Churches Tax Exempt A Matter Of Constitutional Right Religion Essay

The U.S. Supreme Court stated in Lemon v. Kurtzman in 1971 that non-taxation of churches is undergirded by “more than 200 years of virtually universal practice imbedded in our colonial experience and continuing into the present.”  Here is why:  There is a distinction between constitutionally separate “sovereigns.”  For one sovereign entity to tax another leaves the taxed one subservient to that authority.  This is true both in the symbolic statement of paying the tax and in the practical effect of supporting the sovereign party.  So, in our constitutional structure, states may not tax each other, and they may not tax property of the federal government.  The District of Columbia does not tax the property owned by foreign governments, and New York does not tax the property owned by the United Nations.

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While the church is not subservient to the government, neither is the government subservient to the church.  Although government can aid or support virtually all types of social or educational institutions which have a public purpose with the use of tax money, the Supreme Court stated in 1948 that “no tax in any amount, large or small, can be levied to support any religious activities or institutions.”  Thomas Jefferson coined the highly referenced “wall of separation” between church and state (but not in the Constitution, as many people assume).  The separation he referred to must be bilateral and reciprocal.  Whatever the degree of separation required by the Constitution, it is surely this:  the government may not make the church subservient by taxing its existence.
In Walz v. Tax Commission, the Supreme Court noted that the church’s “uninterrupted freedom from taxation” has “operated affirmatively to help guarantee the free exercise of all forms of religious belief.”  The much misunderstood “separation between church and state” is in truth designed to restrict the sovereignty of each over the other.  That is, it is designed to achieve a position for each that is neither master nor servant of the other.  Exemption from income taxation is essential for respect of the church as a separate sovereign entity.  Otherwise the government has the power to encumber and even terminate churches if such taxes are not punctually paid or cannot be so paid in full.  Indeed, as the high court noted many years ago, “the power to tax involves the power to destroy.”
The fact that the Constitution mandates a tax exemption for churches is one of the best reasons why churches are not taxed.
Historically, Tax Exempt Churches Have Benefited American Society
Even before the IRS (Internal Revenue System) ever existed, churches were tax exempt.  In fact, as the U.S.Supreme Court acknowledged in 1970 in the Walz v. Tax Commission case, exempting churches from taxation is an “unbroken” history that “covers our entire national existence and indeed predates it.”  Because of this unbroken history, churches have been included and recognized as tax exempt in every income tax code passed by Congress since the very first attempt to pass an income tax code in 1894.  In fact, the federal tax code recognizes this special exemption for churches because churches are the only organization not required to seek advance approval of tax exemption.  They are considered automatically tax exempt simply because of their status as a church.  This “unbroken history” of tax exemption for churches that predates our national existence is not something that is lightly cast aside.  And, as history demonstrates, churches have thrived and have benefitted society in many ways as a result of the freedom that flows from tax exemption.  It is a mythical caricature that most churches want to be tax exempt simply so they can unfairly hold on to more money than anyone else.  This is a falsehood promoted by those who simply do not understand the facts.
Churches have been at the forefront of many of the beneficial social movements throughout American history.  Historians agree that America owes its independence, in great degree, to churches and pastors who spoke freely and passionately from their pulpits in favor of independence.  Pastors during the revolutionary time period became known as the “Black Regiment” due to their black clerical robes and the fervor with which they supported independence.
Churches also led the fight to end child labor, promote women’s suffrage, and were instrumental in ending slavery.  Let’s not forget pastors like Henry Ward Beecher who spoke with great influence against slavery from his pulpit at Plymouth Church in Brooklyn.  And, of course, it was a pastor, the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., with the support of churches, who helped to end segregation.  A concurring opinion handed down by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit as recently as February 25, 2009, cites such examples and concluded:
“An unregulated, unregistered press is important to our democracy.  So are unregulated, unregistered churches.  Churches have played an important-no, an essential-part in the democratic life of the United States….  Is it necessary to evoke these historic struggles and the great constitutional benefits won for the country by its churches in order to decide this case of petty bureaucratic harassment?  It is necessary.  The memory of the memorable battles grows cold.  The liberals who applaud their outcomes and live in their light forget the motivation that drove the champions of freedom.  They approve religious intervention in the political process selectively:  it’s great when it’s on their side.  In a secular age, Freedom of Speech is more talismanic than Freedom of Religion.  But the latter is the first freedom in our Bill of Rights” (Canyon Ferry Road Baptist Church of East Helena v. Unsworth).
Since our country was founded, churches not only led great social movements, but also freely preached directly on political candidates’ qualifications for office.  That was no problem when the Constitution was signed, or when the first commissioner of internal revenue was appointed in 1862, or when the federal income tax was authorized by the 16th Amendment in 1913.  Nor were churches transformed into political machines.  Churches simply spoke when their moral voice needed to be heard-even during election season-and decided for themselves how they wanted their pastors to preach.
Tax exemption enabled churches to exist without unnecessary encumbrance by the government and to be the moral force in these great social movements in American history.  This historical record of tax exemption is an important reason churches should continue to be tax exempt.
Tax Exemption Protects the Free Exercise of Religion
Churches are tax-exempt under the principle that there is no surer way to destroy the free exercise of religion than to tax it.  If the government is allowed to tax churches (or to condition a tax exemption on a church refraining from the free exercise of religion), the door is open for the government to censor and control churches and the free exercise of religion.  But that’s not just an opinion.  It’s the understanding of the U.S. Supreme Court.
In Walz v. Tax Commission, the high court stated that a tax exemption for churches “creates only a minimal and remote involvement between church and state and far less than taxation of churches. restricts the fiscal relationship between church and state, and tends to complement and reinforce the desired separation insulating each from the other.”  The Supreme Court also said that “the power to tax involves the power to destroy.”  Taxing churches breaks down the healthy separation of church and state and leads to the destruction of the free exercise of religion.  As the Massachusetts State Tax Commission put it in 1897, “The general exemption of houses of worship is a fit recognition by the State of the sanctity of religion.”
For those concerned about an appropriate separation between church and state, no better way exists to ensure it than to keep churches tax exempt.  If the government were to begin to tax churches, it necessarily asserts sovereignty, power, and control over churches.
An example of how the government can abuse its power against churches in this area is in the passage of the Johnson Amendment, which prohibits churches and other non-profits from directly or indirectly supporting or opposing political candidates for office.  A church’s tax exemption has been conditioned on obedience to this mandate since 1954 when Lyndon Johnson was instrumental in adding this prohibition to the tax code.  Scholars agree that the Johnson Amendment was a revenge piece of legislation directed at two non-profit foundations opposing Johnson for Senate.  Johnson did not target churches, yet for 55 years, churches have been prohibited from preaching about candidates for office.  The Johnson Amendment perpetuates a system requiring government agents to monitor and parse the words of a pastor’s sermon to determine whether that sermon violates the law and punishment should be meted out.  That system is an excessive and unreasonable government entanglement with religion.
In 1943, the Supreme Court stated, “If there is any fixed star in our constitutional constellation, it is that no official, high or petty, can prescribe what shall be orthodox in…religion, or other matters of opinion.”  The court didn’t add “…except when pastors address the subject of electoral candidates.”  Since 1954, the IRS and its petty officials have been able to prescribe for churches what is orthodox in matters of religion.  This is not religious freedom in any sense of that phrase.  Rather, this is religious orthodoxy mandated by the government, and it falls heaviest on those churches who believe their faith compels them to do what churches have done for centuries:  address the moral fitness of electoral candidates from the pulpit.
The Johnson Amendment provides a stark example of the power of the government to destroy the free exercise of religion.  The surest way to protect the free exercise of religion is to continue the healthy separation between church and state fostered by tax exemptions for churches.
Taxing Churches Involves the Government as Church Speech Police
Since 1954, the government has prohibited churches from speaking about a certain area of life in order to maintain their tax exemption.  Pastors are allowed to talk about anything they want to from the pulpit of their church except how Scripture applies to our electoral politics.  Called the Johnson Amendment, because of its sponsor Lyndon Johnson, this prohibition has enabled IRS agents to monitor and censor sermons preached from the pulpit for almost 55 years.  Allowing the government to condition tax exemption on a church refraining from preaching on a certain issue allows the IRS to act as speech police and monitor churches for compliance.
The Johnson Amendment allows government to determine when a pastor’s speech becomes too “political.”  That is an absurdly ridiculous standard.  A pastor’s speech from the pulpit that addresses candidates in light of Scripture is religious speech.  That speech doesn’t become political any more than a pastor’s speech becomes commercial when he addresses from Scripture the current financial debacle on Wall Street.  Allowing government agents to make that determination is as absurd as asking a first-grader to design and build NASA’s next space shuttle.
The Johnson Amendment also allows the government to parse the content of a pastor’s sermon to determine whether it violates the law.  That is called a content-based restriction on speech, which the Free Speech Clause prohibits unless the government has a compelling reason to censor speech based on its content.  And you would have to ignore reality to agree that any compelling reason existed for Johnson’s amendment.
Allowing the government to police speech is a bad idea that contains dangerous consequences for liberty-a principle that our nation’s founders understood most clearly.  The best way to preserve liberty, and specifically religious liberty, is to get the government speech police out of the business of reviewing a pastor’s sermon.  That is no place for the government in a free society.  Tax exemption for churches protects freedom of speech and gets the government out of the role of policing a church’s speech.
Taxing Churches Makes No Practical Sense
Under simple logic, churches and other nonprofit organizations are exempted from income taxes.  Though it’s very true that such organizations are beneficial to the public in many ways, that’s not what truly justifies their exemption, as is often argued; it is their existence as non-profit entities that does.  Taxation naturally applies to profit-makers, the generators of revenue upon which government depends.  As Professor Dean Kelley pointed out in his book, Why Churches Should Not Be Taxed, “Other entities would be pointless, since they are not in any meaningful sense producers of wealth.”  It is the very nature of a nonprofit organization that makes it tax exempt in that it does not produce wealth like businesses or other taxed entities.  So, it makes no practical sense to tax these organizations.
In fact, taxing such nonprofits discourages their existence and amounts to double taxation.  First, all citizens, whether or not involved in a church or other nonprofit, are taxed on their individual incomes.  As professor Kelley again pointed out, “To tax them again for participation in voluntary organizations from which they derive no monetary gain would be ‘double taxation’ indeed, and would effectively serve to discourage them from devoting time, money, and energy to organizations which contribute to the upbuilding of the fabric of democracy.”   The only thing a tax exemption for a non-profit organization like a church does is to ensure that all the money an individual puts into a non-profit goes to the purposes he intends without being diverted by the government, which the individual already supports in his individual capacity.
Charles Eliot, former President of Harvard, said it best in testimony before the Committee on Taxation in 1906 when he stated, “The things that make it worthwhile to live…anywhere in the civilized world, are precisely the things which are not taxed.”  Churches are one of the things that have made it worthwhile to live in the civilized world.  Churches, throughout history, have improved American society and have acted as agents of positive societal change, in addition to their purpose of providing meaning for people’s lives and ministering to the local community.  Even many federal court opinions, right up to the present day, have acknowledged this.  To tax churches is to discourage the important work they do in society and to double-tax the individuals who support the church.  This makes no practical sense.
Read more: Should Churches be Tax Exempt? | Answerbag Debates
Church Exemptions Imply Churches Benefit Society Merely by Existing
Many churches – too many – are taking advantage of the system, using tax exemptions for selfish or even antisocial goals (e.g., Branch Davidians, the “Holy Land” terrorist front, Scientology, and multi-millionaire televangelists). 
The fact is that a church is just another kind of club, but it gets special treatment because the club preaches about a mythology or religion (same thing). In order for any other club to gain tax-exempt status, they must adhere to rules and regulations, declare their income, and prove their worth to society as a whole. Religious clubs get treated differently ONLY because they talk about religion, instead of stamp collecting or today’s best-selling books.  This is clearly illegal, and it’s clearly wrong.
It’s illegal because it offers benefits to religious institutions but not to their secular counterparts; it’s wrong because it assumes that every religious institution benefits society by merely existing. Churches need not perform any service at all in order to get these massive exemptions; they merely need to declare themselves religious to be tax-free.
Let the Churches Choose!
By removing the automatic tax exemption for religious institutions from the IRS nonprofit code, one of the following two changes will take place at every religious institution:
1) They will pay their rightful taxes. This, in turn, will benefit everyone in the community by lowering the tax burden, producing more household income which taxpayers can then turn around and donate to the church of their choice. As an aside, this will also allow religious organizations to express political views, as many so desire.
2) They will EARN their nonprofit status by performing real charity work for the community at large (note: “outreach” is not charity, but merely another word for “marketing”). Many churches are already doing this, and as long as they can prove their charitable activity in the same manner as other nonprofits, this would continue. However, the possibility of losing tax exemption would be a strong stimulus for churches that are not earning their status to step up their charity work, again helping the community at large.
Churches have been and will continue to be useful to society on the whole, and such earnest organizations should keep their rightful place beside other tax-exempt organizations that serve community and country. By eliminating the religious exemption we would implement a fair and equitable tax provision that benefits everyone except those who abuse the system or leech from it.
Read more: Should Churches be Tax Exempt? | Answerbag Debates
Anton Tanquintic: uh
Anton Tanquintic: define the purpose of a tax and state that nothing is above the law
Anton Tanquintic: then defend
Anton Tanquintic: that’s one argument
Tax Exempt Churches: Religious Freedom vs Tax Exemptions
Should churches receive tax exemptions on their property? Should religious organizations be tax exempt in their businesses – even those which compete with for-profit companies? Should individuals receive tax deductions for expenses at private religious schools? It is important to understand what sorts of exemptions exist, why they exist, and how the various court cases have proceeded. The more you know, the better informed your judgment will be.
Religious Tax Exemptions: Overview of Current Laws
Tax laws are more complicated than the average person can readily understand; tossing into the mix various things tax-exempt organizations might or might not be allowed to do threatens to make the task of understanding superhuman in nature. In reality, however, the issue isn’t all that complicated and the restrictions on what churches and religious organizations can do aren’t hard to adhere to.
What are Religious Tax Exemptions for Churches?
To what extent, and even if, tax exemptions should be given to religious organizations and churches depends on why tax exemptions exist at all. If you think tax exemptions exist because charities provide public benefits, you may be suspicious of giving exemptions to churches. If you think tax exemptions exist because charitable organizations have no net income, then churches will should qualify.
Why Taxation of Religion Matters
Tax exemptions may not be the most common issue facing courts in arguments over the separation of church and state, it is one of the most fundamental. Initially it appears to be a form of government support for religions and religious activities; on the other hand, the power to tax is the power to restrict or destroy, so is exempting religions from taxation a means of ensuring their independence?
Do Churches Deserve Tax Exemptions?
Based upon court rulings on how tax exemptions for charitable groups work, we cannot be conclude that churches and religious organizations automatically deserve exemptions. Even if one believes that their religion and their church provide a necessary public service, it does not follow that all religions and churches necessarily provide a public service which merits support through tax exemptions.
Are Tax Exemptions a Church Subsidy?
One of the key arguments offered by those who oppose tax exemptions for churches and religious organizations is that tax exemptions constitute a type of subsidy for these groups. Subsidies for religious organizations are unconstitutional, however, because they represent a means by which churches are able to obtain public, taxpayer support for their religious goals.
Tax Exemptions vs. Church Political Activity
By not taxing churches, the government is prevented from directly interfering with how churches operate. By the same token, those churches are also prevented from directly interfering with how the government operates in that they cannot endorse any political candidates, they cannot campaign on behalf of any candidates, and they cannot attack any political candidate.
Church Tax Exemptions: No Political Campaigning
Not all churches and religious organizations have been content to live within the rules. Quite a few have attempted to evade the rules, either secretly or very openly, in order to allow churches and religious groups to participate actively in political campaigns even while retaining their charitable tax-exempt status.
Religious Tax Exemptions vs. Government Policies
Most people are aware that a church or religious organization can lose their tax exempt status for engaging in partisan political activity, like endorsing a political candidate. What many aren’t aware of, though, is that the same can happen for promoting or engaging in things contrary to government policy. Tax exemption is a privilege, not a right.
Backlash Against Religious Tax Exemption Laws
It is a fact of law that charitable organizations, including churches, which have tax-exempt status are not allowed to participate in political campaigns on behalf of political candidates. A focus of current efforts is to make a direct change in how the laws read in order to ensure that churches can become fully active in political campaigns.
Tax Exemptions Available to Churches
America’s tax laws are designed to favor non-profit and charitable institutions which presumably benefit the community. Churches benefit the most from tax exemptions because they qualify for many of them automatically, whereas non-religious groups have to go through a more complicated application and approval process. Why?
Commercial Tax Exemptions for Church Businesses
Tax exemptions on church property used for specific worship purposes or religious work may be most easily defended because of the charitable and community work performed. Serious problems come into play, however, when church property is used for commercial purposes. To what extent should the business activities of a religious organization be tax 
At a time when ordinary people are being told to tighten their belts and to expect massive reductions in public spending in order to repay the huge government debt incurred as the result of the financial crisis, there are two groups of people who continue to live it up:
1 – The greedy and incompetent investment bankers who caused the financial crisis in the first place and who, nevertheless, continue to use the governments’ recapitalisation handouts to pay themselves obscene bonuses.
2 – Religious organisations.
While the United States and the European Union are responding to the bankers’ abject failure to show self-restraint by imposing restrictions on their bonus payments, they have done nothing to redress the fact that religious organisations are ripping the rest of us off by not paying any tax. [1]
So while decent, hard-working families struggle to make ends meet, televangelists such as Creflo Dollar continue to swan about in their brand new Rolls-Royces [2] and Catholic priests carry on living the life of Reilly in their tax-free, all-expenses-paid parochial houses. [The YouTube clips are humorous, of course, but there is many a true word said in jest.]
And how many hard-working, God-fearing family men can afford to hire young sex-workers to accompany them on luxury, ten-day tours of Europe? Not many, but Baptist Minister George Alan Rekers can. [3] That’s partly because he doesn’t pay any tax. (In the interests of full disclosure here, by the way, I should point out that Rekers denied knowing that his companion was a male prostitute, even though he hired him from
To put this matter into perspective, The Church of England (CofE) rakes in £1 billion ($1.52 billion) every year tax-free and yet its own website states that even though “over £200 million is given tax-efficiently each year through Gift Aid” and “a further £60 million is recovered from the Inland Revenue in tax.” [4]
In other words, the CofE not only avoids contributing to the public purse, it is actually jewing £60 million pounds a year out of it!
And things are even worse in Germany where citizens are subject to the ‘Kirchensteuer’ (Church Tax) which nets protestant priests over EUR8 billion (£7 billion / $10 billion) every year. [5] A similar situation exists in Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Switzerland, Finland and Iceland where citizens are also forced by law to give a percentage of their income to the church.

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It seems to me that, with religious observance on the decline to a point where, according to the CofE’s own figures only one million people – just 1.6% of the British population – go to church on Sundays [5], the church is becoming increasingly irrelevant in today’s more enlightened society. And yet the churches are still growing fat at the expense of ordinary, hard-working citizens who have to make up the shortfall in tax receipts.
This is a scandalous and outdated state of affairs and I believe it is high time that churches paid their way and, therefore, I duly affirm that religious organisations should no longer enjoy their tax-exempt status.
Thank you.
[5]… (in German)
Report this Argument
Religious organizations, in my opinion, should not pay taxes from church collections and other donations. Money gotten through collections and donations has already been taxed (it comes from a group of people who have already have been taxed). Additionally, the majority of the money gained through collections and donations is used in the purpose of helping others (examples include Haiti, earthquakes, money used to organize soup kitchens, and so on). Additionally, you will note that in certain countries, such as Ireland, 85%[1] of the population attends church. That would mean the Church in Ireland does have significant impact on the population.
Religious individuals, on the other hand, should be taxed. I don’t believe that it is fair reverends who earn proceeds through televised programs ought to be allowed to keep any of it, or if they would be allowed, then that income ought to be taxed. Any actual business (such as mass selling, investments, and so on, also ought to be taxed as it is a method of earning). Collections and donations should not be taxed as they are gifts.
I apologize in advance for any spelling and/or grammar mistakes and for unclear sentences.
Additionally, I apologize for having such a short counter-argument, however, I am short on time. I beg your understanding.
Report this Argument
I would like to thank Bernardio for his considered comments to which I make the following responses:
Ideally, there would be no taxes, but a country must raise funds somehow.
In the past, if a king needed money he would assemble a fleet of frigates and galleons that would be bristling with guns and canons. He would load these ships with cargos of soldiers and send them across the Atlantic to the New World to rape and pillage newfound civilisations, and plunder their gold and have it repatriated back to Europe.
Unfortunately though, these days the United Nations take a dim view of such activities and it is, therefore, necessary for the government to collect money from the general populace instead.
This inevitably leads to the double-taxation my opponent referred to. You pay tax on the money you earn and when you buy something with the money left over the recipient pays tax on the profit from the sale.
But my opponent suggests that churches shouldn’t pay tax because they “help others” in places like Haiti.
I looked into this and discovered that a Baptist group from Idaho did indeed travel to Haiti in the aftermath of the earthquake to “help others” – they were arrested and accused of attempting to traffic 33 children out of the country. [1]
Presumably their intention was to sell the youngsters on to paedophiles rings in America and if they had not been caught they would have succeeded in their mission – their mission being to “help others” sexually molest vulnerable children.
Meanwhile the Jewish Orthodox Union uses their tax-free donations to fund the Institute for Public Affairs [2] which is an American lobby group that opposes humanitarian aid being sent to victims of military aggression in Palestine, rejects the United Nations and international law and supports the ethnic cleansing of Jerusalem and the illegal Jewish land grabs in the West Bank.
At the same time, there are widespread concerns that tax-free donations made to mosques may be channelled into the hands of Islamic terrorist groups. [3]
With regard to countries such as Ireland where church attendances are higher, the income from tax paid by the churches would be very helpful in reducing their budget deficits and allow them to spend more money on schools and hospitals.
In conclusion, the activities of religious organisations may seem worthy and noble by some: Christian paedophiles; racist Jews; Islamic terrorists and others; but not everybody welcomes having to pay more tax to make up for the shortfall in receipts from tax-exempt churches, temples, mosques and synagogues.
Thank you.
Report this Argument
Agreed, a country must raise taxes to run a government though I question my opponents comment on the fact that pillaging is now illegal is a bad thing. I, personally, enjoy the fact that people can’t run around burning and stealing.
I also concede that there was a, emphasis on a, single group of Baptists who were trying to use the situation in Haiti to there advantage. However, the information that did not get to the media were all the other parishes that collected and sent money for actual aid to refugees.
As far as the Jewish Orthodox Union using money for illegal activities is something that ought to be fixed, but you’ll note that the Catholic Church does not use their tax free status for illegal activities. If you suggest that one example of someone(s) doing something bad ought to influence laws for everyone, then we ought to all b

Black Lives Matter Movement and Afrofuturism Comparison

A comparison of the Black Lives Matter movement and Afrofuturism is the undertaking herein and follows. It is extremely relevant in terms of one of the constant ethno struggles persisting in society, nay, the world today. Looking at it in those terms, the subject matter would be relevant any day, and, as Afrofuturism claims, it will remain relevant well into the future.
While the term Afrofuturism is credited to Mark Dery, a cyberculture theorist, attempting to explain the Black culture with internet culture (McNally 2). Afrofuturism is the mechanism that creates and then portrays endless possibilities to the traditionally oppressed to rise above life’s challenges. It is a mode through which imbalances are balances and unfairness turned fair, wrong transformed to right, etc. Remember, the current mindset is that Blacks are not equal; schools are still segregated; whites are especially favored; and the future for Blacks is bleak. Afrofuturism takes that situation and inserts into a futuristic setting – the underlying theme is science fiction. While the setting is similar to the strife and downtrodden status of Blacks, it reconstructs the expected ending from a continued life of suppression to superhero status and overcoming the odds (McNally 3). Dery’s mindset is evident given the question proposed that Afrofuturism attempts to answer: “Can a community whose past has been deliberately rubbed out, and whose energies have subsequently been consumed by the search for legible traces of its history, imagine possible futures?” (3).

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Dery further posits that in order to overcome the obliterated past, a hopeful future must be presented. The challenge here is how to present a past that does not exist, for all practical purposes. Thus, when history is depicted in Afrofuturistic conveyances, they are mythical in nature. Afrofuturism is a dynamic rather than static definition which, at its bare bones, marries technology with storytelling with black. Although, one definition includes a footnote to the effect that Afrofuturism is blind to color, race, gender, etc. It is more a tool with which to reconcile the past with an anticipated future (Priforce).
Another definition of Afrofuturism is proposed in the spirit of sociology. That is, Afrofuturism is literary style which puts Black experiences in the central premise which is demonstrated through fantasy and science fiction (Huddleston 2).
Still another definition suggests that, while the foundation of Afrofuturism is science fiction, it is science fiction written by Africans or Afrodiasporic which may be in the form of art, literature, music and scholarship (Yaszek 1).  The diasporic nature of the thing promises diversity within a diverse group. The art is premised on a varied conglomeration of Blacks sprinkled around the world through no choice of theirs, but such that there is a spattering of absorbed cultures, but, unfortunately, providing the same results.
Backpedaling for just a moment, another definition is in order – that of diaspora. Diaspora is Greek for to scatter. Used in this context it means a similarly-region-specific population that has been disbursed across different areas but still have active ties based on the similar origins (“What Is A Diaspora? | Idea”). So, African diaspora is that of people from Africa living in other parts of the world. During the transatlantic slave trades, millions of Blacks were relocated throughout the U.S. and the Caribbean (“African Diaspora Cultures | Oldways”)
Yaszek considers Afrofuturism from the perspective of the author, artist or professor. To that end, the main purpose of the telling of the story is, well, to tell a good story – science fiction, or not. The two next best reasons are somewhat political. First, and as mentioned above, Afrofuturism is a vehicle with which lost history may be recovered, and, then, hopefully, understood. Next, it also provides a forum within which hope is inspired for the future (2). This, in a way, is an attempt to circumvent what may be described as foreshadowing or self-fulfilled prophecy in that the Black story is one of doom and gloom – past and present. And, since the future will be the present and the present will be the past, transforming the future (since there really is not anything that can be done in the present) in a positive light (or a powerful one) suggests that not only can history be changed but it challenges the norm.
So, it is not surprising that the roots (no pun intended) of Afrofuturism commenced in the 1880s, alongside science fiction as a genre, with the writings of Charles Chestnutt, Susan Griggs and Edward Johnson. All of whom authored books illustrating the Black plight, issues of slavery, creating a better world, and a society promulgated on Black knowledge and industry (Yaszek 4). As the genre progressed to and through the 20th century, the separate-but-equal-paradigm wove its threads through the world of science fiction. Black authors published in Black magazines and white in white. It is worth mentioning because the distinction was not as the result of the actions of white people but due to the preferences of Black authors. The reasoning should be unimportant, but for the sake of accuracy the claim is that the white magazines were almost too far-fetched and the Black stories were meant to be taken more seriously as story-telling rather than just science fiction entertainment. The afterthought is the perception that the white magazines included racially-motivated storylines.
Returning to the underlying premise, that of a promising future and the potential of Blacks to use science to conquer battles and survive disasters, it is during the 1960s the white-washed science fiction intersected with Afrofuturism (Yaszek 7). Obviously, the timing coincides with the crest of the civil rights movement. In addition, it was a time when science fiction authors wanted to premise their work on societal relevant issues as well as scientifically modeled.
The themes during this time period portrayed hope and a successful integration of two different societies which was reflected in films such as Bloodchild. Other films were cautious and warned about history repeating itself with films such as The Spacetraders and Zulu Heart, both speculating that either Blacks will be deported from earth, chained together on a ship, or a role reversal such that while it is a replay historically it is the Blacks enslaving the whites. Neither of which provides a positive takeaway.
From 1980 to and through today, global Afrofuturism takes the definition a bit farther, technologically speaking. This is a society of Afrofuturistics connected via internet from around the world. The stories are still founded in the future based on the past lost; however, there is a worldwide collaboration such that the resulting stories mix histories, settings, and other region-specific attributes (Yaszek 9).
This is probably the most appropriate place to introduce the Black Lives Matter campaign. It is within this movement where the image of superhero takes on a less science fiction form and demonstrates how technology and black can make things happen, and, yes, possibly change the future.
It has been only since 2013 that Alicia Garza posted the note to Facebook after the dismissal of charges against a white man for shooting a black 17 year old assuring others that “our (black) lives matter.” It was the tipping point at which time Garza and others decided to change the world (not to sound too dramatic) (Day).
This may sound like the atypical rally, protest or bandwagon. Certainly, and unfortunately, the issue is the same as it has been repeated historically year after year after year. However, the approach in this century is very different. There is no single leader. In movements past, male, black men such as Martin Luther King or Malcolm X played a major role in gaining interest and participation. This time, they are all leaders. Further, this movement is not racist – it includes lesbians, women, gay, transgenders and bisexuals. Rather than depending on media or word of mouth on the street to spread the word or organize rallies, Twitter offers a forum upon which news of black injustice may be circulated and Facebook supports the assimilation of rallies. Photos, the ultimate purveyor of effective messaging, are shared via Tumblr and distributed on Instagram. Events that had previously gone unnoticed or unknown were now on home pages and cell phones all over the world, potentially. The audio associated with the gasping of the victim of a chokehold inflicted by law enforcement went viral (Day). YouTube footage of a 14-year-old girl victimized by excessive force by police officers got over 500,000 views. This is pretty strong, effective campaigning. But, more importantly, it is real-time awareness. It is what might change the future. And, it’s technologically based. Science fiction or ???
This is where Black Lives Matter and Afrofuturism intersect. The common thread is technology and the common goal is to change the future. Black Lives Matter offers the here-and-now aspect of how Black Lives Matter which has always been missing from the story. Instead, those stories unfold in history books or in movies long after the fact for obvious reasons. Certainly, these types of things are not new. What is new is realizing how broken society is and that the culture has to change.
The next common thread is the skill with which these groups utilize technology, social networks and artistic media to work together towards a common goal. The potential to complement each other is tremendous.
If Black lives do not count or matter, it is very much like slavery. People who were believed to be valueless and therefore mistreated in that vein. The most important common thread between Black Lives Matter and Afrofuturism is the goal to dissuade racism and white supremacy. And, to further, contradict those that, while not admitting it out loud, believe that Black people have no soul so it is okay to rape them, hang them, murder them, emasculate them, and torture them. It was okay to do all of those things because they were thought of as being soulless and of no essential or true value beyond what monetary price they could bring.

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Another myth that in the past has been difficult to dispel and may have a better chance to dissipating is that of the belier that racism is no longer a factor, especially in the United States because a black President was elected. People may think that this signals a quasi-release from any further responsibility for injustice in our society based on racism. The fact is that while we have a black, there are many ways Obama and his family were disrespected further making the case for racism. Even a perfunctory review of history demonstrates that no other President has been disrespected or disregarded like President Obama.
The coalition of Black Lives Matter broadens the conversation around state violence to include all of the ways in which Black people are intentionally left powerless at the hands of the state, society and other individuals. To an extent, Black lives are deprived of basic human rights and dignity. Black poverty should be considered as violence or an assault. So, too, are 2.8 million Black people that are incarcerated the victims of a violent, oppressive condition. Black Lives Matter brings those circumstances to the forefront and makes them relevant.
Forgetting for the moment contributions made by Black people that are sometimes overlooked. Society would have been deprived of a president. Daniel Louis Armstrong’s jazz and “scat” would never have been heard. George Washington Carver would have never improved agriculture or invented adhesives and dyes. Charles R. Drew would never have come up with the idea of blood banks and a system for preserving plasma long term. W.E.B. Dubois would not have written Charlotte’s Web. Chicago may not have been founded if not for Jean-Baptiste-Point Du Sable. William Henry Johnson’s art would be nonexistent. Martin Luther King, Jr., would be silent. Contributions to the law and Supreme Court cases by Thurgood Marshall would be mute. Elijah McCoy could not have improved the rail system or coined the phrase, “The real Mccoy,” meaning the best of the best. Traffic signals and gas masks would go uninvented without Garrett Morgan. If Rosa Parks did not get on the bus, this conversation may not be heard. Mind blowing!
Society can only make an educated guess on the number of contributions it missed because racism held back a talented black person or the contributions that the Black person killed by law enforcement may have contributed in his life. Based on the black people that managed to break the bonds of racism to exhibit their talents, assumedly, society has missed out on millions of inventions, novels, songs, professionals, politicals, etc. It is something that will never be known as there is no way to know which one of the black men sitting in prison may have invented the cure for leukemia. This, for all intents and purposes, is part of the movement of Black Lives Matter and Afrofuturism. A posit to realize the potential from within and without of the Black community. A reminder that Black Lives Matter does not exist solely on the Black but on other oppressed groups such that it is the true belief that the most profound worth of the black man is that of every man that walks the earth. Every single human being has potential. The potential to contribute to the community, whether that community is diasporic or not; the potential to contribute to their own wellbeing and promotion whether in the name of culture, gender, ethnicity or sexual preference; and, the potential to matter.
Just think for a moment of the results of forces joined between Afrofuturistics and Black Lives Matter members! One would have the opportunity to exposure to Black history outside the white wash. The other could contribute to changing the future by interacting with the real-time, present. Or, science fiction creations could promulgate the future “stories” with real facts assimilated without any white washing. Afrofuturism recovers the histories of counter futures created by hostile societies disapproving the diaspora that is Black. Regardless Afrofuturistic individuals strive to redefine, translate, rework, restructure and then relate the future without the white-washed lens and based on what should have happened historically such that it could be repeated in the future (Eshun 301).
The possibilities are limitless – and that returns to the current definition of global Afrofuturism which contends that “in this reframing (Science Fiction) of history and policy, those who are systematically oppressed are capable of transcending their less-than-desirable situation. Nothing — not even the sky – is limiting.” (McNally 2).
Works Cited
“African Diaspora Cultures | Oldways”. Oldways. N.p., 2017. Web. 24 Mar. 2017.
Day, Elizabeth. “#Blacklivesmatter: The Birth Of A New Civil Rights Movement”. the Guardian. N.p., 2017. Web. 24 Mar. 2017.
Eshun, Kodwo. “Further Considerations Of Afrofuturism”. CR: The New Centennial Review 3.2 (2003): 287-302. Web.
Huddleston, Kayla. “Afrofuturism As Applied To Self-Perception: An Experimental Vignette”. University of Washington (2016): n. pag. Print.
McNally, Cayla. “Fighting For The Freedom Of A Future Age: Afrofuturism And The Posthuman Body”. Lehigh Preserve (2017): n. pag. Print.
Priforce, Kalimah. “Is Technology - A #Blacklivesmatter Superpower? Recognizing #Afrofuturism”. Medium. N.p., 2017. Web. 24 Mar. 2017.
“What Is A Diaspora? | Idea”. N.p., 2017. Web. 24 Mar. 2017.
Yaszek, Lisa. “Race In Science Fiction: The Case Of Afrofuturism”. A virtual introduction to science fiction 1 (2013): 1-11. Print.

History of the Black Lives Matter Movement

Change Overdue
Throughout history, protesting and standing up for a cause has been very common. It’s essentially a part of American history. However, some make bigger impacts than others.  Peter Katel states in his article titled Racial Conflict, “Three words — Black Lives Matter — have sparked a new argument over race in America. Demonstrators chanting and tweeting that slogan have protested the deaths of African-Americans, many of them unarmed, at the hands of police officers — most of them white — in cities across the country in the past two years.” (15) The Black Lives Matter movement has fueled the fire for the discussion of racial equality in America. Most people felt, before the rise of the movement, that this topic of discussion was not necessary to discuss. The idea was that racism was non-existent in America and was not as bad as previous years throughout history. The movement has become very controversial and has resulted in some changes regarding police procedures but also an increased amount of violence in the black community. There are differing moral and political opinions, therefore the issue has no resolution as of now.

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Opposition has always been a part of American politics, but it is believed that Donald Trump’s election has sparked a larger era of protests. In an article titled Citizen Protests Alan Greenblatt says, “Fueled by social media, demonstrations have arisen over Trump administration policies on such issues as health care, climate change and immigration. Meanwhile, alleged police brutality and the removal of Confederate monuments have aroused mass protests, some violent.” (1) The size of today’s protests is reminiscent of the many protests in American history and especially the civil rights movement of the 1960s. The United States was founded in an act of protest, a rebellion against British colonial power. The Revolutionary War was followed by protests, such as the Boston Tea Party in 1773.Greenblatt goes on to say, “There was no time in American history when all views could be aired without some restrictions…There have always been some views that some people thought were so repugnant and dangerous that they couldn’t be allowed to be heard.” (8) The recent opposition of Trump’s presidency and protests related to Black Lives Matter follows right along with the U. S’s history of mass demonstrations.
Today’s racial tensions began in the trans-Atlantic slave trade. New attention was focused on dangers to black males in 2012 when a neighborhood watch volunteer kills black teenager Trayvon Martin in Florida. The slogan Black Lives Matter first showed up in media reports after the 2014 shooting of black teenager Michael Brown by Ferguson, Mo police officer Darren Wilson, resulting in Brown’s death. A series of mass demonstrations grew into the Black Lives Matter movement after multiple unarmed black men and boys were killed by police in New York City, Ohio, North Carolina, etc.  Criticism of the movement grew as African Americans became more violent towards police. Incidents include the December 2014 killing of two New York City officers and the September 2015 shooting of Houston Deputy Sheriff Darren Goforth. This sparked a counter position labeled as Police Lives Matter. Today’s conflicts between police and African Americans have stimulated debate about the larger issue of race in America.
Over the past three years, the rise of the Black Lives Matter movement has inspired protests across the country against police violence. Some were continual over several weeks and drew a massive, militarized response from law enforcement. Some cities who held these massive demonstrations include: Ferguson, Mo, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and Baltimore, Maryland. Collier Meyerson stated in an article titled When Protesting Police Violence Puts you in the Crosshairs, “…SWAT teams equipped with tear gas, armored vehicles, and rifles patrolled the streets, and protesters were subject to mass arrests and police brutality. In Ferguson, 10 days of protesting led to 150 arrests—80 percent of them for failure to disperse. Nearly 200 protesters were arrested in Baton Rouge. In Baltimore, a group of aggrieved residents sued the city” (20).
Advocates for the Black Lives Matter movement argue that the emergence of the movement is mainly due to the impacts that police brutality and injustice in America has had on people of color. The impact is not only emotional but psychological as well. Over the past two decades, the militarization of police forces has given black Americans more to fear. “With current technology, police killing of Black people is recorded for public scrutiny and consumption. Access to these videos has led to unprecedented public discourse on what constitutes brutality, its connections to White supremacy, and the consequences for Black lives” (Alang 662). After the terrorist’s attacks in 2001, because of the severity of the attack on the country, police resources increased massively. Police officers now are trained as if they are in the military and use military strategies to manage protesters. Poor treatment by law-enforcement officers has been a reality of African-American life since before the United States existed. Even after the success of the civil-rights movement, police brutality and discrimination in the criminal-justice system didn’t end, they just became hidden. Over the course of the past three years, the emergence of the Black Lives Matter movement has inspired protests. According to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Today, black men are six times more likely to be incarcerated than white men, and black women more than twice as likely as white women. Black men are three times more likely than white men to die at the hands of law enforcement.
While advocates of the Black Lives Matter
movement argue that the movement is a positive, productive way towards change
that brings awareness to the racial tensions in America, opposers of the
movement believe the movement promotes violence and is wrong and could even be
classified as a hate group. Most opposers believe that both sides are to blame
for the violence that comes from protests and rallies related to Black Lives
Matter. Recently, Donald Trump stated that he agrees with the idea that both
sides are to blame for violence. Trump’s
election brought a new agenda for the movement’s opposers. Efforts were made to
undo the things done during the Obama administration. The views of Trump
brought on a debate from advocates and opposers of the Black Lives Matter
movement. “As the 2016 presidential campaign unfolded, BLM activists gained a
reputation for using disruption as a way to push the movement’s key issues” (McLain
The Black Lives Matter Movement has created a conversation within the country as well as across the world. “Black Lives Matter represents one of the most influential and controversial of the contemporary protests movements.  Much of the controversy is connected to misunderstanding, distorted portrayals, and attempts to discredit the movement” (Hoffman 596) Most minorities in America believe The Black Lives Matter movement should be recognized and challenged. During the civil rights movement, students protested and created movements like the Freedom Rides, people young and old marched on Washington, and many activists spoke out against injustice and locked arms with black men and women to demand change. In this era where racial tensions are at a high because of recent events, each of us should think about how we can effect change in all our communities and work to make it happen. It is time to speak up and speak out against injustice and wrong As Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. said: “The ultimate tragedy is not the oppression and cruelty by the bad people but the silence over that by the good people”.
Alang, Sirry, et al. “Police Brutality and Black Health: Setting
the Agenda for Public Health Scholars.”
American Journal of Public Health, vol. 107, no. 5, May 2017, pp.
662-665. EBSCOhost, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.303691.
Greenblatt, Alan. Citizen Protests. CQ Researcher, 5 Jan. 2018, pp. 1-24,
Hoffman, Louis, et al. “An
Existential–Humanistic Perspective on Black Lives Matter and Contemporary
Protest Movements.” Journal of Humanistic
Psychology, vol. 56, no. 6, Nov. 2016, pp. 595-611. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1177/0022167816652273.
Katel, P. (2016, January 8). Racial conflict. CQ Researcher, 26, 25-48. Retrieved from
McClain, Dani. “The Future of BLM. (Cover Story).” Nation, vol. 305, no. 8, 09 Oct. 2017, pp. 1216.EBSCOhost, url=
Meyerson, Collier. “When Protesting Police Violence Puts You in
the Crosshairs.” Nation,
vol. 305, no. 16, 18 Dec. 2017, pp. 16-21. EBSCOhost,

Matter, Chemical Trends and Chemical Bonding

Topic 1: Lithium Properties

Lithium is an element that is often used to make batteries for materials like, digital cameras, cell phones, watches, laptops. Basically all kind of technological devices.  Lithium is also usually used to make batteries because it has some beneficial properties that make it useful for batteries. Firstly, lithium is a metal which is lighter than many of the other metals and it is a beneficial speciality because obviously small materials such as cell phones need light metals since they are also small. Secondly, lithium is highly reactive metal and that makes it easy to get current flowing through the battery. (Thagard P, 2018). Lithium batteries can provide very high energy densities and they have low self-discharge. Lastly, they have relatively low self-discharge. Self-discharge is less than half that of nickel-based batteries on lithium-ion batteries but other than those advantages, lithium also has some properties that make is dangerous. First of all, even though having high density is an advantaged speciality, lithium batteries can also cause hazards because of its high density. To demonstrate, when they are overheated they might be caught fire and it might produce dangerous toxic gases. Secondly, a short circuit could cause those kinds of hazards too. In conclusion, lithium batteries should always be isolated from other battery chemistries and metal objects for safety. Also, if the person wants to recycle a lithium battery, they should place tape over the ends of the battery before placing them in the battery recycling bins. Lithium batteries are a complementary part of everyday life for everyone. But, organizations and individuals should be aware of the dangerous hazards that these batteries could bring (Battery University, 2011).

Unit 2: Chemical Reactions

Topic 1: Antacids

Antacids, which are neutralizing agents (medicines) that are usually used to relieve the symptoms of heartburn and for an upset stomach.

Some common antacids are Alka-Seltzer, Milk of Magnesia, Alternagel, Amphojel, Gaviscon, Gelusil, Maalox, Mylanta, Rolaids, Pepto-Bismol and Tums. Antacids contain ingredients such as, calcium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate or aluminium hydroxide that acts like bases to deactivate the stomach acid and make its pH more neutral (Fookes C, 2018). When the person takes an antacid, the base (alkali) reacts with hydrochloric acid that is present in the stomach and the antacid neutralizes the acid in the stomach. This neutralisation makes the stomach contents less corrosive in order not to damage the stomach and that helps the patient to relieve from the pain.

●        Mg(OH)2(s) + 2HCl(aq) → 2H2O(l) + MgCl2(aq)

This balanced chemical equation demonstrates the neutralization reaction between magnesium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid.

●        NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + CO2

Sodium hydrogen carbonate and hydrochloric acid reaction. (They both produce salt and water because it is a neutralization reaction.)

The ability of an antacid to neutralize acid is by determining the antacid’s neutralizing capacity, and because of that some of them are more effective than other antacids. The most effective antacids should have a high acid neutralization capacity and have better gastric acid neutralization qualities. Antacids such as sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate are the most effective ones (Gbemudu A, 2016).


Unit 3: Quantities in Chemical Reactions

Topic 1: Vitamin A

Vitamin A has several important functions for the body. It is important for immune functions, vision, cellular communication and it helps the skin to be healthy.

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally in many foods and it is also called retinol because it has an important function on vision and it contains fat-soluble retinoids; (retinol, retinal, and retinyl esters). It produces the pigments in the retina on the eye (Mandal A, 2019). The most common form of vitamin A is retinol, C20H30O (s). Retinol is usually used for skin care products since they are beneficial for skin health.

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Canada recommends the daily intake of vitamin A for 19 year and older men to take 900 μg a day (0.0009 g C20H30O /  286.45 g C20H30O = 0.00000314 moles). For 19 year and older woman to take 700 μg a day (0.0007 g C20H30O / 286.45 g C20H30O = 0.00000244 moles). For pregnant people who are 19 year and older to take 770 μg a day (0.00077 g C20H30O / 286.45 g C20H30O = 0.00000269 moles) and for lactation (19 and older) to take 1300 μg  to take per day (0.0013 g C20H30O / 286.45 g C20H30O = 0.00000454 moles). Also, 3000 μg per day should not be exceeded for all the people (Dietitians of Canada, 2019). It is harder to remove vitamin A from the body than removing vitamins B and C because vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin. Fat-soluble vitamins are soluble in fats while water-soluble vitamins are soluble in water and just because vitamin A is fat-soluble, it is stored in body tissue for using later.

Taking a high dose of vitamin A might increase the risk of osteoporosis and hip fracture. Also, it can cause vertigo, blurry vision, nausea, bone thinning, liver damage and headache (Mayo Clinic, 2017). Getting more than 3000 μg of vitamin A per day would cause toxic in the body.

Unit 4: Structure & Properties of Matter

Topic 1: Radon

Radon is a gas which is radioactive and can be naturally found in the environment.

It is located on the VIII A group of the periodic table so it is a noble gas. It is colourless and odourless. They are emitted from rocks, soil and other building materials that contain remainders of uranium.  (Lung Association, 2016)

 Uranium is a common element that is found everywhere on the earth and as a result of that radon gas can be found in almost all homes in Canada. In order to be careful from the risks of the radon, the radon levels in the homes should be decreased. If the radon test result is above for the Canadian guideline of 200 Bq/m3 the person should find a way to reduce the radon level in their home. A radon mitigation system can help most of the homes to reduce the radon level by more than 80% (Health Canada, 2019).

Also, there are some risks caused by the inhalation of the radon. Once it is inhaled it could cause lung cancer even for the non-smokers in the future just because its radiation damages the lung cells. Radon is one of the most important causes of lung cancer that comes after smoking. However, the risk of having lung cancer caused by the radon depends on the level of radon in the environment and how long a person inhaled it and stayed in an environment that contains the radon. The only way to know how much radon the homes is to measure it. Radon levels in the home can  differ a lot from day to day, so the most logical way to measure it would be measuring the radon levels in the home for at least 3 months. The person who decided to measure it has two options for testing: one is to purchase a do-it-yourself radon test kit and the other way is to hire a radon measurement professional.

Unit 5: Gases and Atmospheric Chemistry

Topic 1: SCUBA diving

Scuba diving is a kind of sport that is done underwater with special equipment for breathing. The equipment contains cylinders that have air which the person carries it on your their back and they are connected to the mouth by tubes.

However, it is forbidden to do scuba diving and travelling by plane in a day because it is dangerous and also can be fatal. Decompression Sickness, also known as the bends or barotrauma, usually occurs in scuba divers. It is caused by a build-up of nitrogen bubbles in the body. As the scuba divers dive deeper and deeper the pressure around their body would increase. Because of the high levels of bubbles that occur deep in the water, usually in the spinal cord or brain, there might some problems occur such as numbness, paralysis and disorders of higher brain functions. Some of the symptoms are fatigue, pain in joints, pain in the muscles of the arms and legs, dizziness and ringing in the ears (Thalmann, 2004).

Aircraft usually fly between 30,000 and 43,000 feet and at those altitudes, the atmosphere provides 4 or less psi of pressure. Normal air pressure on the Earth’s surface is 14.7 psi. Comparing to the pressure on Earth’s surface and the pressure in the aircraft cabin, it can be observed that there is a significant difference. It is a high ratio of the pressure and that is why a person can not do scuba diving and have a flight in one day (Ken, 2018).

The Divers Alert Network (DAN) recommends a maximum of 12 hours flight after scuba diving and longer flights might be risky.

Career Exploration

Chemical engineers observe the chemical structure of the chemicals, their energies and the physical shapes that they form and they have to understand how to produce new productions from raw materials. Basically, they are responsible for understanding the properties of materials. Genetic engineers can work in various industries such as energy, food and drink, plastics, gas and oil and water treatment and production of medicines.

Four-year of MEng (Master of engineering) in chemical engineering or a BEng (Bachelor of engineering) followed by the relevant Masters should be completed. Also, strong mathematical knowledge in calculus, trigonometry, geometry is required along with science topics like physics, chemistry and biology are needed in order to work in this field. Also, there are some skill requirements such as having the ability to solving problems, analytical thinking, communication skills, management skills and being familiar with current and developing technology (AGCAS editors, 2017).

The average salary for chemical engineers in Canada is approximately $66,405 per year. (PayScale, 2019)

Chemical engineers usually work full-time hours, in a lab in an office and they spend their times at the locations such as plant industries, refineries that they monitor or direct operations or solve problems. They work approximately 40 to 50 hours per week (Johnson, 2016).


(2017, April). Chemical Engineer. Retrieved from

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Canada, H. (2019, March 05). Radon. Retrieved from

(2019, March 21). What You Need to Know About Vitamin A. Retrieved from

Fookes, C. (2018, April 30). List of Common Antacids Uses, Types & Side Effects. Retrieved April 18, 2019, from

Gbemudu, A. (2016). Antacids: Get Facts on Side Effects and Drug Interactions. Retrieved April 24, 2019, from

Johnson, O. (2016, November 09). The Average Work Hours for a Chemical Engineer. Retrieved from

Ken, H. (2018, October 30). Aircraft Pressurization Beginner’s Guide. Retrieved from

L. (2016, October 12). What is Radon. Retrieved from

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M. (2017, October 27). Vitamin A. Retrieved from

P. (2019). Average Chemical Engineer Salary. Retrieved from

Thagard, P. (2018, January 11). Why Is Lithium Good for Both Batteries and Bipolar Disorder? Retrieved April 11, 2019, from

Thalmann, D. (2004, April). Decompression Illness: What Is It and What Is The Treatment? Retrieved from


Does Higher Education Really Matter?

Everyone has their own opinion of whether obtaining education beyond a high school diploma really matters or not. Many individuals enter into institutions of higher education yearly with hopes of receiving a piece of paper that somehow validates four or more years of late night studying and academia induced stress. At the end of the day, some real question that must be answered are is it really worth it and does it really matter? This topic has been debated for many years with a number of sufficient facts and statistics showing that furthering ones education matters. This paper will address both the advantages and disadvantages of higher education as well as the implications and benefits of having a higher education degree.

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One of the main advantages of obtaining a higher education that many people can agree upon is a future with some type of financial security due to a steady profession and income. According to College Board’s Education Pays 2013 report, individuals with higher levels of education earn more and are more likely than others to be employed. The report also states that college graduates earn about 65% more than high school graduates and those with advances degrees earn two to three times as much as high school graduates. The earnings premium increases as workers move further along their career paths (College Board, 2013). It is very clear and understandable that the more education one has the more opportunities they have, as long as they are willing to invest their money, their effort and their time. Higher education not only provides better employment opportunities, it also influences health and provides knowledge to living healthy lifestyles. Being better educated can increase people’s knowledge and cognitive skills, allowing them to make improved decisions in regards to their health, healthcare and managing their medical care. According to an article written by the Commission to Build a Healthier America, greater educational attainment has been associated with health-promoting behaviors including increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables and other aspects of healthy eating, engaging in regular physical activity, and refraining from excessive consumption of alcohol and from smoking. Statistics show that college educated adults are less likely than others to be obese and children living in households with more educated parents are less likely than other children to be obese (Education Pays, 2013). It has been established that higher education is correlated to higher paying job with an income that affords them the ability to live in neighborhoods that have minimal to no crime rates with access to recreational facilities. This is an example of a health promoting environment that encourages and enables people to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors (Commission to Build a Healthier America, ) therefore permitting for a longer life. People with higher education also tend to participate actively and contribute to society. This means that these individuals are open to volunteering in their communities by providing assistance to homeless shelters and those that are less fortunate as well as keeping their communities clean. These individuals also are aware of the government and its policies, their civic responsibilities, voting and other political interests. This offers individuals a sense of satisfaction and happiness.
Benefits also come with costs or disadvantages. When it comes to attaining a higher education one of the biggest disadvantage is debt. The cost of college is very expensive and the average student cannot afford the cost, causing them to have to use government/federal loans or private loans in order to pay for their education, unless they have full scholarships or financial aid to cover the cost of tuition. The cost of college tuition is increasing at a fast rate yet students who cannot afford to go to college, continue to enroll. The Wall Street Journal reported that according to an analysis of government data, the average college student is burdened with debt after graduation of at least $33,000.and every year the number of students taking on debt increases. Student debt now is overwhelming the older generation. In 2012, there were 6.9 million student loan borrowers 50 and over that together owed $155 billion with individual average balances between $19,521 and $23,820. According to the US Congress Joint Economic Committee, about 60%of 2011 college graduates have student loan debt balances that are equal to 60% of their annual income.
Another disadvantage of higher education is unemployment. Although the chances of finding a well-paying job after graduating from an institution of higher education are higher than finding one right after college, research showed in 2010 that only 4.1% of college graduates were unemployed, that number is now at 7.9% according to USA Today’s research of 2014 College Graduates. Compared to the 13.8% of unemployed High School dropout students, it does show that having higher education reduces your chances of unemployment, but according to an Article from 2010 in the Huffington Post people with higher education or advanced degrees were as vulnerable to long-term unemployment as people without higher education once they are unemployed. In 2011, 50% of US college graduates under the age of twenty five were only employed part-time or had no job (Huffington Post). Most employers would rather higher people with experience over a degree because having experience and training shows you have skills that those with a college degree lack. There is no guarantee that with higher education you will get a job after graduating.
Another disadvantage of obtaining a higher education is the delay of entering the real world as well as a lack in real world involvement. Going to college means foregoing valuable opportunities to work and gaining hands on skills, learning and training. The Time/Carnegie Corporation of New York (2012) survey reported that 40% of undergraduate students believe that the purposes and goal of completing a bachelor’s degree is to gain new knowledge and skills for a career. For instance, Lagemann and Lewis (2012) have suggested that the public purpose for attending colleges and universities has less to do with the pursuit of economic or employment benefits and much more about preparing young adults with generic skills and civic education such as, civic values, ideals, and virtues. They argued that college students must “develop generic skills and dispositions to listen intently and empathetically to other people … analyze rationally what is said, read, and observed; … present thoughts clearly; … confront unsupported assertions; and …identify reasonable strategies to take necessary action” (Lagemann & Lewis, 2012, p. 12). Majority of students do not feel they learn these skills in college, making the purpose of attending a four year institution of higher education useless.
There are a number of factors to take into consideration when deciding whether obtaining a higher education can be a positive decision or a negative decision and if a person should or should not pursue. The advantages of attaining a higher education range from guaranteed employment, improved healthy lifestyles, higher income, to social recognition. While the disadvantages of attaining a higher education range from increased debt to delay of real world experience. Going to an expensive or private four year institution rather than going a regular public or community college is also a decision that many people have to decide. Some people feel that the level of education you will attain is greater at a private school because of the cost and that teachers are more passionate about what they are teaching but at a public college or university you are getting what you pay for, less. Whether a person attends a four year private or public institution of higher education, it does not matter as long as they finish because obtaining a degree is a very huge achievement in life. It is one of the American dreams due to all the years of hard work and stress. Whether a person decides to attend a public or private school does not matter because at either one they will be exposed to people of different diversities with different ideas. College is an investment that many should take that chance at investing in. According to a 2011 Pew Research survey, 86% of college graduates believed college was a good investment.
The degree type obtained by the individual as well as the career choice and the economy play a huge role in assisting with the decision making of whether obtaining a higher education really matter. The individual’s eagerness to learn should also be a factor in deciding whether to further their education and attend an institution of higher education. Besides the mentioned advantages and disadvantages, people must also decide what their end goal in life is. They need to understand that what you put in is what you should expect back. Many American value a college education, character is valued even more. 61% of young people say that ethic is extremely important in being able to succeed in the world (Pew Research, 2011). A person does not have to attend a four year institution in order to reap all the advantages or benefits that a person who did attend experienced.

Federal Reserve Bank of New York, “Student Loan Debt by Age Group,”, Mar. 29, 2013
Amanda M. Fairbanks, “2011 College Grads Moving Home, Saddled with Historic Levels of Student Loan Debt,”, May 13, 2011
US Congress Joint Economic Committee, “The Causes and Consequences of Increasing Student Debt,”, June 2013
Time/Carnegie Corporation of New York (2012). “Higher education poll.” Published on October 18, 2012. Retrieved from:
Lagemann, E. C. & Lewis, H. (2012). Renewing the civic mission of American higher education. In E. C. Lagemann & H. Lewis, What is college for? The public purpose of higher education, (pp. 9-45). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Pew Research, “Is College Worth It?,”, May 15, 2011
Weiner, Joann. “Do the Benefits of a College Education Outweigh the Cost?” Washington Post. The Washington Post, 22 Aug. 2014
Thompson, Derek. “What’s More Expensive than College? Not Going to College.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company. 27 Mar. 2012
Price, Michael. “7 Reasons Why You Shouldn’t Go To College and 4 Things To Do Instead.” The Huffington Post., 17 June 2014
Baum, Sandy, Jennifer Ma, and Kathleen Payea. “Review: The Economic Benefit of Higher Education for Individuals and Society.” Brief 6 Sept 09 – Education and Health.pdf 2013–N°10 (eng)–v9 FINAL bis.pdf


Development of the Black Lives Matter Movement

Til this day, African Americans face a great deal of discrimination. The upcoming generation does not have it half as bad as their ancestors. Blacks were tortured, raped, and lynched hundreds of years ago. Lynching does not occur nearly as much, but blacks still face injustices that hurt just as much. There are other factors involved, but the Black Lives Matter civil rights movement mainly started because of one murder. The murder of Treyvon Martin. Socially, Black Lives Matter movement brought people together to protest and demand justice for victims. It is nothing new, but everyone feels that blacks are not treated Fairly. Specifically, within the court system. It is a proven fact that blacks do not get treated the same as other races with convictions, sentencing time, and justice. For example, if a white man and black man get accused of the same crimes, the black man is more likely to get convicted than the white man. Black men have a higher conviction rate than any other race. “African Americans are incarcerated at more than 5 times the rate of whites” (“Criminal Justice Fact Sheet”). Whites are more likely to be let off with a lighter sentence or no jail time at all. One of many reasons why this movement was started, is because justice was not served to Treyvon and his family. The movement started in 2013. Black lives matter became bigger after more black men were being murdered: with no convictions, people wanted justice, and the influence of social media. “The phrase “Black Lives Matter” first appeared on Facebook when activist Alicia Garza posted her response to hearing that a Florida jury…declared George Zimmerman not guilty of the murder of Treyvon Martin” (“Black Lives Matter”). Social media influences almost everything today. Teens and young adults are brainwashed by what they read and encounter on Facebook and Twitter. Social media can be dangerous to the young mind. In the case of Treyvon Martin, social media became a stepping stone for their cause.

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Although Black Lives Matter movement is mainly about obtaining justice, a surplus of civil rights leaders and celebrities do not follow behind the movement. Older civil rights activist like Jesse Jackson, Al Sharpton, and Andrew Young dislike their methods of protest and communication. The black lives matter movement lacks help from influential people. Their followers are mainly ordinary citizens that are fighting for justice. “Oprah Winfrey, have characterized the movement as lacking central leadership, clear demands, and a coherent political ideology. The movement has been further questioned for its tactics and unwillingness to compromise.” (“Black Lives Matter”). To the ordinary citizens, they felt it was a good cause to fight for. An infinite number of people feel that black lives are not valued as much as other races. It is true to a certain extent. Black people have always faced injustices within the court system.

With the murder of Treyvon Martin, George Zimmerman claimed self-defense. Blacks and others were infuriated. Treyvon, an unarmed teenager was killed; and the killer was released shortly after he was arrested. Zimmerman was not charged with anything. Zimmerman was also a suspicious man. Because of a rash of robberies within the neighborhood where Zimmerman and Treyvon’s dad lived; the residents of the community created a neighborhood watch in September 2011 (“Treyvon Martin”). The neighborhood watch consisted of many people of the residence, along with George. “Zimmerman regularly patrolled the streets and was licensed to carry a firearm. From August 2011 to February 2012, Zimmerman had called police several times to state he had seen individuals whom he had deemed as suspicious. All of the reported figures were black males” (Treyvon Martin”). When those recordings were released, an uproar of comments were made regarding racial profiling. Zimmerman called the police at 7:11, to report a suspicious guy. Maybe he thought Treyvon was just another black with bad intentions.

When the verdict was announced, the protest and rallies began. At first, they were seeking attention from civil rights activist. After examination of the movement, older activist decided not to help. Although everyone wanted justice for Treyvon, the movement lacked leadership and demands. Activist did not know what their needs were. Yes, they wanted justice; but what else were people fighting for. The Black Lives Matter movement also took on the police with violence. As we all know, violence is not the answer to justice. The older generation of civil rights activists did not like violence. “Many in my crowd admire the cause and courage of these young activists but fundamentally disagree with their approach. Trained in the tradition of Martin Luther King Jr., we were nonviolent activists who won hearts by conveying respectability and changed laws by delivering a message of love and unity” (Reynolds). The older generation of protesters primarily had peaceful mindset. For example, Martin Luther king Jr only wanted peace. With any of his protests or rallies, he never influenced violence. His demands were not questionable. Everyone knew what he was fighting for and his leadership mentality is unmatched. On their website, the purpose of the Black Lives Matter movement is explained. “The Black Lives Matter Global Network is a chapter-based, member-led organization whose mission is to build local power and to intervene in violence inflicted on Black communities by the state and vigilantes” (“Black Lives Matter”). Also, they are working to live in a world where black lives are no longer systematically targeted for demise. To an ordinary citizen, this is a good cause to believe in and be apart of. To many activists, their purpose and demands are not strong enough for them to follow behind the movement.

     There was a series of murders between 2013 and 2016 that significantly influenced the Black Lives Matter movement. Black men were killed by police, and they were not charged for murder. Michael Brown, unarmed man killed in Missouri, by a white police officer. Eric Garner, killed in New York City, by excessive force of police officer. Video of this horrific act went viral on social media and ignited the movement even more. In Ferguson, protest turned violent quickly. “Protesters from around the country who gathered in Ferguson were met by a police force armed with military assault rifles, shotguns, pistols, body armor, armored fighting vehicles, and chemical agents banned in warfare, such as tear gas” (“Black Lives Matter”). This brought national attention to the movement. The movement gained and lost protestors simultaneously. Violence often turns people away. Older individuals do not see violence as a way of solving conflicts. The violence within the Ferguson protests encouraged many to view the movement as a violent group, that is hostile towards law enforcement and white people (“Black Lives Matter”). At this point, a lot of white policemen were being looked at as the bad guys. Black individuals began recording every encounter with policemen. People were scared. With that was being seen on social media and the news; it had people frightened. Law enforcement were being caught on camera killing citizens and not convicted for the murders. These actions by police, called for policemen to begin wearing body cameras. This may cause officers to act differently, knowing everything they do is being recorded by a body camera. The body cameras will capture every hostile act. It will be easier for the judge to determine who is in the wrong. Body cameras are used in law enforcement; but not nearly as much as they should be. The Black Lives Matter movement is working along with other civil rights movements to force policemen to wear body cameras. When civil rights groups work together, their voices are heard, and changes can be made.

      Blacks have always faced discrimination with law enforcement, it goes back hundreds of years. Whites often wanted to be in control of everything and wanted blacks to stay in the lower tier of society. In 1838, the first form of city police in America was established. First it was Boston and then along came New York in 1845 (Potter). Although laws were put in place to form a fair society, nothing was fair for African Americans during the time. Slavery was not even abolished at that time. Therefore, African Americans were still being put to work by masters and forced to do things they did not want to do. They often did not have a choice, they would be killed or whipped if they did not comply with masters. This ties to society today, because police often try to force people to do certain actions. Many policemen get carried away with the power they have, and they often abuse their power. Various people are being killed by cops that are not properly doing their job; which is to serve and protect the community.

Through the years, white cops have made a negative impact on society. Especially in impoverished and low-income neighborhoods. Blacks in poor neighborhoods try to avoid encounters with policemen. Black men often feel as if the police are after them, because of their skin color and the neighborhood they may be in. Although one may be in a bad section of town, it does not give officers the right to assume they are involved with crimes. Many do not have a choice on where they are raised. Quite frequently, police officers portray blacks as drug dealers and people that start violence.

African American protest have always wanted to be civil and peaceful. There are certain events in history that sparked major violence and riots throughout cities in the United States. For example, the beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles police officers. Riots sparked in Los Angeles after officers seen beating King, were not convicted. “The outrage was loud and intense, culminating in the massive Los Angeles Riots (or L.A. Uprisings, as they have since become known) of April and May 1992, when 63 people were killed and 2,383 injured. It was the largest civil disturbance in American history” (Feuerherd). People were simply enraged by the unfairness and discrimination within the law enforcement. While officers stood by and watched, Rodney King was struck by police batons over fifty times. He suffered eleven fractures. The jury refused to indict seventeen officers that stood by and chose not to take action (Feuerherd). Over 1,100 Marines, 600 Army soldiers, and 6,500 National Guard troops patrol the streets of Los Angeles. This riot was simply out of control and described as one of the most violent riots to date. African Americans were tired of being treated unfairly; which ties to the Black Lives Matter movement. They just want to live in a world where they are no longer targeted. Not by police nor ordinary citizens.

 In all, African Americans want to be accepted in the society. The social media push by the founders heavily influenced the Black Lives Matter popularity. Teens began to take notice, and eventually got involved. Black lives matter became bigger after more black men were being murdered: with no convictions, people wanted justice, and the influence of social media.  Thousands of U.S citizens have gathered together to fight for justice. Treyvon Martin, Eric Garner, and Michael Brown were significant murders. They caused major uproar and even violence throughout certain cities. Violence is not the answer, but sometimes protest get out of control. The protest in Ferguson was one of the most violent. Police had to take action to settle down the upset crowds. Frustration is understandable in these cases, because many officers involved were not being charged with murder. Comments on social media by activist, expressed a great quantity of fury. Social media was the foundation of this movement.

Works Cited

“Black Lives Matter.” Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection, Gale, 2018. Opposing Viewpoints in Context,

Black Lives Matter,

“Criminal Justice Fact Sheet.” NAACP,

Feuerherd, Peter. Why Didn’t the Rodney King Video Lead to a Conviction? 28 Feb. 2018,

Potter, Gary. “The History of Policing in the United States, Part 1.” A Brief History of Slavery and the Origins of American Policing | Police Studies Online, 25 June 2014,

Reynolds, Barbara. “I Was a Civil Rights Activist in the 1960s. But It’s Hard for Me to Get behind Black Lives Matter.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 24 Aug. 2015,

“Trayvon Martin.”, A&E Networks Television, 1 Aug. 2018,


Does Class Size Matter?

Does class size affect a students performance in school? Both sides could be argued upon, but neither would win without the proper evidence defending their side. Here is the evidence to put this debate to rest, class size does affect academic performance.
Smaller class for a student as well as for teachers are a good thing. “Research supports the common-sense notion that children learn more and teachers are more effective in smaller classes.” (General OneFile) Its common sense that smaller class are more effective for students to learn and teachers to help their students. The larger the class, the least likely it is for the teacher of the class to give every student the help they need. For a student to be able to succeed the teacher has to be able to help them until they understand on their own enough to handle it by themselves. The more the teacher is able to help, the more they learn and the more they learn, the more they will achieve in their futures. “Studies have shown that small classes have a beneficial effect on the academic achievement of children from low-income families and those learning English as a second language (ESL). These are the students that the majority of educators are increasingly dealing with. Not only were small classes studied, but large ones as well. The findings show that overcrowded classrooms are associated with lower student achievement as confirmed by reading and mathematics competency tests.” (Robert J. Rios) Test scores show that smaller classes are effective at bettering achievements of low income and minority students. Smaller classes help low-income and minority students learn better as well as faster.

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Larger classes are could be very harmful to students both educationally and financially. “The evidence suggests that increasing class size will harm not only children’s test scores in the short run, but also their long run human capital formation. Money saved today by increasing class sizes will result in more substantial social and educational costs in the future.” (Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach) Raising the size of a class will effect a students test scores as well as hurting them in the long run money wise. Saving money now by increasing class size now will hurt the student in the long run. Its not good for the schools to cut cost now by making class sizes bigger, to effect the student later by having to spend more money to get where they needed to be in the first place. “Class size is an important determinant of student outcomes, and one that can be directly determined by policy. All else being equal, increasing class sizes will harm student outcomes.” (Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach) “Increased student numbers in universities coupled with reduced resources have often resulted in larger class sizes, thus encouraging a reversion of the traditional style of delivery and a reduction in small group and tutorial contact in short, less interactive teaching and learning.” (William Duncan Papo) By increasing student class sizes in schools to reduce resource use has often resulted in the reduction of interactive teaching and learning,  you would be decreasing the time that the students could possibly need with the teacher, but not being able to have because there would be too many students to get that opportunity. Raising class size could potentially hurt a students outcomes of achievement educationally.
[If you use endnotes, they should be on a separate page, at the end of your text and preceding the list of works cited. If you use footnotes, consult your professor for preferred format.]
Class Size Change From Elementary to High School

Average Class Sizes:

Elementary Class Size

Middle School Class Size

High School Class Size

Average Class




Source: you see class size greatly effects a student academically as well as capitally. Policymakers should take into account the facts that students learn better and fast in smaller classes where the teacher can get to all her students.
Works Cited
Bonesronning, Hans. “Class Size Effects on Student Achievement in Norway: Patterns and Explanations.” Southern Economic Journal 69.4 (2003): 952. General OneFile. Web. 9 Feb. 2017.
Class-Size Reduction: Better Than You Think.” PRWeb Newswire 18 Feb. 2014: n. pag. General OneFile. Web. 7 Feb. 2017.
Guillemette, Yvan. “School Class Size: Smaller Isn’t Better.” C.D. Howe Institute Commentary 15 Aug. 2005: n. pag. General OneFile. Web. 7 Feb. 2017.
Johnson, Laurene. “Does Class Size Really Matter?” District Administration Oct. 2011: 104. General OneFile. Web. 6 Feb. 2017.
PAPO, WILLIAM DUNCAN. “LARGE CLASS TEACHING: IS IT A PROBLEM TO STUDENTS?” College Student Journal 33.3 (1999): 354. General OneFile. Web. 9 Feb. 2017.
Rios, Robert J. “School of Education at Johns Hopkins University-Class Size: Does It Really Matter?” Does It Really Matter? N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.
Schanzenbach, Diane W., Professor. “Does Class Size Matter?” National Education Policy Center. N.p., Feb. 2014. Web. 07 Feb. 2017.
“Table 7.Average Class Size in Public Primary Schools, Middle Schools, High Schools, and Schools with Combined Grades, by Classroom Type and State: 2011-12.” Table 7.Average Class Size in Public Primary Schools, Middle Schools, High Schools, and Schools with Combined Grades, by Classroom Type and State: 2011-12. Schools and Staffing Survey, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.

Music of the Black Lives Matter Movement

The Black Lives Matter has been from the last decade politicizing famous artist to shake the commercial cobwebs from R & B and hip-hop. The reason for this action is stereotypical views against the blacks. The unfair treatment against the black race has resulted due to the unfair treatment in the American society. Racist acts are done behind the closed door such that the law cannot punish the racial offenders since the actions cannot be proven. The racism mentality has resulted to a big gap in housing, income, health, and nutrition. Since it has been difficult to fight against racial stereotypes using boycotts, musicians have cooperated with social movements to form anthem rallying cries, for instance “Freedom” by Beyoncé, has opened open-ended conversations-starters. Some artist for instance Kendrick Lamar and D’ Angelo appeared with ready-made, multidimensional statement albums. Some of smaller artist such as Houston MCZ-Ro as well as some other icons for instance Prince released a song to respond to numerous police brutality occurrences. More political megastars such as Usher and Ariana Grande have joined in spreading the awareness through music. This paper will reflect how generations of musicians are addressing violence, police brutality, media and disillusionment in a way like never before; therefore, the focus will be on “Freedom” by Beyoncé featuring Kendrick Lamar and how the song perpetuates the message on race and ethnicity.

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The song “Freedom” by Beyoncé Ft. Kendrick Lamar powerfully reveals the stereotypes caused by the media throughout the history of America in his rap. The song displays that the African American “freedom” is far from being achieved but it should be granted automatically to people of color and should not be under any circumstances a privilege. As illustrated by the lyrics “Channel 9 news tells me I’m moving backwards/eight blocks left, death is around the corner/seven misleading statement about my persona (Beyoncé — Freedom Lyrics I Genius Lyrics. 2016)” the lyrics talks about how the media is spreading misleading information about the African American people. The media have been on the forefront in encouraging racial prejudices in the society by sending headlights that bears a message of racial stereotypes against the people of color. The lyrics express that the blacks will get their freedom back regardless the medias efforts to spread the headlines of the prejudices against the black society. The lyrics also send the message of people standing on their ground against the bad things they are made to experience. The lyrics connects to “Black folk were not visible in mainstream films/media and if they were subservient slaves or servants (Acosta, 2015).” It relates to how the media uses its power to spread bad and negative headlights against the African American society. The media is so quick cover negative news rather than the positive hence spreading the racial stereotypes to the rest of the people. This comes as a result of whiteness in the society whereby the blacks are perceived as inferior as compared to the whites; moreover, the song perpetuates the issue of racial injustices in the society by showing how the African Americans are demeaned by the society and the role media has played in it.

Looking at the visuals of the song “Freedom” by Beyoncé Ft. Kendrick Lamar portrays images of African Americans being victims of police brutality. The song features Winnie Harlow, a model as well as other blacks, white elements together with various celebrities; it sends out a clear message of the people of color being angry and tired of the racism. People, who featured in the video wore don historical, traditional black-American hairstyles and antebellum outfits. (Beyoncé — Freedom Lyrics Genius Lyrics. 2016). Lyrics by Kendrick “Mama don’t cry for me, ride for me try for me, live for me”(“Freedom” Beyoncé Ft. Kendrick Lamar) sounds like he is singing to the mothers being afflicted by the unnecessary violence against the African American society. The theme of lyrics is the typical promises of self-reliance. The video showcases African American mother holding pictures of their sons that were recently killed by the police, among them Michael Brown and Eric Garner produced in the video album. Visuals were well coordinated to bring out the whole message. Kendrick Lamar by talking about “Six headlights wavin’ in my direction” (“Freedom” Beyoncé Ft. Kendrick Lamar) he refers to the six lights of the police car. Kendrick Lamar argues that police brutality has killed many innocent people and has done more damage to the black community than racism or slavery. The women in the video appeared to be taking powerful stances that denote their strength in racial struggles (Miller; 1995). With the help of drums played throughout the music, creating sound fraught cultural moment in the United States, the video brings out the message of empowerment for people are free from racial ethnicity. In spreading the message of race in the society, the song encourages the African American society that they will fight together against the oppression and the mistreatment. Considering the struggles experienced by the African American society, the artists use their values and emotions to shed light to the struggles of the blacks. Stated in New York times article, “But too many times, officers saw young black and brown men as targets. They would respond with force to even minor offenses. And because cops are rarely held accountable for their actions, they didn’t think too hard about the consequences.” (Being a cop showed me just how racist and violent the police are). Their aggressiveness towards the blacks comes unconsciously. Police brutality main cause probably is the stereotypes against the blacks that they possess a kind of threat to the police. The chances of gun violence from a black suspect being detained is more than any other.

The song “Freedom” By Beyoncé Ft. Kendrick Lamar highlights issues of Black Lives Movement. Part of the lyrics in the chorus ” Freedom! Freedom! I can’t move Freedom, cut me loose! (Beyoncé — Freedom Lyrics I Genius Lyrics. 2016)”. The song lyrics represent the indication of the African slave hymns, reflecting the embodiment of how the blacks are entitled to their feelings; the physical freedom that they yearn to get. Beyoncé in the song wants people to view the murder stopped and people start living in peace. The song stresses more on the BLM movement as it uses effective and informative language and shows strong meaning towards the issue of freedom. There has been unfairness whereby the people of color have wrongly convicted. This issue has existed for long due to prejudices against the Black Americans whereby their presence is perceived as an intention of engaging in criminal activity (Sen, 1998). The message in the song is ‘we will overcome’ and be free from social ill like racism and oppression. Beyoncé in the song calls for solidarity and perseverance while doing so, she presents herself as a leader of the cause. ” I see pattern running through the matrix of white privilege, a pattern passed on to me as a white person (McIntosh, 2016).” For many decades there has been African American’s historical subjugation by racial menaces passed through white privilege. The issue has led negative perception of the blacks as the lesser being not of the whites equal, hence, leading to numerous unfair treatments against the African American society.

The song “Freedom” by Beyoncé efficiently reveals the message on skin color. To achieve the goal, the artists make the song as an empowerment anthem to encourage black women. The artists utilized positive deviance by creating awareness of the issue as well as putting attention in the direction of the oppressed as they used their inspiring lyrics to boost confidence for the people suffering injustices; furthermore, the lyrics speak about the African American society that has been oppressed. To pass the message efficiently, the song utilizes powerful drums, a fiery tempo organ to get the attention of the listeners. The song is victorious for various reasons, but it takes a strong stance, to encourage actions as well as claiming prompt of people to take change of their future as incredibly powerful. Mcintosh claims “my skin color uses an asset for any move.”(McIntosh) According to this statement, the injustice and racism are based on the color of the skin. The racism dates from the slavery error in America and has for long affected the lives of the African American. Due to this prolonged mistreatment against the blacks there is a great need for movements to raise and fight the racial injustices. When considering the “I began to count the ways in which I enjoy unearned skin privilege and have been conditioned into oblivion about its existence”, (McIntosh, 2016) African American struggles would continue to take place because of the white privilege in the society from the young age whites are taught whites’ privilege.

The song “Freedom” by Beyoncé Ft. Kendrick played a major role in perpetuating current stereotypes concerning race and ethnicity. Throughout the lyrics, a message that rebukes police

Nin brutality is characterized within the song (Beyoncé — Freedom Lyrics Genius Lyrics. 2016). The lyrics act as protest anthem. The political overtones are also characterized within the song targeting the mothers whose children have been murdered as the result of police brutality towards the African American people. The lyrics by Kendrick seem to be directed towards the mothers as he encourages them to take heart, and they could overcome racial sentiments as well as the injustices by the police. With the featuring of the parents of Michael Brown, Trayvon Martin and Eric Garner in the video, Beyoncé succeeded in passing the message of condemning racial Injustices against the African American society. The way the song “Freedom” deals with issue or racial injustices targeted against the African American society. The song shows how music can play a major role in fighting against racism. The anti-racist demonstration of the song “Freedom” shows how the musicians involved in the song raises awareness about the current day events and address the issues of racism.

Works Cited

Beyoncé — FREEDOM Lyrics I Genius Lyrics. 2016,é -freedom-lyrics. . Millet Nicholas. African American Mens Perceptions of Racial Discrimination: A Sociocultural Analysis.” Social Work Research, 1995, doi:10.1093/19.4.207

Sen, Sankar. “Police Brutality in Perspective.” The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles, vol. 71, no. 2, 1998, pp. 148-150., doi: 10.117’7/00322580807100208.

McIntosh. Peggy. “‘White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack’ and ‘Some Notes for Facilitators.'” National SEED Project – Homepage, 2016, national seed project org/white – privilege-unpacking-the-invisible-knapsack.

Acosta, Grisel Y. “‘Racism Begins in Our Imagination:” How the Overwhelming Whiteness

`Boyhood’ Feeds Dan…” Salon,, 21 Feb. 2015, /22/


Anthropology and Its Subject Matter

Anthropology is a very wide field of study and one that is very important to the understanding of the human race. From ancestral species to the origins of communication, anthropology’s four main fields of study cover all aspects of human life, evolution, and development. The main fields can then be specified further for a more microscopic look at the nuances of human life and civilization.

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The study of Anthropology can cover anything from the development of symbols and language, to how humans evolved from unrecognizable mammals. At its core, anthropology is the study of humankind, from a holistic perspective that views the human race from all perspectives and angles. This holistic approach ensures that anthropologists study with no cultural values and ideals from affecting their research (Haviland, Prins, Walrath, McBride.2016) Under the umbrella of anthropology, four subfields exist to focus on specific areas. Those being: cultural, linguistic, and biological anthropology, as well as archeology.
Cultural anthropology is the study of the thoughts, feelings and behaviors of humans. Cultural anthropology can cover many topics of human culture. Systems, such as legal, political, medical or religious systems are explored, however more specific groups can be the subject of focus as well. Societal divisions such as age, race, gender and class are examined by cultural anthropologists. As per all anthropological studies, these groups and systems are viewed from a holistic viewpoint.
Linguistic anthropology, as the name suggests, investigates the idea of language and explores the structures, history and development of human languages and communication. Linguistic anthropology puts an emphasis on the “Why” and “How” of language, by examining linguistics under a more holistic lens, exploring ideas such as, “How does language reflect and influence specific cultures” or “How does language differ from one culture to another”. Linguistic anthropology also aims to conserve and document languages on the brink of disappearance in an effort to protect from cultural amnesia. To do this, an anthropologist will interact with, record, and document those who speak languages whose disappearance is imminent.
Like cultural anthropology, Archaeology studies human cultures. However, these studies are conducted through the recovery and analysis of remains. Archeologists use million-year-old tools, pottery, and even human remains to understand human life, and gain a biocultural understanding of prehistoric life. Archeology can focus on more specific areas through the studies of bioarchaeology and historical archeology. Examples of archeology can be the examination of DNA from bone samples found in dig sites, used to analyze and compare with other samples from other sites to document the spread of a group of early peoples.
Biological anthropology focuses on humans as an organism, researching human development, and humans on a molecular level. Originally, biological anthropologists focused heavily on the subject of evolution, but it has since branched out into many subcategories. Because knowledge of the human body can be applied in so many ways, biological anthropologists can apply themselves in areas. Such as paleoanthropology, to study long time changes to human biology, Primatology, to study primates and the connections humans share with them, and forensic anthropology, to use genetic information and skeletal remains of the deceased to build a profile about them.
Within cultural anthropology, lies the subfield of ethnography. Along with ethnology, these are the main components of cultural anthropology. Ethnography is a description of a cultural group, obtained via fieldwork. Research is conducted by a mix of outside observations and social participation, referred to as participant observation. Through participant observation, anthropologists follow the habits and rituals of those they are studying, by eating the same foods and sleeping and living in the same conditions. This approach provides anthropologists with a fully immersive understanding of different cultures and provides the anthropologist with a better outlook of a culture.
Linguistic anthropology has many subfields, one of them being historical linguistics. Historical linguistics focuses specifically on the history of language and how it changes, spreads, and correlates and interacts with other languages. An example can be seen by how over the course of millennia, the spread of the Bantu languages in Africa and their spread from the western edges, to the rest of the continent.
Archeology is widely regarded as dealing with prehistoric artifacts, however, this is not always the case. Applied archeology is a subfield that focuses on excavating landfills and what happens to old waste, rather than digging for pottery and remains. The purpose of applied archeology in this setting is to examine the effects of biodegradation over time and gain a more accurate estimation of how long biodegradation actually takes in different materials that end up in landfills.
The human body is important to many areas of study, so naturally, biological anthropology can be applied in many different subfields. Paleoanthropology is a subfield of biological anthropology that focuses on some of the largest time spans of any other form of anthropology. Paleoanthropologists study the origins of the human species, and the organisms that predate us. Looking back to mammals from 225 mya, paleoanthropologists can map human evolution over millions of years, comparing fossils to humans to gain an understanding of the lineage of the species.
Anthropology is a vast field of study that takes a look at humans and their culture to better understand the vast history and the future of the species. Through a holistic lens, anthropology touches almost every facet of human living and connects it together to paint a full picture of the species.
Haviland, W. A., Walrath, D., McBride, B., & Prins, H. E. (2016). The essence of anthropology (4th ed.). United States of America: Cengage Learning.