Industrial Disturbances in Cities: Case Study of Nigeria

THE PERCEPTION OF INDUSTRIAL DISTURBANCES IN NIGERIAN CITIES: A GEOGRAPHICAL APPRAISAL OF BENIN- CITY
A. 0. Atubi
Abstract
The major aim of this research work is to determine the perception of industrial disturbances by Benin City residents. This refers to the disturbances created by the availability of heavy manufacturing industries around residential areas of the city. For this purpose, a total of 158 residents were sampled, to generate the data for this research. Multiple correlation analysis was used to test for the significance between the perception of residents who live close to industrial establishments and those who live far off. This revealed that 58% of residents in the study area perceive industrial disturbance as caused by industries around their neighbourhood, leaving 42% unaware to ignorance, indifference etc. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistics and chi-square test were also used. The overall findings of this research bring to the fore the fact that a high percentage of Benin-City residents are not aware of industrial disturbances.
Introduction
Although the level of industrialization in Nigeria is still very low, its growth rate in the recent past has been significant. This growth rate was largely due to the availability of a large investible capital in the mid 70s (owing to oil revenues) and a growing commitment on the part of government to planned economic growth. Industrial growth is not likely to diminish drastically because of the growing awareness of the need to produce most essential commodities locally and more recently the ban slammed by the Federal Government of Nigeria on the importation of goods, which can be produced locally. Consequently, industrial expansion is likely to continue, in spite of, or even because of the present economic depression.

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The industrial establishments arising from these processes are located within the framework of a low level and primate pattern of urbanization. Industries spring up in tens annually and most of these are located alongside residential areas in most state capitals and urban centres where women spend 3/4 of their time engaging in various economic activities (Uchegbu, 1998). Consequently, the few urban centres in Nigeria have tended to be the monopolistic locations of these industries. There are now more than 3,000 industries of various categories in the country with about half of this number located in Lagos metropolis alone (Uchegbu, 1998).
Perhaps, a more compelling reason for examining the mental images or perceptions people hold of the emerging industrial environment in our cities relate to one underlying assumption regarding the attitude of developing countries to environmental issues. The view is widely held that a major concern and pre-occupation in most developing countries is with economic growth and development and that people are indifferent to and place low premium on environmental quality. This attitude arises from a perception that economic growth and environmental quality are mutually exclusive.
Environmental problems/disturbances can be in form of soil erosion, pollution, flood, deforestation, bio-diversity loss, and degradation, quarry and mining problems etc (Adedibu, 1997; Ajayi, 1997 and Odetunde et. al., 1998). Environmental degradation, in general terms, refers to the process that may act to force the condition of a part of the earth’s surface of its surrounding atmosphere to become unpleasant or less useful to man (Akinyele, 2000).
The natural environmental settings covers the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere (Olorunfemi and Jimoh, 2000). Within these spheres are a number of interactions that propelled the different types of human related activities. The term environment literally means surroundings, circumstance or influence (Ajibade, 2000).
Environmental pollution is a diverse problem experienced all over the globe today, this experience cuts across both the developed and developing worlds. In 1985, the Polish Academic of Sciences described heavily industrialized Poland as the most polluted country in the world (Miller Jnr, 1994). Air, water, and soil are so polluted that at least 1/3 of the people risk contracting environmentally induced respiratory illnesses, and a host of other diseases.
Coal supplies 80% of Poland’s energy most of the country’s industrial and power plants have no pollution control technology whatsoever or, at least ineffective controls. Satellite photographs show that the biggest clouds of smokes in Europe hang over southern Poland, partly because large coal burning plant’s have shutdown their pollution control equipment to save power and money (Miller, Jnr, 1994).
Adeoti (2004), stated clearly that, industry has been reckoned to contribute much to environmental pollution in developed countries and much research has been done to proffer technological solutions. So far, work on this area has been largely limited to developed countries. However, there has been increasing advocacy that developing countries need not follow the environmentally unfriendly development path of industrialized countries (Adeoti, 2004).
Aghalino (2000), asserted that the impact of oil exploitation on the oil mineral producing communities are in three folds. First, it leads to environmental pollution. Secondly, it destroys the ecosystem and the ways of life of the people and lastly, the oil producing communities are generally underdeveloped. Jimoh (2000), made a factual assertion on the interaction between man and his environment. “Man is a product of the environment as the latter is also an important component in the life of the former. Thus, protecting the environment of man from destruction is inevitable”. Many industrialists have viewed industrial progress and environmental protection as mutually exclusive, but Odiete (1993), advocates that industrial progress and environmental protection must be complementary rather than mutually exclusive.
Although Benin City has no major processing industries such as oil refineries, iron and steel or metallurgical industries that usually contribute heavy pollution to the ecosystem, there exist nevertheless other industries like pulp and paper, aluminium, breweries, rubber processing, plastic, livestock feeds, non-alcoholic beverage etc, which generate pollutants. Some of these industries produce noise and thermal changes. Plants and heavy machines used in factories/industries make a hell of noise during their production period (Uchegbu, 1998; Ozo, 1988).
Materials and Methods of Study
The data on which the study is based were collected through questionnaire survey in 2005 from four zones to which Benin-City was divided. These are Ekenhua road area, Ihama-Boundary road area, Oregbeni quarters of lkpoba hill, and upper Siluko road area (see fig 1). 158 questionnaires were used in this study and the number of questionnaires that were administered in each sampled area depended on the population of that zone. Based on the population, 39 (thirty nine) questionnaires were administered in Ekenhuan, 39 (thirty nine) were also administered in Oregbeni quarters, while 38 (thirty eight) questionnaires were administered in upper Siloko area. In the course of the administration of the questionnaires, the streets and houses were chosen using the systematic sampling techniques. Two questionnaires were used in every eight houses in each street. Responses from the questionnaires were used for data analysis.
Averaging model and percentages were used to summarise the data while multiple correlation was used to determine the individual and overall contributions of industrial disturbances in the study area. The analysis of variance was used to examine the variability in industrial perceptions; while the chi-square test was used for testing whether the variables are independent or related.
Study Area
Benin City plays a dual function of being the capital of Edo State and the headquarter of Oredo Local Government Area. The 1991 census puts the total population of Benin City at 762,717. It lies approximately between latitude 6°16’N and 6°33’ North of the equator and longitude 5°3l’E and 5°45’ East of the prime meridian. It covers an area of l,2158q.km. Benin City is bounded to the north and west by ovia North East Local Government Area, to the North East by Uhunrnwode Local Government Area, to the East by Oriohwon Local Government Area and to the South by Ugbenu village in Delta State (see fig.2)

FIG 1: MAP OF EDO STATE SHOWING STUDY AREA
Source: Ministry of Journal of Cartography and G.I.S, (2002)

FIG 2: MAP SHOWING BENIN CITY IN EDO STATE
Discussion of Results and Findings
Table 1: Educational status

Area

Secondary education

Tertiary education

None of the above

Ekenhuan

20

19

0

Ihama/Boundary

22

17

0

Oregbeni

30

2

10

Upper Siluko

15

8

15

Total (∑)

87

46

25

Percentage (%)

55.1

30.4

14.5

Source: Fieldwork, 2005
A megre 30.4% of the total respondents are equipped with tertiary education as against a majority of 55.1% of respondents who posses only secondary education. This to a large extent, brings to fore the low level of education in Benin City and in third world countries in general.
Table 2: Reponses to listed disturbance

 

Ekenhuan
(Magnitude)

Ihama/Boundary
(Magnitude)

Disturbance

1

2

3

1

2

3

Noise

1

4

34

3

6

30

Dust and fumes

2

17

20

1

9

29

Aesthetic nuisance

9

13

17

6

1

32

Smoke

3

9

27

0

4

36

Vibration

0

1

38

2

7

30

Glare

2

1

36

0

0

39

Effluent discharge

0

2

37

9

15

15

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Source: Fieldwork, 2005
Key
1 = Very Serious
2 = Slightly Serious
3 = Not Serious
From table 2, only columns I and 2 are relevant for this analysis. This is because; these are the respondents that perceive some level of seriousness associated with the industrial disturbances they experience in their area. The responses from column 3 is however not relevant because these respondents do not consider the disturbances as serious and as such do not see the disturbances as posing any danger to human and animal life and to the ecosystem in general.
In order to ascertain whether the variables are independent or related, the chi-square test was applied. A calculated value of 34.7 and a table value of 26.30 was obtained. This implies that, the industrial disturbances in the study area is significant enough to attract attention. This also shows that there is a significant difference between those who perceive industrial disturbances and those who do not, in Benin City.
Table 3: Awareness status from each area

 

Ekenhuan

Ihama/boundary

Oregbeni

Upper Siluko

Aware

17

26

10

14

Not aware

10

4

2

24

Indifferent

12

9

30

0

Source: Fieldwork, 2005
A good number of respondents in the different study locations were aware of the disturbances posed by heavy industries. Others were totally unaware. The combination of the respondents who are not aware and indifferent to industrial disturbance shows that a larger proportion of the respondents are ignorant of industrial disturbances.
To re-assess the respondent’s premium placed on environmental quality, the question “Do you consider the environmental impact of your daily activity” was asked. The responses are tabulated below in table 3.
Table 4: Premium placed on Environmental quality

Area

Yes

No

Ekenhuan road

2

37

Ihama/Boundary

9

30

Oregbeni

6

36

Upper Siluko

3

35

Total (∑)

20

138

Percentage (%)

17.7%

87.3%

Source: Fieldwork, 2005
The above analysis clearly shows that the majorities, represented 87.38% of the total respondents, do not consider the environment in their daily activities. One of the research hypotheses, which states that “there is no significant difference in perceptions between residents who are aware of industrial disturbances and those who are not aware” is tested with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical technique. Since the table value of 19.4 is less than the calculated value of 665.78, the null hypothesis is rejected. The alternative hypothesis which states that “there is a significant difference in perception between residents who are aware of industrial disturbances and those who are not” is thus accepted. This implies that there is a significant variability between those who perceive industrial disturbances and those who do not, between and within each area. (See Appendix A for all necessary computations).
Table 5: Magnitude of disturbance Area-by-area

 

Ekenhuan
(Magnitude)

Ihama/
Boundary
(Magnitude)

Oregbeni (Magnitude)

Upper Siluko (Magnitude)

Disturbance

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

Noise

1

4

34

3

6

30

10

24

8

6

30

2

Dust and fumes

2

17

20

1

9

29

1

6

35

26

8

4

Aesthetic nuisance

9

13

17

6

1

32

3

33

6

12

13

13

Smoke

3

9

27

0

4

36

1

29

12

19

10

9

Vibration

0

1

38

2

7

30

1

40

1

0

38

0

Glare

2

1

36

0

0

39

0

1

41

0

0

35

Effluent discharge

0

2

37

9

15

15

10

24

8

6

31

1

Total (∑)

17

47

248

25

51

237

28

177

131

70

159

75

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Source: Fieldwork, 2005
Here, only residents who perceive the problem as very serious and slightly serious was considered. This is so because, those who do not perceive the disturbances are not relevant in determining the correlation.
Table 6: Perceived Industrial disturbances and data for multiple correlation analysis

Disturbance

Ekenhuan

Ihama/boundary

Oregbeni

Upper Siluko

Noise

5

9

34

36

Odour

0

13

22

30

Dust and fumes

19

10

7

34

Aesthetic nuisance

22

7

36

25

Smoke

12

4

30

29

Vibration

1

9

41

38

Glare

3

0

1

0

Effluent discharge

2

24

34

37

Total (∑)

64

76

205

229

Source: Fieldwork, 2005
Appendix B contains details of the correlation among the four variables. The relationship between the variables is 0.024 (see Appendix B for all necessary computations). The percentage variation of perception of industrial disturbances in the different areas of the study area is 58%. This implies that 58% of the residents in Benin-City perceive industrial disturbance as caused by industries around their neighbourhood, leaving 32% unaware to ignorance, indifference and other reasons.
Policy Implications/Recommendations

Laws and policies guiding land use should be formulated. This should be done to specific areas of the city or town, which is meant for different uses. Areas for residential, commercial, industrial, administrative recreational, etc. purposes should be well spelt out. Also, such laws should he reviewed periodically to meet up the dynamic nature of human society. Where laws guiding the pattern of the land use in a state, town or city exist they should he effectively implemented and enforced to see that the aim of formulating such laws are achieved. We have a society today where the majority is lawless and as such indiscipline prevails.
Environmental Auditing, sometimes called post impact Assessment should be carried out on industries from time to time to make sure that they comply with the environmental safety rules. It should be done especially For industries, which are located around residential areas. This is to check environmental degradation.
Both residents and industrialists should be properly educated citizens who wish to develop residential houses should be educated properly in order not to site the building in an industrial layout or close by. Also, industrialists should be oriented on how to keep their factories only to the laid-out areas for industrial purposes in order to avoid future environmental problems.

Conclusion
This study has x-rayed the perceptions of Benin-City residents towards industrial disturbances. This was evident, as areas, which were delimited for residential purpose have been enveloped by industries and vice versa. This study has also enumerated some of the disturbances caused by industries and suggested possible ways of averting and possibly correcting the ugly trend.
References
Adedibu, A. A. (1997). Trends in environmental management of drainage, sewage and solid waste in Kware State. A Paper presented at a workshop organized by Kwara State environmental protection agency. Ilorin.
Agahlino, 5. 0 (2000). Troleum exploration and environmental degradation in Nigeria. In Jimoh, H. I. And Ifabiyi, I. P. (Eds) contemporary issues in environmental studies, Ilorin; Haytee Press and publishing Co. Ltd.
Ajayi, P. S. (1997). Overview of environmental problems in Kwara State: Priority for Action. A paper presented at a workshop organized by Kwara State environmental protection agency, Ilorin.
Akinyele, M. A. (2006). A GIS approach to the study of land degradation Journal of the Nigerian Cartographic Association. Vol. 1(1), pp. 7 26.
Ajibade, L. T. (2000). The environmental systems In Jimoh. H. I. and Habiyi, I. P. (Eds) Contemporary Issues in Environmental Studies, Ilorin
Jimoh, H. 1. (2000). Man-environment Interactions In )irnoh, H. 1. And Ifabiyi, I. P. (Eds). C’ontemporary Issues in Environmental Studies, Ilorin: Haytee press and publishing Co. Ltd.
Miller, G. T. (1994) Living in the Environment. California: Wadworth Publishing Company.
Odetunde, 0. J. and Ayeni, A. E. (1998). Environmental protection Salako, W. A et al., (Eds) In: Citizenship Education, A concise Approach. lbadan: Lad-od Publishers.
Odiete, W. 0. (1993)Environmental Impact Assessment for sustainable Development.” Environmental News October December,
Olorunfemi, J. F., and Jimoh, H. I. (2000). Anthropogenic activities and the environment. In Jimoh, H. I. And Ifabiyi, I. (Eds). Contemporary Issues in Environmental Studies. Ilorin: Haytee press and publishing company Ltd.
Ozo, A. O. (1988). Perception of Industrial pollution: A case study from Benin City. In Sada P.O. and Odemerho F. 0. (eds) Environmental Issues and Management in Nigerian Development. Evans Brothers (Nigeria Publishers) Limited.
Uchegbu, S. N. (1998). Environmental management and protection. Enugu: Precision Printers and Publishers.
Appendix A
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Calculations

Sum of squares within and between groups

Ekenhuan

Ihama/Boundary

Oregbeni

Upper Siluko

x

x

x

x

17

16

26

169

10

16

14

1.69

10

9

4

81

2

144

24

127.69

12

1

9

16

30

256

0

127.69

26

266

416

290.67

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

SSW=26+266+416+290.67
SSW=998.67
SSb=
Ekenhaun=3(13-13.2)2 = 0.12
Ihama/boundary=3-13.2
Oregbeni =3(14-13.2) = 1.92
Upper Siluko=3(12.3-13.2)=0.75
Means sum of squares within (MSW)
MSW=SSW
N-M
MSW=998.67=998.67
12-39
=110.9
≈111
MSb=SSb
M-1
MSb=2.91=2.91=1.453
3-12
=1.5
F ratio=Greater variance estimate
Lesser variance estimate
=998.67=665.78
1.5
Calculated value=665.78
ANOVA TABLE

Sources of variation

Sum of squares

Degree of freedom

Mean sum of squares

F-ratio

Between groups

2.91

2

1.5

665.78

Within groups

998.67

9

111

 

APPENDIX B
Multiple Correlation Calculations
r11=1.00Suggesting a perfect correlation
r12=-0.268Suggesting a negative correlation
r13=-0.084Suggesting also a negative correlation
r14=0.01Suggesting a positive but weak correlation
r22=1.00Suggesting a perfect correlation
r23=0.38Suggesting a positive correlation
r24=0.651Suggesting a positive and strong correlation
r34=0.668Suggesting a positive and strong correlation
r44=1.00Suggesting a perfect correlation

 

Problems of Water Supply in the Rural Communities of Nigeria

Problems of Water Supply in the Rural Communities of Delta State, Nigeria
Abstract
This study assess the problem of rural water supply in Delta slate with the main aim of examining the factors responsible for the incidence of ineffective water supply to the rural communities of Delta state, Nigeria. Questionnaire survey was the instrument of data generation and a total of 500 questionnaires were administered to 10 rural communities of the state. The data were analyzed with descriptive and multiple regression analyses and the following constitutes as the observations as follows: erratic power supply, embezzlement of fund, diversion of hydraulic equipment, theft, government policy, indiscriminate wastage/carelessness, poor maintenance culture, fruity hydraulic equipment and loss by evaporation.
Introduction
Studies on water resources have concentrated on urban setting to the detriment of rural communities (Adesuyi, 1996; Adebola, 2001; Ovrawah and Hymore, 2001 and Efe, 2003). For instance, there is absolute absence of water schemes in most rural communities of Delta state e.g. Otorho-Abraka, Samagidi/Kokori, Abbi, Anwai etc., even when they exist, they are non-functioning. Thus, most women and school children balanced basin, buckets, 20-50litres Geri cans on their head and trek long distances to streams, rivers, wells and bore holes. The varied water sources result in consumers spending many hours waiting for water or carrying water to their homes. For example, in Anwai the delay in getting water from private bores is detrimental to the study regime of students of the Delta State University, Anwal Campus.
The inadequate water supply has resulted in water borne disease largely because of the supply misappropriation of fund, diversion of water scheme, erratic power supply amongst other (Efe, 2003). This problem becomes more acute in recent times as a result of increased population. Thus, this work seek to investigate:

the factors militating against effective water supply,
study the cost of each water supply scheme,
study time spent on obtaining water on daily as a social cost; and
study response to ameliorate the problems.

Study Area
Delta state lies between longitude 5°E and 6°45E and latitudes 5°N and 6°30’N and has landmass areas of 16,842km Square. Delta state lies within the Benin, Agbada and Akata formation in terms of geology (see fig.1). The state is drain by river Niger, and its distributaries (Forcados, Escravos and Warn river and creeks), Jamieson and Ethiope (www.on1ine.nigeria.com 2312/05). River Niger drains the eastern flank of the state and empty it water into the sea. Delta state has a population of about 2,590 491, where about 75% of her population lives in rural areas (1991 census), without good access to potable water. The state is divided into three seaatorial districts: Delta North, 793,517; Delta central with a population 936,707 and Delta South, 865,540 population (Omaksone, 2004).
Methodology
This work-utilised data generated through direct fieldwork exercises. The instrument of data generation is the questionnaire administration. The questionnaire was administered through systematic sampling technique. On the whole, a total of 50 questionnaires were administered to eh community, making a total of 500 respondents that were interviewed. The data were analysed with the aid of multiple regression analysis and descriptive statistics.
Data Analysis and Discussion of Results
Source of Water Supply
Different types of water supply sources exdist in the study for effective utilisation of the respondents as follows (See table 1)
Table 1: Sources of rural water supply in Delta State

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Source: Author’s fieldwork, 2005.
Table I indicates that 39% of the rural inhabitants of these communities obtain their drinking water from Rain Water Harvesting, 24% from river or stream who carried the water through long distances, 14% from Wells, 13% from private boreholes who make a charge to households on the water supplied, 9% from Tankers which supply water to homes from long distances, and 1% from state owned boreholes who provide free water services to the households. Most of the water sources are owned and maintained by private individuals. For instance out of the 72 boreholes in table 1, it is only 3 that are owned and maintained by State Government. These bores are found in Patani, Ozoro, Anwai. This represents only 4% of the boreholes in these communities. The State owned boreholes are very irregular in their water supply.
Essentially, there are times
Quantity, Distance, Time and Cost of Water
Table 2 show the volume of water supply to each household, distance and time spent in obtaining water from the various sources. On daily basis, an average of 80 litres of Rain Water are harvested whenever it rains. This recorded the highest volumes of water obtained by each household. About 30minutes are spent on the average whenever it rains by each household fetching water.
Table 3: Average time and daily demand of water per household

 

Stream

Well

Rain

Quantity per household (litres)

30

35

80

Distance

1 ½ km

1km

5m

Time

2hours

1 ½ hours

30 minutes

It is observed from table 3 that Well Water recorded 35 litres of water obtained by each household at a time and distance of 1hours 30minutes and 1km respectively. The volume of well water obtained by each household is attributed to the long distance and time spent, hence reduction in the quantity of supplied. According the inhabitants because they cannot afford the price of Borehole water, we resort to trekking distance places and spending long time as well carrying water from Wells and Streams the various houses. Similarly, the long time and distance spent in obtaining water from streams reduces the quantity of stream water supply. This show an average of 30litres of stream water supply at a time and distance of 2hours and 1 V2 km respectively spent in obtaining stream or river water by each household. Thus, the higher the distance and time spent in obtaining water from these sources reduces the volumes of water demanded by each household (See fig, 2). For instance it is clear from these communities (Otorho, Ozoro, Ekpan-Ovu, Kokoro and Patani) in fig.2 that as the time expended in obtaining domestic water increases, the quantity of water demanded by the inhabitants of these communities decreases. Though the water from these sources is free, but there is economic cost to the water as children, women and students in most of these communities spend a considerable time carrying water to meet their need, which time they could have expended in earning income.
Fig. 2: Domestic water consumption and time required for well water and stream water collected at Otorho-Abraka, Kokori Ekpan-Ovu, Ozoro and Patani
Similarly, it also reduces the time they could have expended in household labour amongst other activities. However, the cost of water from boreholes and tankers led to the reduction in volumes of water obtained from boreholes and water tankers.
Factors of Ineffective Water Supply
The respondents generally agreed that in all the rural communities they experienced acute problem of water supply. Essentially, they observed that the factors that are responsible for the problem of water supply relates to erratic power supply, embezzlement of fund/corruption, diversion of hydraulic equipment/political factors, theft, government policy, indiscriminate wastage/carelessness, poor maintenance culture, faulty distribution system and topography of the areas (See table 4).
Table 4: Correlation co-efficient between acute problem of water supply and the associated factors responsible.

S/N

Factors

Co-efficient

I

Faulty hydraulic equipment

– .347

2

Loss of evaporation

– .498

3

Poor maintenance culture

.040

4

Erratic power supply

.480

5

Indiscriminate wastage/carelessness

.121

6

Government policy

.224

7

Diversion of hydraulic equipment

.349

8

Embezzlement of fund or corruption

.383

9

Theft

.329

Source: Author’s Fieldwork, 2005
The results of the correlation statistics shows that the problem of inadequate water supply to the rural communities of Delta State, rely heavily on the predictive factors The individual explanatory contributions of each of this predictive model are discussed below.
Erratic power is the highest explanatory factor of inadequate water supply. This is evident from a positive correlation coefficient of 0.48 (see table 4). This is significant at 0.05 confidence level, This shows a positive contribution, and as such the problem of water supply became worsen with increasing epileptic power supply to these communities. For instance most of these communities resort to the use of self-generating plant to pump the water through self-help efforts. But as a result of hike in prices of petroleum products, the generating plant was abandoned, hence acute shortage of water supply to these communities. The second contributory is embezzlement of fund, which shows a correlation coefficient of 0.39, thus water problems became more acute as more funds meant for water projects are embezzled. For examples there are series of complains by the rural inhabitants that huge amount of money has been released for the sitting of water projects by the successive government. But such projects are either not undertaken due to embezzlement of fund or they are poorly executed. As such, most of the hydraulic projects packed up soon after commissioning.

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The third predicative factors affecting acute supply of water in the rural communities of Delta State is the diversion of hydraulic project or political factor. This indicates a positive correlation coefficient of 0.35. For instance, water projects meant for Otorho Abraka, Abavo, Samagidi etc has been diverted to personal compound or to other villages because these communities did not vote for them during the last political dispensation. Theft of hydraulic equipment is the fourth predictive factor of water supply with positive correlation coefficient of 0.33. This indicates that as more hydraulic equipment are stolen or vandalized, the problem of water supply to the area will become more acute For instance the generating plants and submersible pump at Emevo, Otorho — Abraka, have been vandalized. Thus, the acute problems of water supply in these in these rural communities of Delta State. Another causal factor is the lack of laudable government policy of water supply for all (both rural and urban areas of the state). This factor shows weak positive effects of 0.22 correlation coefficient. The state, local government and ministry of water resources in Delta state, have not made concerted effort to actualise this policy, to them they are constraints with the problem of finance and high price of hydraulic equipments.
Another identified factor of inadequate water supply is indiscriminate wastage arid careless use of water. This indicates correlation coefficient values of 0.12. In some of the rural communities (Patani, Ozoro, and Anwai) where there is existence of public tap, it is not uncommon to find children and some adults, attempting to drink direct from household and public taps without using a container. At times, the children forget to lock the tap back after usage. In this way, they waste the greater portion of the water, and the wasted water is depended on pressure of the area. This view collaborated the work of Oyabande (1981) in the city of Jos. Lack of good maintenance culture is another causal factor in the areas where there is public water supply. It shows weak correlation coefficient of 0.04. For instance, most of the equipments are old and absolute and some of the pipes are corroded, without replacement. As such, there is frequent breakdown of• the equipment. Similar to this factor, is faulty hydraulic and distributing system. Due to corrosion and old age of the pipe lines there are many leakages from these pipelines and finihy fitting in tank. This indicated an inverse effect on effective water supply. This is evident from a correlation coefficient of —0.35.
The topography of the area recorded the list amongst the predictive factors of
water problem. This shows an inverse correlation coefficient of —0.50. This factor is most severe in Delta north senatorial district (Anwal, Uineunede and Abavo) communities. For examples at Anwai it takes up 200 — 250 feet depth before the aquifer can be stroke, at Abavo and Umuenede it takes 180 — 210 feet depending on the location, such, sitting of water project in these areas is relatively very difficult.
Conclusion
Certainly the health, amenity and standard of living of the inhabitants of these communities are dependant upon the provision of acceptable system of water supplies to these rural communities. Its regular supply enhanced liveability and longevity of Life in this environmental setting. To enhance regular supply of water to the rural inhabitants of Delta state there is urgent need to adopt the above policy measures.
References
Adebola, K.D. (2001) Groundwater Quality in Ilorin Township: An Environmental Review. African Journal of Environmental Studies 2(2): Pp. 4-7.
Adesuyi, O. (1996) Nigeria Produces 25 year water Masterplan. Ultimate water Technology and Environment 1(1): l7-ISpp.
Efe, S.I. (2003) Water Quality and its Utilisation in the Nigerian Rural Setting of Abraka Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Dynamics. Maiden (ed) pp. 81 —86
Ovrawah, L. and Hymore, F.K. (2001) Quality of Water from hand-dug wells in the Warn Environs of Niger Delta Region 2(2):pp. 169-173
Oyebande, L. (1981) The Hydrology of Urban Water Supply: A Case of Jos. P.O. Sada and J.S. Oguntoymbo (eds) in: Urbanisation Processes and Problems in Nigeria. Ibadan. University Press pp.141 — 149.
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Concept of primary health care in Nigeria

Introduction
The concept of primary health care (PHC) was formulated by the 134 countries that met at the Alma-Ata conference in Russia on September 12, 1978 which was organized by the World Health Organization. Primary health care is a part of the three-tier system of health care in Nigeria. These are the tertiary health care, which the federal government is in charge; the secondary health care, under the auspices of the state government and the primary health care, controlled by the local governments. In the late 1980s there was a national initiative to overhaul the primary health care system through the adoption of a new national health policy, in the context of which the federal and state governments issued directives giving local government areas full jurisdiction over the delivery of primary health care services.1, 2 The local Government, the State Government and the Federal Government respectively are responsible for all financial aspects, including personnel costs, consumables, running costs and capital investment. The Federal government through the federal ministry of health sets overall policy goals, co-ordinates activities, ensures quality, training and implements sector programmes.

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“Primary health care according to the world health organization means essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology, made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost which the country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self reliance and self determination. It is the first level contact of the individual and community in the national health system, thus bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work and contribute the first element of a continuing health care process”.3 It is essentially aimed to promote health, to cure diseases and to rehabilitate. Nigeria is one of the few countries in the developing world to have systematically decentralized the delivery of basic health and education services to locally elected governments.4
BACKGROUND:
Nigeria has an enormous population of around 120 million in 20035, with a growth rate of about 2.9% per annum. It is hailed as the giant of Africa and yet ranked among the poorest nations of the world.6 The management of the health sector has been poor and this has affected the quality of services to the general populace. Although Nigeria has an extensive national health infrastructure, it lacks the resources needed to function effectively Nigeria is now decentralizing its health system and clarifying the responsibilities and services at each level, which should result in better management and coordination. In addition, its health policy has been guided by the Bamako initiative to encourage and sustain community participation in primary health care services.7
The evidence base for primary care orientated health care system
Primary care – that is, care from the viewpoint of the doctors who has been in contact exclusively to the patients appearing for care- has apparent limitation. From the evidence given by the World Bank table and world health report 2000. It shows that Nigeria is one of the very poor countries. It has a clear symptom of imbalance between resources in poor performance, deteriorating facilities and low working moral among staff. There a high mortality rate in child and adult. The structures of the economy have fallen from 2004, raised a little bit in 2005 and remain constant between 2006 and 2007. This shows that due to lack of adequate resources in will affect the orientation of the health care system.
The development of primary care in Nigeria
An effective primary care system is critical for any country, developed or developing, to maximize outcomes and minimize costs.8, 9 Accurate and relevant data gathering and information processing are necessary for any field of endeavour whether in health care or any other field. It has long been recognized that clinical issues in primary care in Nigeria are different from those in other types of care. For example, the predictive values of symptoms may be quite different in different settings and clinical evidence derived from other settings may have limited applicability to primary health care and delivery. This is due not only to differences in the prevalence of specific diseases, but also to the fact that patients in primary care have many problems and the clinician must prioritize the diagnosis and management of all of these together over time, often in a setting where continuity of care plays a crucial role.10
Primary care is the backbone of Nigeria health system. Primary care plays a vital role in deployment of all resources through appropriate channels in promoting, maintaining as well as improving health. All these confirm the definition of primary health care which states that “essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound, as well as socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community by means acceptable to them and at a cost that community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in a spirit of self-reliance and self determination. It forms an integral part of both the country’s health system of which it is the central function and the main focus of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and the community with the national health system, bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process”11. This implies that patients or individuals have a direct access to the appropriate source of care. It equally shows that it deals more with common and well defined problem in a community setting as well as affordable. Though, the development if primary care in Nigeria has improved immensely but it still shows some major defects.
Reasons for the current status of primary care within the health care system

The coverage is inadequate: it is estimated that 54% of the population have access to the modern health care services. The rural communities and the urban poor are not well served due to inadequate staff and infrastructure.
Lack of basic health data is a major constraint at all stages of planning, monitoring and evaluation of health services.
The basic infrastructure and logistic supports are often defective owing to inadequate buildings maintenance, medical equipment and vehicles and unreliable supply water and electricity also poor management of medicines, vaccines and other supplies system.
The financial resources allocated to the primary care services, especially to some priority areas are inadequate to permit them to function effectively.

Distribution of resources in Nigeria:
The Federal and State Government allocate 15% of the state budget to health services. Within the available resources, high priority shall be accorded to primary health care with particular reference to the less privilege areas and groups. Community and financial sector resources shall be mobilized in the spirit of self help and self reliance.
How the resource should be used in future:

In the light of importance of health in socio-economic development: all the governments of the federation should review their financial allocation to health in relation to the requirements of other sectors of the economy. High priority programmes for primary health care should have the first consideration on any additional resources that may be available
Within the health care system, effort should be made to redistribute the financial allocation among health promotion, preventive and curative health care services. This is to ensure that adequate emphasis and awareness are placed on health promotion and preventive services without comprising curative health services
Governments of the federation should explore additional avenues for financing the health care system especially health insurance schemes and health development levies.
The users should pay for curative services while the preventive services should be subsidized.
Governments of the federation shall encourage employers of labour and the financial sectors to participate in the financing health care services.

Workforce and resource issues in Nigeria:
The workforce and resources issues have been a theme of discussion in the country. Earlier health services was focused primarily in the urban areas, this made them to be experiencing adequate health care delivery than rural areas. Even though health institutions such as leprosaria and dispensaries had been established for rural areas, these did not cater for the communities outside their immediate zones. The problem is that rural people were effectively overlooked in health care delivery, since the existing institutions were inaccessible to them due to cost and logistic constraints.
Another basic problem is the inadequate staff situation to meet the needs of the country. But after training the staff most of them get a job in urban area where they are paid more.
Quality of care issues in Nigeria:
Quality of care varies among patients, politicians, managers, clinicians and other actors within the health care system12. She stressed that quality occurs when good decisions regarding care are made so that resource are utilized effectively and better health outcomes are produced. Quality of health care is a multidimensional and multifaceted concept interwoven with value judgements about what constitutes good quality13. There have been several definitions of quality of health care. “Quality of care is the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge”14.
Accessibility: assess to hospitals or medical centres from the rural areas can be problematic from the patients due to geographical or financial barriers. In some rural areas there are little infrastructure for primary care but there are no qualified doctors. This is due to the fact that most of the doctors are aboard or in the city trying to earn comfortable and decent living.
Comprehensiveness: Nigeria health system can be categorized into the Public and the Private health services. The public health sector is further divided structurally into the Primary Health Care (PHC), Secondary Health Care (SHC) and the Tertiary Heath Care (THC). Though, World Health Organisation (1978) suggests that in order for primary care to be comprehensive, all development- oriented activities should be interrelated and balanced so as to focus on problems of the highest priority as mutually perceived by the community and the health system, and that culturally acceptable, technically appropriate, manageable and appropriately selected interventions should be implemented in combinations that meet local needs. This implies that single- purpose programs should be integrated into primary health care activities as quickly and smoothly as possible.11 In Nigeria, there are referrals but the problem the patients (either rich or poor, over 60 of age or not) faces is that they must pay part of their hospital bill before any treatment can be commence. In United Kingdom most of the treatment the NHS pays the bills.
Co-ordination of services: there is no co-ordination of services because of the way things are in Nigeria there is no accountability of the patient’s medical history. Patient can decide to move from one doctor to another without any referral. The system is not like in United Kingdom where the technology is computerized that you can pull out people medical records anywhere.
Equity: in Nigeria there is no equity. This is country full of corruption even in the hospital. For instance Jane to the hospital around 8.00am, then John and Amy went around 8.30am and 9.00am. Because they are related to the staff in that particular hospital they will see the doctor before Jane. In United Kingdom people wait for their turn unless is on emergency bases.
How could quality of care issues be made better in Nigeria over the next 10 years?
Quality of care issues can be made better by monitoring and evaluation of the health care system, with minimum categories of indicators as follows:

Health policy: proper distribution of health resources, financial, manpower, physical facilities to reflect the degree of equity by geography and by urban/rural ratios; government should devise appropriate mechanisms for supporting and involving the communities in the planning and implementation of health services; an organizational framework for managerial process.
Health status: proper documentation of patients’ health status for instance nutritional status as indicated by weight of babies, weight and height measurement of infants and children in relation to age.
Socio-economical indicators related to health and living standard: such as sanitation, housing condition, work condition, food availability, and adult literacy.
Provision and utilization of health care indicators: immunization this includes the percentage of children at risk who are fully immunized against the major childhood diseases; the incidence of the six diseases in children under 5 years of age and the mortality rate due to the six disease in children under 5years of age. Prevention and control of epidemic diseases indicators shall specify disease specific incidence and prevalence rate. Adequate provision of the essential drugs. The coverage by referral system indicators shall state the proportion of population in a given with access to the within 5 kilometres or 1 hour travel time, the proportion of the referred cases who made use of the services and availability of referral services. Promotion of health in school.

Recommendations for the development of primary health care:

The national health policy: the aims are to achieve health for all Nigerians based on the national philosophy of social justice and equity. Therefore, a health system based on primary health care is adopted as the means of achieving the goal. Since health development contributes to and results from socio-economic development, the sectors should mutually be supportive and together contribute to the ultimate goals of the nation.
All the governments of the federation should review their financial allocation to health in relation to the requirements of other sectors of the economy. High priority programmes for primary health care should have the first consideration on any additional resources that may be available
More staff should be trained and an increase in wages for those who will agree to serve in the areas
Facilitation of monitoring and evaluation data collection system within the nation.

In conclusion:
Primary health care in Nigeria have evolved through a series of historical developments. Though, it is the backbone of Nigeria health system but has been judged to be unsatisfactory and inadequate in meeting the needs and demand of the public as reflected by the low state of health of the population. The population should abide by principles primary health care based on equity and justice. However, if the services are available accessible as well as acceptable to and affordable by every individual, community and the nation; if the masses concentrate on solving those health problems that take the greater toll of life.
 

The Prevalence of Malaria in Northern Nigeria

Epidemiological Overview
Generally, malaria is widespread throughout most of the tropics globally. However, according to Bradley (1992), the epidemiology of malaria has been characteristically varied across the globe because of malaria’s largely diverse vectorial capacity (p. 1). Out of the approximately 3.4 billion people who are globally prone to malaria infections annually, about 1.2 billion are at a higher risk. The World Health Organization (2013) reports that in 2012 alone more than 207 million people developed symptomatic malaria. Between 2000 and 2010, the figures released by the WHO report are, to some extent, encouraging as the number of reported annual malaria incidences in 34 malaria-eliminating countries decreased by 85 % from 1.5 million to 232, 000 cases (WHO, 2013). However, from the same report, the global malaria deaths reached a high of 1.82 million in 2004 and considerably fell to 1.24 million in 2010. Among the deaths reported in 2010 were 714,000 children below the age of 5 and 524,000 individuals above the age of 5. However, shockingly, the World Health Organization (2013) reports that over 80% of malaria deaths occur in the sub-Saharan Africa. Shockingly, the Nigeria Malaria Indictor Report (2012) reports that Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo account for over 40% of the total malaria deaths globally. This revelation has led to several concerted efforts in the two leading countries aimed at addressing the prevalence of malaria.
Malaria Situation in Northern Nigeria
Nigeria is ranked as one of the most populous countries in Africa with a population of approximately 170 million according to the 2013 population statistics and an estimated annual growth rate of 2.6% (Malaria Operation Plan, 2013). The 2010 United Nations Development Program Human Development Index ranks Nigeria at position 142 out among 169 countries (WHO, 2013). The country has an estimated under-five mortality rate of 157 per 1000 live births and maternal mortality is estimated at 545 per 100,000 live births according to the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (Okafor & Oko-Ose, 2012). The southern part of Nigeria is significantly advantaged in almost all social and economic indicators. In this regards, both the child mortality and maternal mortality are relatively higher. For instance, Okafor & Oko-Ose (2012) illustrate that the under-five mortality rates are about one and a half times higher while the maternal mortality rates are about three times higher as compared to some northern parts of Nigeria. Contrastingly, despite the high income attributed to the sales of crude oil, no significant improvement has been recorded and majority of the Nigerians, especially the Northerners live in abject poverty (Malaria Operation Plan, 2013).

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About 97% of the Nigerian population is at risk of Malaria infection with the majority being those living in Northern Nigeria according to a research conducted by the Nigeria Malaria Index Survey (2010). Specifically, research has found out that incidences of malaria transmissions account for over 60% of outpatient visits and 30% of inpatients in Nigerian healthcare institutions. Incidentally, malaria infection is a primary cause of children mortality and contributes to an estimated 225,000 cases of deaths annually (WHO, 2013). Malaria also contributes to an estimated 11% of maternal mortality and about 105 of low birth weight according to NMCP Strategic Plan 2009-2013.
The geographic location of Nigeria makes the climate condition to be ideal for malaria transmission nearly throughout the country. In fact, the remaining 3% of the entire country’s population, who are relatively at a low chance of infection, actually live in the mountainous regions in the southern parts of Nigeria (Jos Plateau State) with an altitude of between 1,200 to 1,400 metres. A series of studies have been conducted to elucidate the effect of seasonal changes on epidemiological index of malaria transmission in Northern Nigeria. Undeniably, the climatic condition of Northern Nigeria is seasonal with rainy seasons in May-October, dry season in December-March and transitional period in April-November (Malaria Operation Plan, 2013). However, studies on the prevalence of malaria in Northern Nigeria have shown that malaria transmission has been predominant during the rainy season and lowest during the dry season.
Gender Distribution and Prevalence of Malaria Transmission
Generally, studies have shown that Plasmodium infections appear more common in the male than in the females in Northern Nigeria. For, example, a study conducted to ascertain malaria occurrences among children aged six months to eleven years in Benin City presented a shocking result. According to the findings of the research, malaria transmission from 2004 to 2009 in male averaged at 57 % while during the same period under review, the transmission in females was at an average of 43% (Okafor & Oko-Ose, 2012). A similar research conducted in the Northern Nigeria’s Ebonyi and Edo States in 2004 made a similar conclusion. This prevalence has been attributed to the fact that males expose their bodies more than females especially when the weather is hot. In that regards, males are more likely to be bitten by mosquitoes. On the other hand, Okafor & Oko-Ose (2012) explain that females tend to stay indoors, helping out with normal household chores. This significantly reduces their contact with the mosquito vector. Either, studies have shown that females have relatively better immunity to parasitic diseases due to their hormonal and genetic composition.
Age Factor and Malaria Prevalence
Based on age, studies have shown that children aged ½ – 2 years have the highest prevalence in malaria transmission (Okafor & Oko-Ose, 2012). According to the research conducted in Benin City in Northern Nigeria among children aged ½ to 11 years, it was realized that children aged ½ -2 years recorded the highest prevalence of 58.6% followed by the age bracket 3 – 5 years at 30.5% and the least being age group 9-11 years at 2.9%. Basically, we can conclude that children under the age of 5 years are more prone to incidences of malaria transmission.
In general, malaria transmission is in a declining trend. A finding carried out in 1999, for instance, in Erunmu in southwest Nigeria reported about 80% malaria parasite prevalence among school children. A similar research conducted in Benin City, according to Okafor & Oko-Ose (2012) clearly showed this decline in prevalence. In 2004, the prevalence among children of ½ – 11 years was 47%. By 2009, the prevalence had dropped considerably to 32%. Through the period under consideration, the overall prevalence of malaria was reported at 36.4%. In a nutshell, this decline can be attributed to the effect of some preventive measures against malaria that has been adopted by the Nigerian Government.
Health Determinants and their Influence on Malaria Prevalence
Many factors combine together to affect the health of individuals and communities in a particular area. The Health Impact Assessment (2014) explains that the environment and the circumstances that people live in extensively determine whether people are healthy or not. To a larger extent, factors such as where an individual lives, the state of the environment, genetics, income, education level and our relationship with friends and families all have significant impact on health. However, on a more specific note, determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment and the individual’s characteristics and behaviors (The Health Impact Assessment, 2014). This paper will elucidate the impact of socio-economic environment and the physical environment on malaria transmission in Northern Nigeria based on both social economic environment and the physical environment.
The Social and Economic Environment
Malaria has predominantly been linked with poverty and the reduction of the propensity of malaria has become a major priority for the Nigerian Government for a long period of time. In particular, malaria is a leading cause of both child and maternal mortality and morbidity in Northern Nigeria that is relatively of a lower social and economic rating (WHO, 2013 and Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey 2010). The economic burden of malaria illness on households accounts for almost 50% of total economic burden of illnesses in the Northern regions of Nigeria. Further, multiple studies have noted that individuals of lower social and economic status bear a disproportionate burden of the parasitic disease and have poor health seeking habits and at times lack necessary health facilities. Generally, research has shown that up to 58% of malaria transmission occurs in the poorest 20% of the world population who, incidentally, receives the worst care and has disastrous consequences from the illness (WHO, 2013). More specifically, there is a heavy malaria burden on the poor than on the rich as demonstrated by recent studies in Northern Nigeria States and in the cities states. According to this research, individuals with an estimate income of less than N300 per day (earning less than a dollar per day) were less likely to perceive malaria as a preventable disease and subsequently recorded more incidences of malaria per month as compared to those who earned less than N300 per day (Yusuph, 2010).
Arguably, the rural dwellers of the Northern Nigeria have a higher risk of infection than their counterpart urban residents. The current statistics indicate that between 6% – 28% of the malaria burden may occur in urban areas which comprise only 2% of the entire African surface (Yusuph et al., 2010). There could be a relationship between this predominance to the socio-economic status of people living in both rural and poverty-ridden regions. Evidently, members of lower socio-economic societies live in environments that offer little or no protection against mosquitoes and they are also less likely to afford the insecticide-treated mosquito nets. Clearly, higher social and economic status groups and urban residents posses more malaria preventive tools and therefore, report few incidences of malaria. In addition, low socio-economic status groups are unlikely to pay either for effective malaria treatment or for transportation to a health facility capable of treating the scourge.
The Physical Environment
Geographically, malaria is transmitted due to the interaction between the malaria mosquito parasite and the human environments (The Health Impact Assessment, 2014). The geographical location of Northern Nigeria presents a key ingredient to the breeding and existence of the malaria-causative parasite. The Progress & Impact Series Country Reports (2012) describes Nigeria’s climate as tropical climate with alternating wet and dry seasons throughout the year which is suitable for malaria transmission. Presence of mangrove swamps, the rain forest, the guinea-savannah, the Sudan-savannah and the Sahel-savanna that extends from the South to the North of Nigeria determine the intensity, seasonality and duration of malaria transmission. On the other hand, apart from the climatic condition, the Northern States of Nigeria have access to inadequate physical facilities, safe water, medical facilities and poor infrastructure that presents a daunting challenge to the prevention or treatment of malaria infections.
Prevention Strategy based on Social and Economic Status
This paper has emphasized on the major public health challenges that high prevalence of malaria presents to the people of Northern Nigeria. The most biologically vulnerable group, as have been noted, are the children below the age of five and pregnant women, perhaps due to their comparatively lower immunity status (Mazumdar & Guha, 2013). Basically, most of the malaria transmissions occur among the poverty ridden residents of the Northern Nigeria. Social and economic background has been distinctively demonstrated by this paper as a major health determinant in malaria transmission in the northern parts of Nigeria.
With the highly perturbing statistical information on malaria transmissions and prevalence in Northern Nigeria, there is a need for an infective and inclusive preventive plan that addresses the most biologically vulnerable group and their social and economic factors that determines their health. Consequently, this papers outlines a four dimensional preventive strategy that is undoubtedly capable of containing the mortality and morbidity among children and expectant women. This preventive strategy summarily focus on management of transmission cases, prevention of malaria with insecticide-treated nets, indoor residual spraying to reduce transmission and finally the use of intermitted preventive treatment and the use of intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women.
Prompt Diagnosis and Treatment
This strategy focuses on timely diagnosis and effective treatment of cases of malaria infections by use of relevant anti-malarial drugs. This strategy is aimed at ensuring that up to 80% of the population, mostly children below the age of 5 and the pregnant women, who are at risk of malaria take timely and necessary treatment at the initial stages of infection. Under this strategy, there is need for provision of free necessary anti- malarial drugs like Artmether-Lumefantrine (Mazumdar &Guha, 2013). There is also a need for a home based care management system especially for the most vulnerable population, that is, children below the age of five. The complexity of this strategy requires a multidimensional approach and involvement by the public sector, the private sector and the faith based health facilities for effectiveness.
Distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITN)
This strategy is intended to prevent malaria transmission to a larger population especially the most vulnerable children under the age of 5 and the pregnant women. Under this strategy, pregnant women and children under the age of five are to be provided with free insecticide treated mosquito nets. These nets should be provided to the expectant women when they attend their ante natal care services in designated health facilities. This scheme also proposes the use of relatively long lasting insecticide nets so as to address the social and economic challenges that bedevils most of the vulnerable groups.
Indoor Residual Spraying
The Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) is geared towards curtailing the transmission of malaria in both the pregnant women and children under the age of five. This program requires entomological monitoring and proper management of insecticide resistance especially among the ignorant population that are characteristic of a low social economic majority. It also requires behavior change communication with the target population and technical assistance and training especially to the personnel in the indoor residential spraying exercise.
Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Expectant Women
This last strategy primarily focuses on regulation of malarial prevalence among expectant women. Statistical data that only 58% of pregnant women by 2008 had access to antenatal care from relevant service providers while 62% of expectant women successfully delivered at home elucidates the extent of socio-economic disparity and the need for effective preventive treatment programs for pregnant women. Ideally, a couple of factors contribute to low utilization of health facilities by expectant women. Primarily, inadequate or poor quality of antenatal services, expensive cost of the services and ignorance on the need to attend antenatal services indisputably discourages expectant women from utilizing antenatal services from relevant health facilities. As a preventive measure to the challenges facing expectant women, this strategy identifies specific drugs that can effectively fight malaria in expectant women. The Intermittent Prevention Therapy (IPT) and Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) have been identified as effective malaria prevention among this vulnerable group. These drugs should be administered freely to the women since majority of them may not be able to afford such drugs.
In conclusion, this paper reaffirms the need to address the malaria menace especially in the sub-Sahara Africa and other tropics. The paper lays emphasis on the prevalence of this scourge on children under the age of 5 and pregnant women. The paper also extensively discusses how socio-economic factors and physical environments contribute to the prevalence of malaria infections especially in poor neighborhoods in Africa and Northern Nigeria in specific. This paper presents a preventive strategy that focuses on the most vulnerably group.
Reference
Bradley, D. J. (1992). Malaria: Old Infections, Changing Epidemiology. London: London
School of Hygiene, in Health Transition Review Vol. 2. Supplementary Issue 1992.
Health Impact Assessment (2014). The Determinants of Health. WHO. Retrieved from
http://www.who.int/hia/evidence/doh/en/
Malaria Indicator Survey (2010). Final Report. Retrieved from
http://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/MIS8/MIS8.pdf
Malaria Operational Plan FY 2013. President’s Malaria Initiative. Retrieved from
www.pmi.gov/countries/mops/fy13/nigeria_mop_fy13.pd
Mazumdar S. & Guha, P. M. (2013). Prevention and Treatment of Malaria in Nigeria:
Differential and Determinants from a Spatial View. Retrieved from http://uaps2007.princeton.edu/papers/70579
Okafor, F. U. & Oko-Ose, J. N. (2012). Prevalence of Malaria Infections among Children aged
six months to eleven years in Benin City, Nigeria. In The Global Advanced Research Journal and Medical Sciences Vol. 1 (10) p. 273-279, November, 2012. Retrieved from, http://garj.org/garjmms/pdf/2012/november/Okafor and Oko-ose.pdf
Progress & Impact Series Country Reports, No. 4 (2012). WHO. Retrieved from
http://www.rbm.who.int/ProgressImpactSeries/docs/report11-en.pdf
Report on Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey (2010). Retrieved from
http://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/MIS8/MIS8.pdf
Yusuph, O. B. et al. (2010). Poverty and Fever Vulnerability in Nigeria: A Multilevel Analysis.
In Malaria Journal. Retrieved from http://www.malariajournal.com/content/9/1/235
World Health Organization. World Malaria Report (2013). Retrieved from
www.who.int/iris/…/9789241564694_eng.pdf
 

Year Round Production Of Oranges In Nigeria

Nigerians, like many other Africans, believe that certain fruits like orange only grow in particular seasons. This cannot be any further from the truth. In developed countries, most if not all the fruits are available for consumption all year-round. The secret behind this availability of fruits is not so far-fetched. This write-up is focused on year-round orange production in rural Nigeria. Growing oranges demands the maintenance of certain climatic conditions like temperature and wind intensity although there are other issues less related to the climate such as pest control, irrigation and fertilizer application. These conditions control the growth of orange. In other words, if they can be maintained at a certain level, production can be done year-round. The Communication and Information Management Technology branches of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have a crucial role to play here as they make it easy to reach majority of the rural farmers. Emphasis is placed on radio as a result of the fact that it is readily available to most of them. Information on the basics of cultivating the fruit throughout the year is handed down to the farmers through radio. The postulation here is that as the farmers get enough of this information, their orientation begins to change and whatever funding or support they get from external sources can be put to good use. This raises the question of funding for this orange production, and this is where the benefits of year-round production such as job creation and increased revenue serve as incentive to potential supporters and lenders, like the government and microfinance banks.

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One of the most widely grown crops in the country today is orange. Its strong nutritional value and by-products such as orange juice are part of the reason for its popularity. Firstly, it is imperative to explain that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) may be subdivided into three main branches namely Computer Technology, Communication Technology and Information Management Technology. While Computer Technology is a vital component of ICT, Communication and Information Management Technologies are equally as important (Wikipedia, 2010). In fact, as far as agriculture goes in the rural areas of Nigeria, Computer Technology will play a less crucial role than any of the other two and the reason is not far-fetched. Although most of the farmers understand the conditions required for the crops to grow in practice, only a handful of them know this in theory. This theoretical knowledge is important if a farmer is going to maximize production.
Methodology
An advantage to the team is that the father of one of our team members is a large scale farmer. Thus a number of our questions were directed to him. Also, another team member made calls to his friend at the bank, a means by which we obtained information about loans and a few other financing questions. Some information was also obtained from books. Most of our sources though are from the internet, like articles and journals.
Year-round Production
One important aspect of year-round production is the culture of the orange tree. Recently, it has been discovered that close-spacing the plants in an orange grove might cause reduction in productivity, and there is also the argument that in close-planted groves, it is quite expensive to prune. On the contrary, the ease with which pruning, fertilizing and harvesting can be done influences farmers’ decision to engage in close-planting. Many groves in rural Nigeria have an average spacing of 20 X 15 ft (7.5×6 m), which in comparison to the former standard 25 x 25 ft (7.5×7.5 m) can be considered to be really close-spaced. Conversely, it has been discovered that by budding ‘Pineapple’ orange onto the rootstock of rough lemon, close-planting can otherwise increase the total yield. A chart is given below to illustrate the behavior of this new type of orange in relation to spacing.
This brings to light two new points of interest – varieties of orange and budding. These two points are very crucial to year-round orange farming. The first secret in growing orange year-round is in its varieties. Different types of oranges react differently to different climatic conditions. For example, while Hamlin and Queen thrive well under extreme cold temperature, Valencia, on the other hand, does not do as well. In developing countries where orange is available to customers year-round, they simply grow the particular type of orange that will flourish in each season. It will not come as a surprise that many if not all of the varieties of orange can grow in many parts of Nigeria. In fact, Benue state in north central Nigeria alone accounts for the production of over ten varieties of orange. The implication of this is that with proper knowledge of these varieties and how they thrive under different conditions, oranges can be produced year-round in the country.
Budding is another important tool that can ensure the production of the fruit during particularly harsh seasons of the year. Although there are many varieties of the fruit that survive in different seasons, there are some seasons that are uniquely harsh to plants. For these seasons, budding is a practice that can ensure the development of more vigorous and productive trees. The process ensures the quality of oranges produced. Budding involves grafting a part of a plant (called the scion) on another plant (called the rootstock) with an already active root system, thus enabling them to grow as one plant. Rootstocks are mostly used for fruiting trees and depending on the rootstock used, even with the same scion, properties such as large fruit size, vigor, and resistance to diseases, drought and root pests can be induced in the resulting tree (Wikipedia, 2010). For example, when certain orange trees are budded onto the rootstock of trifoliate orange, the result is a tree that can survive in extreme cold and even low wet soils.
Irrigation plays a very important role in crop yield, especially during the dry season when wilting is an imminent problem. Many of the farmers in the rural areas know this, but there are still some limitations. One of them is the lack of water; another is the fact that many of the farmers do not know how much water is required for irrigation. To determine how much water is needed, information on the depth of the soil is vital. As with most trees, the depth of the soil affects the reach of the root system. Deep soils allow for better root systems, and consequently better resistance to drought. Furthermore, the deeper the soil, the more the amount of water that can be used in irrigation. For the problem of lack of water, it would be a good idea if farmers are encouraged to work together as the distribution of water is usually uneven in this period. That is, while some farmers’ wells have abundant water, others become dry. Cooperation between them would not only aid in irrigation but in many other useful areas as well. Also because of the benefits to be reaped from this year-round orange production (as explained further down), the government should also help with the supply of new irrigation technology and supply of water.
Another hindrance to the year-round production of orange in the country is the problem of pests and diseases. Oranges, like many other fruits, are affected by a huge amount of pests. Some of the pests particular to orange include citrus rust mites, numerous scale insects, mealy bugs, aphids (plant lice) and fruit flies. These various pests affect different parts of the tree including the leaves, stem, root, and even the oranges. Additionally, diseases are also a big threat to the production of oranges. Some of the common diseases include blight, citrus canker, and some viral and fungal diseases. In some other cases, incompatibility between the scion and rootstock can also be a cause of reduced production. Scientists have come up with some effective treatments for many of these diseases, but without ICT, it is impossible to pass this information to farmers in rural areas. However, occasionally farmers mistake things like abnormal coloration of leaves caused by mineral deficiencies such as copper and zinc for diseases.
Oranges can be preserved for as long as 5 months at relatively low temperatures (between 2.22oC and 3.89oC). This is another advantage of oranges that can be taken to ensure that it is available for year-round consumption. Farmers in rural Nigeria do not take advantage of this property because they do not have the required storage facility, which should be large enough to hold a substantial amount of oranges and keep the temperature low enough to ensure preservation. Most of them have no idea that the fruits can even be preserved that long.
The Role of ICT
The most powerful tool that can be handed down to these farmers is information empowerment; hence the earlier laid foundation on Communication and Information Management Technology. There is no point in purchasing technical equipment for farmers when they do not even know how the things work. The first step is to open their eyes to the details of the fruits they are producing. With proper understanding, the farmers will begin to ask for the right tools. Without instigation from any external factors, they will begin to ask for loans and additional infrastructure to facilitate year-round production. In other words, they need to be informed that it is possible and with today’s technology, there are numerous ways to hand down this information. Radio would be an effective tool since most of these farmers have one. Agricultural programs should air on the radio stations available to them, and in their dialect. These programs, aimed at the farmers, would help them better understand irrigation, soil depth, and many other factors related to their crops. With time, they will start to ask questions, and then extension agents can be introduced to help answer them.
Consistency is a key point in the use of radio. It takes time to change a person’s beliefs. The idea is that the farmers hear the information well enough that it begins to transform their ideas about the growth of their fruit. In other words, unless these programs are kept on air long enough, making these rural farmers adopt the modern techniques introduced here would be an almost impossible task. Therefore, ICT forms the foundation for this revolutionary project in the nation’s agricultural sector. It is the most effective method for passing information to the farmers.
Financing
Agriculture gets it funds from federal and state government, private sectors, and international development partners. Some of the financial institutions like banks believe that lending to small scale farmers is not as risky as lending to big time farmers. This is as a result of the fact, as a number of banks have pointed out, that small scale farmers unlike their large scale counterparts tend to pay back their loans (Mommoh, 2008). However, some other financial institutions believe in funding large scale farmers rather than small scale farmers. Basically, funding agriculture is classified as macro or micro finance, depending on the source of the funds.
One of the major problems facing agricultural financing, especially in rural areas, is poor handling of loans. The targeted farmers barely have access to loans due to barriers or conditions attached. Even when they have access to the loans, they are often given lower than what they applied for, because of insufficient funds. The very unfortunate thing is that the fake influential people who pose to be farmers meet up with the conditions thereby having access to the loans. Another problem is the fact that farmers do not really channel the funds to what it was originally intended for (agricultural production); instead they use it for personal purposes. For this, some blame can be placed on the policy that empowers them with money without the information what the money can and should be used for. Many farmers are already used to their old ways of doing things, and they can continue without the extra money. Thus, they need to be taught new agricultural techniques that will help them understand where to channel the funds they receive, and this is where ICT comes into play.
There are different ways to address problems of agricultural financing. First of all, government should encourage long term loans at low interest rates. Agricultural production involves long gestation period. With such policy (long term loans at lower interest rate) in place, there is tendency for an increase in agricultural production. Financial institutions should also relax their lending criteria in order to allow farmers to have easy access to loans. Small scale farmers do not have acceptable collateral (houses, moveable properties, stocks, shares and so on) required by these institutions. Thus the criteria should be user friendly for easy accessibility of loan. Government can also make land available to farmers for farming.
Alongside the information on how to grow their fruit, the farmers should also be encouraged to utilize funds for the purpose for which they are meant and abide by the terms and conditions of the scheme. They should also make their project and records accessible to the lenders for inspection and verification. The lending body should ensure intermittent monitoring of the funded agricultural project under the scheme. On the part of the government, there should not only be provision of sufficient funds for agriculture, but also follow-up to ensure the proper disbursement of these funds.
Marketing (especially the Off-Season Oranges) [Bitrus]
With year-round production or orange comes the problem of acceptance. This is where marketing comes into play. Being Africans and Nigerians, especially fond of superstitious beliefs, we have made up our minds that the orange is greenish-yellow and any other thing is probably genetically manufactured and hence posing risks of cancer, toxins, poisons, and food allergies. As a result, any company that plans to market oranges of the highest quality all through the year in Nigeria and Africa as a whole must have a way to convince the general public that the oranges are perfectly normal.
How do you assure the potential buyers that the oranges are not genetically altered since the company will be providing quality oranges all year round? The finished orange, although grown in the rural area but using state-of-the art technology should be made available all through the year, orange in color, juicy and large enough to meet international standards if it is to be exported. Since what most of us take in the country does not meet any of the above, then there’s every possibility that potential customers will be skeptical about buying because they might feel it is not natural. The marketing campaign will have to convince the general public that the oranges are naturally grown all year round under the right conditions; stating that the fruits grow under proper irrigation all year round, that different varieties of orange are grown depending on the season; and pesticides and herbicides are used to regulate and control the pests and weeds respectively.
The marketers should have radio talk shows and TV personalities educate the general public that people need to take their minds off the stereotypical way of thinking that fruits can be grown only in their seasons. By educating the general public that under the right conditions, a fruit can be grown year-round, the producer will be able to convince the buyer that there is nothing wrong with the fruit. After all, in developed countries fruits and vegetables are gotten all year round. Take note though that there are the genetically manufactured ones which are usually labeled GM and there are the naturally grown ones. The naturally grown ones are simply grown under monitored conditions and this is the same kind of thing that will be replicated by the rural farmers.
Getting endorsements from NGO’s and other prominent organizations such as the Food and Drug Agency (FDA) and the National Agency for Food and Administration and Control (NAFDAC) will convince people that the fruits are safe for consumption. Internet ads, billboards and commercials too will be instrumental in publicizing the naturally-grown oranges.
The typical orange in Nigeria is not packaged. Proper packaging will attract customers to buy the produced orange. A decent price will further interest the customers and keep them, but this will be after the packaging must have served its purpose.
Another important factor to be considered is the transportation of the oranges from the rural areas to the customers. The producer/supplier must consider how to transport the oranges from the grove in the rural area to the consumers. In theory the fruits will be transported in trucks with properly cleaned, disinfected and ventilated containers that contain temperature-controlled atmosphere for specifically prolonging the shelve life of the oranges and keeping them in their best shape. The trucks will be painted with the ad of the oranges showing the brand name and a colorful painting of the oranges which is a very good marketing strategy. The temperature-controlled trucks should preserve them until they are given to the buyers.
Benefits of Year-round Production []
1. Export: After a few years of production, there would be a need to start exporting the oranges since production is going to be done year-round. This will increase the country’s revenue and consequently, the Gross Domestic Product of the country. This would help the farmers to make the most profit by exploring opportunities in foreign countries that are not present in the domestic market (Tekle, 2007). By doing this, the farmers would eventually turn their small scale farm into international companies which will participate in today’s fast growing global market and gain more knowledge from the highly diverse international market place. This could also go on to help strengthen the value of the Nigerian Naira which translates to an improvement in the Nigerian economy.
2. Job Creation: According to INDEX MUNDI, the rate of unemployment in Nigeria has reduced by 21.3% within the space of 2003 and 2010 as shown in the chart below (Barrientos, 2010). In this time, a huge reduction in crime rate has also been observed and this goes to show that people who are not among the labor force are the ones responsible for the crimes being committed. If farmers are successfully granted the opportunity to go into larger scale production of these oranges they would need to employee more workers to help with the cultivation and harvesting of the oranges. This would go a long way in abetting the decline in crime, unemployment rates, and poverty in the rural areas of Nigeria. Since these oranges are going to be the produced year-round, then the jobs would be full-time jobs instead of seasonal.
3. Joint Production: Farmers can also join their businesses together. This could become an additional source of capital and resources for all the parties involved. This would help facilitate and increase the growth of the business because they have more funds to facilitate the operation involved in the production your oranges which would result to an increase in their profit margin and revenue potential. It also helps this farmer because they have someone to share the responsibility with them which would also reduce the risk and effect of losing plenty money.
4. Environmental Benefits: In order to produce oranges, we need to plant trees. These trees protect the environmental biomes of organisms, giving way to the reduction of Enhanced Green House Effects also known as global warming by remove surplus amount of carbon dioxide and atmospheric air pollutants, including sulphur dioxide, ozone and nitrogen oxide (iloveindia.com, 2010). They also provide us with more oxygen required for living life. These trees would also improve the quality of air and reduce its pollution. It would also improve the visual effect of landscapes in rural area which could also increase revenue gotten from tourism. Since most rural areas appear to be in Northern part of Nigeria it would help control the climate by moderating the effects of sun and can also act as windbreakers. It would also reduce erosion and flooding in these areas since they have no effective drainage system.
5. It will accelerate the growth of the agricultural sector: Since the discovery of crude oil in the country, Nigerians have neglected the agricultural sector. Producing these oranges would also encourage the year-round production of other agricultural goods and also transform it to industrial agriculture and these would ease of the stress that has been put on the oil and gas sector. It will generate more Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross National Product (GNP) and per capita income for Nigeria.
6. Investments: This will bring a large influx of foreign companies who deal in food production and pharmaceuticals. It would also increase the flow of cash into the country and encourage economic activity in Nigeria. It would also curb the problems of low job opportunities and reduced GDP. The remaining farmers and producers will have to develop their labor to keep up with the much improved competition therefore bringing about an increment in general efficiency level. And the Nigerian Government will be taken much more seriously in the worldwide conferences because the number of investors in the country has improved.
7. Infrastructural development: This will bring in new equipment’s for industries who patronize in agricultural products and the agricultural sector will have to provide modern equipments to produce more yields.
8. Globalization: It would generally breach the gap between countries through trade. It would also reduce the cultural barriers which would increase the global village effect.
9. World Trade Organization (WTO): With agricultural investments, there will be economic growth which will make Nigeria a valuable participant in the World Trade Organization.
10. Skill development: Over time, the rural areas will see an evolution of skilled workers, both in the agricultural and industrial sectors.
11. Population Distribution: Like many other countries, the urban regions in Nigeria are densely populated while the rural areas are sparsely populated, but with the new jobs created in rural areas, there would be a redistribution of population. Places like Lagos and Abuja would not be so densely populated. And this would help in the development of the rural areas in Nigeria.
Recommendations
Although there might be set-backs or even disadvantages to the year round production of orange in the country, the advantages far outweigh these disadvantages. With this many advantages, the government and many other sponsors should be more than willing to support the idea. Implementation of this would be revolutionary to food production in the country as it would open the door for year-round production of many other fruits. The implication is that these fruits will become much cheaper than when they can be purchased only in their season. There would be benefits to every sector in the country, but it is imperative that the government does not try to force these rural farmers into production as it might just result in another waste of limited resources. The farmers must properly understand the process and the necessary techniques so that when they get the resources they will use them judiciously. For proper understanding, the ICT tools must also be used efficiently, that is, the farmers must constantly be getting this information and it should be consistent. They should be encouraged to work together and implement these new methods of farming as many of them will be initially resistant to them.
 

Comparison of Nigeria and Iran’s Politics

INTRODUCTION:
Nigeria:
Nigeria is authoritatively known as the Federal Republic of Nigeria. it is an elected sacred republic embodying 36 states and its Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The nation is found in West Africa and shares land outskirts with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Its drift in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. Nigeria is regularly alluded to as “the Giant of Africa”, because of its extensive populace and economy. With around 174 million occupants, Nigeria is the most crowded nation in Africa and the seventh most crowded nation on the planet. The nation is possessed by in excess of 500 ethnic gatherings, of which the three biggest are the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. Nigeria is Africa’s heading oil maker; more than a large portion of its kin live in neediness. Nigeria assumes a noticeable part in African affairs; has withdrawn troops from oil-rich Bakassi promontory to settle outskirt debate with Cameroon

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Iran:
Islamic Republic of Iran since 1980, is a nation in Western Asia. It is verged on the north by Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, with Kazakhstan and Russia over the Caspian Sea; on the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; on the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; on the west by Iraq; and on the northwest by Turkey. Iran is home to one of the world’s most seasoned civilizations, starting with the shaping of the Proto-Elamite and Elamite kingdom in 3200 – 2800 BCE. Iran holds 9% of world oil saves; a discriminating shortage in jobs has hit the youthful, and international authorizations have severely influenced the economy in general. Iran’s nuclear system incited the international group to force progressively intense authorizes in an offer to induce Tehran to halt uranium enhancement. An arrangement to limit uranium improvement was struck in November 2013.
EXECUTIVE SYSTEM:
The executive is the piece of government that has sole power and obligation regarding the every day organization of the state. The executive limb executes or implements the law. The division of power into discrete limbs of government is integral to the thought of the partition of powers
Nigeria:
The executive extension is partitioned into Federal Ministries, each one headed by a clergyman selected by the president. The president must incorporate no less than one part from each of the 36 states in his cabinet. The President’s arrangements are affirmed by the Senate of Nigeria. In a few cases, an elected pastor is in charge of more than one service (for instance, Environment and Housing may be joined), or a priest may be supported by one or more clergymen of State.[1] Each service likewise has a Permanent Secretary, who is a senior civil servant. In Nigeria, the executives are made up of the president and his bad habit. In democratic administration, the executive’s signs charge that have been agreed by the Nigerian national gathering’s into law. They likewise name key people into the government. In the military period, the executive who essential are the head of state and his delegate authorizes laws by pronouncement.
Iran:
the Executive limb of government are three oversight bodies: 1) Assembly of Experts (Majles-e Khoebregan), a prevalently chose body accused of deciding the progression of the Supreme Leader, looking into his execution, and dismissing him if regarded vital; 2) Expediency Council or the Council for the Discernment of Expediency (Majma-ye- Tashkhis-e -Maslahat-e- Nezam) pushes supervisory power over the executive, judicial, and legislative extensions and determines legislative issues when the Majles and the Council of Guardians differ and since 1989 has been utilized to instruct national religious pioneers on matters with respect to national strategy; in 2005 the Council’s powers were extended to go about as a supervisory body for the government; 3) Council of Guardians of the Constitution or Council of Guardians or Guardians Council (Shora-ye Negban-e Qanon-e Asasi) figures out if proposed enactment is both sacred and reliable to Islamic law, vets competitors in prominent elections for suitability, and directs national election
FUNCTIONS OF EXECUTIVE SYSTEM:
Nigeria:
The executive limb serves as the head of state, summoning the military and making political errands. Under the balanced governance system, the executive extension has the power of veto over the legislative limb, and the Vice President is the President of the Senate. Parts of the legal are designated by the executive limb, which can likewise issue pardons. Thusly, Congress can confirm that a President is unfit for office and evacuate him or her, and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court gets to be leader of the Senate throughout denunciation processes.
Then again, we might quickly layout the particular functions of the executive arm of government in this way:

Budget Preparation
Initiation of advancement tasks
Execution and upkeep of the Constitution and laws made by the National Assembly
Preserving, securing and protecting the regional trustworthiness of the country, and guaranteeing strength and security, and
Carrying on the business of administration in all implications including directing international relations

Iran:
The faqih, who practices numerous accepted executive functions, is chosen by a larger part vote of the Assembly of Experts, a 86-part assemblage of senior pastors who are chosen by well known vote at regular intervals. The Assembly assesses the work of the faqih in yearly gatherings; it can release the faqih on the off chance that he is considered no more qualified. The faqih is in charge of picking the leaders of the military services and the leader of the legal, setting general state approach, proclaiming war and peace, directing the military (counting control of insights and security offices), launching and managing corrections to the constitution, and administering a mixture of powerful parastatal establishments and associations. The executive extension is headed by the president, who in practice is the second-most elevated government official. He is chosen in national elections at regular intervals and is restricted to two sequential terms. The constitution determines that the president must be a Shia Muslim. The current president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, was chosen in 2005. The president chooses a few vice presidents and 21 pastors who constitute his cabinet. Serves yet not vice presidents are liable to regard by parliament. The faqih can reject a president if two-thirds of parliament votes to arraign him.
SIMILARITIES AND DISSIMILARRITIES BETWEEN BOTH EXECUTIVE SYSTEMS:
As indicated by the Constitution of Iran, the President is the Head of the Government who hold the powers of the Executive after the Supreme Leader. The President is chosen for a term of 4 years by widespread suffrage. The obligations of the President incorporates
Implementation of the Constitution and for the activity of executive powers, aside from matter identifying with Supreme Leader
The President names and regulates the Council of Ministers
Coordinates government choices, and chooses government arrangements to be set before the lawmaking body
The executive limb likewise incorporates a cabinet containing a board of pastors chose by the President with the endorsement of the Legislature.
The Executive limb of the Government of Iran likewise contains three oversight bodies specifically

Assembly of Experts
Expediency Council or the Council for the Discernment of Expediency
Council of Guardians

The executives of Nigeria in any administration are generally saddled with the obligations of completing different government strategies. The executives protect and execute the constitutions that represent the elected republic of Nigeria. Under the executives (the presidency) there are typically 3 principle arms in particular:

Head of service of the organization
Secretary to the government

STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES:
Both countries executive system has their own importance. The strengths of each executive system is that it manages all the administration work of the government bodies of both countries. The weaknesses of both countries are their strict rules regarding work which is mostly not followed and parties do not perform their duties honestly.
 

Democracy in Nigeria Challenges

NIGERIAN DEMOCRACY TODAY: THE EXPECTED DIVIDENDS AND CHALLENGES
BY
FRANKLINS A . SANUBI, Ph.D
 
Abstract
After a long period of military interregnum, the anxiety and high expectations which characterized the disposition of the local Nigerian polity shortly before 1999 had almost waned in barely a decade of the country’s democratic experiment due to bad and corrupt governance resulting in some fresh pessimism about the workability of democratic governmentt in the country These expectations which have been encapsulated into a new paradigm in Nigerian politics known as “dividends of democracy” have aroused some academic and policy concern about the claims of those who professed to have secured some “dividends” for their people and those who believed that such acclaimed dividends are a ruse. Using a structural-functional analytical framework in a descriptive research design, this paper presents some of the relevant arguments for and against the claim to the dividends of democracy in Nigeria, pointing out some of its key challenges. It observes among others, that while the claim to attaining dividend of democracy may be arguable under the platform that the adoption of democratic governance in Nigeria may have secured some favourable external image for the nation in recent years, there are ample evidence that much of the claims by political actors to dividends of democracy are not supported by tangible functional structures of an enduring democracy The paper recommends among other things, a vigorous pursuit of the institutional fight against corruption and an expedited reform of the country’s electoral system.
Introduction
The peculiarities of a nation’s practice of democracy distinguish it from another’s. As a social process, democracy should naturally be expected to respond to the dictates of its immediate milieu while as much as possible it aspires to some universal principles or standards in its practice. From its definitions as ‘a government of popular sovereignty’ democracy permits the majority of the governed to have its “will” enthroned in governance at least in deciding who should direct its own affairs in political authority at elections. In Nigeria’s barely half-a-century of political independence, some attempts at democratic governance may have totalled up only to nineteen years of its nationhood. Of this however, much will be desired of any one to identify the boundaries of a ‘true democracy’ as defined above if any, that is existing in the Nigerian experience.

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Typically, a democracy is characterized among others, by a regular general election, a highly defined electoral procedure, a high degree of the rule of law (with an independent and transparent judicial structure) and a people whose human rights is optimally guaranteed by existing executive, legislative and judicial institutions. While it may be argued at some academic forum that no ideal (true) democracy can be found in any nation today, there is however much compelling impulse to associate some current western democracies with a high degree of ideal democratic phenomenon. The Nigerian democracy would, comparatively rank very low in such continuum in terms of both practice and dividends.
Democratic Dividends: A Definition
Our discomfort with the use of the term “dividend” in the analysis of political performance, and especially in Nigeria where self-interest seems to vehemently override nationalistic aspiration, lies not in its auspiciousness but in its origin. The term “dividends” is a business one, particularly in the area of investment. To expect a dividend in future is to invest today. Investment is seen from the point of view of economics as “part of present income spent on goods or services in order to generate a high future income”. Such goods however are investment goods as distinguished from consumer goods. This view of investment sees the process as a “risk taking” endeavour. To assure a risk-taker of a dividend is to minimize his risks elements while investing. Higher risks bring higher dividends. The most successful investors therefore belong to the class of high risk takers. By importing this process into politics, Nigerian politicians may be described as political investors who see their attainment of political office as a management of political investment rather than a call to service for one’s fatherland. Hence, when you hear an average political office holder talk of dividends of democracy, he is implicitly referring to the size of the national cake he is able to cut for himself, albeit his people. Democratic dividends in Nigeria may therefore not be seen merely as yielding a desired purpose of attaining national good governance for the benefit of the entire polity but particularly as an expression of a competitive struggle for natural economic resources to the satisfaction of competing individuals or groups often defined in ethnocentric terms. Yet this term “dividend” of democracy has been a household one in the language registers of political actors in Nigeria.
Structural-Functionalism and Democracy: A theoretical framework
An auspicious social theory under which the analysis of the “dividends of democracy in Nigeria” may be comfortably made is the theory of structural-functionalism. The functionalist school believes that the understanding of a given system (under this circumstance, the Nigerian political system in the democratic dispensation) must necessarily comprise not only the understanding of the institutions (or structures) which make up the system but also their respective functions1. The adherents of structural-functionalism insist that these institutions must be placed within a meaningful and
1 Igwe, O. (2007) Politics and globe dictionary, New ed., Aba: Eagle Publishers
dynamic historical context if they are to be properly understood – an idea that stands in sharp contrast to the prevailing approaches in the field of comparative politics such as the state-society theory and the dependency theory. The structural-functional approach is based on the view that a political system is made up of several key components including interest groups, political groups and branches of government. According to Almond & Powell, a political system performs some key functions such as political socialization, recruitment and communication2. Socialization may be seen as a process by which a society passes along its values and beliefs to succeeding generations while from a point of view of politics, socialization (and hence political socialization) may be described as a process by which a society inculcates civic virtues, or the habit of effective citizenship. Political recruitment on the other hand may be seen as a process by which a political system generates interest, engagement and participation from citizens while communication describes a process by which a system promulgates its values and information. A variant of structural-functionalism based on the analysis of Gabriel Almond sees all political systems as comprising four major characteristics namely: that all political systems including the simplest ones have political structures; that the same functions are performed in “all political systems even if they may be performed with different frequencies and different structures; that both the political structures of the primitive and the modern societies are multifunctional no matter how specialized they are and; that all political systems are mixed in the cultural sense”3.
 
2. Almond, G.A. & Powell Jnr. B.G.(1966) Comparative politics: A development approach, Boston: Little Brown..
 
3 Offiong, O.J. (1996) Systems theory and structural functionalism in political analysis. In A.O. Oronsaye, (Ed.) Nigerian government and politics, Benin City: United City Press.
As a political system in transition (as Nigeria,) moves from one state of equilibrium to another, the various political institutions or structures should be expected to bring about a required social change in their performance of the socialization, recruitment and communication functions. A social change according to Talcott Parsons occurs through four distinct and inevitable processes namely: differentiation ( that is, the increase in the complexity of social organizations); adaptive upgrading (that is, social institutions becoming more specialized in their processes) inclusion ( where groups previously excluded from a society because of such factors as race, gender, social class etc are now accepted) and; value generalization (that is, the development of new values that tolerate and legitimate a greater range of activities) 4. The application of democratic governance in Nigeria should therefore be seen from a structural-functional perspective as a desire to effect a required social change in our political development by the various democratic institutions performing their required functions in that respect. The Nigerian democracy therefore will be not meaningful, that is, not structurally functional, if it is not performing its required social functions (or yielding the expected dividends).
The Dividends of Nigerian Democracy and the Challenges
If any thing else, Nigerian democracy should be directed at fulfilling the nation’s philosophical goals as expressed in the official document of its Second National Development Plan (1970-1974) namely: “the creation of a free and democratic society; a just and egalitarian society; a united, strong and self reliant nation; a great and dynamic
4Kuper, A. (1988) The invention of primitive society: Transformation of an illusion, London: Routledge
economy and, a land of full and bright opportunities for all citizens”5.
Expectedly, Nigerian democracy should ensure the enthronement of a national consciousness, integrity and service. There should be strong desire to build one’s own nation by its citizen rather than a plunge-it-down syndrome typical of much of our current dispensation. Democracy should provide equal opportunities to genuine service-minded individuals to express themselves in seeking political office through elections. Democracy should be a platform for the provision of political enlightenment for the teeming apathetic and economically-emasculated people of the countryside and metropolises. Democracy is expected to guarantee an un-biased allocation and application of naturally determined national economic resources for the benefit of the entire polity while providing relevant opportunities for component region or states to harness local potentials for healthy competitive development initiatives. Democracy should provide relevant safeguards against corruption and unauthorized acquisitions of national resources by individuals and groups who see themselves high above the corporate goals of the nation. Judicial safeguards in terms of regular prosecution and punishment should especially be adequately entrenched into such a political system. Democracy should provide relevant and adequate checks and balances between the three organs of government and as much as possible a freer press as the fourth estate in the realm. The phenomenon of wanton arrest, detention of journalists and the forceful closure of media-houses whenever they purvey any information acclaimed by political authorities
5. Federal Republic of Nigeria, (1970) Second National Development Plan 1970-1974, Lagos: Federal Ministry of Information,,p.32
as inimical to their existence (albeit the corporate existence of the nation) typical of our current democratic experiment will therefore require some policy refinement and for policymakers to demonstrate subtlety. Democracy should be expected to yield the above ascribed “dividends” to Nigeria through its practice over the years.
Alternatively, the Nigerian democracy has yielded few, if any, of the ascribed dividends to its citizens. The typical dividends however has remained the propagation of ethnic dominance in the appropriation of national resources through what Deutsch6 describes as aa zero-sum game approach in form of appointments to vital national and state positions, regional self determination through the core vs. peripheral perception of resource allocation7, , thus engendering a clamour for regional economic independence popularly called “resource control” by the oil bearing peoples of the Niger Delta.
Notwithstanding and on the positive side, democracy may have succeeded somewhat in sensitizing the citizens in appreciating the need for good governance among political office holders. There is a growing wave of civic awareness among people in Nigeria today than it had ever been. The increasing quest for probity and accountability and the adoption of due process principles (even with its default) may be regarded as a vital recipe for the re-branding of our local democratic culture and practice. But for the seeming inadequacies such as the area of official responsibility and accountability, and electoral malpractice, the Nigerian practice of democratic governance may have helped to
6 Deutsch, M. (1973), The resolution of conflicts: Constructive process, New Haven: Yale,
 
7 Noel, C.L. (1969), A theory of ethnic stratification: Social problems. Journal of Sociology, Vol. 16.(2).
grow the nation’s international image as a major regional power in the African sub-region. The United Nations has often called on Nigeria to lead its team in the execution of its major international (especially African regional) economic, social and military initiatives. Nigerian’s growing involvement in regional peace keeping and other humanitarian missions and the African continent derives mainly from its recognition not only primarily as an economically-endowed nation, but also as a democratic entity with abundant hope. This perhaps may be adjudged as the most important dividend of the Nigeria’s democracy so far. Much however is yet to be desired of this image as its electoral process undergoes reform. The impetus provided by Ghana and South Africa in their respective recent elections have further strengthened the national call for electoral reforms and political transparency. The relevance of such call is underscored by a growing optimism in the national populace about the possible workability of the democratic arrangement as a better alternative in governance after having been overwhelmed by military dictatorship (with it accompanying slow pace of economic development) for over two-thirds of its nationhood.
By a tacit recognition of the “expected” and “perceived” dividends of the Nigerian democracy, it becomes a little easier to identify some of the major challenges of the Nigerian democratic experience so far.
At the apex of the challenges is the issue of electoral reforms. The want of a credible independent electoral process has unfortunately created institutional safeguards for political parties (especially incumbents) to exploit the existing political machinery for their electoral advantages. The office of the president has most often exploited its advantage as the appointing institution to impact significantly on the activities of the successive electoral commissions in the country. The result is that electoral rigging have been institutionalized often with threats of arrests on credible opposition. In the 2007 state and federal elections particularly the former, this anomaly was not only typical of but also rampant.
Democratic government are expected to be less prone to corruptive tendencies since there are supposedly more institutional safeguards against them than the military regime. Unfortunately, the Nigerian democracy is yet to vindicate itself as a better alternative in this respect. Phenomenally, what may be regarded as some institutional arrangement created by government against corruption and other economic crimes though looked initially very impressive and praiseworthy during the moribund Obasanjo’s civilian regime, were later overrun by the same political structure (particularly the executive and legislative arms) which had seen such an arrangement as an erosion of their political and economic ambitions. Thus, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and the Independent Corrupt Practice Commission (ICPC) became after an initial euphoria, figments of their creator’s imaginations. Corruption still remains a major challenge to Nigeria’s democracy.
The ethnocentric clamour for economic self determinism, especially by the people of the Niger Delta has aroused a new awareness about the inevitability of good governance in the area of equitable distribution of natural resources especially in a plural society like Nigeria. The hydra-headed problem of the Niger Delta crisis is a logical aftermath of governments’ inability to address the special environmental and economic needs of the Niger Delta peoples and symptomatic of the continuing absence of agreement on a workable revenue sharing formula after a trial of several sharing principles over the years. This phenomenon has created additional challenges for the attainment of the expected dividends of democracy.
Conclusion and Recommendations
The claim to the attainment of democratic dividends by political actors in Nigeria will remain as contestable in certain areas as there exist elements of political inadequacies in the three key theoretical areas of political socialization, recruitment, communication. By consolidating on its growing international image as a regional centre of hope, Nigerian policymakers should invest much energy on the institutional fight against corruption by allowing the relevant statutory agencies already created for this purpose to exercise their mandate without unnecessary executive intervention. The pursuit of electoral reform in an attempt to enthrone a great degree of (if not total) internal and external credibility in our public elections should be more vigorous and expeditious so that as early as 2011, fresh and enduring dividends in that aspect can be become visibly clear. Until democratic practice in Nigeria provides more functional evidence in terms of enhanced political participation, equitable and acceptable process of resource allocation, credible electoral practice and a political culture of national integrity and transparency, it will remain sharply contestable to lay claim to the attainment of a meaningful dividend of democracy in Nigeria.
1
 

Political Recruitment Procedure in Nigeria

THE RELEVANCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION TO POLITICAL RECRUITMENT IN NIGERIA
BY
Franklins A. SANUBI, PhD Department of Political Science, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria
KEYWORDS: Entrepreneurship Education, Political Recruitment, Entrepreneurship, Intrapreneuring.
ABSTRACT:
The continuing influx of non professionals into party politics in Nigeria has created the challenges of good governance and many hove asked the question of how to rid the political space of neophytes. One explanation for this phenomenon is provided in the prevailing political recruitment procedure in Nigeria. Entrepreneurship education has provided some philosophical tool for establishing a reliable political recruitment process. This paper examines the relationship and provides some recommendations on the process of ensuring good recruitments into our party politics spectrum.
A. INTRODUCTION
Perhaps the only vocation in Nigeria today where the free entry and free exit principle of a perfect market system is operational is the vocation of party politics as people from all known professional backgrounds have found it a treasure ground of resort. It is in fact needless to ask an average politician where he or she got training in party politics. Regrettably, political recruitment process in Nigeria is very simple and without any major technical requirements, people can enroll at any point in time into party politics. The only requirement, if anything else, is your availability – the amount of readiness demonstrated by the aspiring individual to attend party meetings and caucuses. Just write down your name and attend one or two political party meetings and you are on your way to becoming a big time politician in Nigeria.

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This is the point where we come to explain the prevalence of political neophytes at the various levels of public policy making in Nigeria as all manner of people both with questionable and unquestionable backgrounds in the management of public resources find themselves in the realm of leadership simply because of a faulty recruitment process into the vocation of party politics in Nigeria. Thus, you find medical doctors, teachers, motor drivers, auto mechanics, pastors or other religious leaders, retail shop owners and jobless individuals all involved in party politics as practitioners of a profession that relies much on number of people as its major asset.
“Leave politics for the politicians” is often the advice given by those who do not find any need to become one. Yet there is hardly a clear definition of who is or (should be) a politician in Nigeria since it has become an all-corners affair.
With such a seemingly irreversible phenomenon of political recruitment, the chal1eng to policymakers therefore is to create entrepreneurship educational portfolios where recruits into party politics in Nigeria would develop skills of the, vocation to take opportunities offered by the prevailing political (business) environments.
B. ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION: A CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
Experts in the subject matter of history of education have credited ancient Greek civilization with its emphasis placed not only on citizenship but also on entrepreneurship education. With massive curricular contents favouring the child’s ability to use available materials through practical skills to create innovative learning outcomes, an average Athenian schoolboy knows that he has to imbibe a strong culture of entrepreneurship education.
Entrepreneurship education seeks to provide students with the knowledge, skills and motivation to encourage entrepreneurial success in a variety of settings. (Block & Stumpf, 1992) The classic picture of entrepreneurship education (also known as intrapreneurship education) as given by its major proponent Gifford Pinchot, is its distinctive focus on the “realization of opportunity” under any given setting (Pinchot, 1985). The ability of the individual to see the opportunity and utilize it for a successful outcome marks the significance of entrepreneurship education (Pinchot & Pellman, 1985). Although closely related to management education which focuses on the best way to operate within existing hierarchy and structures, entrepreneurship education like the former targets “profit making”. Profit making, in this circumstance does not necessarily imply increased monetary benefits, but may also be (especially in non-profit organizations or governments) in terms of enhanced social services or decreased costs. It could also be explained in terms of increased responsiveness to the customer/citizen/client on such services being provided.
Realizing business opportunity can be achieved, by orienting entrepreneurship education towards several directions including; Entrepreneurship (the ownership) of a new business, such as opening a new shop or small scale industry; interpreneurship (which involves the promotion of innovation or the introduction of new products or services or markets within existing environments or organization without having to start a separate (new) business unit (Pinchot, 2000). This may be made possible through research and innovative initiative among entrepreneurs. Consider for example, a food vendor who sells within a given business environment and suddenly discovers that the target clientele is expanding due to some expansionary activities of the neighboring companies resulting in their employment of new staffers. Intrapreneurship requires that the food vendor can no longer operate within his existing budget if he is to maximize profits. He does not need to be educated on the desirability of budgetary expansion to enable him create an absolute capacity for his new client’s demand. A third orientation relates to what experts call social entrepreneur which involves creating charitable organizations (or portions of existing charities) designed to be self-supporting in addition to doing their good works.
Intrapreneurship may lead to a phenomenon described as clustering. Clustering occurs when a group of employers breaks from a parent company to form a new company but continues to do business with the parent organization as in the popular Silicon Valley clusters. This phenomenon is common among lawyers who while working under existing legal chambers do break out often to undertake some business ventures without having to quit their existing chambers entirely.
Pinchot believes that entrepreneurship releases the energy’ in the direction of deep personal values while also it is a tool for releasing the creativity, values and entrepreneurial spirit of people who work in large corporations. “When you free people from fear and bureaucratic restraint, they are likely to choose innovation projects that serve their deeper values (Pinchot 1985) Intrapreneurs have a great zeal to be innovative and a drive to ownership. The entrepreneurial sence of independence is so high among intrapreneurs that Pinchot in his ten commandments of Intrapreneuring describes their attitude in work organizations as people who “come to work daily willing to be fired”.
For a productive and profit-oriented business success, intrapreneurship education is very useful. What relevance therefore, can there be, of entrepreneurship education to political recruitment in the Nigerian policy and how may we define the line of congruence between these variables.
C. ASSESSING THE RELEVANCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION TO POLITICAL RECRUITMENT IN NIGERIA
Porter (1994) has established a relationship between entrepreneurship education and business education. We can extend this discourse by establishing some relationship between entrepreneurship education and political recruitment in Nigeria. Political recruitment is a process by which citizens are selected for involvement in politics. Party system is the most important mechanism of political recruitment, The process of political recruitment involves two levels namely: recruitment of power elite, that is, party and government cadres and the recruitment of grassroots membership – who provide political support for party programmes and policies. The recruitment of grassroots may involve a historical process whereby certain cadres of the society are targeted for recruitment e.g. peasant workers and revolutionary youths, and this is then followed by the recruitment of workers, students and rebellion youths and then the recruitment of professional and educated youths. The recruitment provides a stage of political screening such as the examination of class origin, political attitude, political participation or clientelism. Clientelism in the view of Protsyk & Matichescu (2009) involves contingent direct exchanges between political actors and both vote-rich and resource-rich constituencies. At the initial point, the role of educational credentials in political recruitment may be irrelevant, but with time, become positive or negative and finally very important.
The relevance of entrepreneurship education to political recruitment in Nigeria can be established in several ways. Firstly, entrepreneurship education provides the individual with the strong initiative to succeed in his political career. There is a strong imperative to see party politics as not merely a game being played by two or more persons, but more importantly as a field where excellence in service is required. The individual will take ownership of his actions with a strong sense of judgment that being a politician can be onerous and requires a lot of responsibility and expectations from the society in terms of excellent service to the people.
Entrepreneurship education can help promote the spirit of innovativeness among people who chose to enlist in party politics. The individual utilizes every new opportunity in his political environment to create new political images of success. For instance, a politician who observes that there is a growing school enrolment among children in his community and or neighbouring communities would devise new creative political slogans or even manifestoes that will appeal to the immediate passions of his proposed electorate. It is needless for an aspiring politician targeting upland dwellers to propose programmes designed or suitable for riverine areas – such as riverine transport system.
Entrepreneurship education would facilitate political education especially in rural or unenlightened communities as individual aspirant would localize training techniques or apply local technologies to provide the relevant learning materials to his subjects. This will also help in reducing costs to the ultimate advantage of the subsisting party to which the individual belongs.
Entrepreneurship education should be a suitable tool for sensitizing the right type of party membership at all cadres or recruitment. Subjects should therefore choose to belong to a political party with a genuine sense of awareness about his expectations not merely joining a band wagon. Subjects should have their energy released towards a vocation where their deep personnel values reside. The present phenomenon where party politics is seen as a residue to retire to where all other endeavours have failed or a place where quick wealth and fame can be realized can no longer prevail.
D. Conclusion and Recommendations
An entrepreneur is an owner of a business. Entrepreneurs are driven by the myths of greed, high risk taking, intuitive thinking and even sometimes dishonesty ( Pinchot, 2000) The business may be tangible for it to be observed by others. However, the sense of entrepreneurship may be presently dialectical and reside within the individual who only waits for any physical opportunity to realize his ownership dream. Entrepreneurship education should be a relevant tool to facilitate the ownership drives among people in various vocations including party politics. In particular reference to political recruitment entrepreneurship education should help stimulate the right type of practitioners and hence secure the right quality of leaders needed especially for a developing polity like Nigeria.
Existing educational programmes should be philosophically tailored to meet the needs of subjects who are the future entrepreneurs in Nigeria. This would lead to the redirection of subjects’ perception of schooling as not merely a means of securing paid jobs. In a society with dwindling employment options, entrepreneurship education should be a suitable tool for fostering the self-employment initiatives among the school leaving class and those enlisting in other entrepreneurial vocations.
The strong Connections between entrepreneurship education and good governance in Nigeria can therefore no longer be imaginary under this discourse but realistic.
REFERENCES
Block, Z. & Stumpf, S. A. (1992) Entrepreneurship education research: Experience and challenge. In D. L. Sexton and J. D. Kasarda, (Eds.) The state of the art of entrepreneurship, Boston, MA: PWS-Kent Publishing, pp. 17-45.
Protsyk, O. & Matichescu, M.L. (2009) Clientelism and political recruitment in democratic transition. Evidence from Romania, retrieved from the net onO4/ 22/2011 @http://www.policy.hu/protsyk /Publications/Articles/CPRomClient 11 .pdf.
Pinchot, III G. (1985). Intrapreneuring; Why you do not have to leave the organization. New York, NY:,-. Harper & Row.
Pinchot, G. & Pellman, R. (2000) Intrapreneurship in action: A handbook for business innovation, San-Francisco, California : Berrett-Kohler.
Porter, L. W. (1994). The relation of entrepreneurship education to business education. Simulation & gaming 25(3): 416-419.
 

Impact of Social Injustice on Nigeria

The question of social justice is a question of what is a proper social order, which can guarantee human equitable and equally distribution of benefits and burdens in a society, which will lead to a flourishing state where individuals are treated equally by the state regardless of society status or creed. A just social order cannot allow for a society of slaves, where for some people, resources external to them are been subjected entirely to communal control, such that they having no control or very little control of means of life, thus leading to their autonomy been undermined. With regards to the Nigerian situation, the Nigeria’s socio-political conundrums stem from numerous complicated tides. Egharevba (2007) states that the “nation-state of Nigeria emerged out of political amalgamations of extremely diverse ethnic groups and class configurations brought together as a colonial necessity in 1914.” In other words, Nigeria’s problems are predicated on the partitioning of Africa by European at the Berlin conference. This conference left the continent with an illogical pattern of geographical distribution which also reflected on the amalgamation of Nigerian by the then colonial masters (Mentiki, 2002). Ammo (1997) sees the make-up of the Nigerian state as an embodying the merging of different people with different worldview that lacks a coherent and functional unity and is consequently fragile. As will be shown in the following analysis, this research seeks to analyse how the impact of social injustice in the Nigeria state has led to the bigger problem of ethnic cleavages which has further prevented the country from attaining any meaningful development.

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Balewa a former Prime Minister of Nigeria, states that some problems facing the nation include the problems of indiscipline, tribalism, lack of patriotism and declining productivity. But one of the most obvious is the tribal prejudice inherent in the nation’s polity as a result of the inequitable distribution of the ethnic groups across her landscape and the persistent attempt of the giant ethnic groups to monopolize control over state resources thereby usurping and undermining the far lesser groups in the nation’s polity. This assertion has been arrived at having keenly analysed the views, lamentations, opinions and findings of some Nigerian socio-political thinkers on the problem of social injustice in the Nigerian state (Oyeshile, 2005). According to these authors, it is the repressing of the interests of some groups (disadvantaged in size, status, ethnicity, etc.) that has characterized the bane of attaining social justice and by extension, social development in the country (ibid). Anikpo identified the appropriation of available resources in Nigeria as characterized by the fundamental concept of Marx’s theory which defines the instability arising particularly from distorted production and rewarded system; as societal goods are distributed to individuals based on their social class or productivity ability. Hence, this situation of polarization of various ethnic groups, social groups and class lines, etc. has led to the formation of ethnic militias raising several questions about social justice in the society.
According to Oyeshile (2005), social injustice in terms of unfair and inequitable distribution of social goods satisfactorily among the multi ethnic groups in Nigeria over the years has resulted in the sharpening of the individual’s allegiance to ethnic inclinations rather than to state authority.1 This reality, according to him, has led to the weakening of the federal government and state authorities in propagating agendas of national interest and development, “since it has become the case that issues of national interest can no longer be considered in their own merits but on how they affect the ethnic groups”2. In other words, the diversities in a contest complicated differences in language, religion and level of economic attainment has further disintegrate the various ethnic tribes in the Nigerian state.
In buttressing the above claim, Oguejiofor (2005) refers to the attitude of Nigerians towards the annulment of the June 12, 1993 election, an election which could have consolidated democratic rule in the country years ago. According to him, the North did not want a revisit of the June 12 election simply because its annulment ensured that it (the North) remain in control of power. He states further that “the other sections of Nigeria did not see their interest attacked by the cancellation of the election (and as such did not protest), while for most Yoruba who mounted serious protest, it was doubtful whether they would have done so if the candidate who won the election were not of Yoruba extraction” (ibid). In a further analysis of the Nigerian socio-political situation, Oladipo observed another deepening effect of social injustice in the Nigeria polity. He observed that at the receiving end of the ethic pervasiveness, structural imbalance and poor distribution of social wealth, is the common man. The common man in Nigeria has, for reasons quoted above, found life extremely burdensome and unbearable because of the inability to access the essential things of life. Oladipo further made a call for the restructuring of the body polity of the country from an ethical and ideological perspective4.
Furthermore, Ograh (2014) avers that structural imbalance and social injustice in Nigeria is represented in two main forms. Firstly, in the exertion of control and appropriation of state resources by more advantaged ethnic groups over the disadvantaged ones even when the later seem to be the main producers of such resources. Secondly, structural imbalance and social injustice in the Nigeria polity consists in the overwhelming gulp between the living standards of the few elite citizens and the majority commoners.
Having considered the above analysis, it is clear therefore that measures must be taken towards restructuring the social order in Nigeria in order for meaningful progress and development can be achieved. Sadly, only few attempts have been made by the government towards achieving the aforementioned objective. Even those few attempts have ended in futility because as Oladipo () acknowledges that where the ideological underpinning is strong and resilient the society survives and thrive but where it is weak, the society’s capacity for social progress becomes impaired5. What this means is that there is need for strong ideological foundation for the rectification of the social disorder and injustice which is on display in Nigeria. This is where I find the theoretical postulations of John Rawls on social justice very useful because Rawls’ conception of justice contains ideological guides for rectifying social injustices in multi-ethnic societies like the Nigerian federation. Rawls believes that the major function of the basic structure of any society is to distribute the benefits and burdens of that society equitably. The benefits of social cooperation, are wealth and income, food and shelter, authority and power, right and benefits among others while the business of the social cooperation included, duties, obligations and liabilities. However, the most important value of this research is to reemphasize the critical role of the concept of social justice in the formation and sustenance of a stable, viable, humane and progressive society.
 

Agroclimate Factors of Oil Palm in Nigeria

EFE S. I.
AWARITEFE O. D.
ABSTRACT. Using multiple correlation analysis and student ‘t’test, the Agroclimate factors of Oil Palm production was examined for ten years periods. Result showed that Agroclimate factors (sunshine, temperature and rainfall) are highly correlated with oil palm yield. This is evident from a multiple correlation of 74%. It was also observed that oil palm yield is more in the dry season than in the wet season.
INTRODUCTION
Any agricultural system is a man-made ecosystem that depends on climate to function just like the natural ecosystem. The main climatic elements that affect crop production are solar radiation, temperature and moisture. These climatic parameters and other depend on them, largely determine the global distribution of crops yield and livestock (Ayoade, 1993). He stresses further that climate elements exert an influenced on all stages of the agricultural production chain, including land preparation, sowing, crop growth and management, harvesting, storage, transport and marketing. This view has earlier be noted by Oguntoyinbo (1983) when he attributed the donation of the cocoa and kola-nut belt in southwest, oil palm bush in southeast and the north south ridge of river Niger comprising area of groundnut, cotton and rice cultivation to these climate vagaries.

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However, climate influence on oil palm has attracted the attention of some scholars over the years. Amongst whom are Manning (1956), Broekman (1963), Oshodi (1966); and Hartley (1988). An examination of their views shows that Manning (1956), outlined the rainfall requirements of selected food and commercial crops grown in West Africa, and he opined that the mean annual rainfall for oil palm is between 1500— 3000mm in West African Countries. Devuyst (1963) correlated oil palm yield with the influence of rainfall alone; using the concept of useful rainfall. His work however showed a positive correlation. He regarded rainfall as the sole agent influencing oil palm yield, and consequently considers any yield maxima to originate in wet season. Broekman (1963) accepted the view of Devuyst but differs in his finding. He stressed that dry season rainfall is positively correlated with oil palm yield.
To him, it is reasonable to except that the amount of rainfall during the dry season will be of particular importance, as moisture is a limiting factor during this period. On the other hand, Oshodi (1966) computed the effective growth energy index for some selected crops in Nigeria. The index was however based on only temperature and rainfall. The Effective Growth Energy (E.G.E) for oil palm in Nigeria is 250-300°F. Harley (1988) stated that oil palm yields are correlated with dry season rainfall with measures of effective sunshine, which take into account the distribution of such rainfall in’ the dry season. It is clear from the foregoing that rainfall and temperature correlation with oil palm has been substantiated, however, the relationship between sunshine and oil palm yield, as well as the joint contribution of sunshine, rainfall and temperature, has not be substantiated. Similarly there are divergent views on the relationship between the seasons and oil palm yield.
Also, since the establishment of Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) in 1939 there have been a relative neglect in the development of Agroclimatological Research Unit in the institute. While other research units (Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Engineering Research, Agronomy, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Extension and On-Farm Adaptive Research, Entomology, Plant Breeding, Plant Pathology, Plant Physiology and Statistics) have been developed. What exists in that unit is a dilapidated weather station where climate data’s are collected and never used for research purposes. So, the present study of Agroclimatic factors of oil palm yield in Nigeria is borne out of the desire not only to fill the above gaps, but to proffer useful suggestion that will guide both the oil palm farmers, and the NIFOR officials on the need to plan with the climate of the area. Therefore, the aim of the study is to examine the extent to which temperature, sunshine and rainfall correlate with oil palm yield.
STUDY AREA
The Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) is located approximately 29km North West of Benin City, Edo State in Nigeria. It was established in 1939 as Oil Palm Research Station (OPRS) by Nigeria Department of Agriculture. It was taken over in 1951 as West Africa Institute for Oil Palm Research (WAJFOR) by West African Research Organization (WARO). This organ was dissolved in 1960 after independence, and the station was renamed Nigeria institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) by Nigeria Institute Act No. 33 of 1964 mandate extend to Coconut, Raphia and Date palm research.
The soil in NIFOR is acid type of sand which is an important oil palm growing soil in Nigeria (Hartley, 1988). The soil are well drained and acidic with clay content in varying proportion at different depths. The soil are deficient in plant nutrient hence the great need for fertilizers application to cultivate palms in NIFOR. NIFOR belongs to the tropical equatorial climate belt of the world, and falls within the tropical rainforest belt of Nigeria. The region is characterized with high rainfall and temperature. Rainfall is over 2066mm per annum, and temperature of 30 – 33°C. Vegetation here is luxuriant type dense tropical rainforest, which comprises of evergreen trees such as mahogany, Walnut etc. The research institute today has sub-stations and experimental stations all over the country where crops are cultivated due to their different climatic requirements.
CONCEPTUAL ISSUES
The most important concept for this study is the concept of climate and agriculture relationship. This concept which have been adopted by Broekmans (1963); Devuyst (1963); Oguntoyinbo (1966); Hartley (1988); and Ayoade (1993) in similar studies. reveals much on how climatic parameters (rainfall, sunshine, temperature, evaporation etc) are closely interrelated in their influence to drops. Because of this crops/plants are grown in a climatic belt that is best suited for its growth. Thus all crops cannot thrives well in one climate region. For instance, oats and fruits are best grown in the Mediterranean climate while, root crops such as cassava thrives well in region of abundant rainfall and temperature (Neiwolt, 1982).
Similarly, since climate is one of the most important natural factors which controls the growth of plants, plant communities therefore undergo gradual changes. And this is because of its ability to cope with the prevailing climatic conditions and also to compete for resources of that environment. Hence, the type of plants/crops cultivated in an area is related to the climate. Also, the annual yield and profitability of farming are predicated on weather elements. In fact, in this part of Nigeria, climate vagaries disrupt the efficient practice of agriculture, and climatic fluctuation creates significant changes for agriculture produces. It is on this that the growth and yield of oil palm is based. Oil palm are found in region with moderate rainfall, high temperature and sunshine which enable the fruit to ripe (Hartley, 1988).
METHODS
The data used for this study were extracted from the archives of the Agrometerological and harvesting units of the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) Benin City. Monthly and annual temperature, rainfall and sunshine data were collected from the Agrometerological division, while the monthly and annual oil palm yield data were collected from the harvesting unit both data were collected for ten year periods. The choice often years was based on availability and consistency of data. The seasons were delineated using six months (April — October) as wet season and October — March as dry season. Reconnaissance survey was also conducted round the oil palm farms in the institute.
Multiple correlation analysis and students ‘t’tests were used to analyze the data. The multiple correlation analysis was used to ascertain the joint relationship between oil palm yield and rainfall, temperature and sunshine. Apart from the joint contribution of the climatic parameters to oil palm yield, it will also enable us to ascertain the individual contribution of sunshine, rainfall and temperature respectively to the oil palm yield (Ayeni, I Q94). Student ‘t’ test was used to determine the season with highest oil palm yield over the years: as well as to ascertain whether there is any significant difference in oil palm yield in the dry and wet season.
DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS
The data collected from the study are presented and discussed in the table below.
Table 1: Annual Oil Palm Yield (tons): Temperature (°C) Sunshine (hours): and Rainfall (mm) from 1989— 1998.

Year

Oil palm yield (tons)

Temp. oC

Sunshine (H)

Rainfall (mm)

1989

4470.2

32 .2

179.1

173.2

1990

3907.4

31.8

173.8

160.7

1991

3250.7

31.4

168.0

173.2

1992

3201.1

31.2

159.9

132.9

1993

3245.3

32.0

153.0

175.1

1994

1631.9

30.6

133.0

208.9

1995

3810.9

31.9

144.6

167.3

1996

4961.1

30.0

124.7

188.9

1997

2983.2

32.8

114.6

142.2

1998

3176.6

31.9

119.5

130.5

X

3463.9

31.6

147.0

165.29

From Table 1 above, the mean annual oil palm yield is 3464 tons, temperature is 32°C; sunshine 147 hours and rainfall 165mm. This showed a high yield, high temperature and a high sunshine duration respectively. During this periods, the highest yield of 4961 tons was recorded in 1996, this was followed by 4470 tons in 1989, 39O7tonsinl99O;38lltonsinl995,325ltonsin 1991,3245tonsin1993,3201 tons in 1992, 3177 tons in 1998,2983 tons in 1997 and the lowest yield of 1632 tons was recorded in 1994. This shows that there is no definite pattern of oil palm yield rather the oil palm yield has being fluctuating over the year (See figure 1 below).
Temperature distribution during this period is generally high over the years, with the highest temperature of 32.8°C in 1997 and the lowest temperature being 30°C in 1996. However, there is a little variation in temperature over the years given a range of 2.8°C. Sunshine duration is also generally high during this period. This is evident from the mean of 147; and the highest and lowest sunshine duration of 179 in 1989 and 115 in 1997 respectively. Sunshine did not also follow a definite pattern as it varies with a range of 64 hours. Rainfall also fluctuates over this period of study.
Fig. 1 above revealed that the three parameters (temperature, sunshine and rainfall) and oil palm yield followed a similarly pattern. There was a sharp drop in oil palm yield in 1994 occasioned by a drop in all the weather parameters. This gives a rainfall range of 78mm. It is evident from the above, that temperature, sunshine and rainfall influences the oil palm yield. The high yield recorded over the years could be explained to the high temperature, sunshine and rainfall respectively that encouraged its growth, and the ripening of the oil palm fruits. The seasonal distribution of oil palm yield, temperature, sunshine and rainfall is another pointer to the fact that climatic element correlates with oil palm yield. This is illustrated in figure 1.
Figure 2 shows that oil palm yield, sunshine and temperature exhibits similar pattern of variation. Oil palm yields increases from 366 tons in January to 435 tons and 432 tons in March and April respectively. This being the months with the lowest oil palm yield, it then decreases from 288 tons to 186 tons in July and August, being the month with lowest palm yield. Thereafter it rises to 2112 in the month of October. Sunshine duration followed a similar pattern, the highest duration of sunshine were noticed during the dry seasons. This showed a duration of 201, 185 and 182 hours in the month of November, December and January respectively, while the lowest sunshine duration of 70, 87 and 97 hours was recorded in July, August and September being the period of wet seasons. Temperature also exhibits a similar pattern with oil palm yield and sunshine duration. Generally, temperature is higher in the dry season, than in the wet season. This is evident from temperature of 33.7°C, 34°C and 35°C recorded in the months of December; March and February; and 3 1°C, and 29°C in June, July August and September respectively.
Rainfall distribution over the years showed a direct opposite pattern to sunshine and temperature with the highest amount of 317mm, 312mm and 313mm recorded in the month of July, August and September respectively (see fig. 2). The lowest amount of rainfall (23 mm and 10mm) was recorded in January and December being the dry season in Nigeria. To ascertain whether there is significant difference in the seasonal variation in oil palm yield, the student ‘t’ test showed that there is significant difference between oil palm yields in the dry and wet season. This is evident from the calculated ‘t’ value of 7560, which is far higher than the critical table value of 2.0. at 0.05 significance level. This is another pointer to the above distributional pattern, which shows that the dry season recorded the highest oil palm yield than the wet season.
The effect of the climatic factor (temperature, sunshine duration and rainfall) on oil palm yield was also analyzed. Result showed that they jointly contributed 74% to oil palm yield. This is evident from the result of multiple correlation analysis of yield, sunshine, temperature and rainfall. Thus it can be deduced that sunshine, temperature and rainfall are significantly related with oil palm yield. The rest 26% could be explained by other factors such as edaphic factors, evapo-transpiration, pests, humidity and diseases, etc. The contributions of each climatic factors to oil palm yield was also shown from the multiple correlation result. The result showed that sunshine, temperature and rainfall contributed 70%, 25% and 5% respectively to oil palm yield during this period. From this analysis one could now say that sunshine exerts the highest influences of 70% on oil palm yield than the other factors. This is because, sunshine duration did not only aids in ripening of the oil palm fruits, but also generate photosynthesis, which is the main energy source of all plants. Temperature influence on oil palm yield is as a result of the high sunshine duration. Rainfall, however, has a little influence on oil palm yield most especially during the dry season when plants generally needs moisture in the soil for growth and general survival.
Apart from the Agroclimatic factors of oil palm yield, the field observation conducted round some farms in NIFOR, reveals that weeds as well as seasonal outbreaks of pests and diseases were prevalent in the farms. Oil palm yield lost caused by these factors may be considerable over the years. More so when the diseases are often weather related, either in terms of local weather conditions being unfavourable for its growth and development or in terms of the prevailing winds helping to import air-borne germs/ spores into a given areas. The pests and diseases were more during the dry season where rainfall is minimised.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The study revealed that Agroclimatic factors (sunshine, temperature and rainfall) exert high influences on oil palm yield. 74% expansion of oil palm yield is attributed to these climate factors. The rest 26% is attributed to other factors such as edaphic factors, pests, diseases, weed, humidity, etc. Sunshine, however, exerted more influence on oil palm yield than rainfall and temperature. Similarly, oil palm yield is more in dry season than in wet season. And there is more prevalence of pest and diseases in oil palm farms during the dry season than in the wet season.
To improve oil palm yields and to eradicate pest and diseases there is the need for the fanners and NIFOR officials to plan with the climate of this prevailing environment. Thus, oil palm should be cultivated during the wet season because of availability of moisture for its growth, and harvesting during the dry season because of high sunshine for its ripening. The farms should be constantly cleared to eliminate weeds since they accelerate water loss by transpiration at the expense of the oil palm. There should be weekly or monthly routine check-up of the oil palm plantation, so that the affected stands can easily be treated with the necessary pesticides or insecticides. This will also lid p to prevent the spread of epidemic outbreak across the stands.
The use of fertilizer and irrigation system should be intensified than the present level of usage in NIFOR. The irrigation is highly needed in the early age of oil palm growth during the dry season. The Agroclimate unit of NIFOR should be upgraded to research division and the attached weather station should be well equipped with modem Agroclimatic facilities/equipment. This division when upgraded will play advisory roles on the effect of climate factors on the various crops that is cultivated by this institute.
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