Has the accounting profession lost its way?

Introduction
If communication uses a language to be able to be understood, business has its own language too and it is known as accounting. Accounting is essential to a business. It is needed to evaluate the situation of the business. The information generated by accounting should be clear to whom it is intended for and should be prepared for the purpose of how the information should be used. There are different types of accounting based on the lecture notes (2010) for this week: financial accounting, management accounting, and financial management.

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I have to agree that the accounting profession indeed has lost its way and is no longer helping the requirements of various users of accounting information in a way which is suitable and important for the worldwide commerce setting of today. The biggest gap I have noticed these days that accounting still has not accurate measurement for is web traffic. I own and manage a local forum-based website and our web traffic according to some is already worth a lot of money. Opinions and the corresponding valuation of our web traffic vary depending on the perspective of the specialists who evaluates it. Bastaldo (2009) has confirmed such observation by stating that most overlook to associate monetary worth to the varying types of web traffic and it is hardly ever stated into the worksheets. But again this opinion about how the accounting profession and its path of how it serves the various users of the information it needs is on case to case bases which depends on the type of organization that needs the information. But if I were to base it on our Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) business, I would have to say that I disagree because everything that we want to know is clearly shown in black in white on paper based on the external and internal auditor’s assessment. As what my previous module’s instructor said “it depends” (Williams, 2010).
There are various groups who use the accounting information. These are the following most important groups that have been identified by the Managing Resources book (2010): customers, competitors, employees, government, community representatives, investment analysts, suppliers, lenders, managers, owners. The greater part of these cluster according to the Managing Resources book (2010) exteriorly related to the business but they have a stake in the business. The information that is needed by the said user groups is prepared for the purpose on how they will use the information, the information should be of importance to the needs of the user’s and they would distinguish what it is they would like to know basing on the details presented to them.
According to an in-depth study by Tullao, et. al (2001), since the 1990’s the accounting services industry here in the Philippines has faced challenges and pressures have caused re-evaluation of the function of the trade in the economy, the character of services and procedures used to provide clients and the potential consequences of “liberalization on accounting services.” Navarro (2005) stated that the accounting profession here in our country has changed and is now at the forefront of leading the drive towards good governance. The dark days of accounting which has also affected the accounting profession here in the Philippines, only highlighted the mistakes that the accounting profession can bring out and the lessons that have been learned because of it. The accounting profession here also had celebrated cases such as the financial reversal at CAP, Victorias Milling, Piltel, Ramcar, of which the effects and consequences of the said scandals are still a stumbling block according to Navarro (2005). The dark days of 2001 and 2002 showcased the exposure and collapse of Enron, as well as other major corporations in the US owing to the shortage of thoroughness in financial reporting or utter disobedience of accounting standards with the simultaneous conspiracy of bankers, financial advisors, brokers and external auditors. The profession can only move forward and look at what happened as a learning experience to serve as a guide for the future. According to Navarro (2005), the Philippine accounting and regulatory framework is molded after the US structure and has followed the changes in the US through the years. It was not a surprise when parallel loopholes in our accounting and auditing system were found when the scandals shocked the accounting profession in the dark days. Internationally, reforms were initiated worldwide according to Badawi (2005), in order to re-establish the investor’s faith in the accounting profession, financial reporting, and the global financial markets. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was passed and President George Bush signed the said Act into law (Public law 107-204). The said act produced a big transformation towards compliance observance of large US and non-US companies which mandated the important user groups (executives, auditors, board of directors) to undertake measures to implement responsibility, greater accountability and that financial reporting should be transparent. The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board was also created to set-up a new shield in financial reporting. The scandals became a turning point for the accounting profession here in the Philippines. A serious review of the ethics and the policy and a re-evaluation of the practice of the profession were done. Companies now are required by the Securities and Exchange Commission to follow a new set of requirements and rules, rules that are concentrated on promoting a strong obedience to the improved standards on accountability, transparency and fairness, this code is what is known as the Code of Corporate Governance of 2002 which had a revision on 2009. Corresponding shifts from the private sector and professional assemblies have also been introduced. Other organizations and support groups have also been launched. According to Fortuna-Ibe (2008), the reaction of the Philippines to the worldwide dilemma of corporate governance is passable, but it is yet to be coordinated in the Filipino corporation’s daily task.
Conclusion
The accounting profession is evolving. What it was before is not what it is now. A lot of things and procedures have been changed to adapt to the current situation. The change will have to come from each CPA in the profession because change starts within us. What is right has to be done instead of doing what is convenient. To be able to start change and be able to spread it, we must show that we too are changing for the better. The challenge is to make the law and the codes work and to stand firm on the basic principles and concepts of accounting and to abide by the principles of excellence, quality and integrity.
 

Saint Anthony Of Padua Patron Saint Of Lost Things Religion Essay

Saint Anthony was a 13th century Franciscan Monk, Preacher and miracle worker. His birth name was Franciscan Thaumaturgust. When Franciscan Thaumaturgust became a Franciscan monk he was given the name of Anthony. Saint Anthony was born nearly 800 years ago in 1195 in Lisbon, Portugal. Saint Anthony was loyal to his church and deeply in love with God. His knowledge of the scripture and insight was incredible. According to Nugent, he was called in his day ” The Hammer of Heretics” and “The Ark of the Testament.” (Nugent XIV).

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According to Steinbrock, Saint Anthony became a Franciscan monk because of the death in 1220 of five Franciscan monks (St. Bernard, St. Peter, St. Otho, St. Accursius, and St. Adjutus) who had been completely faithful to the Catholic Church. They were decapitated and their bodies were mutilated in Morocco, North Africa. Saint Anthony, wanting to follow in their footsteps of martyrdom, became a Franciscan monk. After the joining the Franciscan order, he only lived for ten more years (Steinbrock).
Saint Anthony believed that a preacher’s goal must be to bring listeners to repentance and a total and genuine desire to turn away from sin, not just major sins, but all sins. Saint Anthony practiced sincere sorrow, through confession and designed all of his sermons around penance, with the intention of amendment and sorrow when confessing sin. (Nugent XIV)
According to Saunders, “St. Anthony was credited with many miracles during his lifetime.” One miracle happened in Limoges, France while he was preaching on Holy Thursday at St. Pierre du Queriox Church. During his sermon he remembered that he was supposed to sing a lesson in the Divine Office, back where he lived at his monastery. It was then reported that he appeared simultaneously preaching in the church and singing the lesson at the monastery (Saunders).
Another miracle attributed to St. Anthony is that he received an apparition of Baby Jesus. One night before Saint Anthony went to bed he decided to read the Bible. All of a sudden while reading, he saw Baby Jesus lying on the Bible and in his arms. Baby Jesus began touching and loving St. Anthony’s face. This is why most photos of Saint Anthony are of him holding the Baby Jesus (Saunders).
On October 3, 1226 Anthony traveled through La Provence, and returned to Italy. During this expedition another miracle happened to him. St. Anthony was burnt out by the long journey. He and his accomplice entered the house of a poor woman and she offered them wine and bread. In her haste to serve them the women forgot to cap the wine-barrel. St. Anthony’s accomplice then broke his wine glass. Anthony immediately began to pray. Suddenly the glass was magically put back together in front of their eyes, and the empty barrel went from no wine to full with wine (Knight).
Saint Anthony was elected Minister Provincial of Emilia after his return from Italy. But on May 30th, 1230 he decided to spend more time preaching so he resigned the office at the General Chapter of Assisi, and retired to the Convent of Padua. The last Lent he preached was in 1231. Over 30,000 people came from all parts of the world to see and hear him speak. The last sermons for Saint Anthony spoke of the wrongness of hatred and enmity. (Knight)
Saint Anthony became very ill in 1231 and went to the woodland retreat, Camposampiero with two other monks for relaxation. Anthony lived in a cell built for him under the branches of a walnut tree. After his stay on the way back to Padua, Saint Anthony died at age 35. On the 13th of June in 1231, at the Poor Clare convent at Arcella, the great speaker was announced dead (Nugent 79).
According to Saunders, right after his death the children in the streets started crying, “The holy Father is dead. St. Anthony is dead.” Thirty years upon his burial, people opened his vault and found his body had vanished in thin air, except for his tongue. St. Bonaventure grabbed the tongue and kissed it. According to Saunders, Saint Bonaventure then exclaimed, “O Blessed tongue that had always praised the Lord, and made others bless Him, now it is evident what great merit thou hast before God.” To this day, many people have received miracles at the tomb of St. Anthony in Padua (Saunders).
According to Saunders, “Pope Pius XII declared St. Anthony a Doctor of the Church on January 16, 1946.” Many people around the world continue to pray to St. Anthony for strength and sorrowful repentance, as well as for help in finding lost items (Saunders).
 

The Old English Genesis and Milton’s Paradise Lost: The Characterization of Satan

John Milton was one of the most inspiring poets in the world for many reasons. One main reason he was inspiring to so many people is that he created one of the most popular epics of all time in 1667 called Paradise Lost. Another reason he was inspiring was that he created it while blind. Even with not being able to see, he was able to pull off something so wonderful that people today still enjoy it. Paradise Lost is an epic poem that tells about man’s creation and fall. It also makes a connection with its readers because it is like the Old English book of Genesis. Because it is similar, one might wonder what makes it unique if it is a copy of the book of Genesis? The epic goes into a great amount of detail about each character and has a plot that goes way beyond what the Bible taught. One way is the author and his past with religion, but another is how he leaves the readers with the question “Is Satan the hero or villain?” There are so many important characteristics in this epic that Satan has, and everyone views it differently on whether they would see him being the hero. Each character in this epic will make a connection with its readers, so it makes it hard for the readers to see someone else as a hero.

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 To begin, Milton’s background is very important because it shows how he made a connection with his writings. Milton went to college to become a Minister, but while in school his writings reflected on him being a poet than a Minister. In 1639, he decided to have his work devoted to political and religious changes. His texts make a connection between his life and his writings and then challenges the reader. In “The Old English Genesis and Milton’s Paradise Lost: The Characterization of Satan”, the author, Elisa Ramazzina, states: “The poem reports the accounts of the fall of the rebel angels, of Satan’s temptation of Adam and Eve and their subsequent exclusion from the Garden of Eden. Through the words of the protagonists, a series of significant topics is dealt with, which express the personal ideas of John Milton. As a matter of fact, Milton argued that the Church, of any form and confession, was an obstacle to what he called ‘true faith’ and that every man should trust only his own conscience rather than Biblical exegesis as the most powerful instrument for understanding the Word of God.” (Ramazzina 91) The uniqueness started with John Milton and how he wanted the readers to view situations how their conscience feels rather than what they think is right because it is written in the Bible. 
The character, Satan, was seen by pursuers as either a hero or villain. Throughout the entire existence of writing, Satan is the most mainstream character to enhance. Satan has plenty of qualities that make him perceived as a hero and as a villain and these attributes have caused a debate of unclarity. Researchers have composed on numerous occasions approaches to help pursuers’ feelings on whether Satan is a legend or not for his epic.
A way that Milton shows Satan with gallant highlights, including fortitude, is in book two when he came across Death and Sin by the gate. After Satan’s triumph, he uses Sin and Death to take over Earth. In the Norton Anthology English Literature book- Volume B, it is stated by Milton: “Meanwhile, ere thus we sinn’d and judg’d on earth, Within the gates of hell sat Sin and Death, In counterview within the gates, that now Stood open wide, belching outrageous flame Far into Chaos, since the fiend pass’d through, (Milton X.229 –34) This shows pursuers that he isn’t dreaded to assume responsibility if necessary. He discloses to Sin and Death that they need to immediately go to Earth and take over. This is nothing unexpected to pursuers that Satan would act along these lines, which means being forceful and speaking condescendingly to somebody, on account of the notoriety he has made for himself in anything the pursuers have perused or seen previously. Since he has terrible notoriety this would be him being revolting and evil, but if it was someone like Beowulf, this would be a hero trait that he has. If it was not for his notoriety and being recognized as a villain, many would consider him to be a legend along these lines.
Milton shows Satan being heroic when he went facing Michael. A leader would advance toward the front, show no dread, and attempt to lead his men to triumph. Satan did precisely that, even with the little possibility that they could win. A genuine leader would support his men’s certainty regardless of whether he didn’t have the foggiest idea about the result being fortunate or unfortunate. Even though Beowulf fought alone, his men wanted to fight with him, but he insisted on being the leader and doing it alone to protect his people. In a way they are like another, both being fearless, and the only difference is Satan used his men to fight and Beowulf did not. Satan also shows that in tough situations, he does not fall and quit, he finds a way to make it possible for them to fight. This nature of him is demonstrated when he conflicted with the great heavenly angels and chose to make a cannon. Indeed, even with leadership and the capacity to think and react quickly, he is still seen in this epic as a villain. On the off chance that it was any other individual, they would be viewed as a legend.
Despite the fact that Satan should be seen as the antagonist of the story, it is hard to look past every one of the things that he did to make him a legend. Satan shows his authority when he and the fallen angels land in hell for the first time. He was one of the first ones to stand up and the rest seemed to be lost. In the Norton Anthology English Literature book- Volume B, it is stated by Milton: “ Of Hell resounded. “Of hell resounded.” Princes, Potentates, Warriors, the flow’r of Heav’n, once yours, now lost, If such astonishment as this can seize Eternal Spirits: or have ye chos’n this place After the toil of battle to repose Your wearied virtue, for the ease you find To slumber here, as in the vales of Heav’n? Or in this abject posture have ye sworn To adore the conqueror? who now beholds Cherub and Seraph rolling in the flood With scattered arms and ensigns, till anon His swift pursuers from Heav’n gates discern Th’ advantage, and descending tread us down Thus drooping, or with linked thunderbolts Transfix us to the bottom of this gulf Awake, arise, or be forever fall’n.” (Milton 1.315-30) From these lines, Satan can be seen with initiative characteristics simply like other heroes of literature do. He gives them the idea that he is passionate about winning, getting out of hell, and that he does not see them as damaged, he sees them as warriors. Just by demonstrating his sentiments while conversing with them the manner in which he does, before the finish of his discourse, they are prepared to attack, and they view him as a leader. The emotions and attitude that he conveys, they also want to convey them as well. This quality that Satan has is like what Beowulf had. Although Beowulf fought alone, he still had troops that followed him around and wanted the same passion that he had. The only difference is that Beowulf wanted to keep his people safe, this included his troops and the people of the kingdom. Satan indicated authority when choosing to assume responsibility for the fallen angels. Satan is seen with resolution and the capacity to control circumstances they experience. Indeed, even with these qualities, Satan isn’t given the credit of being a hero he has the right to have. Satan additionally acquires pride. It is noticed in the Norton Anthology English Literature book- Volume B: “For who can yet believe, though after loss, That all these puissant legions whose exile Hath emptied Heav’n shall fail to re-ascend, Self-raised, and repossess their native seat?” (Milton 1.631-4) In the epic, Satan concedes that he misses God, however, his pride is too huge for him to ask and approach him for forgiveness and come back to paradise. Because he has pride, he yells at the top of his lungs “Better to reign in hell than serve in Heaven.” (Milton 263) Satan saying and doing every one of these things, is it seen as something underhanded and appalling.
Satan can take care of business regardless of what he needed to be done to get there. This is seen when he fools Eve into eating the forbidden fruit God told her not to eat. He made her innocent mind believe that there was this fruit that gave him the ability to speak, which she has never seen before. In the Norton Anthology English Literature book- Volume B: “Here grows the cure of all, this fruit divine. Fair to the eye, inviting to the taste, Of virtue to make wise: what hinders then To reach, and feed at once both body and mind?” (Milton IX.776–79) This is Satan’s most prominent quality since his equivalent knowledge made it possible for him to seduce the innocent.
Satan utilized his quality of character and his moving demeanor to show that it didn’t trouble him and that he trusted in his demons. He wanted to persuade his demons, so he gave a discourse to inspire them. In order to persuade his army, he had to give himself a discourse first. “So farewell hope, and with hope farewell fear, Farewell remorse: all good to me is lost; Evil be thou my good; by thee at least Divided empire with heaven’s King I hold, By thee, and more than half perhaps will reign; As man ere long, and this new world shall know.” (Milton IV.107–13) This shows Satan was attempting to persuade himself that he will win. He then does the same for his devils, accept that they had an entirely decent possibility of winning, despite the fact that he realized they were being vanquished. This shows him being a good leader.
Researchers have given their conclusion in Satan’s part in the epic on in the event that he is a legend or not. “In spite of such guidance, there are those who continue to be impressed with Satan’s heroic or tragic proportions and who find him and his crew rather more attractive and better realized than the heavenly actors generally. E. E. Stoll, cautious about admitting Milton to be of the devil’s party, is nevertheless forthright in upholding the superior channs of Hell…. In my own mind Satan’s role by no means outweighs the rest of the poem, nor do his values emerge for me as in any sense the guiding values. 1 cannot agree with E. M. W. Tillyard that in certain passages Milton “is on the Devil’s side nor that one cannot avoid admitting “that Milton did partly ally himself with Satan, that unwittingly he was led away by the creature of his own imagination.” M. Saurat’s conclusion that Milton “was of the devil’s party without knowing it; but he was also of God’s party, and, what is more important, he knew it seems to me finally only little better, though a more ingenious way of saying the same thing. His position is more tenable and more interesting because he explicitly makes Milton the hero of his own poem and considers the action to take place within the soul of the poet himself. Having roughly equated the poet’s soul with his poem, he has the advantage of being able to claim that the poet’s own passion, Satan, which exists both within the poem and within the poet, must be mastered by the poet (rather than by God or the Son in the poem) within himself and, by projection, within his poem since the arena of poem and soul are really one.” (Miller 183-184) This article shows that there are many mixed feelings of Satan and how he is a hero or not while readers read Paradise Lost. Depending on how one wants to view Satan, that is they will find what he does heroic or not. Since this epic is based on Genesis in the Bible, it can be easily noticed why readers would automatically point fingers at Satan and label him as a villain. Satan is portrayed as evil and the villain of everything, and it is hard for some readers to look at his actions and see good. For other readers, that can see Satan heroic, those people have an open mind to change and new possibilities. Connections with Satan being Milton’s hero in the story has sparked a lot of readers’ attentions. According to Lisa Ampleman: “The Romantic poet William Blake even said that Milton was “of the Devil’s party without knowing it.” (Ampleman 1) William Blake was not the only one who thought Milton was “of the Devil’s party without knowing it.” Milton was Christian so there is no way to prove that Milton was against or for Satan or felt sorry for Satan and how people view his character. One thing is for sure and that is this epic is strictly literature so Satan could be the character that Milton viewed on “something being larger than life”.  Epic poems have a hero that becomes larger for life, and in Paradise Lost Satan is viewed as it.
Defining what a hero would be a good way to see exactly which character in the epic did what a hero is supposed to do, and Edith Kaiter did exactly that. According to Kaiter: “In the Greek tradition, the tragic hero was supposed to stir up admiration, fear, and pity and had to display a tragic weakness or flaw in his character which was to lead to his downfall. Satan may be said to inspire these emotions. He is admirable in his indomitable pride and his unyielding ambition, just as he inspires fear and pity for his forecast doom and his determination to fight against something he apprehends as undefeatable. Paradoxically, his main qualities are also his tragic flaws: envy, pride, ambition, self-glorification give the character his singularity and magnificence but also pass the rigorous sentence on him. Despite Milton’s attempts to make Satan an incarnation of evil, he is still a fascinating figure which gains our admiration and sympathy.” (Kaiter 2) William Hazlitt remarked on what was said and he said Satan is “the most heroic subject ever chosen in a poem.” (Hazlit 107) Satan is a good representation to the meaning of a tragic hero that would be found in an epic.
Despite the fact that there are a few pursuers that consider Satan to be a villain this originates from how he was seen before and a portion of the things that were done in the epic made him appear as though he was conflicting with more significant position authority. A way people would consider him to be a villain is because he conflicted with God and attempted to vanquish him. Since he attempted to do this, pursuers would find in their mind that a villain would be the person who might need to assume control over the most dominant being on the planet. The more he wanted to be in control the more he turned into a despicable character in the epic. Another way he is marked as a villain is on the grounds that he began as an angel, however more significant position authority showed him out and he became something beneath Earth, a devil. Satan additionally makes individuals want to do things that he pretends are the correct thing when they are most certainly not. Numerous pursuers have blended emotions on if Satan is spoken to as a legend or not. Despite the fact that there are things he does that would cause him to be viewed as a villain, just a genuine legend would lead his men to conflict with the best power on the planet. He caused his men to accept that they could do it, despite the fact that he didn’t trust it himself. Just a hero would have enough boldness to take himself and conflict with something that is more dominant than anything on the planet. After noticing multiple critics saying that Satan is the hero in the epic and characterizing what a legend would be, it is sheltered to state that Satan belongs as the hero in the epic.
Works Cited

Ampleman, Lisa. “Why Satan’s character in Paradise Lost is the original antihero.” americamagazine.org. America the Jesus Review, 19 Oct. 2017. Web. 24 Nov. 2019.
Kaiter, Edith. “MILTON’S SATAN: HERO OR ANTI-HERO?.” afahc.ro. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE of SCIENTIFIC PAPER, 25 May. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2019. .
Miller, Milton. “Paradise Lost: The Double Standard.” University of Toronto Press, University of Toronto Quarterly, 5 Mar. 2013. Web. 24 Nov. 2019.
Ramazzina, Elisa. “The Old English Genesis and Milton’s Paradise Lost: the Characterisation of Satan.” L’analisi Linguistica E Letteraria, UNIVERSITÀ CATTOLICA DEL SACRO CUORE, 24 Dec. 2016. Web 24 Nov. 2019.

 

Milton S Epic Poem A Paradise Lost Theology Religion Essay

Paradise Lost could possibly be regarded as one of the most controversial and dangerously convincing piece of literary works of all time. Although, ironically English Scholars and English teachings tend to ignore Milton’s masterpiece as an exquisitely elegant form of written work, along with the dismissal of the English Commonwealth from 1649 to 1660. The English Commonwealth was a significantly major part of the British Monarch effecting both religious and political ways of life. There are many early modern literature works that were created during this catastrophic event who attempted to influence the British Public through their subtle underlying Propaganda, yet still sticking to strict authorities. Milton was among these writers that were appointed to specifically use his ability to base transcripts, poems and books on maybe the reflection of how leaders of Britain wanted its citizens to think and live. Milton was an influential part of the literary movement of the time that encompassed a move away from free expression and instead became a voice for the government’s agenda of the period. Milton had many creative works but one particular text over the years has stirred up debates across the minds of many critics. Even by today’s standards Paradise Lost has caused controversy, leading into accusations of denying Christianity to the sympathising of the devil. After researching critics that have based their works on studying Milton’s epic poem, along with looking closely at his involvement with powerful figures of 17th century government, will assist in determining if Paradise Lost was specifically used for political propaganda or if it was purely written from Milton’s own beliefs and experiences.

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On the surface Milton’s Paradise Lost, one could say, is a biblical reconstruction of the globally famous story that basis its context for the doctrine of the original sin. There are many critics that have revolved their analysis of Milton’s epic poem solely on the theme of religion, which are the major factors that lead to the disproval of Milton’s work. Religion during Seventeenth Century Britain was compulsory; it was indeed part of the law to attend to church. Milton himself was a devote Christian which oppose the views of the likes of Blake and C.S Lewis as they accused him of sympathising with the devil. Both insisted Milton was part of the ‘the devil party.’ Both observations from these key early critics are a contradiction upon Milton’s actual religious beliefs and practices he took part in. They accuse Milton of creating him as a sort of sub hero and provide him with humanised characteristics thus making him to be a dangerously likeable character – [quote from a critic that supports this]. Realistically, the content of Paradise Lost does in fact have particular parts that reflect upon these early critical responses to the poem. Specifically in books [ – ] the devil seems to become the most humanised character of them all, the speeches he presents to the reader are so simply rhetorically persuasive and some of the most beautiful words come from the mouth of Satan, thus the reader being human can relate more so than that of God…[quote]. The reader relates through jealously, seduction and the tempting mind, these being only a few of the attributes humans possess that make up who they are. Therefore these human abilities such as failure, temptations and desire are being regarded to be atrocious because they are being presented through the most famously sinful figure in religion, Satan. Consequently leading to the conclusion that Milton could quite possibly be criticising Christianity suggesting the religion denies a humans downfalls, these downfalls being what make a human, human.
However, in retrospect to this argument and the question I ask myself, if Milton was a devote Christian himself why would he deny the religion? There were many figures in the literary world that were against the idea that Milton was portraying Christianity as a corrupt religion and believed Paradise Last was actually strongly supporting his own belief [read keel]. Paradise Lost was written after the Restoration of the monarchy of Charles II in sixteen sixty, when he returned the Church of England back to how it was when his father ruled the country. This brought back the restoration of the Catholic Church and the Puritan faith had failed to subdue and the religion was made illegal. It is a very subjective text and the answers are not all in black and white it is extremely hard to pin point what Milton’s exact beliefs were but readers must be aware that he was a very religious man. We can see through many parts of the collection of poems some of his beliefs and can interoperate to an extent what he was actually trying to say through his words. Therefore from my own research and opinions I have come to accept it is not plausible to claim that Milton is directly attacking the Christian faith. Milton often changed his views of the corrupt religion and government of the time of Britain in the sixteen hundreds, but he wasn’t afraid to express his belief as a Puritan. Puritanism was associated on the Parliamentary side during the English Civil War against the Laudianism Church on the Monarchist side. The puritan faith focused on the importance of preaching from the Bible and the idea that God is the only leader of the Church and Milton evidently believed in God, being noticeable through the portrayal of God being the creator and the King of the heavens [Quote from PL]. Paradise Lost is a reconstruction of a well known biblical story of the original sin; therefore this is defiant evidence that Milton pin pointed the importance of unambiguous preaching. Of course many of Milton’s masterpieces were a form of preaching; Lares (2001, pg.1) states in Milton and the preaching arts: “Milton’s poetic programme in terms of genres in which he may choose to write and on this sense of vocation to serve as a poet-priest.” The angels in Paradise Lost can be seen as figures of preachers, a subtle way for Milton to put his message across to his readers. As seen through the angel Raphael Milton applies his preaching words through the mouth of the angel, one specific example that shows a message being advocated across is where Raphael is sent forth to Adam to warn him not to eat from the forbidden tree:
in the day thou eat’st, thou diest;
Death is the penalty imposed; beware
And govern well thy appetite; lest Sin
Surprise thee, and her black attendant Death. (VII 544-547)
Raphael here is warning Adam the extent of his punishment if he is to eat the forbidden fruit having an aim to encourage the obedience of Adam towards God. However as Lares (2001, pg.152), again, quotes that in fact “Milton favours correction, and in fact has his angel warn against sin rather than encourage virtue” Due to background reading it is known that Milton was in favour of the Independents (see further on for more information about Independents) therefore this particular part of his epic poem communicates Milton’s own religious views that everyone is entitled to choose what they believe in and not what institutions tell them to believe in.
There is also evidence that Milton agreed with this idea that religion should be accessible to the ordinary person, he took part in writing poems for productions in theatres to allow anybody from all walks of life to be educated about God. Milton, like any other Puritan believed in joyfully practicing the faith and some focused on the value of nature and arts and the natural world. Here the Romantic Writers of the sixteenth century can be linked in to Milton’s epic poem where throughout beautiful descriptions of the paradise plays an important part of imagery to the readers. WRITE ABOUT Romantics
Another factor that contributes to this idea that Milton believed in an equal soceity is the humanising of Satan. Milton believed in an Independent Church, “The independents wanted each specific congregation to be able to decide for itself its beliefs and practices.” (Christ’s College at Cambridge University). Here I think, personally, that he believed very passionately in God but he did not believe in the institutions that claimed to be doing God’s will. In other words he warned people against believing everything you hear in church and believed instead in following your own personal beliefs so you have a relationship with God instead of with the church. This is conveyed by allowing both Adam and Eve and the devil to be accessible to their freewill. Thus portraying the devil just as human as anyone else; this could also relate to freewill and the Devil’s own choices to revolt against God. These ideas surrounding free will are explored in chapter one. However some say that Milton retracts the reader away from the dehumanising of the devil by indeed making him relatable to us in order for us to feel guilty that we feel sympathetic towards him after realising he is in fact evil, by the use of reverse psychology. Milton emphasises how dangerously tempting Satan is therefore attending church and believing in what you believe in will protect from the evil hands of the devil. [Critics quote]
Although on the surface Paradise Lost is indeed a biblical piece of literary work, however under the surface there are many hidden messages through Milton’s work that can be determined as Political Propaganda of its time. During the Civil war and the Commonwealth Milton was involved heavily with the Government and especially worked closely with Oliver Cromwell. He was appointed the Secretary of Foreign Tongues under the Cromwellian Government and played an important role of being the voice for the English Revolution to the rest of the country. Unlike many he believed in the Republic and was in favour of freedom the Commonwealth have provided for the Puritan faith. Milton’s first piece of major Political Propaganda was The Readie and Easie Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth where he emphasised the importance and benefits of a British Republic. Paradise Lost is possibly a less obvious form of political regime than the less subtle works he created, however it is achievable to regard certain characters and events as parallel to that of what is happening in the real world. Starting with the Devil:
He is constantly fighting for his own dignity and freedom which causes the sympathy – most people fight for a democracy especially in 17th century Britain
Devil is a symbolic of the failure of the discourse of politics and the corrupt religion – should be free and not illegal.
The devil could actually be a portrayal of Cromwell or maybe even Milton himself – constant battle with lord and rules – god/king
However when PL was written it was known that Milton actually changed his views on Cromwell and saw flaws in him – son couldn’t follow him, false leader ship is the devil, wrong..
God can be seen obviously as God…omniscient/ powerful/ leader – highly regarded in paradise lost, so should he be in society and not the king – the devil could also be see
Many
Throughout Milton’s work there is a fine line between his political and religious beliefs
 

The True Story of a Lost Childhood

Sickened by Julie Gregory

“Oh, God, Jewelly, you are burning up, just burning up. I better call the squad.’ Grandma is serious, her face etched in worry and hovering inches from mine. Her fingers spread my eyelids apart, looking for signs that she can report to the hospital. Maybe I am feeling something in my tummy. Maybe I do have a fever. What does it feel like, Grandma? Am I sick, Grandma?” (18).
This passage hints that early on Julie was abused by not only her mother, but her grandmother as well. Grandma Marge had given Julie a piece of candy and then convinced Julie that she was sick. From the line, “What does it feel like, Grandma?” the reader gathers that Julie does not know how she feels and only begins to feel sick after being told she is sick. Although Julie is only three, the event this passage describes is the beginning of her abuse.
After reading this passage, I began to wonder if MBP was genetic. Julie’s grandmother displayed the same behaviors as did Julie’s mother. I also wondered if Julie’s mother’s behaviors were initially in response to Grandma Marge telling her that Julie was sick. The similarities between Julie’s mother and grandmother means that MBP is either genetic or can be observed and repeated. However, later in the memoir, Julie proves that she will not follow her mother’s behaviors and treat her children that way.
“I look between both of them. What is a headache, exactly? Is it when my eyes hurt? Is it when I’m dizzy on the bus? I’m trying to guess, hoping it’s the right answer,” (26).
This passage represents the struggles Julie must face at each doctor’s appointment in an effort to please her mother. Here, Julie does not even understand what a headache is. Throughout her story, she sights various occasions in which she does not understand what the doctors or her mother say. When Julie says she is trying to answer correctly, she must guess at what her mother wants to hear. Julie lies to doctors so her mother will not get upset. I can not imagine having to lie about my health and the fear Julie faces. If Julie tells the truth, her mother may return home yelling at her father. If Julie lies about her symptoms, she will be forced on medication she does not need which could make her ill. Julie is an innocent girl, and this passage causes the reader to empathize with Julie and wish to grab her hand and help her.
“And Mom was always on the lookout for cruelty to animals. If we were driving along the highway and there was a black trash bag puffed up and knotted at the top, full of trash someone’d thrown out their window, she’d pull over and have me run out and check to make sure it wasn’t full of kittens,” (58).

This passage is ironic because Sandy is against animal cruelty, but does not realize how she abuses her own daughter. Sandy feels she needs to care for everything and make it well and healthy. With the animals, she would take them into her home, such as the farm dogs, and feed them. However, she would abuse them by breeding and selling their puppies for extra money. With Julie, Sandy would inflict symptoms of illnesses on her in order to take her to the hospital or doctor’s office and make her better. The irony of the situation is that Sandy does not realize her illness and continues to inflict pain on others, whether it is Julie, animals, or her future step children.

“I pride myself on how little space I take up. I am going to shrink and shrink until I am a dry fall leaf, complete with a translucent spine and brittle veins, blowing away in a stiff wind, up, up, up into a crisp blue sky,” (63).

This passage explains the emotional toll Julie has suffered from her mother’s abuse. Julie wants to disappear into the sky and not be alive. I cannot imagine a girl at about the age of twelve wishing not to be alive. The imagery used in the passage is beautiful as well. Julie realizes how weak she is with brittle veins and a tiny body, yet she takes pride in it. I wonder if she takes pride in being small because then her mother can keep pretending she is sick or because the thinner she gets the closer to disappearing. This passage is Julie speaking of not only her physical state but her mental state as a result of her mother’s abuse.

“Let’s get one thing straight, Sandy.’ He growls low. ‘You’re going to leave Daniel Joseph Gregory the Second alone from now on. That’s my boy in there,’ he cracks her wrist against the counter like rock candy, her cry twists my stomach, ‘and my boy’s just fine,” (78).

This passage is important because it reveals that Julie’s dad knows that Sandy is hurting his daughter. I think that he realizes that it is too late to help Julie, but he still has a chance to save Danny. Although Dan Sr. is an aggressive father who often appears not to care about his children, I think by standing up for Danny’s health he proves that he does care about his children as do all fathers. However, I think Dan beating Sandy will not stop her from abusing Danny. She has a disease that she cannot control, and all Dan really is doing is scaring Julie with her mother’s screams and harming Sandy.

“At last, I’ll just take one medication that will fix everything. I’ll have friends, be in sports, go to movies. Mom’ll be happy; she won’t have to stay at home or clean up after old men or foster kids. And I’ll be a real kid and not miss school anymore,” (98).

This passage discusses Julie’s feeling when she hears that the doctors finally know what is wrong with her. The passage reveals that Julie is far from numb of her illness and her mother. She says that she wants her mother to be happy. Throughout each doctor visit, Julie pretends to have symptoms in order for her mother to be happy. She must lie and suffer. Julie loves her mother because she does not realize the abuse she is receiving; she is so convinced that she is ill. Julie dreams of being normal, being able to do well in school and have friends. I pity her for not being allowed a real childhood because her mother is ill. Julie does not deserve it. This passage is heart breaking as well, because the reader knows that the treatment will not save Julie, and Julie’s hope will be crushed.

“Well, honey, I just can’t see my little girl go out there in a bathing suit and get laughed at. You got no tits, no hips, no ass, Sissy. You look terrible in a bathing suit. Kids are cruel, sweetie, they’ll just make fun of you,” (154).

This passage characterizes Julie’s father as loving yet harsh. Dan does not want Julie to be embarrassed and laughed at, however does not know how to deliver the message. He harshly criticizes her body, which cannot help Julie’s self esteem. I found the situation ironic as well. At first, when Dan took Julie into the bedroom, I thought he was going to molest her. Later, once Julie has a new job set up at the hospital, I think that maybe Dan was trying to help Julie get out. At the hospital, Julie was offered counseling and help. Throughout Julie’s story, the character of her father troubles me because he seems to want to help Julie yet is easily manipulated by Sandy.

“I look in the largest mirror. She’s a natural beauty. I’m a sickened beauty. I’m beautiful, but with an inch-thick layer of sick covering me,” (201).

This passage is Julie’s revelation and the beginning to her rebuilding. Julie realizes what she really looks like and how sick she is. She no longer prides her self in her lack of space. Julie sees that she is beautiful just hurt from the abuse of her mother. The house of mirrors will help Julie see herself become stronger and healthy. Julie is on her way to becoming a self sufficient woman and eventually be able to confront her mother about the pain she caused her.

Book Analysis:
“Munchausen by proxy may be the single most complex—and lethal—form of maltreatment known today,” (v). Julie Gregory’s memoir, Sickened is a heart-wrenching story of a child affected by Munchausen by proxy and the deadly abuse she receives. Gregory does a spectacular job pulling an emotional response from the reader while granting the reader a complete understanding of MBP.
With each paragraph and each situation Julie faces, the reader is more engaged into Julie’s character. Sickened is a true story, therefore the reader is more connected with the story. Through first person narrative, the reader gains Julie’s thoughts about her illnesses and understands how Julie is trained to believe she is sick, even when she is not. Julie’s feeling of wanting to please her mother and taking migraine medicine causes the reader to want to come into Julie’s life and save her. For example, when Julie is going to court to press charges against her parents, Julie’s father convinces her that she is being tricked and her parents are the ones pressing charges on Julie. One wants to tell Julie that he is lying, but Julie believes him and does not testify. When Julie finds the truth out, the reader wants to reach out and hug her. Julie is always so alone and leaves the reader helpless wanting to erase the pain Julie suffers.

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The doctor visits and recollections of her daily family life supply the reader with an understanding of how MBP affects the child and how the mother acts with MBP. Julie’s mother takes her to various doctors trying to convince each that Julie has a serious illness. Julie is often confused not understanding why she must be shaved or what a headache is. MBP is a terrible form of abuse which convinces children they are ill and leaves children unaware of how to take care of themselves. When Julie leaves home, she only knows to eat cake batter. Gregory retells her story supplying the reader with an appreciation of her strength and an understanding of MBP and the torture of Julie’s childhood.
Sickened is a well written memoir which any reader would enjoy reading. The emotional responses from the reader cause the reader to continue to read Julie’s story in hope that she may get help and escape her mother. After finishing Sickened, words of Julie’s journey sink into one’s head and the power of the story sets in. MBP is a powerful disorder and living with it creates a powerful story which all should hear.
 

How Can Tesco Regain Lost Market Share

The objective of this essay is to examine the current marketing strategy and marketing activities of one of the ‘big 4’ supermarkets in the United Kingdom with particular reference to the adverse effect produced by low cost competitors entering the market. For this purpose, Tesco has been selected. Tesco represents one of Britain’s largest and most profitable supermarket, which overtook ASDA in 1995 and continued to increase its market share through the years (Corporate Watch, 2004; Ruddick, 2015). In addition, Tesco was the first supermarket to (1) introduce ‘value’ lines and cost effective price range of its own-label products and (2) present the first company loyalty card on the market (Corporate Watch, 2004). Therefore, it becomes plausible to suggest that the company is an excellent choice for a marketing strategy analysis in the current declining grocery retail environment of British brands. The structure of this essay is as follows: (1) a brief overview of Tesco’s generic marketing strategy, (2) an in-depth evaluation of the supermarket’s existent marketing actions and tactics with the aid of the its marketing mix, (3) the impact of low cost competitors, (4) recommendations and suggestions for improvement, and (5) a summary of the main findings.

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The supermarket’s broad market strategy can be categorised as market penetration and cost leadership. Firstly, market penetration has been defined by Ansoff (1957) to explain one of four business growth strategies. The strategy refers to involves attracting new customers, often achieved by gaining competitors’ customer base(s), in order to increase sales. Furthermore, Farris et al. (2010) identify two important metrics of market penetration – penetration rate and penetration share. On the one hand, the penetration rate refers to the proportion of the relevant study population that has purchased the examined product category. On the other hand, the comparison between the brand’s customer shares with the market’s overall customer population relates to penetration share. In relation to this, a key aspect in Tesco’s market strategy is attracting competitors’ customers (e.g. ASDA, Sainsbury, Morrison’s), which is evidenced by its increased market penetration rate and share from 7.2% in 1971 to its peak in 2007 when Tesco accounted for 31.1% of the total UK grocery market share (Economics Help, 2014). In addition, according to data from March the current market share of Tesco is 28.7%, which positions the company as a market share leader in the British groceries industry, however, this figure has decreased from the previous financial years (Kantar, 2015). Secondly, before the introduction of discount supermarkets, the company focused on cost leadership, which represents one of the three generic strategies devised by Porter (1980). Cost leadership relates to increasing one’s market share through attracting price sensitive customers and implementing an effective price strategy that enables the company to offer the lowest cost product offerings. Tesco successfully managed to maintain cost leadership through three actions before supermarkets like Aldi and Lidl entered the British grocery retail market. These actions were as follow: (1) high utilisation of assets, meaning that large outputs are produced and the fixed costs are spread over high quantities allowing the company to manufacture single units at lower costs; (2) minimal direct and indirect costs in the production and distribution stages; and (3) strict control over the supply chain to ensure low costs (Gamble et al., 2010). Thus, the cost leadership strategy was an appropriate approach for Tesco, because it represents a large company that is able to take advantage of the economies of scale in the market. Nevertheless, presently the company is unsuccessful in maintaining its cost leadership due to the strong presence of ‘budget’ supermarkets.
The following part of the essay will specifically focus on the Marketing mix of Tesco – product, place, price, promotion, which provides a better understanding of the company’s present marketing strategy.
Firstly, Tesco offers its target segments a wide range of high quality products at affordable prices. The balance between affordability and quality as well as Tesco’s Clubcard helped the company attain a relatively high level of competitive advantage (Winterman, 2013). Some of its various product categories consist of food, consumer electronics, financial services and clothing. This is in consistency with the findings from a study on customer perceived value, where four separate dimensions emerged explaining customer attitudes and behaviours – emotional, social, quality and value for money (Sweeney and Soutar, 2001). Similarly, Fernández and Iniesta-Bonillo (2007) found that customers evaluate relevant benefits and costs involved in a purchase based on economic and cognitive reasoning.
Secondly, the ‘place’ element of the marketing mix refers to the distribution of products in locations where customers purchase products and services. In relation to this, Tesco emphasises product and service distribution in two main ‘locations’ – online and offline. On the one hand, the online sales channel is directly linked to Tesco’s website – Tesco Direct, which suits the specific needs of the online shoppers presenting them with various delivery options (Tesco Direct, 2015). On the other hand, the offline channel of distribution involves four different store formats – Tesco Express, Tesco Metro, Tesco Compact and Tesco Superstore (Tesco Official website, 2015).
Furthermore, Tesco’s initial pricing strategy can be characterised as price leadership, which represented an oligopolistic business behaviour, where there are a few companies that dominate the market and determine the price range (Kotler and Armstrong, 2010). The reason behind this price strategy adoption was the intense competition and other economic and behavioural factors in the British households i.e. cost conscious buyers (Business Café, 2009). Nonetheless, the company is no longer a price leader, but its pricing approach is still based on the marketing message ‘Every Little Helps’. In addition, Tesco is able to implement this strategy and remain to influence the retail market to a certain extent, because it evaluates and utilises the lowest cost materials for supply to achieve higher efficiency rates in the production processes.
Fourthly, Tesco’s promotion comprises of a wide range of media advertisements, regular announcements of promotions and discounts, point-of-sale marketing tactics, and sponsorships. These marketing activities are aligned with the company’s generic strategy of cost leadership and support Tesco’s price advantage through profit maximisation in the long run as well as enhance the value of the brand. Hence, Tesco’s marketing communications are integrated to enable the company to better coordinate its mission, vision, objectives and interactivity with customers. With the aid of information technology advances (Zabkar et al., 2015). Integrated Marketing Communications were also found to generate a synergy effect through the integration of marketing activities, which also tremendously influences customers through different channels of communications reinforcing the same message (Ewing et al. 2015) Tesco has successfully managed to build loyalty in its customer segments through its most effective customer loyalty mechanism – the Tesco Clubcard (Tesco Clubcard, 2015). In relation to this, Hallowell (1996) found a direct correlation between customer satisfaction, loyalty and company profitability. Likewise, Lee-Kelley et al. (2003) suggest that customer retention tools not only aim to increase the company’s profitability, but also establish long term relationships between sellers and buyers, which are fundamental to customer loyalty and also result in decreased levels of price sensitivity.
Tesco’s marketing strategy, which comprises of cost leadership and market penetration, has been increasingly impacted by the presence of the foreign grocery store chains Aldi and Lidl as well as food commodity prices and the outcome of this has been continuous price cuts by Tesco to meet the customer demand for low cost product offerings (Butler and Wood, 2014). Furthermore, the authors suggest that further intensification of the market dynamics is caused by the growth of high street convenience stores and the rise of discounters (e.g. Poundland and B&M), which is directly correlated to the altered consumer behaviour habits during the recession. In addition, business analysis of the current grocery retail market conditions suggest that Aldi and Lidl’s combined market share will increase to 12%-15% by 2020 (Allison, 2015). Nevertheless, according to a press release by KPMG (2014), it will be difficult for discount brands to fully challenge and erode the market of the big four, because grocery retail chains like Tesco command the store network market penetration and their market shares have existed for nearly 10 years.
In relation to Tesco’s marketing mix and the intense price competition and dynamics in the market, two main recommendations can be made for Tesco to regain its lost market ground – increased customer retention and an optimisation of its supply chain management to successfully recover its price leadership status. Due to the current intense competitiveness in the retail and food industry and the emergence of competitively low cost foreign supermarket chains, Tesco should firstly focus on increased levels of customer retention through the incorporation of effective customer relationship management systems. Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of customer satisfaction in relationship marketing and customer retention. Specifically, Hennig-Thurau and Klee (1998) conceptualise relationship quality which refers to the extent of appropriateness of a relationship to fulfil the needs and requirements of a customer with regards to the relationship. One way to do this is further integrate the Tesco Clubcard to present loyal customers with various financial product offerings besides current accounts, mortgages and home insurance (Tesco Clubcard Perks, 2015). This will form relationships based on two factors – quality and value-for-money, which will translate into loyalty and protect the company from switching customers. In order to adequately target and foster loyalty in the right customer base(s), Tesco should understand which customer satisfaction elements have the greatest impact, and the amount of investments required to improve particular customer satisfaction elements (Rust and Zahorik, 1993).
The second recommendation for marketing strategy enhancement is directly related to Tesco’s supply chain management, which will enable the company to regain its lost market share through becoming a cost leader. Fearne (2009) suggests that in the current business context, companies must pursue a value chain as opposed to a supply chain, which represents a chain of activities performed, in order to deliver valuable products and services to customers. There are two elements that are emphasised in value chains: (1) focus on demand pull, which places customers first and everything else subordinate to their needs and (2) concentration on the formation of collaborative relationships with suppliers. According to the author, these two actions enable corporations and large organisations to achieve competitive edge and sustain it over time. For Tesco this would mean careful selection of suppliers and establishment of collaboration opportunities with these suppliers and stakeholders to increase the value added to the processes and/or production. For example, in Wales the company can form relationships with local farms to purchase the highest quality meat and, once supplier loyalty takes place, discount prices can be demanded from the meat producers in exchange for continuous bulk buying. This will allow Tesco to present its customers with quality local meat at low prices, which will positively influence its lost cost leadership presence in the market.
To conclude, the present work established that Tesco’s generic marketing strategy is dual – regular market penetration to attract competition’s customers and cost leadership to retain price sensitive and cost conscious customers. In terms of its extended marketing mix, notable actions are: (1) offering a wide range of product categories, from which groceries remain the most popular category, tremendously contributing to the Tesco’s market leadership position, (2) alignment of marketing messages, communication and relative pricing, (3) various marketing and advertising activities, but the integral one remaining the loyalty card, and (4) simplicity and convenience with regards to shopping alternatives and store design. Following the discussion of Tesco’s extended marketing mix, two areas for improvement were recommended – an increased emphasis on customer retention and loyalty through novel customer relationship management mechanisms and the development of a supply chain that adds value to the manufacturing processes through collaborative relationships. It is important that Tesco understands its customers’ needs and suppliers’ requirements, because the competition in the grocery retail industry has never been more severe due to business environments being dictated by the customers and the suppliers. In other words, market orientation is no longer dominated by supply push exchanges and transactions, but by devising marketing strategies and promotions based on customer research and feedback.
References
Allison, I. (2015), Aldi and Lidl to consume 4% more of Tesco, Morrison, Asda and Sainsbury’s marketshare by 2020, [Online], Available at: http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/aldi-lidl-consume-4-more-tesco-morrison-asda-sainsburys-marketshare-by-2020-1505572?bcsi_scan_F872AB84FAA8A40E=3KZ+wD5+BA0QaUGyNZBt2R7iyyFnAAAAAe/zaw==
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Farris, P., Bendle, N., Pfeifer, P. and Reibstein, D. (2010), Marketing Metrics: The Definitive Guide to Measuring Marketing Performance. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education
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A Review of Farley Mowat’s ‘Lost In The Barrens’

Lost In The Barrens by Farley Mowat is a fictional wilderness survival novel which introduces two young teenagers, Jamie Macnair and Awasin Meewasin. At the beginning, Jamie goes up to the northern part of Canada to live with his uncle, Angus Macnair. As Jamie arrived, he quickly introduced to Awasin and becomes friends with him. He finds out that Awasin is the son of the Cree’s chief. The leader of Chipewyan (the Cree’s rival), Denikazi along with his men come for help as they were starving due to lack of deer in the north.. Awasin’s mother had suspicion that the Chipewyan were trying to deceive them, although the boys still agree to go to the Indian village to prove that they need supplies. Both Jamie and Awasin join the Chipewyan on their way back to the camp of the Chipewyan and as they arrive, Denikazi thought that the boys were going to join them in the hunt but told both the boys to return to the camp with two young Chipewyans. Denkazi warned them that… If they were to encounter Eskimos, they were to abandon the camp and go home. In this novel, both the Chipewyans and the Crees are afraid of the Eskimos. (Denikazi told the both the boys an incident where the Chipewyans went on a hunt for deer in the north and encountered Eskimos. The Eskimos got guns and fought the Chipewyans which led to the fear of the Eskimos). Jamie, Awasin and the two Chipewyan boys go back to the camp but as soon as they get back… Jamie decides to go explore and tricks Awasin to join him. They venture up with their boat to the stone house that one of the two Chipewyans boys had told them about. They try to find it but they hit a whirlpool and they barely survive it. Gathering what they could from their broken canoe, they realize they don’t have enough to survive, they cannot use their canoe and now they are stranded in the barrens. The two young Chipewyan boys notice that both Jamie and Awasin have disappeared, so they go searching for them. The two boys saw an Eskimo kayak and ran back to the camp. Jamie and Awasin decide to go all the way to where Denikazi and the other hunters, so they can join them. But one of Denikazi’s men see an Eskimo and the whole group flees, passing through Jamie and Awasin’s camp during the night.

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Later on, Jamie and Awasin soon realize that Denikazi and his men have passed by their camp already and decide that they have to get some sort of shelter and food for their survival. They soon find the stone house and figure out that it was a grave of a Viking. Soon, they go hunting for does, ground squirrels, fish and buck(that migrate). Winter arrives and they survive it by discovering a valley where there is wood for them to build shelter and create heat. There were also bucks that were not migrating and spending their winter here. One day, the weather is not as cold as any other winter and the boys decide to head back home gathering up most of their supplies onto a sled they have created. They find two dogs and the sled pulled by the two dogs they recently found. Their names were Fang and Ayuskeemos and they were huskies belonging to the Eskimos. Trouble occurs with the two boys when they get snow blindness and eventually the boys realize that they can’t make it and try to go back to their cabin. On their way back, a blizzard storm comes and they find a igloo where they crawl in. In the morning, they realize that the igloo belonged to an Eskimo as he returned. The Eskimo’s dog get into a fight with Fang and Ayuskeemo and it is broken up by Jamie and the Eskimo. Working together, Jamie and Awasin learn that the Eskimo’s name is Peetuk, the son of a white Englishman and an Eskimo woman. They become friends and visit the Eskimo’s where the three finally make it back to the Cree camp. Jamie and Awasin finally make it back home where they established their whole adventure was all about friendship, trust and survival.
Author’s Biography
War Service
Farley Mowat was part of the military during the Second World War and was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the Second Battalion. He went overseas joining the Canadian Army in the United Kingdom. He served throughout the war as a commander and moved to Italy in September of 1943. He stayed in Italy in the first Canadian infantry division for most of the way, eventually promoted to captain. Later on, Mowat was discharged at the conclusion of the Second World War in 1945 as a captain. Lost of the Barrens can be reflected towards the Second World War Mowat was in. In comparison, being in war and being lost in the barrens reflect on survival. Mowat uses his writing in this case to talk about survival. Lost in the Barrens is all about survival and he puts his writing to reflect what he has gone through in the past… Except as a teenager in the wilderness.
Early Life
Farley Mowat was born in Belleville, Ontario on May 12th 1921 and he has been a writer since he was a child. He recalls composing “mostly verse” living with his family in Windsor from 1930 to 1933. He published a regular column based on observation of birds in the star Phoenix after moving to Saskatoon with his family. It seems as Fowat’s life is reflected on his writing, comparing his imagination. Lost of the Barrens is full of imagination which Jamie shows throughout the whole book. Jamie is the character that has the biggest imagination in the whole novel. He tries imagine himself in the wilderness and his curiosity kills him to the point he tricks Awasin to join him to explore what he imagines. In comparison, Mowat is similar in a way. As a child, Mowat had a huge imagination where he reflects his creative writing and his imagination into a story. He’s reflecting the imagination Jamie has with the imagination he has in his writing for Lost in the Barrens.
Historical Time Period (Era)
The Cold War
The Cold War was a political conflict that existed after World War II between the communism due to the Soviet Union and the powers of the Western World, primarily the United States and its allies. Although the Soviet Union and the United States did not attack directly, they expressed their conflicts indirectly through military alliances, strategic conventional force drops, proxy wars, propaganda and nuclear arm races. The Cold War featured periods of the relative calm and of international high tension (specially) the Korean war and the Vietnam war. This time era relates to Lost in the Barrens shows the rivalry between the Chipewyan and the Crees as they were always enemies in the book as there would be always competition for food and land. It can be a comparison with Korean War that happened between both South Korea and North Korea. The Korean war happened due to communism and democracy for the dominance for each section of Korea. Mowat reflects the conflict between the Cree and the Chipewyan to the conflict that North Korea and South Korea had.
Art in the 1950s
Early 1950s Jackson Pollock and Willem De Kooning were enormously influential to the art industry. Although, during the late 1950s, Barnett Newman and Mark Rothko’s painting became more in focus to the next generation. Pop Art use the iconography of television, photography, comics, cinema and advertising. With its roots in dadaism, it started to take form towards the end of 1950s when some of European artists started to make the symbols and product of the world of advertising and propaganda the main subject of their artistic work. Art is reflected in Mowat’s writing comparing Jamie’s handcrafting skills to the 1950s. Mowat wanted to reflect how art was a part of the time era he was in while writing this novel, making Jamie the artistic one… being able to craft shelter for their safety.
Genres
Fiction
A fiction is a type of genre where the narrator deals with events which is imaginary. There are different types of fictions, but Lost in the Barrens was written as a semi fictional novel. It is set with two teenagers whom do realistic things (surviving in the wilderness with what they have). The two, Jamie and Awasin go join a tribe to hunt but then get lost and stranded in the barrens… Although on the contrasting side… where if two teenagers were to be lost in the barren land wilderness; they would most likely not survive. Here, this is reflected on Mowat’s past with his experience with his imagination. Fiction narration is usually creative writing that is made up by the author using their imagination. Mowat uses his writing to express his imagination in comparison to a fictional novel with is usually written using one’s imagination.
Wilderness Survival
Wilderness survival is a type of genre where the narrator deals with events in the wilderness. Lost in the Barrens sets a good example of wilderness survival. The two teenagers, Jamie and Awasin get lost in the barrens, where they must strive to survive. Awasin knows the wilderness well, so he is able to hunt for food. Jamie knows how to craft object, which leads to Jamie being the person making all the shelters. Mowat’s writing is reflected in the novel to a combination of his experience in the war and the experience he had in the north of Canada with the Inuits. In comparison to Jamie and Awasin, he reflects his experience in the World War II with the imagination of what he saw in the north of Canada to write this novel.
Themes
Man vs. Nature
Man vs. Nature is a element that is a part of fictional literature. It is usually defined as a problem and nature is usually either the protagonist or antagonist. In Lost in the Barrens, nature is known as the true antagonist. Both the boys, Jamie and Awasin struggle to survive in the harsh conditions they are in. They show their true courage by hunting and surviving a grizzly bear attack. Both the boys have different variety of skills; Awasin being able to hunt, fish and make clothing. Awasin is proven to be clever by igniting a fire with what he is given. Jamie, in the other hand is the creative one. He is the one who builds the shelter (stone igloo and wooden cabin). He is able to think outside the box and with both their traits, they are successful with beating nature with their teamwork. Man vs. Nature is apart of fictional literature which is where Mowat’s creative writing comes in. Mowat uses his imagination and past experience to reflect how he feels towards a certain situation. He has also been in wars which is where he reflects his war experience with a part of this novel. Being able to survive a war is similar to surviving the wilderness with no supplies.
Intercultural Friendships
Intercultural friendships is a theme where people of different cultures and backgrounds work together and gain trust from one another. In Lost in the Barrens, Awasin and Jamie became friends when they first met but became a lot more closer when they relied on each other to survive. Near the end of the novel, when the boys were barely going to survive… Peetyuk, an Eskimo came and rescued them. Eskimos were known as a dangerous group towards the Cree and the Chipewyan. Jamie helps Awasin trust Peetyuk although the Crees have always been suspicious and afraid of the Eskimos. Mowat’s writing is reflected in the novel with his past. With the past experience he had with the Inuits up on the north. He was outraged at the Inuits where they were racist towards his skin colour. His experience is showing that trust must be put within all races for a world of freedom and acceptance.
Conclusion
Personal, I really enjoyed this novel for what it was. I never expected it to be enjoyable, the novel cover and description made the novel look extremely dull and boring. I’m extremely surprised that an brown coloured person and a white coloured got along in the novel, which caught me extremely off guard. The novel had a lot of adventure, action, scenes where you could just imagine in your head and just pretended you were just there and lots of intensity. There is a lot of teamwork… Awasin being the knowledgeable one with the wilderness and Jamie having the gift of being able to craft objects, making shelter later on. Farley Mowat is an excellent author who has a lot of imagination and creativity with his writing. He relates a lot of his observations to his writing and adds in his imagination towards his novel(s). I would recommend anyone who has a huge imagination and enjoys nature and camping to read this novel. It may look extremely boring and dull, but later on… It gets REALLY (see how I emphasize on really) interesting and enjoyable. I can understand why this novel won two awards.
Biblography
“1950s – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2011. .
“Cold War International History Project’s Cold War Files.” Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2011. .
“Farley Mowat.” Eco Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2011. .
“Mowat, Farley – The Canadian Encyclopedia.” The Canadian Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2011. .
Mowat, Farley. Lost in the Barrens; . [1st ed. Boston: Little, Brown, 1956. Print.]
 

Book VII of John Milton’s Paradise Lost

Passage 2 (Paradise Lost VII.109-130): (Conversation between Raphael & Adam)

Thus Adam his illustrious Guest besought:

And thus the godlike angel answered mild. [ 110 ]This also thy request with caution askedObtain: though to recount Almighty worksWhat words or tongue of Seraph can suffice,Or heart of man suffice to comprehend? Yet what thou canst attain, which best may serve [ 115 ]To glorify the Maker, and inferThee also happier, shall not be withheldThy hearing, such commission from aboveI have received, to answer thy desireOf knowledge within bounds; beyond abstain [ 120 ]To ask, nor let thine own inventions hopeThings not revealed, which th’ invisible King,Only omniscient hath suppressed in Night,To none communicable in earth or Heaven:Enough is left besides to search and know. [ 125 ]But knowledge is as food, and needs no lessHer temperance over appetite, to knowIn measure what the mind may well contain,Oppresses else with surfeit, and soon turnsWisdom to folly, as nourishment to wind. [ 130 ]

Book VII of John Milton’s Paradise Lost portrays Adam’s wish to obtain knowledge about the Creation of mankind and Earth, as well as Raphael’s attempt to convey such wisdom. The following analysis will mainly focus on a selected passage of their conversation.

In the beginning of the passage, one can observe ‘the godlike angel[‘s]’ (Paradise Lost, VII, 110) struggle to put God’s divine works into words. ‘[T]he affable Arch-Angel’ (VII, 41) wonders ‘what words […] of Seraph can suffice’ (113) ‘to recount Almighty works’ (112). The term ‘Seraph’ refers to angels and archangels alike. Here, Raphael seems to conclude that no creature, neither angel nor human, is essentially able to truly comprehend divine creation, or put it into words.

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 The selected passage underlines God’s divine superiority with a specific use of language. God’s act of Creation is described as ‘Almighty works’ (112) which can be hardly comprehended by anyone except himself. This essentially emphasises the extent of his power and importance. Further, God is titled ‘Maker’ (116) which is due to the act of Creation itself. According to the Bible, he made Earth and humankind. Moreover, God is named the ‘invisible King’ (122) which is supposed to emphasise the extent of his power. However, if one looks at historic evidence, kings who failed to be present within their own kingdoms or failed to appear to their people, were usually either loved or failed to keep their position of power. Thus, naming God an ‘invisible King’ (122) could effectively diminish his importance. Lastly, the difference in writing between ‘earth’ (124) and ‘Heaven’ (124) seems to underline that Heaven is superior to Earth. Now, it could be argued that the glorification of God in this passage is due to Raphael’s character. Raphael was supposedly ‘one of the seven holy angels’[1] which allowed him to ‘enter into the presence’[2] of God. Due to Raphael’s close relationship with God, it could be argued that he over-glorifies God by making use of divine language.

The fact that the passage highlights the boundaries between mankind and God is of crucial importance to the wider context of Adam and Eve’s Fall. Even though the archangel Raphael has received ‘commission from above’ (118), i.e. from God in Heaven, to fulfil Adam’s request of knowledge, the ‘illustrious Guest’ (109) can only deliver ‘knowledge within bounds’ (120) for infinite knowledge is reserved to the Creator himself. In essence, not even the most divine archangels are allowed infinite knowledge, though they are being described as ‘godlike’ (110). Now, this emphasis on the knowledge boundary could already figure as a hidden warning to Adam, so he will not attempt to achieve forbidden knowledge. This seems to be backed up by Raphael’s explicit warning that ‘enough is left besides to search and know’ (125). Here, Raphael explicitly warns Adam to stay within his creaturely limits and to seek knowledge of everyday life instead.

In the context of Adam and Eve’s Fall, one can conclude that Raphael’s repeated warnings fail. Adam and Eve fail to acknowledge their boundary and attempt to achieve wisdom reserved to those above humankind. Raphael’s warning to apply ‘temperance over appetite’ (127) for ‘knowledge is as food’ (126) is an allusion towards Adam and Eve’s pursuit of this forbidden knowledge. They fail to control their physical appetite, as they eat the apple, and they fail to control their mental appetite for knowledge, because they eat from the tree of knowledge. Here, one could also underline the resemblance with Gluttony, which constitutes one of the seven sins. Gluttony is referred to as ‘intemperate eating’[3] which directly contradicts Raphael’s emphasis on temperance, and highlights his failed warning. In this sense, Adam and Eve’s sins were both their quest for knowledge and the act of eating the apple.

Lastly, the passage underlines both the importance of knowledge as well as its dangers. Although God encourages Adam in his pursuit of knowledge by sending him the archangel Raphael as informant, the latter also puts forth that wisdom has the ability to turn to folly (130). The angel emphasises that only the knowledge which ‘the mind may well contain’ (128) is worth pursuing, because all else will result in surfeit. It is worth noting that the term ‘surfeit’ shares its meaning with gluttony. All in all, the selected passage seems to portray the underlying meaning that knowledge within bounds may be granted to all, whereas the pursuit of infinite, divine knowledge can only result in disappointment and sin.

 

Bibliography

Primary Sources

Milton, John, Paradise Lost (London: Penguin, 2003)

Secondary Sources

Satan as a Hero in Milton’s Paradise Lost

The greatest writer after Shakespeare in 17 century is John Milton. John Milton (1608 -1674) was the most prominent English poet, thinker, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England. His masterpiece Paradise Lost arouses hot debates among scholars since it appeared. In that era, England is a religious unsteady and political shake-up nation. Concerning about the fate of his country, John Milton’s poetry and prose all reflect deep confirmations and deal with contemporary issues. After his death, Milton’s critical reception on a state of affairs continued to make great influence towards the masses through the centuries. He is still generally regarded as one of the remarkable writers and thinkers in English .Although he was born in a puritan family, John Milton boldly chose God and the devil Satan as the main roles in his work. What’s more, he endowed the latter one with heroic spirit which may risk everyone’s condemnation. Satan’s resistance to God mirrors the revolutionary and heroic spirit of the bourgeoisie. While he finally loses the joyful heaven and Adam and Eve lose the Eden. All these consequences are the hints of the capitalist class’s failure and the feudalistic class’s restoration.

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Can the devil be an epic hero? In John Milton’s Paradise Lost- the great epic from the English Renaissance, this topic was discussed time and again. Numbers of scholars believe that Paradise lost should be one of the most outstanding products of the Renaissance, especially when talking about the question can the devil be an epic hero? For Milton’s part, Satan is dauntless, quick-witted and powerful and he is also an excellent leader. He is quite distinctive from the traditional heroes in many famous works. In Paradise Lost, the Genesis story upon the corruption of man was recreated by the author, as a matter of fact, caused by Satan. For the sake of Satan’s deadly shortcomings of arrogance and ambition, he decided to fight with Heaven. In the end, even though he was defeated, he refused to give up his war against God, always betting to do wrong against the heaven and the human beings succeeding with man’s fall from grace. Paradise Lost starts, not with the expected potential heroes of the Genesis stories, God or man, but it begins instead with Satan, therefore paying great attention to him, his actions and characteristics. Milton, introduce Satan by condemning him as the reason leader to the fall of man, “Who first seduced them to that foul revolt? /the’ infernal Serpent…” (1.33-34). in this sentence it implied that Satan had begun to be set up as the final rebel, not just of the epic, but of humanity. Milton easily represented Satan’s pride that led to his ultimate failure. He tried to overthrow God; while unluckily he was cast into the Hell, but Milton also told us, “…for now the thought/both of lost happiness and lasting pain/Torments him…”(1.55-56). At once, the author tried to make Satan to be a pitied, more human and less evil role. He also described Satan’s physical character to be “in bulk as huge/as whom the fables name of monstrous size, / Titanian…”(1.196-198), and then “Deeming some island,” (1.205), which means that Satan has a vast figure and even a sailor would make a mistake. He may think that Satan is an island on which he can moor his boat. Satan’s size growing extreme larger comparing with the others supports Satan as the hero. Satan is so physically impressive that Milton can’t find anyone who can match him. Hence he is distinctive from the other angels and men.
In the English Renaissance, there’s no doubt that John Milton’s Paradise Lost was generally regarded as the main work. The Renaissance is believed to have originated in Florence in the fourteenth century, in which there was a revival of interest in the classical antiquity. Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio, but also painters like Giotto were the important figures of that age. From the end of the fifteenth century on, it has become known as the High Renaissance, when some Italian cities started to compete with Florence upon the leading position. Therefore, the thought of Renaissance spread out from the early sixteenth century onwards. This revival and influence of classical culture, art and literature was typically represented in both Paradise Lost and La Divine Commedia, especially describing the setting of the underworld. This is a general literary motivation of the classical epic works. Inspired by all the literatures at that era, Milton decided to write his epic poem. Milton had a purpose of writing an epic poem upon a noble subject decades before he started writing Paradise Lost in 1658. In his famous work At a vacation Exercise in the College (1628), he already mentioned that he would like to devote himself to “singing in the manner of Homer” and at the same time, he envisioned writing a poem concerning “wars and heaven under Jupiter”. Notes and drafts from around 1640 include four drafts of projections of the fall of man, one of them called Paradise Lost and another Adam unparadiz’d. It took Milton almost twenty years writing controversial prose and political pamphlets and he was a strong supporter of liberty of conscience, free will and human choice. The story itself shows that the fall from heaven of Satan and the other angels who betrayed against God. As a matter of fact, the Renaissance humanism can be easily found in this work. It quickly developed during the fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth century, and was also a resounding response to the challenge of medieval scholastic education. It emphasized the practical, scientific and pre-professional studies. On the contrary, sHYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scholasticism”cholasticism pay much attention to cultivating the preparing men to be doctors, lawyers or professional theologians, and their subjects contain logic, natural philosophy, medicine, law and theology, etc.. Opposite from the training professionals in jargon and serious drill, humanists did all they could to create a citizenry who was able to speak and write with eloquence and clearness. For this reason, they would be capable of persuading others to engage the civic life of their communities virtuously and do some cautious actions.
Because Milton’s work was deeply influenced by the Classics, Paradise Lost can be classified as an epic. Thanks to this masterpiece, the poet Milton is still famous until now. Many scholars believe that this work is one of the most prominent products of the Renaissance and particularly as to the topic can the devil be an epic hero? Satan in Milton’s eyes was bold, resourceful and formidable and as well an excellent leader. When reading the work, after a few pages, the reader may indeed get the impression that Satan is a great epic hero of that age. Milton did not deny the truth of the bible so as to establish the freedom of the individual. He built on the great Christian paradox which asserted that true freedom depended on the service for God. This pull the traditional thought into a new setting, even a revolutionary setting, is Milton’s great power.
When talked about the aim of the poet to write this poem, it was to find the root of the human’s unfortunateness. For his part, he believed the reason that human beings were easy to be swayed by their emotions, chose the wrong way and finally lose their joyful paradise was for the sake of their weak reason and nerves. The fall of Eve was due to her aimlessness for finding new knowledge. The fall of Adam was due to his indulgence to Eve. The fall of Satan was due to his great ambitions and self-satisfaction. Through their bitter experience, Milton wanted to imply that the English capitalist class’s bitter loss was due to their moral corruption and voluptuousness. He inherited the humanism in 16 century and at the same time, accepted the new scientific achievement in 17 century. However, he held a critical attitude towards them. He confirmed life trick but he denied the unlimited pleasure. He confirmed enterprise and sense of proud while he denied the ambitions and proud which evolve from them. He confirmed science while he also thought that science didn’t mean all. If people only had science but no ideal and justice, they would never get peace and happy. Such kind of thinking was the reflection of his Puritanism. Milton criticized the proud Satan inwardly, while emotionally he sympathized Satan’s status, because the punishment of Satan looks so much like the pressure of the capital class. When descried the hell, although Milton kept on saying that Satan was proud, ambitious, from the dialogues, Satan was just a vivid oppressed revolutionary. This image was so splendid, and his fighting determination stood out brightly against the extreme dangerous hell. This was the indelible memory of English bourgeoisie, also a prominent art achievement.
Satan was a role who had significant obstacles to overcome in order to realize his goals. In the historical long river, epic heroes in epic poetry shared some similar characteristics, thus it seems like Milton felt his own duty to make Satan to be the epic hero in Paradise Lost. His characteristics in the poem shared some similarities with those of previous epic heroes such as Odysseus. Epic heroes have some likeness. They are quite powerful, brave, and convincing; no matter what odds are against them, they will get rid of the difficulties and achieve their goals, and most important of all, they are leaders. Actually, Satan possesses of such kind of the qualities in Paradise Lost. First of all, in the first beginning, Satan had lost the war he fight against God and the angels in heaven and was “chained on the burning lake”. Satan and his fellow rebel angels were banished to live in horrid dwellings. Milton described the discomfort of hell mentioned by Satan “Oh how unlike the place from whence they fell! There the companions of his fall, overwhelmed with floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire” (1.97). This shows that Satan met with important obstacles as most epic heroes encounter. Satan was powerful and large in size which usually personifies epic heroes. “Lay floating many a rood, in bulk as huge as whom the fables name of monstrous size, Titanian or Earth-born, which warred on Jove” (1.95).  
Milton shows that Satan was also the reflection of bravery and leadership because Satan, although currently in censure, still upholds his principles that enlisted him in hell in the first place. He says “all is not lost the unconquerable will, and study of revenge, immortal hate, and courage never to submit or yield: And what is else not to be overcome? That glory never shall his wrath or might extort from me” (1.106-111). The core of Satan’s heroism in this poem is that though that he would fight against all the odds, he was still in favor of his own beliefs and fought till the end to preserve his beliefs. He says “We shall be free; the Almighty hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive us hence: Here we may reign secure; and, in my choice, to reign is worth ambition, though in Hell: Better to reign in the Hell than serve in Heaven” (1.259-263). Satan and his rebel angels achieve the ideology which was “As being the contrary to His high with whom we resist. If then His providence, Out of our evil seek to bring forth good, Our labor must be to pervert that end, And out of good still to find means of evil”(1.161-165). Satan inspired the openly opposition to God and uprooted the passion of his followers to continue their fury of damaging God. All he his followers were persuaded during his speech “Can make a Heaven of Hell, and a Hell of Heaven” (1.255). Satan and his adherents wanted no parts of Heaven any more because they couldn’t bear to service for God any longer. Thus they were adamant about creating their own Kingdom in hell where they would call God’s precious mankind up. All in all, the characteristics of Satan and his actions corporately made him the competitor of the epic hero role in Paradise Lost.  
Milton portrayed Satan as a vengeful, manipulative, trickish, lying, and vicious individual. Nevertheless, Milton also showed Satan’s loyalty to the objective that he and the rebellious angels were pursuing. But first of all, let’s begin with Satin’s vengeful ways. To begin with, Satan was seen as vengeful because even though he’d already been punished and thrown to the pits of hell from heaven, he still remains firm in his rebellion of the Almighty and seeks to damage heaven. Satan and his constituents’ s malevolence was so obvious in their decision that they wouldn’t attack Heaven through war, but attack the newest creation of God, Man. Satan volunteered his services to “seduce them to our party, that their God May prove their foe, and with repenting hand Abolish his own works. This would surpass Common revenge, and interrupt his joy” (2.-371). Besides, Satan was manipulative and trickish because to further his mission of seducing and corrupting man on earth, he had to design a perfect method to enter the gate of earth, and thus “he casts to change his proper shape which else might work him danger or delay: and now a stripling Cherub he appears”(634-636). In an attempt to cheat and manipulate the guard Uriel, Satan transformed into a cherub which is a humbly ranked angel in heaven. From this we can find that he is quite a scheming individual. What’s more, Satan demonstrated the acts of lying and deceit when he corrupted Eve’s mind in the Garden of Eden and persuaded her to pick the fruit from the forbidden tree of knowledge. He transformed himself once again into a snake, and instigated Eve that she could eat from the tree of knowledge. “So glistered the dire Snake, and into fraud Led Eve, our credulous mother, to the tree of prohibition, root of all our woe” (10.643-645). All of these actions- lying, manipulation, deceit, and the risks committed by Satan show his loyalty to the purpose. For the sake of destroying mankind just to annoy God immensely shows his loyalty and contribution. Milton clearly emphasizes the character of Satan through his high detailed recounts of Satan’s mischief. Satan had become a “by any means” type of attitude when it came to pleading his honor and upholding his beliefs which led to the deception, manipulation, and lying that he was notorious for throughout Paradise Lost. He was the epic hero in the story because in this story he was the underdog. No one expected for him to be fully victorious in his displays, and while he might not fully accomplished all goals. It was proved that he was firm in his plot against God.
In the summary part, Milton expressed the differences between human beings and Satan. Different from Satan and his followers, Adam and Eve didn’t choose a destructive gamble. Adversely, they kept a hopeful and humble behavior. Adam even assimilated himself to the corruptive archangel saying that his pain was never before and never again. Nevertheless, the biggest difference was when they faced with the possible choices, human beings chose hope while Satan chose a gambling revenge. An essential conception here was that previous life was doomed. John Milton quite opposed this idea. He was strongly in favor of the free willingness. As the plot spread, the distinctions between human and Satan gradually expressed. Adam and Eve denied the opinion of Satan that all people should sink with ignorance, and they decided to be submissive to God under his arrangement. Different from Satan’s determination to revenge on all the violated deities, people chose to be peaceful to the omnipotent God. Satan couldn’t absolutely repent and mend his ways or pray for forgiveness in such a desperate condition. Although he was firm, he was defeated by the holy son who was bestowed the spirit and power by God. No matter whether we were in favor of Satan and his troops’ sacrifice or human beings’ final submission, Milton insisted on the terminal decision of the inner heart throughout. In spite of failure, Satan was fully confident that he couldn’t help facing with such condition. And that Adam and Eve knew their happy heaven had been lost, so they hope to regard it as a realm which their soul could arrive. They hoped that their spirit could live here. Though won the war and be called the “winner”, the holy son didn’t experience the conversion or adventure like other characters.
Although the revolution was a failure, the revolutionaries were bloodily suppressed; Milton’s revolutionary fighting would never be deducted. To convey this topic, the devout believer Milton described God as a cruel feudal monarchy and a blinkered tyrant at all cost so that he could allude to the cruel repression to the puritans of Charlie â…¡ at that black age. The greatest opponent and the most vicious devil Satan was fashioned into a handsome, tall and smart revolutionary leader for the sake of singing the praises of revolutionaries. Satan’s rebellion was put down by God, and the devil party was thrown into the fire lake for sufferings; however, Satan never loses his fighting will, he was adversely active to organize his own force and waited for rising from the ashes. He built his own palace as a new kingdom in the hell and openly content against God. He preferred being the king in the hell to submitting to God as an official in the heaven. From this we can find his tireless fighting spirit towards the God, the authority and the highest dictator. The author borrowed the image of Satan to express his own anger and contempt towards the feudal tyrant Charlie â…¡ and his firm confidence towards the revolutionary success. Thanks to his revolutionary passion, his Satan was full of sound and color and surpassed his god morally. The hero of this poem is a man named Satan who is banished for challenging the leadership of the clan. This man Satan makes a vow to destroy or corrupt anything created by the clan. This Satan was resourceful, making the best of what he had, very little, and accomplishing his goal. Satan may just be the nonconformist who couldn’t abide by what was considered normal. In any case one must show their admiration for Satan in his unwillingness to serve in Heaven, and then in the way he accepted his resulting role in Hell.
Although it was quite hard to prove who the real hero was in Paradise Lost, as a whole, sprit-internal perfect, intelligent independence and individual power in this masterpiece give people the comprehensive “epic virtue”. Fundamentally, Milton abandoned the whole epic conception in this work and changed it into an experience of immediate concern to himself. This experience wasn’t his flattery to his culture and beliefs, but a real chance for readers’ spiritual practice. No matter how painful a person is, John Milton’s Paradise Lost will awake him up after experiencing such a spiritual trip and convert the intangible blackness into wholesome consciousness and bright mind. People may say that Milton fight for republic form of government and exposed Satan. While from his condemnation to Satan’s audaciousness and infidelity, more than once display the false faces and insincere attitude of English bourgeoisie activists. Yet Satan’s fearless lofty quality, to a large extent, eulogized his contemporaries’ heroic dauntless spirit.
Work Cited
Milton, John, 1608-1674. Paradise Lost. London ; New York :Penguin Books, 2000.
 

Satan as a Hero in Milton’s Paradise Lost

The greatest writer after Shakespeare in 17 century is John Milton. John Milton (1608 -1674) was the most prominent English poet, thinker, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England. His masterpiece Paradise Lost arouses hot debates among scholars since it appeared. In that era, England is a religious unsteady and political shake-up nation. Concerning about the fate of his country, John Milton’s poetry and prose all reflect deep confirmations and deal with contemporary issues. After his death, Milton’s critical reception on a state of affairs continued to make great influence towards the masses through the centuries. He is still generally regarded as one of the remarkable writers and thinkers in English .Although he was born in a puritan family, John Milton boldly chose God and the devil Satan as the main roles in his work. What’s more, he endowed the latter one with heroic spirit which may risk everyone’s condemnation. Satan’s resistance to God mirrors the revolutionary and heroic spirit of the bourgeoisie. While he finally loses the joyful heaven and Adam and Eve lose the Eden. All these consequences are the hints of the capitalist class’s failure and the feudalistic class’s restoration.

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Can the devil be an epic hero? In John Milton’s Paradise Lost- the great epic from the English Renaissance, this topic was discussed time and again. Numbers of scholars believe that Paradise lost should be one of the most outstanding products of the Renaissance, especially when talking about the question can the devil be an epic hero? For Milton’s part, Satan is dauntless, quick-witted and powerful and he is also an excellent leader. He is quite distinctive from the traditional heroes in many famous works. In Paradise Lost, the Genesis story upon the corruption of man was recreated by the author, as a matter of fact, caused by Satan. For the sake of Satan’s deadly shortcomings of arrogance and ambition, he decided to fight with Heaven. In the end, even though he was defeated, he refused to give up his war against God, always betting to do wrong against the heaven and the human beings succeeding with man’s fall from grace. Paradise Lost starts, not with the expected potential heroes of the Genesis stories, God or man, but it begins instead with Satan, therefore paying great attention to him, his actions and characteristics. Milton, introduce Satan by condemning him as the reason leader to the fall of man, “Who first seduced them to that foul revolt? /the’ infernal Serpent…” (1.33-34). in this sentence it implied that Satan had begun to be set up as the final rebel, not just of the epic, but of humanity. Milton easily represented Satan’s pride that led to his ultimate failure. He tried to overthrow God; while unluckily he was cast into the Hell, but Milton also told us, “…for now the thought/both of lost happiness and lasting pain/Torments him…”(1.55-56). At once, the author tried to make Satan to be a pitied, more human and less evil role. He also described Satan’s physical character to be “in bulk as huge/as whom the fables name of monstrous size, / Titanian…”(1.196-198), and then “Deeming some island,” (1.205), which means that Satan has a vast figure and even a sailor would make a mistake. He may think that Satan is an island on which he can moor his boat. Satan’s size growing extreme larger comparing with the others supports Satan as the hero. Satan is so physically impressive that Milton can’t find anyone who can match him. Hence he is distinctive from the other angels and men.
In the English Renaissance, there’s no doubt that John Milton’s Paradise Lost was generally regarded as the main work. The Renaissance is believed to have originated in Florence in the fourteenth century, in which there was a revival of interest in the classical antiquity. Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio, but also painters like Giotto were the important figures of that age. From the end of the fifteenth century on, it has become known as the High Renaissance, when some Italian cities started to compete with Florence upon the leading position. Therefore, the thought of Renaissance spread out from the early sixteenth century onwards. This revival and influence of classical culture, art and literature was typically represented in both Paradise Lost and La Divine Commedia, especially describing the setting of the underworld. This is a general literary motivation of the classical epic works. Inspired by all the literatures at that era, Milton decided to write his epic poem. Milton had a purpose of writing an epic poem upon a noble subject decades before he started writing Paradise Lost in 1658. In his famous work At a vacation Exercise in the College (1628), he already mentioned that he would like to devote himself to “singing in the manner of Homer” and at the same time, he envisioned writing a poem concerning “wars and heaven under Jupiter”. Notes and drafts from around 1640 include four drafts of projections of the fall of man, one of them called Paradise Lost and another Adam unparadiz’d. It took Milton almost twenty years writing controversial prose and political pamphlets and he was a strong supporter of liberty of conscience, free will and human choice. The story itself shows that the fall from heaven of Satan and the other angels who betrayed against God. As a matter of fact, the Renaissance humanism can be easily found in this work. It quickly developed during the fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth century, and was also a resounding response to the challenge of medieval scholastic education. It emphasized the practical, scientific and pre-professional studies. On the contrary, sHYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scholasticism”cholasticism pay much attention to cultivating the preparing men to be doctors, lawyers or professional theologians, and their subjects contain logic, natural philosophy, medicine, law and theology, etc.. Opposite from the training professionals in jargon and serious drill, humanists did all they could to create a citizenry who was able to speak and write with eloquence and clearness. For this reason, they would be capable of persuading others to engage the civic life of their communities virtuously and do some cautious actions.
Because Milton’s work was deeply influenced by the Classics, Paradise Lost can be classified as an epic. Thanks to this masterpiece, the poet Milton is still famous until now. Many scholars believe that this work is one of the most prominent products of the Renaissance and particularly as to the topic can the devil be an epic hero? Satan in Milton’s eyes was bold, resourceful and formidable and as well an excellent leader. When reading the work, after a few pages, the reader may indeed get the impression that Satan is a great epic hero of that age. Milton did not deny the truth of the bible so as to establish the freedom of the individual. He built on the great Christian paradox which asserted that true freedom depended on the service for God. This pull the traditional thought into a new setting, even a revolutionary setting, is Milton’s great power.
When talked about the aim of the poet to write this poem, it was to find the root of the human’s unfortunateness. For his part, he believed the reason that human beings were easy to be swayed by their emotions, chose the wrong way and finally lose their joyful paradise was for the sake of their weak reason and nerves. The fall of Eve was due to her aimlessness for finding new knowledge. The fall of Adam was due to his indulgence to Eve. The fall of Satan was due to his great ambitions and self-satisfaction. Through their bitter experience, Milton wanted to imply that the English capitalist class’s bitter loss was due to their moral corruption and voluptuousness. He inherited the humanism in 16 century and at the same time, accepted the new scientific achievement in 17 century. However, he held a critical attitude towards them. He confirmed life trick but he denied the unlimited pleasure. He confirmed enterprise and sense of proud while he denied the ambitions and proud which evolve from them. He confirmed science while he also thought that science didn’t mean all. If people only had science but no ideal and justice, they would never get peace and happy. Such kind of thinking was the reflection of his Puritanism. Milton criticized the proud Satan inwardly, while emotionally he sympathized Satan’s status, because the punishment of Satan looks so much like the pressure of the capital class. When descried the hell, although Milton kept on saying that Satan was proud, ambitious, from the dialogues, Satan was just a vivid oppressed revolutionary. This image was so splendid, and his fighting determination stood out brightly against the extreme dangerous hell. This was the indelible memory of English bourgeoisie, also a prominent art achievement.
Satan was a role who had significant obstacles to overcome in order to realize his goals. In the historical long river, epic heroes in epic poetry shared some similar characteristics, thus it seems like Milton felt his own duty to make Satan to be the epic hero in Paradise Lost. His characteristics in the poem shared some similarities with those of previous epic heroes such as Odysseus. Epic heroes have some likeness. They are quite powerful, brave, and convincing; no matter what odds are against them, they will get rid of the difficulties and achieve their goals, and most important of all, they are leaders. Actually, Satan possesses of such kind of the qualities in Paradise Lost. First of all, in the first beginning, Satan had lost the war he fight against God and the angels in heaven and was “chained on the burning lake”. Satan and his fellow rebel angels were banished to live in horrid dwellings. Milton described the discomfort of hell mentioned by Satan “Oh how unlike the place from whence they fell! There the companions of his fall, overwhelmed with floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire” (1.97). This shows that Satan met with important obstacles as most epic heroes encounter. Satan was powerful and large in size which usually personifies epic heroes. “Lay floating many a rood, in bulk as huge as whom the fables name of monstrous size, Titanian or Earth-born, which warred on Jove” (1.95).  
Milton shows that Satan was also the reflection of bravery and leadership because Satan, although currently in censure, still upholds his principles that enlisted him in hell in the first place. He says “all is not lost the unconquerable will, and study of revenge, immortal hate, and courage never to submit or yield: And what is else not to be overcome? That glory never shall his wrath or might extort from me” (1.106-111). The core of Satan’s heroism in this poem is that though that he would fight against all the odds, he was still in favor of his own beliefs and fought till the end to preserve his beliefs. He says “We shall be free; the Almighty hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive us hence: Here we may reign secure; and, in my choice, to reign is worth ambition, though in Hell: Better to reign in the Hell than serve in Heaven” (1.259-263). Satan and his rebel angels achieve the ideology which was “As being the contrary to His high with whom we resist. If then His providence, Out of our evil seek to bring forth good, Our labor must be to pervert that end, And out of good still to find means of evil”(1.161-165). Satan inspired the openly opposition to God and uprooted the passion of his followers to continue their fury of damaging God. All he his followers were persuaded during his speech “Can make a Heaven of Hell, and a Hell of Heaven” (1.255). Satan and his adherents wanted no parts of Heaven any more because they couldn’t bear to service for God any longer. Thus they were adamant about creating their own Kingdom in hell where they would call God’s precious mankind up. All in all, the characteristics of Satan and his actions corporately made him the competitor of the epic hero role in Paradise Lost.  
Milton portrayed Satan as a vengeful, manipulative, trickish, lying, and vicious individual. Nevertheless, Milton also showed Satan’s loyalty to the objective that he and the rebellious angels were pursuing. But first of all, let’s begin with Satin’s vengeful ways. To begin with, Satan was seen as vengeful because even though he’d already been punished and thrown to the pits of hell from heaven, he still remains firm in his rebellion of the Almighty and seeks to damage heaven. Satan and his constituents’ s malevolence was so obvious in their decision that they wouldn’t attack Heaven through war, but attack the newest creation of God, Man. Satan volunteered his services to “seduce them to our party, that their God May prove their foe, and with repenting hand Abolish his own works. This would surpass Common revenge, and interrupt his joy” (2.-371). Besides, Satan was manipulative and trickish because to further his mission of seducing and corrupting man on earth, he had to design a perfect method to enter the gate of earth, and thus “he casts to change his proper shape which else might work him danger or delay: and now a stripling Cherub he appears”(634-636). In an attempt to cheat and manipulate the guard Uriel, Satan transformed into a cherub which is a humbly ranked angel in heaven. From this we can find that he is quite a scheming individual. What’s more, Satan demonstrated the acts of lying and deceit when he corrupted Eve’s mind in the Garden of Eden and persuaded her to pick the fruit from the forbidden tree of knowledge. He transformed himself once again into a snake, and instigated Eve that she could eat from the tree of knowledge. “So glistered the dire Snake, and into fraud Led Eve, our credulous mother, to the tree of prohibition, root of all our woe” (10.643-645). All of these actions- lying, manipulation, deceit, and the risks committed by Satan show his loyalty to the purpose. For the sake of destroying mankind just to annoy God immensely shows his loyalty and contribution. Milton clearly emphasizes the character of Satan through his high detailed recounts of Satan’s mischief. Satan had become a “by any means” type of attitude when it came to pleading his honor and upholding his beliefs which led to the deception, manipulation, and lying that he was notorious for throughout Paradise Lost. He was the epic hero in the story because in this story he was the underdog. No one expected for him to be fully victorious in his displays, and while he might not fully accomplished all goals. It was proved that he was firm in his plot against God.
In the summary part, Milton expressed the differences between human beings and Satan. Different from Satan and his followers, Adam and Eve didn’t choose a destructive gamble. Adversely, they kept a hopeful and humble behavior. Adam even assimilated himself to the corruptive archangel saying that his pain was never before and never again. Nevertheless, the biggest difference was when they faced with the possible choices, human beings chose hope while Satan chose a gambling revenge. An essential conception here was that previous life was doomed. John Milton quite opposed this idea. He was strongly in favor of the free willingness. As the plot spread, the distinctions between human and Satan gradually expressed. Adam and Eve denied the opinion of Satan that all people should sink with ignorance, and they decided to be submissive to God under his arrangement. Different from Satan’s determination to revenge on all the violated deities, people chose to be peaceful to the omnipotent God. Satan couldn’t absolutely repent and mend his ways or pray for forgiveness in such a desperate condition. Although he was firm, he was defeated by the holy son who was bestowed the spirit and power by God. No matter whether we were in favor of Satan and his troops’ sacrifice or human beings’ final submission, Milton insisted on the terminal decision of the inner heart throughout. In spite of failure, Satan was fully confident that he couldn’t help facing with such condition. And that Adam and Eve knew their happy heaven had been lost, so they hope to regard it as a realm which their soul could arrive. They hoped that their spirit could live here. Though won the war and be called the “winner”, the holy son didn’t experience the conversion or adventure like other characters.
Although the revolution was a failure, the revolutionaries were bloodily suppressed; Milton’s revolutionary fighting would never be deducted. To convey this topic, the devout believer Milton described God as a cruel feudal monarchy and a blinkered tyrant at all cost so that he could allude to the cruel repression to the puritans of Charlie â…¡ at that black age. The greatest opponent and the most vicious devil Satan was fashioned into a handsome, tall and smart revolutionary leader for the sake of singing the praises of revolutionaries. Satan’s rebellion was put down by God, and the devil party was thrown into the fire lake for sufferings; however, Satan never loses his fighting will, he was adversely active to organize his own force and waited for rising from the ashes. He built his own palace as a new kingdom in the hell and openly content against God. He preferred being the king in the hell to submitting to God as an official in the heaven. From this we can find his tireless fighting spirit towards the God, the authority and the highest dictator. The author borrowed the image of Satan to express his own anger and contempt towards the feudal tyrant Charlie â…¡ and his firm confidence towards the revolutionary success. Thanks to his revolutionary passion, his Satan was full of sound and color and surpassed his god morally. The hero of this poem is a man named Satan who is banished for challenging the leadership of the clan. This man Satan makes a vow to destroy or corrupt anything created by the clan. This Satan was resourceful, making the best of what he had, very little, and accomplishing his goal. Satan may just be the nonconformist who couldn’t abide by what was considered normal. In any case one must show their admiration for Satan in his unwillingness to serve in Heaven, and then in the way he accepted his resulting role in Hell.
Although it was quite hard to prove who the real hero was in Paradise Lost, as a whole, sprit-internal perfect, intelligent independence and individual power in this masterpiece give people the comprehensive “epic virtue”. Fundamentally, Milton abandoned the whole epic conception in this work and changed it into an experience of immediate concern to himself. This experience wasn’t his flattery to his culture and beliefs, but a real chance for readers’ spiritual practice. No matter how painful a person is, John Milton’s Paradise Lost will awake him up after experiencing such a spiritual trip and convert the intangible blackness into wholesome consciousness and bright mind. People may say that Milton fight for republic form of government and exposed Satan. While from his condemnation to Satan’s audaciousness and infidelity, more than once display the false faces and insincere attitude of English bourgeoisie activists. Yet Satan’s fearless lofty quality, to a large extent, eulogized his contemporaries’ heroic dauntless spirit.
Work Cited
Milton, John, 1608-1674. Paradise Lost. London ; New York :Penguin Books, 2000.