Human Movement Analysis Multimedia Report

Human Movement Analysis Multimedia Report

Introduction: Basketball is a game played by two teams consisting of five players. The game is played until one team commits a foul, when this happens the fouled player is given an attempt at a free-throw (Piano et al, 2013). A “free-throw” is an attempt to shoot from the free throw line, this is awarded to a player after a foul has been committed. A free-throw is considered to be one of the most important timeframes in a game and coaches frequently refer to their team’s success or failure from free throws (Schulze, 1981).  A successful free-throw shot requires excellent body mechanics.  In order to be successful when attempting a free-throw, a player should go through the following phases.  Phase 1, “The Preparation Phase”, the player will align themselves at the free-throw line where they feel comfortable with their feet shoulder width apart (Wrisberg and Anshel, 1989).  Phase 2, “Action and backswing phase”, in this phase, the player has typically 50% of their trunk leaning forward, hip and knee flexion, while the ankles are dorsiflexed.  The shoulder, hip, knee, and ankles are lined vertically as the player prepares for the backswing phase, this is depending on whether a person is right or left handed (Hudson, 1982).  Phase 3, “Follow through phase”, the player is producing force through their body.  The ball is being projected upwards and forward towards the basket by force. The player’s legs and torso should be extended, and their dominant hand should be out straight. During the follow through phase the basketball is placed in front of the body with their shooting hand directly behind the ball, while the non-shooting hand should have little contact with the ball and only be used for balance.  The shot begins when the torso moves to a vertical position and the ball is held at approximately shoulder level.  Moments before this phase is over, the player’s knees should be in maximum flexion (Knudson, 1993).  Phase 4, is the “Instant of the ball release.”  The player cannot change the ball position once it is released and in flight.  The trunk of the player should be vertical and should stay rigid and have no movement during the release of the ball and during the follow through (Penrose & Blanksby, 1976).  At the exact instant that the ball is released, the torso and legs of the player should be fully extended. The shoulder of the dominant hand should be in a flexed position. The player’s elbow should be close to full extension this is how we know that the elbow joint has contributed to the movement of the ball.  When the elbow joint has full range of motion there is a better relationship between scoring free throws (Stankovic, Simonovic & Herodek, 2006).”  The position of the wrist should be between full flexion and full extension to ensure that the dominant hand that is moving at its best when the ball is being released. Wrist flexion provides the release of the ball this will contribute to the angle of the projection of the ball (Hess, 1980).  Phase 5, “The angle of the shot” is noted after the ball leaves the shooter’s hand. The angle when the ball is released should be between 50-55 degrees (Brancazio, 1981).  The higher ball is thrown the more requirement for a larger range of motion from the shooter’s legs and the dominant shooting arm.  Phase 6, is the final phase of the shot is the “follow-through phase”, all the joints of the body move through their stages to release the ball to its best efficiency. In the follow-through phase, the legs are fully extended. The trunk is in vertical position.

Aim: The overall aim of this projectis to analyse the movement patterns of a free throw between an amateur and a professional and to give relative feedback to improve their technique.

Methods: The participant was 21 years old and male. He has 3 years of basketball experience while playing in secondary school. A free throw using his own personal technique was used in an indoor gym with artificial light. The technique that was used was a one-push hand shot. The participant’s dominant hand is the left hand. The participant was not suffering with any injuries during the analysis and had not suffered with any in the last 2 years previously. The distance between the free throw line and the basket was approximately 15 feet (front view). The distance between the side line and the participant was 18 feet (side view). The basket was put up for this recording as it is on wheels in the gym and not permanently stationed to a surface. The rim height of the basket was 10 feet (irrelevant to this particular study). The camera that was used was a Nikon Coolplix 59600. The camera was sitting on a universal tripod near the left sideline and under the basket on the end line for the front view. The participant had a trial run on each side to make himself familiar with the ball and new basket. As the skill was being performed it is was simultaneously being recorded.  The participant was recorded 5 times through a side view and 5 times taken at a front view. The player was recorded 5 times in slow motion (400/4) and 5 times in normal speed (1030/80) both side view and front view. He was instructed to take 5 consecutive shots to be able to choose the best quality video from the individual.  After recording participants movement, the video was transferred to a memory device and then uploaded to a video analysis system software called Dartfish. Multiple trials of the data was collected in Dartfish in order to analyze angles and time points in the movements being measured. The equipment used was a basketball, tripod, camera and markers. A review of feedback was given to the participant and video analysis along with techniques to improve their free throw were given. Dartfish was used as the video analysis system software to easily be able to get access to heights, angles and distances of the participant. All phases of the free throw were examined through dartfish and relative feedback was given.


Figure 1.

The player shot 20 free-throws missing 8 and achieving 12 combined as a free throw percentage of 60% as seen in Figure 1 above. This is quite a good score considering there is some implication with the biomechanics of the participants free throw.

Strategies to improve technique.

Figure 1:       Figure 2:

As seen from Figure 1. the player does not place his fingers along the curvature of the lines of the ball. This will affect his backswing and the accuracy of the ball. The player also holds a lot of the ball in the less dominant hand (right hand), this hand should only be a rest for the ball as the left hand should be directly at the back of the ball and the right hand will serve to make sure the ball is stable on the hand. Hartley & Fulton, (1971) states that the shooter should spread the fingers, so they will have better control of the ball, and place the fingers so they are directly behind the ball and not on the side of the ball. Figure 2 shows how the ball should be held properly although the shooter in Figure.2 is right handed the participant should be holding the ball directly like this but using the opposite hands.

Figure 2:

The individual applied an adequate amount of force into the ground by flexing at the hip, knee and ankle joints.  As seen here in Figure 1, the athlete is bent at a 90.5° angle in the flexion stage of the backswing throw. Although the force is correct in this the placing of the arm position is incorrect. During the backswing phase the arms should not be placed over the head yet to shoot the ball. The ball should be in line with the shoulders. Having the arms this high at the beginning of this phase can cause problems with the backswing phase and could also lead to balance loss. Therefore, the player needs to consciously bring the arms down lower during the backswing phase and then release up higher when shooting the ball.




Figure 4:

Figure 5:

Another issue that this player is having is that they have no trunk flexion during the backswing phase. When the required trunk flexion for this stage is not met their ability to load from the legs will be decreased and their ability to use trunk extension may be lost. The knees should be flexed close to 90 degrees, the trunk should be flexed close to 50 degrees from vertical (Oddsson, 1988). Overall, the participant may lose the full contribution to the shot through leg extension that would be achieved from a deeply flexed position. A deeper trunk flexion will also produce more hyperextension at the player’s neck, so they can retain more focus on the rim of the basket. No flexion of the trunk will also decrease the participants ability to load the legs for the shot and therefore might end up losing full contribution of leg extension from the deeply flexed position to free throw. The ball should also be brought up to shoulder level prior to the release. This individual is not doing this during the backswing phase. The ball is over his head as seen in Figure. 4. This will cause problems with the backswing phase as it will not be one swift movement from the preparation stage to the release stage. The player needs to improve trunk flexion by bending over more into a squat like position when taking the free throw.

Find Out How Can Help You!
Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.
View our services

Stretching of the lower limbs and different shooting techniques can be used to improve this participants performance.  The stretches should focus on parts of the body such as quadriceps, hamstrings, and calf muscles in the lower limbs, practised before shooting drills. This will help the force needed from the lower limbs. One of the limitations to this study was not getting a video recording of the player shooting the ball into the basket. While it was mainly the technique of how a free throw was taken that was looked at through the study it would have been informative to see if the player made the shot or not. While the results from the shots were written down (See Fig. 1) more measurement could be made if the basket was in the video. The relative height of projection would also be able to be measured with the basket in the shot. This would have been interesting to know since the participants arms and hands were laced too high during the backswing phase (see Fig 3 + 4) this could have greatly affected the height of projection of the ball.


In conclusion to the study the participant has 3 main areas that they need to work on that are highlighted above. With much practice and feedback the biomechanical techniques of their movements should improve.

See link to dartfish clip


Brancazio, P. J. (1981). Physics of basketball. American Journal of Physics, 49(4), 356-365.

Del Piano, C., & Leigh, S. (2013). Basketball Free Throw: A Written Technical Report.

Hartley, J. W., & Fulton, C. (1971). Mechanical analysis of the jump shot. Athletic Journal, 51(7), 92.

Hess, C. (1980). Analysis of selected mechanical factors that contribute to vertical jumping height of four basketball players. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina.

Hudson, J. L. (1983). A biomechanical analysis by skill level of free throw shooting in basketball. In ISBS-Conference Proceedings Archive (Vol. 1, No. 1).

Kaya, D., Callaghan, M. J., Donmez, G., & Doral, M. N. (2012). Shoulder joint position sense is negatively correlated with free-throw percentage in professional basketball players. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 20(3), 189-196.

Knudson, D. (1993). Biomechanics of the basketball jump shot—Six key teaching points. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 64(2), 67-73.

Penrose, T., & Blanksby, B. (1976). Film analysis: Two methods of basketball jump shooting techniques by two groups of different ability levels. Australian Journal for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 68(3).

Schulze, P. (1981). Concentration—key to free-throw success. The Basketball Clinic, 13(6), 6-8.

Stankovic, R., Simonovic, C., & Herodek, K. (2006). Biomechanical analysis of free shooting technique in basketball in relation to precision and position of the players. In XXIV International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports, Salzburg, Austria.

Multimedia Applications for Educational Purposes

Multimedia is a combination of text, graphic, animation, audio, and video which are everything we can see and hear in our daily life (Vaughan, 2006). Multimedia applications can be used in many areas, for example like educations, businesses, homes and public places. This paper surveys the multimedia applications for educational purposes. There are six main elements in multimedia applications for educational purposes which are texts, images, audios, videos, animations and user control. Besides that, this paper also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of multimedia applications in education. There also have few characteristics in education which are screen design, interaction and feedback, navigation, video and audio elements on the development in education. In education, multimedia applications are used as a source of information to deliver learning resources for students. Multimedia applications also used to improve the learning process and increase the interaction between students and teachers or lecturers. Teachers or lecturers can make the lesson more interesting by using the multimedia applications. A multimedia applications can highlight certain important points rather than writing on the white board. There is no doubt that the role of multimedia applications for educational purposes. This new context of learning definitely will influence the way of teachers or lecturers teach and the way of students learn. They continually search for more effective ways to engage their students during learning as well as to increase student learning outcomes.
Keywords: learning, multimedia applications, educational purposes.
According to Vaughan (2006), multimedia is a combination of text, graphic, animation, audio, and video which are everything we can see and hear in our daily life. Multimedia also refers to the uses of computer technology to create, store and experience multimedia content (Singh, 2007). Multimedia applications play a crucial role in education which range from preschool education to postgraduate students and corporate training packages.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Multimedia applications can be defined as an application that uses a combination of many media sources such as texts, graphics, audios, videos and animations. It is often use to deliver information which is more powerful than printed learning resources such as printed text book. It also allows users to interact with the information quickly and accurately. Educational multimedia applications enable students to get information in various formats. Examples of multimedia applications are World Wide Web, courseware, interactive TV, computer games, and virtual reality.
In education, multimedia application is used to provide computer based training courses and reference books such as encyclopedia. A computer based training courses lets the students go through a series of presentation, text about a particular topic in various information format (Singh, 2007). Multimedia applications are used by teachers and lecturers to convey information such as lecture slides, assessment materials and others learning resources. It can also use by students to learn new skills and knowledge without lecturers guidance.
According to Steinmetz and Nahrstedt (1995), “Multimedia applications are moving from a single PC environment to either a multi-user environment or to a personalized user environment.” The rapid innovation and development in information and communication technologies has been increased the used of multimedia applications in our daily life and brought the changes to computing, entertainment and education. However, educational multimedia applications will not going to replace the roles of teachers or lecturers, it will only allow students to learn more when compare with traditional teaching methods.
Multimedia applications for educational purposes are similar like the printed text books and other teaching materials, but they can be come in a wider range of sources. The potential of multimedia applications for educational purposes is well-recognized by the universities, school, government and private organization. Educational multimedia applications can be more focused on specific objectives or in more comprehensive ways (Norhayati & Siew, 2004).
There has been an increase in demand of educational multimedia applications at all level of citizens for them to apply their knowledge in different field of study and situations. Multimedia applications had greatly influenced the education in many ways. They give teachers or lecturers to prepare study materials for students in a more clearly and comprehensive way such as demonstrate and visualize the study material in a multimedia presentation (Milkova, 2012). Multimedia applications can also be used as a source of information. Multimedia applications can be developed to enhance the learning process and increase the interaction between students and lecturers. Lecturers can make the lesson more interesting by using the multimedia presentations. As the information is presented in variety ways, multimedia applications enhance the user experience and make the learners easier to grasp the information (Singh, 2007).
Although the definition of multimedia application is simple, making it work can be complicated. We need to understand how to make each multimedia element together using educational multimedia computer tools. The elements used in multimedia applications have all existed before. Educational multimedia applications combine those elements into a powerful new tool, especially in the hands of teachers or lecturers and students. Multimedia applications can be used in many areas, for example like educations, businesses, homes and public places. For educational purposes, students can explore variety of information for further understanding by using multimedia applications. Educational multimedia applications are used to improve learning effectiveness. A multimedia learning environment involves numbers of elements in order to enable learning process taking places. There are six main elements in multimedia applications for educational purposes which are texts, images, audio, video, animations and user control.
Firstly, text is an important element in multimedia applications; it can use to provide information and emphasize specific point by using different styles, fonts, and colours. Secondly, image is an object that has more significant impact than merely reading about text in an educational session. Image can be added to multimedia applications by using colour scanner or digital camera. Examples of image are photographs, artworks, drawings. Thirdly, audio can be used to emphasize certain points and enables teachers to presents a lot of information at once rather than use printed learning resources. Audio allows students to use their imagination without being biased, so it will greatly increase the learning outcome. Fourthly, video can be used to present the information beyond the scope of the ordinary lecture room such as medical operations. The use of video to deliver information can be very powerful and immediately, it allows teachers or lecturers to highlight certain key points or tell the students what are going to do next and understand the real life situation. Fifthly, animation is used to demonstrate an idea or illustrate a concept; an object that appears blurry in video can be presented clearly in animation because it can view the changes of the object over time. Lastly, user control uses to provide students with the option to skip particular parts of the multimedia application and allow them to navigate other areas of that program. All of the elements are combined to provide a platform for students to maximize the effectiveness of educational purposes (Yadav, 2006).
The growth in use of multimedia applications for educational purposes has accelerated in recent years, and looks set for continued expansion in the future. The multimedia applications play an undeniable role in education. Multimedia applications have many advantages that allow teachers and lecturers to provide other advice which tailored to particular group of learners’ needs (Cairncross and Mannion, 2001). Teachers or lecturers discover the ways to boost student’s interest and motivate them by using educational multimedia applications. Students can also active involve in the learning process by using multimedia applications such as CD-ROM based textbook, tutorials and laboratory experiments (Yadav, 2006). Multimedia applications increase the learning effectiveness and are more attractive than traditional-based learning methods. This new learning environment definitely influence the way of teachers or lecturers teach and the way students learn.
Teachers or lecturers continually search for more effective ways to attract their students during learning as well as to increase student learning outcomes. People learn better from words and pictures than from words alone. Therefore, educational multimedia applications use a combination of multimedia elements to present and emphasize particular points only, thus it is more effective because the students are easier to put attention on it rather than on static printed learning materials. Students often split their attention when they are forced to focus information that is far apart, or it is presented at two separate points at the same time. Therefore, when the related content is presented in words and picture at the same time, the learning outcome is more effective. Research found that students will participate in the lesson more actively when teachers or lecturers integrates multimedia element in learning process because they will pay more attention as the lesson becomes more interesting (Fatimah Puteh & Siti Shuhaida, 2009). For example, when the animation and narration are presented simultaneously, students are easier to understand and that information can be quickly integrated into long term memory. A multimedia presentation is an example of multimedia application, it can highlight certain information that teachers or lecturers wants to deliver.
Multimedia applications are used to grab student’s attention and generate interest during learning process. It can improve the student’s attitude toward content and learning. Multimedia applications enable students increase their memory of content and foster deeper learning when compared to traditional teaching ways that use by teachers and lecturers. Multimedia applications for educational purposes also can make the learning fun and decrease the anxiety and tension toward certain scary subjects.
There is no doubt that the important role of multimedia applications for educational purposes because it can influence the way of teachers or lecturers teach and the way of students learn. Multimedia applications are easy to use by the students or lecturers. Students are able to navigate and retrieve the information quickly because they have the ability to interact with the multimedia applications. Students can learn more when they can control pace of the presentation such as slow down, start and stop at certain information as they want. Multimedia applications are tailored the information need to the individual because it can be presented in different ways to engage students with different learning styles and strengths. Every student may have different preferences and modes to learn about something. As an example, a student prefers to read certain learning materials from prints, while another student may prefer a visual presentation. Therefore, multimedia applications for educational purposes are effective to all particular students and lecturers because it is tailored to their needs.
Multimedia applications for educational purposes that delivered the learning materials via videos or images need computers, projectors and other electronic devices, so the expenses for these applications can be very expensive. Normally multimedia applications for educational purposes are more expensive than printed text book because it requires expensive hardware. Multimedia applications also not so easy for configuration and requires special hardware to run it.
When lecturer uses educational multimedia application, he will shift his role from instructor to facilitator. As the amount of multimedia elements increase, it will slow down the delivery and pace of the learning process. For example, a student was allowed to complete the lesson at their own pace as they navigate the stage of learning materials or students works in a group to view multimedia applications, some of them maybe are not proficient with the technology, thus they need to spend more time on learning computer skills rather than access the information. Sometimes educational multimedia applications are not effective for those who have weak learning skills.
From student’s perspective, there is disadvantage exist in educational multimedia applications. Multimedia applications have the limitation such as making an e-learning accessible to all students. For example, some of the applications may not suitable to certain students. A hearing impaired student cannot heard the streaming of audio, thus these multimedia applications are not accessible to all students (Nedeva, Dimova, & Dineva, 2010).
Another disadvantage of multimedia applications for educational purposes is that students feel isolated and unsupported by teachers or lecturers when they don’t understand certain topics. Teachers or lecturers are not always available when students need help from them; as a result they need to work independently without assistance. Hence, educational multimedia applications are least effective to those who need guidance and assistance from teachers or lecturers.
There are few characteristics of multimedia applications in education which are screen design, interaction and feedback, navigation, video and audio elements on the development in education.
Firstly, screen design is use to coordinate text and graphic elements in order to present sequenced content to facilitate learning and enhance student‘s understanding. Each instruction that display on screen in a multimedia application must provide effective instruction and navigation tools to the students. Screen design also use to boost the interest of the students and convey the required information to them. In short, a good screen design should require focusing student’s attention, maintaining their interest, promoting processing and engagement between student and lesson content, help student find and organize the information and facilitate lesson navigation.
The second characteristic is interaction and feedback, it allows student to interact and control the flow of information and stage of learning with the multimedia application. Interaction and feedback also enable student active participant in the instruction learning process and provide feedback immediately following a student response. Feedback is information about the correctness or appropriateness of student’s response which usually displayed on screen.
Third characteristic of multimedia applications for educational purposes is navigation. Navigation feature can enhance learning outcome and make an interactive multimedia applications easy to use by the students. Navigation provides students some control over the events and allows them to jump into new sections or revisit the information from earlier screen. Students can also learn and understand more when they can control the multimedia applications such as slow down, start and stop at certain information as they want.
Lastly, video and audio elements on the development in education have advantages to present the information to those students who have poor reading and learning skills. Students are easier to understand the lessons which use audio and video to convey the information rather than static learning materials. When audio and video is used to support text, it can provide an opportunity for the students to pause and repeat the sound. (Stemler, 1997)
Multimedia applications are excellent tool for educational purposes. It can improve the effectiveness of learning outcome by deliver the information to the students. Multimedia applications can use to deliver information in an interesting way by combining the elements of texts, images, audios, videos, animations and user control. Multimedia applications have a lot of advantages for the education purposes which can help students have further understanding on certain information or topics. Screen design, interaction and feedback, navigation, video and audio elements are the characteristic of multimedia applications. There is no doubt that the multimedia applications can be used as a tool to assist teachers and lecturers to achieve educational effectiveness. However, multimedia applications for educational purposes have its disadvantages too. Developing a good multimedia application has high cost that involves time and effort of the developer. There are few characteristic that a developer tries to improve the effectiveness of educational multimedia applications which are attract student’s attention, help students organize the information and facilitate lesson navigation and integrate all the information into knowledge.
Cairncross, S., & Mannion, M. (2001). Interactive Multimedia and Learning: Realizing the Benefits. 156-164.
Fatimah Puteh & Siti Shuhaida Shukor. (2009). The Integration Of Multimedia Elements In Classroom Teaching Among TESL Teacher-Trainees. 1-6.
Milkova, E. (2012). Multimedia Application – Effective Support of Education.13-21.
Nedeva, V., Dimova, E., & Dineva, S. (2010). Overcome Disadvantages of E-learning for Training English as Foreign Language. 275-281.
Norhayati Abd Mukti, & Siew, P. H. (2004). Malaysian Perspective: Designing Interactive Multimedia Learning Environment for Moral Values Education. 143-152.
Singh, V. P. (2007). A Text Book of Multimedia. United Stated: Global Media.
Steinmetz, R., & Nahrstedt, K. (1995). Multimedia: computing, communications, and applications. New York: Prentice Hall.
Stemler, L. K. (1997). Educational Characteristics of Multimedia: A Literature Review. 339-359.
Vaughan, T. (2010). Multimedia Making It Work, 8th Edition. McGraw Hill
Yadav, V. (2006). Using Multimedia in Education. United Stated: Global Media.

Multimedia Applications

v Develop an interactive animated movie that contains specified title and story. You are given the freedom of choosing the titles specified in Section 4.0. The focus of this multimedia application is to help the general public to be aware or to be educated about the current issue, or fields of interest you have chosen. The animated movie that you are yet to develop is to be used as an informative or educational tool. The scope and contents of the title chosen are to be entirely determined by the students.
v Develop the students’ practical ability to implement and document multimedia application.
v Introduce student to the current technical issues in the area of multimedia.
At the end of this project, the students should be able to:
Ø Develop multimedia presentation relating to a specific topic using the multimedia tools.
Ø Distinguish the difference between effective and ineffective use of multimedia.
Ø Have an impressive portfolio piece, and a thorough understanding of multimedia fundamentals.
v List of project topics for you to choose are as follows:
Albert Einstein
Stephen Hawking
The life of DaVincci
President Lincoln
President Kennedy
President George Washington
Thomas Edinson
Apollo 13
Political system in any country
French Revolution
Greatest Invention in Malaysia
Prime Minister in any country
Richest man in the world
About the great artist, Picasso
Russian Revolution
Story about police
Van Gogh
Micheal Angelo
Queen Elizabeth of England
Human cloning
Any Fairy Tales
The greatest artists in Malaysia
William Shakespeare
Nielson Mandela
Story about diamond
The greatest literature of England
Story about firemen
Story about FBI
Living beings in the sea
Living beings in the desert
Great Philosopher in the world
5.0 TYPE:
v Individual work
v You need to register the chosen titles with your lecturer, and get these approved. A proposal form of the project chosen is to be handed to me three weeks from today (submit on or before 18th October 2009; Total number of pages: half page)
v Your application must have significant use of the following elements so that you get some practice with them:
Text and animated text
v All elements mentioned above might not be able to be covered in lecture before the submission due date, therefore you must learn yourself first so that you can apply them on your application. No doubt there will be further clarifications as the days progress!
v The documents (project report in printed form; Assignment 1) and Multimedia Application (animated movie) in the form of a CD-ROM (assignment 2).
v The completed animated movie must be compiled into an (*.exe) executable file and burned into a CD-ROM. Do not submit some other format like *.html, *.dir, etc.
v The CD-ROM should also consist of raw media files (e.g. *.jpg, *.gif, *.psd, .mov etc.) and all Flash working files (*.fla).
v The running time of your movie should not less than 1 minutes
v As part of your assessment, you will have to submit the project report in printed form which include the followings:
* Table of contents
* Acknowledgement Section
* Objectives of your animated movie
* Targeted users’ background
* Targeted users’ requirements
* Concepts art and character design
* Abstract
* Application structure
* Storyboard
* Creative and unique features in your movie
* References (Use Harvard Naming Convention; Refer notes below)
v You may source pictures and information from the Internet. If you have accessed the Internet, reference the resources used carefully in your document.
v All references must be made using the Harvard Naming Convention as shown below:
The theory was first propounded in 1970 (Larsen, A.E. 1971), but since then has been refuted; M.K. Larsen (1983) is among those most energetic in their opposition……….
List of references at the end of your document must be specified in the following format:
Larsen, A.E. 1971, A Guide to the Aquatic Science Literature, McGraw-Hill, London.
Larsen, M.K. 1983, British Medical Journal (Online), Available World Wide Web: URL:
(Accessed 19 November 1995)
Further information on other type of citation is available in Li, X. and Crane (1993), Electronic Style: A Guide to Citing Electronic Information, Meckler, Westport.
v Total number of pages for the documents is in the range of 20 to 40 pages
v Criteria for assessment will be based on:
Ø Documentation (Assignment 1):
Marks Allocated
Target users’ background and their requirements
Concepts Art and character design
Storyboard (Inclusive of abstract, application structure and layout of application)
Creative and unique features in your movie
Originality (Reflected from Referencing of materials and Summary of what you have created or what effects have you made on multimedia elements)
Ø Implementation (Assignment 2):
Marks Allocated
Title and content:
* Implementation suitable for intended audience?
* Interesting?
* Unique?
* Clear?
* Originality
Level of originality and innovation of graphics:
* Amount of graphics self developed
* Amount of graphics extracted directly from external source.
* Amount of graphics extracted from external source and further innovated (like adding special effects added on the graphics)
* Graphics quality
* Quality of effects and innovation
* Amount of animations self developed
* Amount of animations extracted directly from external source.
* Amount of animations extracted from external source and further innovated (like adding special effects added on the graphics)
* Depth and quality of animations
* Sound effect used?
* Voice recorded?
* Music used?
* Sound quality
* Level of interactivity (full interactivity? Or merely click and display)
* Special Effects done on the system
* Use of ActionScripts (ActionScript is strongly encouraged to use. If you have done so, remember to put the full script in your document. However, absent of ActionScript will not deduct your marks)
* Full screen?
* Able to run smoothly?
System development (compliant with the documents e.g. storyboard submitted earlier)
* Professional style
* Good use of language
* Capability in answering questions addressed by lecturer
* Proper referencing and citations.
v Documentation contributes 40% and Implementation contributes 60% of the overall marks.
v All reports must be prepared with a front cover. A protective transparent plastic sheet can be placed in front of the report to protect the front cover. The front cover should be presented with the following details:
a) Names.
b) Intake code.
c) Subject.
d) Project Title.
e) Date Assigned (the date the report was handed out).
f) Date Completed (the date the report is due to be handed in).
v You are advised to analyse your audience and survey the existing materials before starting out. Then, brainstorm, flowchart your ideas to see the general flow and finally, develop. Planning saves you a tot of heartache and headache later on.
v You have the options of developing the multimedia application using one of the following multimedia tools for your project:
Text and animated text
Win Word, Notepad
Graphic Editing
Any Sound editing tools like Audacity
Video (Optional)
Windows Movie Maker
Macromedia Suite (Flash, Director)
v You are expected to maintain the utmost level of academic integrity during the duration of the course.
v Plagiarism is a serious offence and will be dealt with according to APIIT’s regulations on plagiarism.
Multimedia Applications in-course assessment handout