Roles of MIS in Toyota

The operations of Toyota have been impacted by tremendous developments in technology. Because of this, manufacturing operations within the company have significantly improved. For instance, vehicles and car parts are transported ahead of time, and this prevents large amounts of money from being utilized for storing activities (Fujimoto, 2001).
The MIS of Toyota offers remedies for the organization concerning car and process structuring and planning for the smooth flow of operations. The MIS of Toyota aids the organization with regard to the enhancement of the operational procedures.
The smooth flow of operations is accomplished within Toyota through its various MIS, where the structuring of each car model and manufacturing processes from the prototyping level to the production phase is attained in one structure (Shingo, 1989). This limits unnecessary repetition of processes and the need for interfaces as data is secured in a centralized system. Excellent coordination with suppliers offers great opportunities for more efficient product development with suppliers via the Internet.
Productivity and efficiency in the operations within Toyota is accomplished through the Model-mix structuring and the excellent planning aspects of its MIS. Model-mix structuring allows Toyota to enhance the operational procedures that are important for the organization. The excellent planning options enable effective processing of assembly and parts of make-to-order deals.
The MIS of Toyota gathers specialized production orders from Toyota’s planning system. The orders include the car parts essential to assemble each car; some Toyota cars, for example, have plenty of components detailed in the list. The MIS generates the shipment schedules for each part to match Toyota’s assembly-line procedures.
Toyota delivers these detailed information and precise shipment schedules to its suppliers. The significant suppliers obtain the information through electronic data interchange (EDI). Other providers log on to the Toyota online portal, where the company details the provisions to provide the updates on its shipment activities (Hino, 2005). By going to the website of Toyota, suppliers can monitor this information in real time, including release schedules, receipts, and other important information.

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When they deliver car parts, the suppliers send Toyota shipment details to give them with the latest information in this matter. Car parts going inside the Toyota storage facilities are then obtained and delivered quickly to the line. There, Toyota uses its MIS to monitor the assembly process in real time (Ohno, 1988). The MIS tracks the production verification and consumption information consistently. Parts utilized in the production are removed from the stock list, and costs are presented to detail the value of work in process.
Customer desires for various Toyota cars warranted a solution that would properly improve and help organize production. The MIS helps the organization to reduce order-to shipment period, enhances its supply chain activities with regard to demand analysis and tracking of deliveries, and improves inventory activities all over its establishments- enabling Toyota to significantly reduce time to customer for its excellent vehicles.
b) Accounting
In Toyota, all accounting information is handled by all accounting heads. In this regard, the MIS of Toyota provides options that enhance the accounting operations and regulations of the company. The MIS provides options that enhance the accounting tasks of the organization, allowing them to react immediately and properly to the industry needs and developments.
c) Finance
The MIS of Toyota provides financial information to the finance department of the company and its concerned personnel. The people of the finance department of Toyota analyzes previous and current financial figures, anticipates future financial outputs, and checks and handles the utilization of capital over time by making use of the information generated by the MIS (Hoseus, 2008).
The MIS of Toyota provides options that enable sales and pricing of cars through configuration and monitoring of available parts. Vehicle customization and pricing via the Internet enhanced car sales of Toyota by offering customers with the choice of designing their vehicles. Once the vehicle is designed, the MIS will determine the worth of the vehicles based on the design. Vehicle search enables Toyota to locate vehicles that address the specific designs, accomplishing faster delivery to customers.
d) Marketing
The MIS of Toyota helps the marketing operations of the organization with regard to product development, pricing activities, marketing, and sales forecasts (Liker, 2003). Just like other important company operations, the MIS of Toyota relies on external sources of data. These sources entail the opinion or feedback of customers.
e) Human Resource
The MIS of Toyota also aids the company’s activities for the welfare of their workers, leaders, and other personnel. Because of the reality that the task of the human resources is critical to all other parts of the operations of Toyota, its MIS has a crucial role in ensuring progress for the company.
2) Facilitate decision making at the three tiers of management
a) Operational Level Systems
To transform the operational level decision making within Toyota very fundamental and productive, the MIS aids in providing and sending reliable information to all stakeholders. The MIS of Toyota is established to enhance the reporting of information that will be important in the proper decision making within the operational level of Toyota. The MIS is able to effectively collect and process data, process results, and able to adjust, cope and address inaccuracies right away.
b) Management Level Systems
The MIS of Toyota has effective internal controls that aid in the management level decision making tasks in Toyota (Magee, 2007). Information is collected through efficient processing and inner control tracking. An effective internal and outer audit process is utilized within Toyota through the MIS.
c) Strategic Level Systems
To have a productive and efficient strategic level decision making, important data within Toyota is processed and handled properly through its MIS. Differences in the way information is collected and documented can change information and trend studies. Also, because data collection and documentation activities will eventually change through time, Toyota management has established flexible methods to allow systems developments through the MIS. These procedures are always well structured, properly informed to employees and has a tracking system that helps in the strategic level decision making of Toyota.
3) Serve as efficient means for managing business processes
The integration of MIS within Toyota is the effect of the integration of system management. The employees and leaders of the company are the users of the MIS who know the present customer demands and also have the capacity to plan the funds for new initiatives. In order to control its business procedures properly, Toyota has persevered in managing ownership that promotes effectiveness in its business processes and helps ensure being responsible. Even though the MIS does not reduce expense altogether, the integration of this essential system, and its properly utilization reduces the periods that wrong decisions in company procedures are accomplished because of inaccurate information (Morgan, 2006). Terrible company decisions simply misuse precious assets. This may result in a negative effect on revenues and/or budget.
The leaders of Toyota always ensure that its MIS is integrated on a sensible procedure that entails the following phases:
• Effective analysis of system options as the MIS is integrated or purchased, and task management.
• Policy formulation and effective transacting with suppliers.
• Implementation and management of the MIS. The leaders always consider the utilization of procedures to monitor progress as the MIS is being merged into the operations. Inner controls are established into the operations and periodically evaluated.
The current vehicle industry is characterized by growing product innovation and short term development times. One of the essential initiatives is to get within the industry faster by systematizing the product development and initial processes. A company can obtain this streamlining by establishing a great variety of properly organized processes, making use of information framework that has all the information about the vehicle and its varieties and is accessible at every stage to all consumers involved in production. This procedure, regarded also as process engineering, can be accessed when the leaders and employees of Toyota uses its MIS (Toyota Motor Corporation Global Site, 2010).
The MIS of Toyota merges business programs with certain activities to help the organization- as well as other producers, sales, and service firms- get important advantages by synchronizing the entire engineering, advertising and service business sector.
With its MIS integrated within the operations of Toyota, the organization is able to enhance essential company processes- and accomplish essential organizational goals:
* Reliable employees with excellent processes for talent hiring
* Financial progress with enhanced processes for financial performance management
* Operational efficiency with enhanced processes for operations control
The MIS of Toyota is specifically established to meet the demands and issues of the company and the automotive industry. It is a detailed and efficient remedy for Toyota that includes company operations from engineering design, production, sales and service. Established to be an effective and productive management information system, the MIS of Toyota is utilized according to different market segments that make up the pillars of automotive industry in its entirety.
 

The Mis Education Of The Negro Religion Essay

As negroes, we are taught by going to school certain things to look and read at. In art, we are told that European and Greek art are the greatest things to look at pertaining to the arts. In music, we look at classical from great white composers instead of African American ones. We would pick up literature against the African American instead of one that’s for the African American. Well I’m sad to inform you but this is true. Mr. Woodson saw this when he wrote his book and still today, it is still in effect.

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We choose to stay mis-educated due to the fact that we as a people do not choose to excel in embracing our minds. At Texas Southern University, we can say that we have a class in African American studies taught by an African American who has been around, traveled, and knows what he or she has been taught through experience. How would you feel that in other universities around the country have that same course but yet taught by a different race? I am not a racist but its time for our race to be not informed but become informed of our past, present, and future.
It’s funny though. Did you know that most of our “political” day to day people we see and hear on the news are the most mis-educated people? For instance, Tyler Perry would dress as the most famous cross dressed woman everyone would know, Madea. Is it so that the fact that during the slavery times, the “Mamie”, was the symbol for keeping the family together? It does but it has a darker meaning. I just had a recent conversation with my sociology teacher but he recently told me that white men love black woman. I knew that already but some white men didn’t like the fact white men and black woman were all together. The Mamie was also formed as an unattractive black woman with a big butt and big lips that’s always loud. It’s tragic the way that other cultures view our women but this Is what is perceived. There are others that does this but this is the most commonly known person to do this but chooses to stay out the public’s eye.
The one issue with being seen and being mis-educated is the fact that you are educated and you’re not doing anything about it. To the public’s eye, if you are not in your community involved or have special programs, you are considered a bad role model. In this case you would want your people to succeed and in special made programs. But if your do get the programs right, there is a chance that there will not be any individuality within that person because you would want that person to conform unto society ways. I’m not saying the phrase “selling out”, but your conforming unto your white counterparts takes away what that you have started with that of what you started to think. It’s difficult but we need to encourage our black counterparts to be all what we can be.
We missed an important mark growing up as being mis-educated. After the Civil war, it was upon the society to show us where our education was supposed to lead us. Systems had to be in place for our education to the white man, it was not viewed as their responsibility.
During this time, W.E.B. Dubois had an argument that was saying with this education that we have, we should use it to show philanthropy. We should take the opportunity to learn how be “political” and be educated like how he was himself. With being so educated as like he was, there should not really be no labor of what he was arguing. Booker T. Washing had a different point of view.
Booker T. Washington believed you should go to school and learn trades for a special talent. He doesn’t believe in getting all political, he believes in getting an education but yet work hard to achieve the things you want by learning a specific talent. By Mr. Washington being a previous slave, you can see how he stand on this view.
Carter G. Woodson stood between both points of views. He believed that because you are just coming from slavery, and the fact you would want to be educated, you should possess both traits. It’s obvious that in the new society you would not be accepted because of fear and anger from your white counterparts. Have the knowledge how to work in a special talent to make money and a living and go out and become educated with politics.
How can we as a people drift away from our truth? There is one simple way of answering that question, distortion. I was taught in my Fine Arts and Daily Living Class that you should never touch art due to its richness in color and texture. If you do touch it, you ruin hard work that was placed there by the painter. Well in life, if you want to ruin our distort life, then take its history and change it.
Should it be a grave unjust that the Negro was reminded of how their inferiority was that they are the true germ carriers? The emergence of syphilis and tuberculosis among African Americans are always emphasized among most diseases. Today, our most commonly known disease in the African American community is HIV. The weird thing is that there is very emphasis on the fact that we are immune to diseases like yellow fever, and influenza which are horrible to whites.
History is a delicate subject for most people that study in it. Where does the African American have a place in history? When we think of Africa, we think of the Dark continent with despair instead of the rich culture or minerals such as diamonds and gold. We don’t think about the great pyramids of Egypt that is one of the 7 wonders of the world. We would rather think about the exploitations of Caucasians. Apparently at this time, the negro had no place in this curriculum.
With teaching of fine arts, instructors usually start with Greece of how the world was influenced with their way. It’s kind of ironic that most of all art work from the world came from the Africans. We failed to teach about the Mediterranean melting pot with the Africans bring their, wares, ideas, and blood to influence the history. Their art has influence the history of Greece, Carthage, and Rome. Maybe we choose to ignore the truth of these theories but either way, it happened.
“In educating the Negro what would happen to the white?” For education, what was being thought of about those of outside control for our education. We were to give certain white people glory for the way they came down and “gave” us education. It is so that they helped established schools, and churches, in which we should be building more wisely then we do. We should believe in the theory that the only way to elevate people is to help them to help themselves.
Although there were presidents over universities that were white, the Negro were still in a slave position. A president over one of the schools never entertains an African American in his me. Usually move guest to the dining room. Sometimes the guest would be moved into a guest cottage where they would have to only enter as servants. By no protest from the negroes, this showed cowards, and forever we will be cowards if we don’t open up our mouths.
It is ok for a white man to be qualified to have a position at a negro school teaching. Commend them. Some positions a white man is better trained to such subject, why object. But if an African American was in his own society under his kind, he can easily develop his own leadership in how not to be a coward and start to show his own individuality. Mentally, we will always be here if we tear each other down to depression.
Instead of separation the system of education, we need to understand the sympathy of it. We should take in mind that that process of education is help lead together as one so the world can move better. For the person that truly understands that can truly call themselves an educator. Real education means to live life more easier, and inspire people to live more righteous.
The concept of the word “friend” is a dangerous word for “African Americans. When we tend to get in high position in life, we tend to keep underprivileged friends by our side. You can never tell when they will embarrass you in front of other. Just keep in mind that within education, as you move up, there are those that are jealous.
The thought of having this education movement is to provide the southern Negroes a chance of education. Something especially to look at was medical school, even which, many would not admit Negroes because of the friction of race. We needed more institutions in the south just like Howard University for southerners because they were starting to become rushed.
The shameful status of higher learning is due to the low standards of institutions toward the diploma. To get a job or hold one, you have to be competitive. As long as you don’t have the drive to go for more, then you will not receive anymore. The assumption that any school wants you is over now.
There should not be any argument against earning higher degrees. Let these degrees be a honor to the training with scholastic distinction. The degree isn’t just a piece of paper to make money, its and opportunity of greatness to receive a new life of learning.
The worst thing possible with getting an degree is having no idea how to make a living with it. We have always know something about agriculture, and in a land that is abundant, that’s how we made a living. The role of business and education was supposed to be an uplift to the race but it still turned out less significant.
Instead of going to college with just wanting to know how to work with machines, you should go and learn how to create a machine. Go for majors that will push you into a life that will make you successful. We more people, majoring in math and physics. Those two subjects alone, you will always have a job.
As we move with our lives, we should invest money in some enterprises of our own to become successful. It has been discovered that people that never invest in Negro ownerships, always tries to exploit the business and try to find a fault to satisfy themselves. As miseducated Negroes, we would agree to it without actually doing our own research. Shockingly, proportion to the amount of capital invested Negro businesses manifest about as much as a white own business. If a black owner doesn’t get his own kind to support will develop depression that he failed his kind, which would cause him to give up.
The highly educated negroes believes that since the present day system of capitalism, we have no chance to climb up the economic sphere. There can be no objection to the radical change in time. As for trying to be educated, you can’t fault a man for trying to become successful. Professors in this field are not prepared to do the work, and the heads of our institutions should be addressing themselves to study of a situation which threatens the negro with the economy.
Our schools that are for trained, don’t give us this point of view. We may occasionally learn the parts of stenography and accounting, but we don’t know how to apply what we have studied. Our training gives us false conception of life, when we believe that the business world owes us a position of leadership. We have the idea of business training that we used to have of teaching that we could teach anything and study anything.
Those that graduate from our business schools, lack the courage to go for working with commission. The majority wants us wants to receive a paycheck at the end of every month. We don’t realize that in this day, it’s good to get paid for the work we have put in. People that do not realize life as what it is, is a horrible representation of business.
From the point of view of industry and commerce, then, we show no mental power to understand the situation we find. We apparently read our race from the sphere of education and business. Foreigners see the opportunities to take our businesses and opportunities in which we are scared to take. The main problem is we do not have any people skills in salesmanship.
It is sad that we do not understand or not willing to start our own enterprises which could turn into a large corporation one day. If we do not know how to take a chance, we would never know how to take control of the life that is around us. Training is necessary, for the large number of blacks running corporations have not learned business methods and do not understand the possibilities of the field in which they operate.
Negro businesses are handicapped, which so, have not developed their own stability and the capacity for its growth. We do not take time to read the business literature and study how the market is doing. We stay in the dark because we do not take the time to get properly trained. Usually when the founder of the business passes away then the actual business dies with him or goes within pieces.
All failures are not due to the black business. Often, the owner lacks common sense. If you have a business, stay within your business instead of worrying about others. Keep the managements going within itself. Only with this, we will then become true entrepreneurs.
One of the main failures of education is of religion that is being taught. Of its illustration, it paints a picture. Most blacks still belong to these churches but the more educated seem to find their way to evangelical groups. These churches do not measure up to the standard set by school preachers.
The church is the great asset of the race. It is connected as part of capital that our race must invest in. The church has taken the lead of education in the school for the race. In neglecting it, they are throwing away what they have, to obtain something which they do need. With many respects, the black churches during different generation become corrupt.
Some people say we have not lost our interest in religion, that we have gone into churches with a more open minded view. And then we have a sort of contagious fever which takes away from the churches of their youth others of less formal education.
A change of faith is all right in a sense, for those that are closed minded, they would create an argument. Religion is nothing but religion, if they hold up to the faith that they claim. The point here is that the ritualistic churches into which blacks have gone do not touch the masses, and they show no future with racial development.
From respect to developing the masses, the black has lost its foundation in recent years. The attitudes of leaders were different then as they are today. Too many blacks go to school to study for test so they can just pass. This attitude is retarded and grows people towards selfishness.
Some conditions show that undeveloped black has been left from those that supposed to help him. When a white man sees persons of his own race falling downward to disgrace, he does whatever he can to pick him back up in life.
It is sad that that the only institution blacks own is the church. The education of the business, we lack capital, credit, and experience for us to receive wealth to get into a higher culture.
Sometimes you will find as many as two store-front churches in a block where Negroes incorporate in heathen-like practices. Although born and brought in the south, Mr. Woodson has never saw such idolatrous tendencies ever.
Another area said that we must have new way of doing things and we can call ourselves Methodist. Methodist and Baptists split up on the account of holding slaves. We as blacks chose to imitate them. All of the black Methodists in the world, if unite, would not need more than 12 bishops, and these would have time to direct the affairs of both Methodists and Baptists in a united church.
The theology of foreigners too is important on unenlightened people. Whit bringing the joy of conquest to their own camp, they have confused the world with disputes which have divided the church and stimulated division and subdivision to the extent that it no longer functions as a Christian agency for the uplift of all men.
While serving as the avenue of the oppressor’s propaganda, the black church has prevented the union of diversity and has kept the race too weak to overcome purposely taught Negroes. This is important to the control of the inferior race. Someone just sits back and plots while the other one acts.
We must hold blacks responsible for following these ignorant to this nonsense with which they have confused thoughtless people. As what has been said before, we tend to do what we are told instead of asking for the meaning for our actions. Our leaders know better but because of their miseducation, many will always tend to be miseducated.
In chapter 7, Dr. Woodson continues his discussion of the church. He
mentions how in the past African Americans have been mis-educated based on training. Dr.
Woodson references how the “highly educated” Negro has become so “intellectual” in his
understanding of religion. We should not just allow ourselves to just not ask questions referring what study but question it. He also discusses the concept of rituals and how this does not help in
racial development.
Dr. Woodson also cautions African Americans that they must always remember that the
African Americans learned their religion from the early White Methodist and Baptist who
evangelized the slaves and the poor Whites. So the questions become, is the Black Church a
pattern of the White man’s church? Have Black churches become the dumping ground for uneducated people carrying the Bible?
If we are still mis educated, then we are an imitation of the white church that was for slavery. We were segregated when we were taught or told what or how we were supposed to live under the bible.
According to Dr. Woodson’s findings, African Americans had been discouraged in the pursuit of the professions other than the ministry and teaching. Dr. Woodson noted several reasons why
African Americans lacked degrees in fields such as medicine, law, architecture, etc. Some Black parents had failed to encourage their children to pursue professional degrees.
Some Black professional schools had closed because of the small number of students
enrolled. Woodson further asserted that these closings came at a very difficult time.
Under the “separate but equal” doctrine established by the Supreme Court in Plessy v.
Ferguson (1896), law schools were desperately needed to train lawyers to protect
African Americans’ civil and political rights.
Woodson also suggested that too many “highly educated” individual
Woodson asserts the lack of political education among African Americans
in the 1930s. This was due to actions taken by Whites. For years, textbooks produced
specifically for Black students did not include the U.S. Constitution. One state legislature
prohibited the inclusion of the Constitution in history textbooks citing the fear that Black
students would read it and attempt to demand or even assert their rights. Black education had to
have as its foundation, the assurance that Blacks would not compete with Whites. “It was well
understood that if by the teaching of history the White man could be further assured of his
superiority and the Negro could be made to feel that he had always been a failure, and that the
subjugation of his will to some other race is necessary the freedman, then, would still be a slave.”
As long as Southern apologists controlled what was in history textbooks, they could teach that
slavery was a benevolent institution and that radical abolitionists such as William Lloyd Garrison
and John Brown caused the “unnecessary” Civil War. Without knowledge of the changes in the
U.S. Constitution, the civil rights established by the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments could be
ignored and denied to Black citizens.
Woodson’s overall message in this chapter is captured in the quote:
“If you can control a man’s thinking you do not have to worry about his action. When you
determine what a man shall think you do not have to concern yourself about what he will do. If
you make a man feel that he is inferior, you do not have to compel him to accept an inferior
status, for he will seek it himself. If you make a man think that he is justly an outcast, you do not
have to order him to the back door. He will go without being told and if there is no back door, his
very nature will demand one.”uals had perpetuated the
belief that Black professionals were not capable of meeting the demands of their
professions. This belief among some “highly educated” Blacks and Whites often discouraged Black students from pursuing professional degrees
In chapter ten, Dr. Woodson emphasizes that there was a loss of vision.
This loss of vision was due to African Americans not thinking for themselves. Dr. Woodson
provides an example of this when he discusses some highly educated individuals. “Denied
participation in the higher things of life, the ‘educated’ Negro himself joins, too, with ill designing persons to handicap his people by systematized exploitation.” Dr. Woodson also
discusses this loss of vision in terms of the lack of confidence. Dr. Woodson declared that “the
lack of confidence of the Negro in himself and in his possibilities is what has kept him down.”
Dr. Woodson emphasizes that until the Negro employs new ways of “thinking,” there will be no
change in his condition, and he will always remain oppressed.
In this chapter, Dr. Carter G. Woodson discusses why there is a greater
need for service rather than leadership in Black Communities. He mentions how the African
American community has had problems with its leadership in the past.
Negroes often find themselves giving money and moral support to various persons and
institutions that influence the race in the wrong way…
The race needs workers not leaders-workers will solve the problems which race leaders talk about and raise money to enable them to talk more and more
In this chapter, Dr. Woodson discusses the concept of “hirelings” as
opposed to “public servants.” A hireling is a person who is paid to serve. Dr. Woodson defines
the real servant of the people as one who lives among them, thinks with them, feels for them, and perhaps dies for them.
Dr. Woodson emphasizes the value of learning about Black history. He
discusses how this history has not been taught, but European history has been promoted. When
Woodson asked Black college administrators, they responded, “‘We do not offer here any course
in Negro history, Negro literature, or race relations,’ recently said a professor of a Negro college.
‘We study the Negro along with other people.'” However, Woodson believed, “No one can be
thoroughly educated until he learns as much about the Negro as he knows about other people.”
Unfortunately, Woodson reported that, “Upon examining the recent catalogues of the leading
Negro colleges, one finds that invariably they give courses in ancient, medieval, and modern
Europe, but they do not give such courses in ancient, medieval, and modern Africa.”
As you explore this chapter, reflect on the impact that having an accurate understanding of
African American history will have on current and future generations of all Americans.
In chapter 14, Dr. Woodson describes a new program for the education of
the Black American. The substance of Woodson’s New Program centers around the study of
Black life during the antebellum period. Ignorance of the antebellum era and the valuable
cultural practices Africans brought with them from Africa must be addressed. These
assumptions prevent current Black students from being equipped to handle the social problems
of today.
Woodson compares the aims of the New Program with the successful education of the Filipinos. The first “highly educated” Americans into the conquered Philippine Islands after the Spanish American War in 1898 tried to teach the Filipinos the same way and with the same material used to teach American children. This strategy met with failure. An insurance man, who had never been an educator, came up with a plan that worked. He realized that to teach the Filipinos, it was necessary to make the learning relevant to their daily lives. These children needed to be taught through the use of objects from their own culture. Using this strategy, Woodson suggests that the education of the Black American would emphasize Black American culture. The accomplishments of “American” heroes should not be ignored; but the accomplishments of Black Americans have to be given equal time, honor and respect.
According to Dr. Woodson, schools were not preparing Black students to
make a living. He argued that the schools that African American students attended had
outmoded equipment that needed to be replaced by more advanced technology. He believed there
should be a shift in the type of instruction that African Americans were given, and also in the
educational approaches of those providing the instruction.
Dr. Woodson further asserted that Black Americans needed to change the way they thought about and spent their money. He was particularly concerned with those African Americans who practiced “conspicuous consumption,” excessive and unnecessary purchases that give the impression that one has more money than one actually does. Woodson wrote, “conspicuous consumption is a result of successful enterprise, not the road to enterprise. They [Blacks] should concentrate on the wise use of their money, and the evil that results from the misuse of it.” What would be examples of conspicuous consumption in the present-day Black community? Above all, Woodson uses this chapter to argue that African Americans should adopt wise, informed, and astute business practices. These practices, he offers, will help African Americans achieve a strong and healthy economic future.
Dr. Woodson believed that Black students need to go into professional
arenas to serve members of the race. Black lawyers are needed to address certain aspects of law,
which affect African Americans more than others. Black lawyers need to know more about the
people that they serve to meet the special needs of these people. According to Woodson, in the
past too many cases before the Supreme Court had been lost because the lawyers lacked the
knowledge to present their cases properly to the court. Woodson suggested that law schools
needed to expand course work in Constitutional law to prepare lawyers to protect the rights
guaranteed by the Constitution.
Because of the lack of desire on the part of some White physicians for physical contact with Black patients, Black doctors had a better chance of working among their people than the Black lawyers. However, all too often Negro doctors had entered the profession to “increase their
income and spend it on joyous living.” Instead of spending money without thought or care,
Woodson argued that these doctors needed to focus on research and dedication to the Black
community.
Woodson also felt that Black students should not limit their professional aspirations to medicine and law. Woodson also wanted African Americans to pursue careers in the arts. He wrote that African Americans had demonstrated an aptitude for the arts. However, because African Americans’ contributions were not always recognized in the United States, Woodson felt that the Black artist should seek appreciation for his or her craft in Europe or other places. “In Europe, the Negro artist is not seen as an imitator,” Woodson wrote. “There is a desire among Europeans to view the art of the African not from the vantage point of the oppressor, but from the Negro himself.”
In chapter 17, Woodson placed a great deal of emphasis on politics.
Woodson maintained that in politics, African Americans should not only be concerned with
issues that concerned them exclusively, but they should address problems facing others as well.
Woodson also argues that in politics, African Americans should not join or vote for a political
party to “reward the dead for some favors done in the distant past.” This is clearly a reference to
the practice of Black voters in the past supporting the Republican party because of Abraham
Lincoln.
Beyond politics, Woodson called for Black Americans to fully participate in the American
economy. In addressing economic issues, Woodson argued that African Americans could make
improvements in their social lives and contribute to the advancement of the entire society.
Woodson suggested that African Americans ought to be radical in approaching economic and
social change. This radicalism should come from within, or based on their experiences as
formerly enslaved and impoverished workers in the American economy.
Dr. Woodson emphasizes again the importance of studying and knowing African American History. He explains how many Blacks “hate” their history, but are taught torespect others’ history.  

Global MIS Risks and Issues in Agile Management

On a global scale, several important firms are determined to attain “Agile management” as this enhances a company’s capability to swiftly manage” internal and external” transformation and gain competitive advantage (Khosrow-Pour, 2001, p 831). An “agile” company is adept in its ability to “detect changing markets, rapidly learn to take advantage of these market changes, detect new techniques, adapt these techniques to organisational culture” in order to incorporate them into the company “while maintaining their spirit”, efficiently exploiting them to meet changing “standards in diverse markets” and adapting “products to individual preferences” (Desouza, 2006, p123). To be able to react rapidly to transformation by making “quick decisions” on methods to counter the transformation and consequently execute the methods, it is crucial for organisations to effectively utilise Information Technology (Khosrow-Pour, 2001, p 831).

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A Management information System (MIS) is useful by way of its procedure and as such it must be effortlessly up to standard for a firm (Khosrow-Pour, 2001, p 831). The usefulness of MIS is measured by how much the system is utilised, whether end-users are content with the system, “favourable attitudes about MIS functions, achievement of objectives” and whether it increases business profitability (Khosrow-Pour, 2001, p 831).
MIS Risk
As an MIS system is made up of “hardware and software”, consequently transformations in the system make it susceptible to a “penalty of change” such as “system failure” or other costly time consuming risks (Khosrow-Pour, 2001, p 831). As such technology must be effectively applied to the MIS “infrastructure (hardware, software and data)” in order to eliminate or minimise system risk (Khosrow-Pour, 2001, p 831).
MIS issue
A “field research” at a UK bank to analyse a “multidisciplinary” move towards “empirical investigation” on handling Information Technology concluded that the dialogue between those “who request development of a management information system (MIS), the client or sponsor and the technologists” who build the systems usually creates a “confused picture” (Currie, 1995, p7). The clients are usually not clear about their systems requirements and consequently this leaves room for interpretation on the part of the “technologists” (Currie, 1995, p7). In addition, an “ad hoc approach” originates from problems experienced by “project managers” in detecting suitable “financial and non-financial performance” measures for continuous observing and managing of Information Technology projects (Currie, 1995, p7).
How to address the MIS issue
The issue is a result of miscommunication between the business and Information Technology. Management has to ensure that the dialogue between the two teams is effective and also that organisation goals such as high productivity and cost reduction are included in the planning of an MIS systems implementation or change.
Design/UCD Failures
Strategic Information Systems can sustain and “shape” business strategy to impact “organisational performance” in a relationship that forms a “trilogy” (Croteau et al, 2001, p78) however; the design and development” of Information Systems plays a major factor in the use of Information Technology (Das et al 1991, cited in Croteau et al 2001, page 80). User centred design places the end user’s requirements and ability at the “forefront”, conversely current technology focuses on the quest for technology answers with no consideration for the end user’s requirements in terms of “functionality” and ease of use (Kent et al, 2003, p87).
UCD Failures
An eminent online book retailer’s first online ordering system had a major costly flaw (Hambling et al, 2008, p10). System developers had included an electronic refund facility that allowed users to receive credit on their debit or credit cards if they purchased a negative number of books (Hambling et al, 2008, p10). During testing the systems developers did not anticipate that online shoppers would try to order a negative number (Hambling et al, 2008, p10). The program was amended to allow only the retailer’s administrative staff to carry out refunds (Hambling et al, 2008, p10). Another UCD failure resulting from inadequate software design and testing was when the “European Space Agency Ariane 5” was initially launched in June 1996 and failed after 37.5 seconds (Hambling et al, 2008, p10). A software glitch resulted in the rocket deviating from its “vertical ascent” and had to be put into “self-destruct” mode to prevent the disastrous consequences of an active horizontal rocket (Hambling et al, 2008, p10). Furthermore, when the UK government launched “online filing tax returns”, a weak security design allowed access to other users’ confidential earnings data regardless of log in location (Hambling et al, 2008, p10).
How to prevent UCD failures
A manager must ensure that the end users of the system are the main focus of any system design with particular reference to a user’s computer skills, security and the main objective of building the system, to improve business process. Consequently if the design is user focused; it is bound to function as intended. In addition, User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is the process whereby end users test a system to ensure that it “meets their business needs” (Hambling et al, 2008, p45). Although this process is seen as the responsibility of the end users of a system, it should be managed by managers to prevent errors (Hambling et al, 2008, p45).
Project Failures
A failed project is one that exceeds its set budget, over runs, does not incorporate organisational goals or just one that is cancelled (Standish Group International 1994, cited in Linberg 1999, page178). The proportion of IT systems failure is still high when compared to other technologically advanced projects (Yeo, 2002) and although there have been some “success stories” in systems “development” projects these have been overshadowed by “broadly publicised failures” (Linberg, 1999, p177). When Information Systems projects fail, the trustworthiness of technical staff is negatively impacted (Remenyi, 1999, p5) and it is believed that the lack of risk management has greatly contributed to these project failures (Remenyi, 1999, p9). With particular reference to Information Systems projects, failure can range from little technical hardware problems to total “system failure” that harms a firm’s business activity by creating huge costs (Remenyi, 1999, p19). Consequently, ineffective risk management is synonymous with leaving the results of a project to chance and “unfounded optimism” (Fairley 1990, cited in Remenyi 1999, page9).
Project Failure Issues
When there are unrealistic expectations and people “try to do the impossible”, projects are likely to fail (Linberg, 1999, p177). A good example is a company bending over backwards in an attempt not to lose a significant client (Linberg, 1999). An unrealistic software development project deadline was set and when programmers protested profusely that is was just impossible, more programmers were added on to the project that was already operating around the clock (Linberg, 1999). Needless to say the project failed and the client was not retained (Linberg, 1999). Another example of a failed project was a large one that over run by at least eighteen months, had eight absconding “team leaders” out of a total nine, lacked clarity in the project definition and involved excessive working hours of more than sixty a week. However because the project was eventually finished, the project programmers did not have see the project as a failure even though it was due to the very late completion and inadequate project planning (Linberg, 1999).
How to address the project failure issues
The approach to the first project should have been honest and realistic in order to meet the client’s needs and also increase the likelihood of repeat business with the client. This is due to the fact that “a consulting engagement is successful if the consultant has met client expectations” (McLachlin, 2000) and if this is the situation then” the consultant has enhanced his or her reputation, with expectations of future revenue streams – whether or not any immediate income has been received” (McLachlin, 2000). Consequently business managers should first ensure that they can deliver before taking on the task. With reference to the second project failure, a carefully structured project plan with a clear project definition needs to be in place before management embarks on a project. A well structure project plan with carefully allocated resources, effective risk management and well monitored project stages will introduce and enforce project and budget controls.
E-Commerce and its Issues
E-commerce is a compressed name for a broad range of unified business ideas, “technologies and cultural phenomena” (May, p2). E-commerce is about online retail commerce for certain individuals and for others, it concerns the sale of advertising space amongst other things (May, p2). Nevertheless, irrespective of its definition, E-commerce has warranted a lot of interest and in fact it is a vital transformation in “the way business is conducted” (May, p2). E-commerce has resulted in creating new prospects for several businesses in various industries to contend in the “global marketplace” (Chaffey, 2006, p4). As a result of readily available information on businesses, goods and services, companies are rapidly expanding the customer base and retaining customers due to the resulting improved client-customer relationships (Chaffey, 2006, p5). However, E-commerce software programs need more technical support than a good number of conventional “business systems” (May, 2000, p222). Business to business and “business-consumer” online programs demand twenty four operations around the clock, seven days a week right through the year (May, 2000, p222). Even though mirror sites are run to ensure “scalability”, web systems failure still occurs with several pages experiencing downtime (May, 2000, p222).
E-commerce Issue
A website experienced an overload and needed to be taken offline in November 2005 due it being incapable of handling a lot of simultaneous logins resulting from publicity on some information on the website (Hambling et al, 2008, p10). Although this is a frequent occurrence in today’s online activity, the main issue in E-commerce is security risk and as the confidence of shoppers determines the frequency and amount of purchases made online, this is indeed a very significant point. An online consumer’s perception of security is affected by absence or presence of “third party certification” software on their websites (Pingjun et al, 2008). A review of a representation of the link between “third-party identifying logos, trust transfer and trust build-up” based on information acquired from an “online survey” confirms that when online consumers see a “third-party seal” on a shopping website, they tend to transfer their trust in the security “logo” to “online e-marketers” (Pingjun et al, 2008). These issues should be handled by anticipate overload from a technical perspective and also by ensure the consumer confidence is gained and retained in E-commerce.
New Technology
Today’s world is an age of unique transformations within technology in the midst of technology transforming communication, work, how business is conducted and how people socialise (Boreham, 2006, p1). When new technology is implemented, it is expected that management will impact how it is adapted by the workforce, despite this, an empirical study states otherwise (Leonard-Barton et al, 1988). When new technology is implemented, staff with existing technical abilities adapt automatically whereas staff low on computer literacy skills wait to be directed by management (Leonard-Barton et al, 1988). However, as an increasing amount of time and “investment capital” is absorbed by Information Technology and its consequences, business managers have a developing “awareness” that technology cannot be the “exclusive territory” of specialised IT companies or the Information Systems department (Porter 2008, p73). Businesses notice their competitors employ Information Technology to gain competitive advantage and acknowledge the necessity to become “directly involved in the management of new technology” although “in the face of rapid change, they don’t know how” (Porter 2008, p73).
New Technology Issues
New Technology is usually opposed as it usually involves change and people assess the size of the change required. New technology also usually results in a “large-scale organisational change” and consequently extra caution is applied as individual feelings must be influenced to get people to participate in new technology (Kotter et al, 2002, p1). In theory the opposition to new technology also known as the “crisis of progress” is as unconnected as it is connected in that community response to new technology impacts new technology “in a circular process” (Bauer, 1997, p2). Management should address resistance to new technology by first ensuring a “readiness for change” through training and guidance.
References
Bauer M, 1997.Resistance to New Technology: Nuclear Power, Information Technology and Biotechnology; Cambridge University Press
Boreham P., Parker R., Thompson P., Hall R., 2006. New Technology Work; Routledge
Currie W. 1995.’The IT strategy audit: formulation and performance measurement at a UK Bank’. Managerial Auditing Journal.10 (1). pp 7-16.DOI:10.1108/02686909510077343. www.emeraldinsight.com. (Accessed: 15th February 2010)
Chaffey D., 2006. E-Business and E-Commerce Management; Prentice Hall
Desouza K. C., 2006.Agile Information Systems: Conceptualization, Construction, and Management; A Butterworth Heinemann Title
Hambling B., Morgan P., Samaroo A., 2008. Software Testing: An ISEB Foundation; British Computer Society
Kent S. T., Millet L. I., 2003. Who Goes There?: Authentication Through the Lens of Privacy; National Academics Press
Khosrow-Pour M., 2001.Managing Information Technology in a Global Economy: 2001 IRMA Proceedings; IGI Publishing
Kotter J P and Cohen D S(2002), The Heart of Change; Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations, Harvard Business School Press
Leonard-Barton D., Deschamps I., 1988.’Managerial Influence on the Implementation of New Technology’. Management Science. 34(10). Pp 1252-1265.www.jstor.org. (Accessed: 16th February 2010)
Linberg K. R., 1999, ‘Software developer perceptions about software project failure: a case study. The Journal of Systems and Software.49 (1). pp 177-192.www.elsevier.com. (Accessed: 16th February 2010)
May P., 2000. The Business of Ecommerce: From Corporate Strategy to Technology; Cambridge University Press McLachlin R. D., 2000,’Service quality in consulting: what is engagement success, Managing Service quality, 10(4).pp. 239-247. www.emeraldinsight.com. (Accessed: 16th February 2010)
Pingjun J., Jones D. B., Javie S., 2008.’ How third-party certification programs relate to consumer trust in online transactions: An exploratory study’ .Psychology and Marketing. 25(9). Pp 839 -858. www3.interscience.wiley.com. (Accessed: 16th February 2010) Porter M. E, 2008, On Competition; Harvard Business School Press 2nd Edition Yeo K. T., 2002.’Critical Failure Factors in Information systems projects’. International Journal of Project Management.20(3). www.elsevier.com. (Accessed: 16th February 2010)
 

A Comparison and Evaluation of MIS and EIS

Introduction
As the amount of information continuously increasing, more and more organizations start using information management technology to help them on the daily operations. Information Management is a concept that after collect information from serval sources, organize that information then distribute that information to one or more persons to help them solve problems or make decisions more effectively and efficiently.  “Information management concerns the control over how information is created, acquired, organized, stored, distributed, and used as a means of promoting, efficient and effective information access, pro- cessing, and use by people and organizations. ”(Detlor, 2010). And there are two main approaches are Management Information System (MIS) and Executive Information Systems (EIS), these two systems are widely used in the organizations, but many people still confused which should they chose for their specific needs, because there are some commons of these two systems that make people cannot recognize these two systems well. In this essay I will compare these two systems and evaluate these two systems separately.

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Compare two information systems
The Introduction of two systems
The first time a new decision-making framework named Management Information System (MIS) which aims on help user to have a better understand on the organizational behaviour was published in the 1950s (Asemi, Safari and Asemi Zavareh, 2011).  Many people have already made the definition to the MIS while one of the most accuracy definition as ” A Management Information System (MIS) is an information system that is intended to be used by the higher management of an organization. The MIS generally collects summarized data from different departments or subsystems of an organization and presents in a form that is helpful to the management for taking better decisions for the organization “(Mishra, 2013)
In 19th century as the development of computer science technology people developed many information systems used on the computer, EIS is one of those systems which could help executives get useful information more efficiently (Giner, Fernandez and Boladeras, 2009). EIS are also defined as a “computerized system that provides executives with easy access to internal and external information that is relevant to their critical success factors (CSF)”(Byun and Suh, 1994). In addition, EISs usually include personal productivity, communication, and coordination components, providing executives with a broad range of services that increase productivity.
From the definitions of the two information systems the main difference of two systems is the main users of two systems. MIS is served for the lower and middle managers to help them get information of problems and have better understanding of problems also give mangers suggestion of solving problems whilst the EIS system is only served the high level managers and executives give them the information not only to solve problems but also all the critical success factors that they need.
The model of two systems
The data gathered and sorted by the MIS is comes from the daily operational data of an organization. A MIS has serval subsystems such as sales and marketing system, investment system, advertisement system etc. Each subsystem collects different kind of data and store in the main database of MIS(Mishra, 2013).Some MIS also collect competitors’ information from the internet to help mangers analyse competitors’ strategy and make correspondence(Mishra, 2013). The database contains the data gathered from every sub-system, then the data will be used by the software and mathematical tools, after many times simulations the system will output different kinds of suggestions to person who are in charge of the problem. Meanwhile MIS allowed some decision makers stay in a same system together and form an Inter Organizational Information System (IOS)(Asemi, Safari and Asemi Zavareh, 2011).
Different with only a few MIS collect external data, all of EIS collect both internal data (organization documents) and external data such as the information from news services and stock markets(Byun and Suh, 1994). Depend on the executive’s requirement and organization’s development methodology and also the internal and external pressure (such as political changes and timely information), all of those settings and both external and internal will input into the EIS after run by soft wares (such as EIS generators, spreadsheets, graphic packages) information will be analysed and transformed into a suitable format that satisfy executives’ requirements and perfect management reports(Nord and Nord, 1995).
Compare the model of two kind of systems, EIS is an extension of MIS, most of MIS only collect the internal data and summarize the information whilst EIS collect both external and internal data (some data are same as MIS’s data) and could give executives not only reports but also pre-defined customized presentation.
The role of two systems
Nowadays, some organizations use MIS to help managers to make decisions, which plays an important role in the decision making process(Asemi, Safari and Asemi Zavareh, 2011). MIS is a good    system that could help managers to find the main problems and help them have a better understanding of the problems(Asemi, Safari and Asemi Zavareh, 2011). For an example Walmart is one of the biggest sales company in this world, in the 1960s when Sam Walton only have a few number of retail stores he realized that managers need get the data that he wants immediately, such as the exactly number of a kind of product in all Walmart stores, the sales number in yesterday and last week even the last whole year. From that time Walmart develop their own management information system constantly which help Walmart became the most successful company in this world.
As the development of computer technology and Internet technology, more and more organizations start using EIS, also EIS is playing an increasing crucial role in organizations, what’s more EIS is playing an important part of the information systems portfolio (Neil McBride,1995). At beginning EIS were only served to executives but nowadays in some cases many managers are beginning use EIS also. While the original intention of building EIS was give executives a user-friendly data presentation to help them understand information more easily, nowadays EIS has developed much more beyond a data reporting tool.” They provide a means of control of business units and of subsidiary companies by conglomerates.”(Neil McBride,1995).EIS could help executives have better organizational learning, enhance organizations’ competitiveness.
Compare the role of these tow information systems, MIS focus on organizations’ daily internal operation while EIS focus on organizations’ high level strategies-making and help executives to run the organization.
Evaluate two information systems
Evaluate MIS
The goal of MIS
The original purpose of MIS is collecting data from each sub-system to determine business requirements for information systems which could help managers to have a better understanding about the management issues in the organization. As an information management tool, a goof MIS aim to improve management efficiency, operational efficiency, employee productivity, project performance and customers’ satisfaction.
Benefits from MIS
People who in charge of the management could access to the daily used data easily. Because of the desired information have been already organized, managers could get useful information quickly which could highly promote the decision-making process.
As the development of MIS design, MIS has already evaluated some further functions such as information update monitoring and information communication. Nowadays MIS could not only help managers solve short-term decision-making problems but also solve long-term decision-making problems even help making strategies.
MIS also could be used as a standardization tool, because MIS have multiple sub-systems, MIS collects data from different divisions of an organization, in this term there will have some incompatible data. But MIS will standardize those incompatible data and provide managers a well-organized and aggregated data formats, that will help managers save a lot of time.
The characteristics of MIS
MIS has the following characteristics:
Firstly, MIS is only assisted to the managers to help them understand problem clearly, which is not like the systems just to help personals to solve their daily problems(Mishra, 2013).
Secondly, each organization has its own MIS, the structure of MIS depends on the organizations’ structure. Because each organization may in the different development environment and have different development histories also. As different organizations may have different strategy and different target the structure and output of MIS may very different(Mishra, 2013).
Thirdly, MIS has smaller amount of data compared to other information systems, which collected from all MIS sub-systems(Mishra, 2013).
Evaluate EIS
The goal of EIS
The original purpose of an EIS is to provide a link between management in organizations to help executives to run organizations more efficiently. As an information system EIS provide variety type of information reporting function to users such as information timely access function, EIS could give executives a suitable answer for a specific question and based on the question could give executives more information which timely related to original question. Another purpose of an EIS is direct executives’ attention to specific areas of the organization.
Benefits from EIS
EIS could collecting both internal and external sources and reduce the useless information then make a friendly report to executives that could make executives’ work much more easily and could help executives save a lot of time. More than providing the foundation information EIS also provide the drill down facilities, which could dig data deeply and allows executives to touch the detailed information rather than the summarised information.  (Papageorgiou and Bruyn, 2010)
Then, using EIS allows executives have the opportunities to get the latest data in time which encourages the real-time reporting. As Umakant Mishra said “information is key to decision making” getting information efficiency is quite important for all of the users.
EIS is also a management tool, using EIS executives could help managers to run an organization more effectively.
EIS also could provide a data contrast evaluation, there is no need to spell out the importance of foundation data of an organization, what’s more competitors’ data are more valuable in some cases. Using EIS executives could make a data evaluation of the major competitors and make a judgement for competitors’ development strategy. Also EIS could allow executives to compare the financial situation of past years and the current financial year.
The characteristics of EIS
EIS has the following characteristics:
Firstly EIS has a user-friendly graphical interface, and advanced report generation(Nord and Nord, 1995)
Secondly, access to variety external and internal sources whilst MIS only access internal sources(Nord and Nord, 1995)
Thirdly, EIS is powerful for help executives to make decisions, and solve specific problems.
Finally, EIS is a functional tool for executives to run organizations.
Conclusion
Nowadays there are plenty of different kind of information systems in this world, MIS and EIS are the main concern of present article. From the previous article we could see MIS is a good at collecting information and help managers identify problem and help managers have a better understanding of the problem, then help them to make a better decision, while EIS focus on the more specific questions, EIS allowed executives to ask a specific question and give them a suitable answer. Also the main users of MIS are managers while the main users of EIS are high-level executives. That are two main differences of these two systems. An organization needs more than one kind of information systems to help them on the daily operation, both MIS and EIS are very important for an organization.
References
Asemi, A., Safari, A. and Asemi Zavareh, A. (2011) ‘The Role Of Management Information System (MIS) And Decision Support System (DSS) For Manager’s Decision Making Process’, International Journal of Business and Management, 6(7), pp. 164–173. doi: 10.5539/ijbm.v6n7p164.
Byun, D. and Suh, E. (1994) ‘A Builder ’ s Introduction Information Systems’, Management, 14, pp. 357–368.
Detlor, B. (2010) ‘Information management’, International Journal of Information Management, 30(2), pp. 103–108. doi: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2009.12.001.
Giner, J. L. C., Fernandez, V. and Boladeras, M. D. (2009) ‘Framework for the analysis of executive information systems based on the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use’, Intangible Capital, 5(4), pp. 370–386. doi: 10.3926/ic.2009.v5n4.p370-386.
Mishra, U. (2013) ‘Introduction to Management Information System’, SSRN Electronic Journal. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.2307474.
Nord, J. H. and Nord, G. D. (1995) ‘Executive information systems: A study and comparative analysis’, Information & Management, 29(2), p. 95.
Papageorgiou, E. and Bruyn, H. De (2010) ‘Creating Strategic Value through Executive Information Systems : an Exploratory Study’, Information Systems, 13(1), pp. 57–76.