desired target. Students were taught that fitness testing can be used as formative assessment to develop and modify their physical activity routines to help them have the knowledge to start an appropriate level. Assessment skills also able to help students keep participating in physical activity if they know what their expected goal is. The formative testing experience will reinforce fitness gains and also enhance additional motivation for students to continue involved in physical activity (Silverman, 2008). Students learn to compare the scores with their previous performance and to design a suitable goals and activity according to their body level. Applications of appropriate use of fitness tests taught in class equip students with the knowledge and skills to participate and to select appropriate physical activity and help them to perform self-assessment.
To incorporating health-related fitness assessment into fitness education, teacher should teach students the purpose of doing the fitness test or other fitness-based activity. Student should understand the instructional content before performing the test. Then, fitness testing should be formative. Teacher should plan the educational experience to use fitness testing results to design future activity for students while also teaching students that health-related fitness can be improved and assessment is integral to that process. Another way is to conduct fitness education by infusing fitness lessons into curriculum. This can be done by relating each activity done to fitness. So, student will have better understanding on how those activities related and improve their body fitness, why that aspect of fitness is important. With that knowledge, students are able to understand and eventually improve their performance on that activity. For example, students participate in school gymnasium should know that gymnasium activity are exercising their heart and will help make them healthy and good for their heart. They should know the health-related fitness component is called aerobic fitness and helps to prevent heart disease. With this understanding, students were being more motivated on physical activity. The use of fitness test helps students to understand health-related fitness and how testing can be used to improve and enhance fitness.
Infusing health-related fitness test in physical education can increase student knowledge, attitudes and fitness. In primary schools students, teacher will help students in assessment and plan their future physical activity, but in secondary school, after fitness testing, students could provide an analysis of their strengths and weaknesses and develop a fitness program suitable to them. Teacher could use variety of teaching strategies such as reciprocal teaching, self-check against predetermined rubrics and assessments such as using the analysis and plan for providing feedback to the students (Silverman, 2008) to help students to improve and also to monitor their program.
Planning and assessment of physical activity is necessary in order to improve students’ learning experience and to meet the goals of instructions (Silverman, 2008). Without assessment, we are unable to know our standard and level. Teachers act as a reflection as a form of assessment to assess fitness education the result of the assessment is for the teacher to do self-assessment and reflect on the lesson. Teacher means act as a problem solvers (i.e., design the content or lesson to achieve goal and to assess achievement of the goal, and whether there are other better ways to enhance instruction). Second step is student learning. Fitness testing result is to examine student learning from multiple perspectives (increase various component of health-related fitness, increases in physical activity, attitude toward fitness and physical activity). This health-related fitness test may tell how fit students are, ignoring the fitness improvement, physical activity and attitude development. Next is the appropriate use of accountability for assessing fitness education. Principals should be aware that fitness testing may lead negative consequences. Always ensure that the test is use appropriately and must be used within the context and perform a complete fitness education program if we want students to live in physically active lives. Assessment and accountability program should design appropriately and examine from time to time being as one aspect of student assessment and physical grading.
As a school physical education teacher, I strongly believe that health-related fitness tests that are used in an appropriate educational manner can be a useful tool to enhance student learning and also health level. Although there is wide variation in the capabilities of students, the main purpose of fitness instruction should be that every student can work towards being fit and reach healthy level. While designing the test, physical class teachers should consider those less capability students and help them to improve by educating health-related fitness. The main focus on physical education should be on evolving fitness process, students’ participation regardless on performance and result achieved. A well-planned physical fitness program with a positive classroom environment is very crucial to yield positive attitude, interest and motivation of students on physical activity especially for those less capability. Teachers should put more efforts on those students who may feel fitness testing is an embarrassment. Silverman (2008) suggested that assessment methods can move from group administration of test to pairs testing or self-assess. It can help to utilize time better, develop self-assessment skills and less embarrassing for most students.
In a nutshell, I agree to infuse health-related fitness in physical class. Both physical activity and health-related fitness is equaled important to enhance body fitness and health. In order to have positive outcome, physical educator should designed an appropriate program for students in order to improve their fitness and encourage them to participate in physical activity and not to emphasize on performance achieved. Educators have to alert those students who are less capable in physical activities and encourage them, support them to involve in physical activity and educate them on health-related fitness. So that they can understand why they need to do that particular activity and what is the benefits of doing that. Educators should stress more on health-related fitness rather than performance-related fitness.
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Facebook’s Effects on Levels of Happiness and Satisfaction

Social media, in specific Facebook has a long history since 2004 and has become a platform where people share personal and business activities. Every person who has access to a smartphone creates a profile on Facebook and goes forward to befriend people or connect with old acquaintances. The popularity involved with Facebook has made people connect on large margin. Some people have even become popular due to Facebook and they have gained followers and friends who make them happy. People post pictures and videos of activities they are involved in and share them on Facebook thus creating a pool of knowledge. The ambiguity of the situation leaves most people happy and satisfied because they can watch and learn new things on Facebook. Trending information and funny videos are easily acquired on Facebook and people spend time enjoying them and thus forms a popular hobby. Businesses have grown because of Facebook advertising and with so many people connected it is easy to acquire a market. Facebook connects, educates and enhances communication between people of all ages and thus it makes more people happy and satisfied. 

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Most Facebook users are teenagers who are yet to find way in life and define themselves. The information found on Facebook is unlimited and it is easier to follow role models who may not be easily available elsewhere and thus receive ideas of molding. According to Lam et al. (175-183) Facebook connects and opens the world to more people and almost a billion people. Facebook has become a way of life for many people and connections that lead to friendships and more leave the people more satisfied and happy. The people who login into Facebook chose who to share their information with, this makes more secure because only the appropriate audience is able to acquire the information. Creating groups on Facebook helps people with similar goals and experiences to share and relative questionnaires the administrators can determine the right people (Castro 152-169). People with traumatic experiences do not find happiness easily and with the Facebook groups they are able to adjust or even find people who have had harder experiences and can guide them to happiness.  It is imperative that Facebook enhances the happiness of users and leaves them more satisfied.

Facebook promotes the advancement of education in most high level institutions. According to Lam et al. (175-183) Facebook has enabled university libraries to pass on information and advance marketing. Videos and educational content uploaded by the libraries connected with the students well and they were more satisfied with the results and outcome. Lam et al. (175-183) engages that the diversity of Facebook as a social media tool for marketing is effective and improves ways to acquire the attention of students. People in the current era spend most of their time on phones or laptops and engaging an online library that connects the users on Facebook is a tremendous effort to engage the satisfaction that comes from reading books. Library Facebook pages entice the young generation to elevate the level of reading thus creating effective learning habits that distribute satisfaction (Lam et al. 175-183). The communication platforms provided by the pages encourage the students to share their knowledge on the books and improve their knowhow and understanding.

 Quality education hold the basis of every developed country, and to advance communication is very necessary. Facebook provides unlimited access to peers and their teachers through messenger platform. The students are able to discuss an issue they have in particular subject without physically being in class. The advancement of passing information means that the students will have more satisfying grades and they will be happier. The online platforms makes the job of the teachers more easier because most student cannot go for a long time without connecting on Facebook which is preferred to other education applications (Castro 152-169). Taking into account the increasing numbers of students who do not have access to traditional university education Facebook plays a big part in enabling high education. The advancement of education is vital in every countries economy and to the career of the students (Castro 152-169). Remarkable technological advances such as Facebook increase opportunities and thus more people are happy and satisfied.

Literacy levels are largely influenced by the way people connect on Facebook. According to Warhol (p25) literacy of students who are not native speakers of English are greatly enhanced by Facebook. Facebook makes reading interesting for people who do not naturally know the English language through simplified features and videos book are easier to access for the illiterate.  Warhol (p25) emphasizes that even educated people find reading books tiresome and often fall asleep while reading. Facebook provides literacy on multiple fronts such as entertainment and inclines people to comment with their common language and translates it to the desired form. The availability of translation software on Facebook enhances the understanding of information that would have remained ambiguous to the illiterate (Warhol p25). The linguistic expertise of teachers is equally shared internationally with educational posts gaining popularity and being shared globally. The advancement of better connection especially in speaking English is made easier by Facebook. The non-native speakers are happy to be understood by English speakers and also they gain satisfaction through understanding others.      

With Facebook it is easier to connect work and personal lives. Colleagues who work together usually connect on Facebook on different levels. The organizational functioning of a working force in affected positively by integration of contacts on Facebook. According to Bartels et al. (307-328), workmates connect on Facebook and thus the alienation involved with work is minimized. Some employees may not be comfortable connecting with others more so when they are new to the organization. Through Facebook pages and groups the colleagues are able to understand each other better thus making the workplace more suitable. More than 70% of employees who quit their jobs is due to lack of connection or disagreements with other workers (Bartels et al. 307-328). Facebook shines a light on every individual in the organization thus providing a way to connect on working levels and on personal grounds. The satisfaction gained from loyal employees benefits the organization and makes the workers happier. Profits earned due to employee’s satisfaction enables increment of salaries which makes their lives happier to live. Facebook entwines the personal connection and the working attitude and the results favors both the company and the employees.

Customer satisfaction is important to every successful business more so the ability to know how people feel about a certain product. Facebook advertisement and business pages provide a commenting forum where the consumers can comment on the effectiveness of the product or the standards of customer service. According to Sumathy (24-27) the popularity of social media especially Facebook has enhanced ways in which businesses carry out their customer service. Improved and direct feedback from the customers through the business Facebook page accelerates the action being taken by the management to improve customer service. Management is also able to single out non-performing employees due to numerous ratings and personalized feedback on Facebook.  The comments and reviews by clients provide the business with a data base where they can refer in order to maximize their service according to the consumer’s needs (Sumathy 24-27). Most companies rely on the comments of clients to educate new employees on the desirable behavior and action to ensure satisfaction. Every individual is a customer at a particular business and satisfaction is key to happy clients. Customer satisfaction is tremendously improved by the existence of Facebook.

In the current age people have numerous engagements that limit the time for gaining meaningful relationships. However, through Facebook they are able to connect with others who have common goals and they move forward to start romantic relationships. According to Hand et al. (8-13) people have found romantic relationships on Facebook that lead to satisfied lives. Coupling on Facebook is a usual thing but the growth of relationships to meaningful grounds produces satisfaction to people involved. The frequency in which the people pass on messages stipulates an ongoing connection between users which brings satisfaction and happiness. Some people may find it hard to connect with people around them physically and thus they prefer the platform provided on Facebook. Relationships are built on personal information that is readily available on Facebook. The improved socialistic ideas and enhancements of sharing on Facebook increases the chances of people who may not find romantic relationships in their usual circle of friends. Facebook improves the level of connection thus increasing the satisfaction of users and also enabling happiness.

To conclude, it is clear that Facebook does not make people sadder and unsatisfied. Comparative and scholarly knowledge proves that Facebook is an effective communication tool that serves people globally. The improvement of education through online platforms and sharing of information is desirable character of Facebook socializing. Education is thriving globally due to efforts by Facebook to translate for the illiterate and people who are not natural speakers of English. As a marketing tool Facebook serves businesses with an available market and does not limit any specific group. Facebook ensures that workplaces are not alienated to workers and they can learn about their colleagues and thus develop good working relationships. Customer service is tremendously improved by Facebook through business pages. Consumers can comment on the type of service they require and review the actions of the staff thus enabling individual responsibility and satisfaction. Friendships formed on Facebook can lead to serious relationships that are personally satisfying to users. Facebook improves the levels of happiness and also enhances satisfaction. 

Works Cited

Bartels, Jos, et al. “My Colleagues Are My Friends: The Role of Facebook Contacts in Employee Identification.” Management Communication Quarterly, vol. 33, no. 3, Aug. 2019, pp. 307–328. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1177/0893318919837944.

CASTRO, JUAN CARLOS. “Learning and Teaching Art Through Social Media.” Studies in Art Education, vol. 53, no. 2, 2012, pp. 152–169. JSTOR,

Hand, Matthew M., et al. “Facebook and romantic relationships: Intimacy and couple satisfaction associated with online social network use.” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 16.1 (2013): 8-13.

Lam, Ernest Tak Hei, et al. “Analyzing the Use of Facebook among University Libraries in Hong Kong.” Journal of Academic Librarianship, vol. 45, no. 3, May 2019, pp. 175–183. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2019.02.007

SUMATHY, M., and K. P. VIPIN. “A Study on Consumer’s Attitude Towards Advertisements through Social Media with Special Reference to Facebook.” CLEAR International Journal of Research in Commerce & Management, vol. 7, no. 12, Dec. 2016, pp. 24–27. EBSCOhost,

Warhol, Tamara. “Using Facebook to Support Academic Literacy.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, vol. 58, no. 1, 2014, pp. 25–25.,