Catcher In Rye: Obsession On Childhood

In the novel The in the Rye, J.D. Salinger creates a fictional character, Holden, who refuses to grow up and preserve his innocence because he is obsessed on childhood. Holden chooses to be stuck between the innocent world of childhood and the complex world of adulthood. For instance, Holden detailed his two siblings, Allie and Phoebe, as if he idolizes them because of their youth. Throughout the novel, Holden struggles in his life because he can’t accept the responsibilities and consequences tied to adulthood.

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Holden Caulfield is a 16-year old boy who refuses to accept the responsibilities of an adult. So, Holden refuses to grow up and act matured. For example, in the beginning of the novel the readers were informed about Holden’s expulsion from Pencey Prep School. However, Holden is more afraid of what his parents’ reaction will be and afraid of facing the consequences of his expulsion. So, he refuses to go home and confront his parents. He says, “I didn’t want to go home or anything till they got it and thoroughly digested it and all” (51). This shows the immature side of Holden. Instead of explaining to his family why he flunked school, he chooses not to because he thought that his mother will be hysterical to him, “My mother gets very hysterical” (51). Asides from being immature, Holden is also afraid of talking to people close to him because he is afraid of something inappropriate they’ll say about him. This explains his lack of interaction with Jane Gallagher, the girl Holden spent with one summer, “the only reason why I didn’t do it [calling Jane] was because I wasn’t in the mood” (63). His lack of interaction with the people he knew makes him interact with the people he doesn’t know. Like when he talked to a cab driver about the ducks in the lagoon and ask where they go during winter, “You know those ducks in that lagoon right near Central Park South?” (60). Even though it’s a nonsense question, he still asked the driver about the ducks. He thinks that the cab driver, or any random people, would not judge him which gives him the courage to talk randomly and to lie to random people. Holden lies most of the time to get someone’s attention. This is one way Holden shows transition towards adulthood.
Even if Holden chooses to stay in the world of innocence, his thoughts and actions show some transition to adulthood. For example in chapter 13 when the elevator boy offers Holden a prostitute girl, he says yes and acts like he had slept with someone else before. However he says that he is still a virgin , “If you want to know the truth, I’m a virgin” (92), and when he comes pretty close to doing “it” with a girl and she says “stop” he stops, “she keeps telling you to stop, The problem with me is, I stop” (92). This shows a transition of Holden’s sexual desire; however, he struggles dealing with it. Another example of Holden is stuck between the childhood and adulthood world is when he is in the lavender room. When he sees the three ladies at the next table, he gives them an “old eye a little bit” (69). When Holden finally meet them, he told them that he “just saw Gary Cooper, the movie star, on the other side of the floor” (74). His actions show that he is trying to impress the three ladies like an adult man by giving them “old eye” glances and impressing them by lying. At the end of the chapter, after hanging out with the three girls, they left Holden with the bill to pay, “I think they should’ve at least offered to pay for the drinks they had before I joined them” (75). Due to his innocence and being a trying hard social climber, he ends up being the stupid one and easy to trick with. Another example is Holden’s concern towards the ducks in the lagoon. He says “I was thinking about the lagoon in Central Park, down near Central Park South. I was wondering if it would be frozen over when I got home, and if it was, where did the ducks go. I was wondering where the ducks went when the lagoon got all icy and frozen over. I wondered of some guy came in a truck and took them to a zoo or something. Or if they just flew away” (13). The ducks symbolizes Holden. He is wondering where he’s going to go in his life especially when things get “icy and frozen”. He is wondering if there will be someone to guide him or if he will just “fly away”. The lagoon, on the other hand, symbolizes his life. In Chapter 20, when he finds the lagoon he says “it was pretty frozen and partly not frozen” (154). The transition of lake from frozen to “not frozen” is like Holden’s transition from childhood to adulthood. The frozen part shows that Holden hates changes. For instance, when Holden is in the Museum of Natural History he says that he likes the museum because it never changes, the only thing that change is you, “Nobody’d be different. The only thing that would be different would be you” (121). Just like his obsession, he doesn’t want to change and stays as a child to preserve his innocence. He sees his siblings as his inspiration for his obsession.
Throughout the novel, Holden always describes his sibling as nice, responsible, smart children. This gives the reader another reason of Holden’s obsession of preserving his innocence. He sees innocence through his siblings. In chapter 5, Holden describes Allie, his dead little brother, as “fifty times as intelligent” (38) than him. He exaggerates that Allies is so smart. In chapter 10, Holden describes Phoebe as “a little kid so pretty and smart” (67). He also convinces the readers that the readers would “like her” (67). This shows a reason why he wanted to stay like a child is to be like by everyone. Holden convinces the reader that both of his siblings are smart and everyone likes them. In Chapter 23, Holden’s mother gave Phoebe a goodnight kiss and said goodnight to her. All of a sudden, Holden started to cry, “Then, all of a sudden, I started to cry” (179). This gives the readers an idea that one reason why he wanted to preserve innocence is he wanted to feel to be love and to feel the care of his love ones especially from his mother that he never felt before. He idolizes Allie and Phoebe because his parents give them so much attention, love and care. For Allie, they always visit his grave, “my parents go out quite frequently and stick a bunch of flowers on old Allie’s grave” (155), and because Holden have a “lousy childhood” (1), he his jealous of his siblings because they get the attention, care, and love from their parents that he’s been longing for so long. However, his treatment towards his siblings, and children, doesn’t influence his jealousy. In fact, he wanted to be the “catcher in the rye” to protect them from adulthood.
Due to Holden’s obsession in preserving innocence, Holden chooses to be “the catcher in the rye” (173). He wanted to catch the children, who are playing in a field of rye, from falling off the cliff. The field of rye symbolizes the childhood world, a world that is full of children playing, while the cliff symbolizes adulthood. Holden doesn’t want the children to struggle in life, like he is dealing with. He wanted children to stay children and preserve their innocence because he doesn’t want them to fall in the corrupted and complicated world of adulthood. In chapter 25, Holden tries to erase the “Fuck you” word written in the wall of an elementary school, “but I rubbed it out anyway, though.” (201). Holden tries to protect the children from reading the swear word that could poison their mind. The red hunting hat is another symbolism of innocence in the novel. Holden always wear the red hunting hat to protect himself from the “hunter”, the society. He gave the hunting hat to Phoebe, “she took off my red hunting hat – the one I gave her” (207), to protect her from the society. He wanted Phoebe to have her innocence as long as she needed it. Erasing the swear on the wall and protecting Phoebe from the society are Holden’s ways of protecting the children from “jumping off the cliff”. However, at the end of the novel, Holden learns to let go of his obsession. When Holden and Phoebe visit the zoo, they see a carrousel which Holden usually ride when he was younger. But this time Holden decided not ride the carrousel, instead, he decided to seat down and watch Phoebe ride the carrousel, “I went over and sat down on this bench, and she went and got on the carrousel” (221). This shows that finally Holden let go of his childish desire of preserving the innocence and being a child as long as he could be. Holden also stops his ambition of being “the catcher in the rye” when he sees the children reaching out for the gold ring in the carrousel. He says “if they want to grab for the gold ring, you have to let them do it, and not say anything. If they fall off, that fall off” (211). This shows that Holden finally given up from saving the kids from falling to adulthood. The gold ring symbolizes adulthood, which Holden didn’t do anything to stop the children from reaching it.
In the novel The Catcher in the Rye, Holden is obsessed in preserving his innocence. Holden cannot accept the responsibilities and consequences associated with adulthood. He tries to run away from the people he knew and focuses his attentions to the people he did not know. Holden is stuck between the world of innocence and the world of adulthood. Without even noticing it, he tries to act and think like an adult. Holden is also jealous of his two little siblings because they get most of the attention, care, and love of their parents that he has never felt before. He wanted to preserve his innocence to feel the love from his parents that he has been longing for so long. Due to his obsession of preserving his innocence, he wishes to be “the catcher in the rye” to protect the children from falling off the cliff. He finds the adult world corrupted and poisonous. However, in the end of the novel, Holden finally let go of his obsession and decided to act as an adult. Even though he struggles in his life and finds adulthood complicates, corrupted, and poisonous he decided to come out of his box to evolve, explore, and experience what the world could offer.
 

Consequences of Celebrity Obsession

Celebrity/Media Addiction
In this world we live in, there are over seven billion people with many different dreams and ambitions. Some are satisfied with living in a small village with close relationship with just about everyone living in that village. Some are content to live the fast-paced life of the metropolis, where millions of people carry on their daily lives. Then there are some people who seek fame through acting, singing, beauty or their hard work and have their faces all over the media: celebrities. Celebrity is defined as not only those who sing, dance, and act but just famous or well-known person according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary.[1] Celebrities exist in all parts of the globe because they are essential needs to human life called entertainment. Entertainment is a necessity to human life because it brings joy, happiness and different sorts of positive feelings. However, it has expanded from just pure entertainment into something more serious recently. Now, the public is starting to become heavily interested in the daily personal lives of these celebrities because of the media, which has led to many people becoming obsessed with the lives of celebrities. People are obsessed with celebrities now more than ever because the obsession has become an integral part of our daily lives that results from psychological and social reasons.
According to the Daily Banter, one of the reasons why people are obsessed with celebrities is because our brains think that the leaders or creative innovators should be respected.[2] Celebrities can become inspirations to the future generations who aim to become acknowledged for their hard work one day in fields that may be very difficult to become successful in. People are able to form a bond in their minds with their favorite public figure through the assimilation of the celebrity’s characteristics and have positive emotions when they think about that celebrity.[3] Granted, some of the actions by celebrities are not the actions leaders or innovators should be doing, such as drug usage, but the public is interested in all aspects of a celebrity’s life because of the media coverage. When a celebrity couple like for an example artists Beyoncé Knowles and Jay-Z has a child, the news of the birth was all over social networks, newspapers, T.V., and internet news. However, if someone who was just an ordinary couple were to give birth to a child, only their friends and families will know about the good news. As a result, because the celebrity couple will have media exposure of their child’s birth, they are considered “more special” than the ordinary couple even though they are doing the same thing: giving birth to a child, which leads to other ordinary people to pay attention to the news of the celebrity couple. The fact that media is exposing these news about celebrities makes ordinary people have this notion that the celebrity is special which leads to the feeling of envy and the need to make those celebrities their personal role models. Also, when the media shows the celebrities, the celebrity tends to live the luxurious life. They wear nice and fashionable clothes that are sometimes custom-made, wear exquisite jewelry, drive or hire a driver that drives their exotic cars, drink expensive alcohol. This result in people wanting celebrities as their role models because with their talent and fortune they were able to make these purchases.

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Having a celebrity for a role model can be positive because role models help people aspire to become better and grow as a human being. Celebrity admiration can have an influence on other people. For an example, when celebrities donate money to charity and be philanthropic to others or win awards for their hard work, it aspire people to become the same better person. One good example was how many well-known people such as Bill Gates, Whoopi Goldberg, Matt Damon, Will Smith, Kevin Hart, Anne Hathaway and Benedict Cumberbatch took part in the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge which served as a cause to raise awareness of Lou Gehrig’s disease. Consequently, this led to many people to participate as well. But certainly celebrity influence can’t only be positive. While the ALS Bucket Challenge may have succeeded in raising awareness to people and it was for a good cause, many people did it without knowing what ALS even is, also they forget the fact that there are parts of the world that has little to no access to fresh/clean water. So while the ALS Bucket Challenge has raised awareness for a disease, in a sense, it has left people less aware of the water shortage issue in other countries. Also, this shows just how much celebrities can influence ordinary people in a negative way. They forget that they’re wasting water because famous people were doing it which means that in some cases people will be blinded and wouldn’t be able to differentiate whether what their role model celebrity is doing is the right thing or not. For an example, celebrities such as Justin Bieber and Miley Cyrus both have a massive fan base. When they were younger than they were now, they had an innocent image as well as their talent that attracted so many fans. However, now that some years have passed since they debuted, it seems as though their image has become rather negative. There are YouTube videos that show Justin Bieber trying to fight a reporter and also he was charged with DUI (driving under the influence) in Florida, and Miley Cyrus has made some controversial music videos and statements. The reason why this is a major problem is that media exposure to these negative characteristics mixed with obsession about these celebrities will make people think that what they are doing is reasonable and in turn, result in people imitating those celebrities. Celebrities have so much influence now that even the governor of California from 2003 to 2011 was none other than Arnold Schwarzenegger[4], who is an immigrant from Austria. Before Schwarzenegger, Ronald Reagan was also a celebrity turned governor, and he went further as to become a U.S. president. The point is not if these two men were the right choice but the point is that it seems as though celebrity influence has a greater power than people realize.
Psychologist James Houran has conducted a survey of more than 600 people and has discovered a psychiatric condition: celebrity worship syndrome.[5] According to the survey, one out of three Americans and British has it to a certain degree that the groups were divided into three different categories: entertainment social, casual stargazing; intense personal, feeling a connection with a celebrity; borderline pathological, similar to a stalker. He believes that the numbers will intensify with the advancement of technology such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and other social media which allows easier access to information worldwide. People will “share”, “like”, “tag”, “retweet” videos or articles about celebrities and whoever is their social network friend or follower will have access to that celebrity news. Technology has indeed become an important factor as to why people are becoming more and more obsessed with celebrities. Today, the access to media is easier than ever before; there are magazines solely dedicated to stories about the latest celebrity gossip, known as tabloids. Other than that, there are various social network sources as mentioned before such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and other social media that can provide the latest update on celebrity news. Also, TV news channels cover celebrity gossip when there are other important news stories to be discussed.
It has become a trend nowadays to know the basic knowledge of celebrity gossip as Daniel Kruger, an evolutionary psychologist at the University of Michigan points out, “Knowing what is going on with high-status individuals, you’d be better able to navigate the social scene.”[6] If a person does not know the latest news of a certain celebrity, that person can possibly be socially excluded from a conversation or a group because they lack the information. They do not want to feel like an outcast from their group of people so even if they do not care about celebrity gossip, some are forced to know all of the juicy gossip. Socially, people want to be fit in and have a sense of belonging in a community. As a result, people will spend more time watching the latest celebrity gossip instead of learning something new or better their lives in some way because they might believe that knowing the latest gossip is in fact bettering them because of the social benefits of fitting in. Today’s social standards of beauty has also become a poisonous because every year it seems as though those standards are becoming higher as more and more beautiful and handsome models become the faces of the entertainment industry. This leads to many young people to resort to plastic surgery because they believe that their natural face is unfit for the standard of society as Anisha Abraham and Diana Zuckerman points out in their article, Adolescents, Celebrity Worship, and Cosmetic Surgery:
“Cosmetic procedures have become pervasive, advertised in the mass media, and the subject of countless TV programs, such as Dr. 90210 (created in the United States but internationally known). The American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery estimates that the number of children less than 18 years of age undergoing cosmetic surgery procedures by their members has ranged from 33,000 to 65,000 annually in the past 10 years, with nonsurgical cosmetic procedures ranging from 91,000 to 190,000 per year[7]”
As bad as celebrity obsession might sound, it can actually be helpful for people with social difficulties. Celebrities now can interact with their fans via social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram and have a one-sided relationship with them. While it does sound like an unhealthy relationship, studies show that it is quite the opposite. There was a study conducted in 2008 by University of Buffalo researchers who discovered that “celebrity worship” helps people with self-esteem issues or fears or rejections by allowing them to have one-sided bond with a celebrity. Another study involved 348 undergraduate students completing a self-esteem questionnaire, writing an open-ended essay about their favorite celebrity, and then completing the questionnaire again. The results showed that people who initially scored low on the self-esteem, after completing the essay scored much higher the second time.[8] This shows that one-sided relationships with these celebrities fill the void of loneliness to those who have low self-esteem, and to those who do not have many real friends. These one-sided relationships can possibly help them become more social to other people as well.
Celebrity obsession should not be dismissed completely because the celebrities can become positive role models for the growth of people and the obsession can also assist people with social difficulties. However, it is evident that people are becoming more and more obsessed with media now than ever before and it is becoming a major problem. With the advancement of media technology, the accessibility of celebrity news is easier than ever before. Psychologically, our brains are programmed to instinctively respect or idolize someone who seems to be of a higher class and since celebrities attract attention we unconsciously believe they are of a higher class, which leads to celebrities having a major influence in people as well as people following the way celebrities act in their personal life. The fact that nowadays celebrity gossip is a necessity to be fit in is also another negative aspect of celebrity obsession, which leads to using cosmetic surgeries as an option.
Bibliography
Abraham, Anisha and Diana Zuckerman, “Adolescents, Celebrity Worship, and Cosmetic Surgery” Journal of Adolescent Health, November 2011, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X11003028
Furst, Jessica. “Why Are We Obsessed With Celebrities? Our DNA Provides a Clue.” Daily Banter, June 27th 2013, http://thedailybanter.com/2013/06/why-are-we-obsessed-with-celebrities-our-dna-provides-a-clue/
Gray, Keturah. “Celebrity Worship Syndrome Abounds.” ABC News, September 23rd, http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/story?id=101029
Park, Alice. “Celebrity Worship: Good for Your Health?” TIME Health & Family, September 15th 2008, http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1841093,00.html
Sifferlin, Alexandra. “Oscar Fixation: Why Are We Obsessed With Celebrities?” TIME Health & Family, February 27th 2012, http://healthland.time.com/2012/02/27/oscar-fixation-why-are-we-obsessed-with-celebrities/
Wikipedia Contributors, “List of Governors of California.” Wikipedia, November 6th 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Governors_of_California

[1] Merriam-webster.com. ‘Celebrity – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary’. N. p., 2014
[2] Jessica Furst, “Why Are We Obsessed With Celebrities? Our DNA Provides a Clue,” Daily Banter, June 27th 2013
[3] Alexandra Sifferlin, “Oscar Fixation: Why Are We Obsessed With Celebrities?,” TIME Health & Family, February 27th 2012
[4] Wikipedia Contributors, “List of Governors of California.” Wikipedia, November 6th 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Governors_of_California
[5] Keturah Gray, “Celebrity Worship Syndrome Abounds”, ABC News, September 23rd, http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/story?id=101029
[6] Alexandra Sifferlin, “Oscar Fixation: Why Are We Obsessed With Celebrities?” TIME Health & Family, February 27th 2012, http://healthland.time.com/2012/02/27/oscar-fixation-why-are-we-obsessed-with-celebrities/
[7] Anisha Abraham and Diana Zuckerman, “Adolescents, Celebrity Worship, and Cosmetic Surgery” Journal of Adolescent Health, November 2011, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054139X11003028
[8] Alice Park, “Celebrity Worship: Good for Your Health?” TIME Health & Family, September 15th 2008, http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1841093,00.html
 

How Marketing Plays a Role in Deepening the Obsession

Introduction
Compulsive buying (known as CBD or CB in this review) is an addictive behavior in which individuals experience pleasure in uncontrollable purchases of material items. Unfortunately, most victims of compulsive buying cannot afford the purchased items nor are the items needed. Marketing firms, corporations, and many advertising and sale campaigns tempt people with CB into their next purchase. This study analyzes how brand-marketing (advertising) tactics and materialism target victims with a compulsive behavior disorder. Also, this study will analyze how each entity contributes to an argumentative role in the compulsive buying disorder. Although CB seems to be increasing in popularity, compulsive buying disorder remains a neglected issue in the most clinical environment. The goal of this study is to provide insight into concerns related to CB and to offer evidence on how marketing and advertising affect those with compulsive buying disorder. 
Disambiguation: CBD is also thename given to the checmical compund contrained within cannabis. You can read more on CBD and it’s medical benefits here.
Literature Review
More than 100 years ago, Kraepelin defined compulsive buying disorder as “oniomania,” and still today this particular disorder has become a well-known problem with consumers (ref). The disorder has become popular, yet, the lack of knowledge may contribute to the clinical environment lack of interest. As part of the research process, there was not much literature on the topic. Unfortunately, many people do not admit to having a problem with compulsive buying. Many people insist that their shopping habits be more recreational; yet, shopping has become a common cure and sometimes used to obtain an emotional uplift. In the early 20th century, Bleuler and Kraepelin were the first known to describe CB clinically. In Bleuler’s text, the author stated “As a last category Kraepelin mentions the buying maniacs (oniomaniacs) in whom even buying is compulsive and leads to senseless contraction of debts[1] with continued delay of payment until a catastrophe clears the situation a little-a little bit never altogether because they never admit to their debts” (Bleuler, 1930). 

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Controlling the overpowering impulses which drive purchasing desires is almost impossible. As a result, these overpowering impulses causes stress and sometimes long-term consequences. Compulsive buying disorder results in substantial long-term debt that causes emotional and economic nightmares. For the past two decades, research focusing on consumer behavior has highlighted the fact that the compulsive buying occurrences and the disorder’s negative consequences for individuals and society at large (O’Guinn and Faber, 1989; Weaver, Moschis, and Davis, 2011). This literature review aims to expand the reader’s knowledge of compulsive buying disorder and explain how marketing and advertising tactics play a role in provoking those with this disorder to buy compulsively.This review also aims to look at the connection between compulsive buying disorder elicited by boredom and negative mood.
Definition
Compulsive buying is defined as an obsession with frequently buying and shopping episodes or overpowering urges to participate in meaningless buying (McElroy, Keck, and Pope, 1994).  The obsession with shopping and buying occurs in phases. Compulsive buying serves as a substitute for feeling pleasure and gratification. Consequently, the after-effects of participating in compulsive buying is described as feeling remorse and guiltiness. Remorsefulness and guiltiness can be credited to the inappropriateness of the spending behavior and the negative consequences. Also, compulsive behavior is defined in the literature as a “chronic, repetitive purchasing behavior that occurs as a response to negative events or feelings” (O’Guinn and Faber, 1989).[2] The inability to make appropriate adjustments to compulsive buying and spending behaviors lead to personal distress that interferes with social, marital, or occupational relationships (McElroy, Keck, and Pope, 1994). 
This feeling makes consumers purchase products to help alleviate negative feelings or stress, disappointment, frustration or lack of self-esteem (Scherhorn, 1990)  as well as material values, endorsement, depression, perfectionism, decision making difficulties and narcissism which have all been shown to be related to CB (Dittmar, 2005) (Kyrios, 2004) (Rose, 2007) . The people with CBD are primarily interested in the process of shopping, browsing, choosing, and ordering but not in the use of the goods and these individuals are ashamed of their spending behavior, and the associated with lying and interpersonal conflicts (Astrid, James, &Martina, 2015).    
Yurchisin and Johnson stated that compulsive buyers’ behavior is driven by powerful, uncontrollable urges to buy (2004). Research states that compulsive behavior is linked to internal tension, often involving frustration that can “only be relieved by buying” (Billieus et al., 1433). After the consumer surrenders to compulsive buying, he or she begins to feel a sense of positive effects that are “driven by negative affectivity but maintained by the positive emotions experienced at the point of purchase” (Kettlett and Bolton, 89).
Who is affected by compulsive Buying?
The survey results revealed that 2,513 adults within the United States admitted that compulsive buying behavior (Koran, Faber, and Aboujaoude, 2006).  The survey concluded that CB victims were mostly low income (Meuller, Mitchell, and Crosby, 2010). However, the findings were different in European population-based studies (Meuller, Mitchell, and Crosby, 2010).  As it related to possible gender effects, different surveys revealed different results with some suggesting that women are affected more often than men. Also, the results determined there was an increase of CB in the adult population over the last 20 years (Raab, Reisch, and Gwozdz, 2008). Also, women normally value appearance than men. For instance, past research has shown that female compulsive buyers spend more on clothing and cosmetics, and the primary cause of CB in women could be the need or desire to appear more attractive (Roberts and Pirog, 2004).
Based upon a general population survey conducted by Dittmar, 92 percent of respondents that considered compulsive buying were women. Most compulsive buyers begin in their late teens or early twenties (Christenson and Faber, 1994). However, this age is typically the time frame that teenagers attend college. Unfortunately, this could be the reason many college students have an excessive debt by the time they graduate from college. McElroy et al. reported, 17 out of the 18 individuals with CB, admitted to having one or more first-degree relatives with significant depression. Eleven of the 18 reported having an alcohol or drug use disorder. Also, three of the 18 respondents reported having an anxiety disorder (McElroy, Keck, and Pope, 1994).
Shopping is an unclassified sport for many women, they are typically in competition with themselves and find that by purchasing a new item they have now won. There’s nothing deemed wrong with retail therapy but when is retail gone too far. Despite contrary beliefs, the thrill of shopping is just as invigorating for women suffering from compulsive buying disorder as it is for a drug attic shooting his or her arm for a high. Women engage in compulsive buying due to their need to feel better emotionally or override their feeling of boredom. The variety of shopping stores, advertisements, an online boutique, sales papers all in heightens a need to shop be I️t want or need. While some may feel that a shopping addiction could never consume one’s life like substance addiction, there are those who beg the differ. For women, the feeling she gets when she sees a shoe that’s vibrant in the cooler and begging for attention is hard to avoid. It must be mentioned the placement of the detailed, matching handbag in the display window by the shoe, how could one not purchase both. The tingling feeling she gets when she takes the top of the shoe, and the rustling of the paper makes her feel like a kid on Christmas. She feels no worry because at that point all guilt and shame is subsided by happy emotions due to a new purchase. Sometimes the purchase of new clothing feels like a new beginning, a fresh start to create a new identity. Each garment tells a story, and by purchasing a new piece, one can now rewrite the story. 
Marketing: A Risk or Just Reality
When we think about CB, it is hard not to try to pinpoint the roles that society or marketing have played in the expanding of this disorder. Consumers are entrenched with television commercials daily while watching their favorite show or a movie. Even when riding in the car, there are many advertisements played on the radio. Each of these marketing strategies focuses on alluring the consumer to buy. Marketing tactics and strategies play a risk of pushing those with CB in stores through promotions, commercials, billboards, advertisements, and announcements. Researchers argue that advertising dwells on the material benefits of consumption by stressing upon the individual’s need for achievement and of anxiety[3] produced by completion, by manipulating people’s emotions and persuading the exposed consumer to irrational consumption (McBride, 1980).
Marketing Tactics That Seduce
In relation to an average commercial, marketers use factors such as cultural, psychological and emotional factors drive consumer into compulsive buying as a result of being exposed to hundreds of commercial messages daily (Arens, Weigold, and Arens, 2007). In this time, everyone is selling something. The best advertisements seem to receive the better financial benefits; however, consumers experience a greater disadvantage by participating in impulsiveness buying. The primary goal of advertising for manufacturers is to seduce consumers and to arouse them into purchasing their products. Compulsive buyers associate buying with an act that inspires their social status (Roberts and Jones, 2001). Unfortunately, as soon as the CB watches a commercial they feel the desire to make a compulsive purchase. From a contextual point of view, the closeness to large commercial centers has been linked to increase the possibility of compulsive buying (Valence et al., 1988). People of lower socio-economic classes are targeted more and participate in compulsive buying to reduce stress yet lead to buying, smoking, drinking, and any other disorders. In reality, marketing and advertisement are ways the industry target its consumers. Robert and Jones (2001) suggested that advertisers use status appeals most frequently after price appeals as a way to address the desire for power and prestige amongst consumers.[4]
Advertisers and Their Targets
Advertisers who target compulsive buyers tend to create material aspirations for individuals and emphasize the need to reduce inner tension by addressing the extrinsic reward of appearing attractive (Roberts and Pirog, 2004).[5]  Research suggests there is a close association between compulsive buying and the specific types of external stimuli such as sales promotions and bargains offered in a retail setting (Rajagopal, 2008). Although advertising does not directly increase the willingness to pay, consumers are more willing to buy advertised products in comparison to products that are not being advertised. Positive attitudes towards advertising result in profits for companies when the company’s brands are implanted within the consumer’s mind (Haan and Moraga-Gonzalez, 2011).  Compulsive buyers feel more vulnerable to advertising than non-compulsive buyers via (a) TV, (b) magazines, (c) billboards, and (d) the Internet (Degrawe and Brengman, 2014).  Store displays, promotional discounts displays, and lower prices are responsible for creating a positive impressive that promotes compulsiveness by invoking emotional arousal (O’Guinn and Faber, 1989). Each plays a critical role in persuading the person with CB into a compulsive purchase.
Mood and Boredom
 Previous research shows a connection between compulsive buying behavior as a correction for negative moods and boredom. One researcher stated that bad moods are improved by engaging in potentially uplifting activities. A researcher identified five concepts that influenced compulsive buying behavior. These five concepts were initiated by the term retail therapy, which helps soothe underlying negative moods. Faber and Christenson’s (1996) study provided evidence that mood enhancement was motivating factors for compulsive buying disorder. Buyers often feel negative moods that can only be subsided by partaking in something that pleases them. Individuals who engage in compulsive buying disorder often feel negative moods like anxiety, depression, and loneliness. (Faber and Christenson, 1996) reported that negative emotions are often categorized as internal antecedents of CB. Consequently, it has been suggested that CB helps to regulate negative mood states (Kellett and Bolton, 2009). According to paper-pencil self-monitoring forms or ecological momentary assessment, compulsive buyers often report negative emotions such as sadness, loneliness or frustration before buying (Christenson et al., 1994; Faber and Christenson, 1996). Furthermore, these emotions dissolve during or shortly after buying (Christenson et al., 1994; Miltenberger et al., 2003; Mueller et al., 2012; Schlosser et al., 1994). 
Negative and undesirable mood states have been previously shown to precede compulsive buying episodes, and improvements in mood have been shown following the shopping experience. Compulsive buyers often feel a sense of pleasure once they are actively engaging in a shopping experience. The purchase of an article of clothing, shoes, jewelry, and other tangible items helps alters a compulsive buyers mood. The view that compulsive buying is indulged in as a mood regulation mechanism, to transform the negative mood into a more positive one has been mentioned in various other studies. Miltenberge (2003) found that compulsive buyers reported negative mood as one of the leading causes of compulsive buying, which in turn provider relief for negative moods. The notion that negative mood influence compulsive buying goes alone with the noted definition presented by O’Quinn and Faber  (1989) which stated that compulsive buying is chronic repetitive purchasing that becomes a response to adverse events or feelings. Furthermore, the research found a correlation between negative mood and boredom as a driving force for compulsive shopping behaviors. Miltenberger (2003) study suggest that the intensity of boredom before buying reported by compulsive buyers were comparable to the intensity level of the negative emotions experienced.  In previous studies boredom has commonly been discussed as a combination of low arousal and dissatisfaction or displeasure (e.g., K. Daniels, 2000; Mikulas & Vodanovich, 1993; Pekrun, 1992; Russell, 1980; Warr, 1987). An anonymous compulsive buyer from the website, https://recoveringshopaholic.com/2013/03/21/reasons-we-shop-too-much stated, “I have found that when I do not have a lot going on in my life, I tend to shop more.  I find myself taking a trip to the mall or perusing e-commerce websites.  Shopping provides a sense of excitement which may be missing in a person’s life.  Just the simple experience of being in a mall or store is exciting, as there are bright lights, colorful displays, uplifting music, and lots of treats for the senses.  That sure beats the monotony of day-to-day life which we all sometimes experience.” This personal declaration from an individual who suffers from compulsive buying behavior gives clear evidence that boredom influences compulsive buying behaviors.
Methods
Content analysis
 Study 1 was motivated by a desire to establish compulsive buying as a self-treat to help improve one’s mood or to change the state of boredom. This content analysis also seeks to determine whether or not these facets negative mood and boredom help explain ones compulsive buying behavior. The target group of this study is individuals written messages who suffer from compulsive buying disorder who stated or implied shopping to be a mood corrector or an escape from boredom. A coder will look at the blog entries of twenty-five women from the website Recovering Shapaholic.com who have been classified as compulsive buyers between December and March. The coder will analyze the messages of the individual messages approximately two times a day both morning and night; daily the coder will see how frequently the terms negative mood or boredom were stated or implied in reverence to “why” women felt the need to engage in compulsive buying behavior. Faber (2004) study concludes that the experience of negative emotions motivates individuals or block out negative self-awareness by engaging in compulsive buying behavior. Once data have been collected, the coder will summarize the data by displaying results as it coincides with the terms of frequencies of messages that alluded or mad mention of negative mood and boredom as a reason to engage in compulsive buying behaviors regarding percentages or averages. 
Hypothesis 1: There will be a positive correlation between negative mood and boredom as a cassation factor to compulsive buying behavior. 
Procedure:
A coder will describe what it is he or she will be looking for in the messages of the compulsive buyer. After he or she knows that they are to study the messages of compulsive buyers, they would then proceed to the blog where women share their personal experiences of compulsive buying. Once a coder has to determine what they are going to analyze the individual must now determine the terminology frequency that they wish to code. The coder will then count the presence of the implication of or the stating of the words negative moods and boredom being the determinate factor of when to engage in compulsive buying behavior. Determine the frequency of the mention of those two facets and report them using a frequency table after that the data would be analyzed regarding percentage.
Inferential Testing
Study 2 was motivated by a desire to establish a connection between the need to communicate about compulsive buying behaviors as a way to help improve one’s mood and cope with the outcome of their actions. This study uses inferential testing to determine or predict whether or not a woman feels the urge to talk about her compulsive buying behavior. The target group of this study was subjects with compulsive buying disorder. The methods used to conduct research will be an emailed survey to participants who are considered compulsive buyers. All participants in the study will be a sample of female compulsive buyers ranging in age from 18 to 32. A survey will be distributed to each who posted within the dates of December 25th through March 25th. The survey will be a compilation of questions from the self-gifting consumer behavior scale Churchill’s (1979) that aims to see how strongly do mood and boredom cause an individual to engage in particular behaviors.  The survey will help determine how often do compulsive buyers feel the need to engage in conversation about their experiences before and after. The sample group will help predict how strongly compulsive buyers feel the need to talk to or write about their compulsive buying behaviors.
Hypothesis 1
There will be a strong need for women to talk or write about their compulsive buying behaviors to help themselves cope with or feel supported.
Procedure
 For this particular study, Each participant will be told that the purpose of the study is to investigate whether or not they have a strong urge to write or talk about their compulsive buying behavior. Each participant will be provided with a survey with questions to be answered on a scale of 1-5. One being less likely feel and urge to talk or communicate about compulsive buying behaviors, and five being a strong sense of urgency to communicate about compulsive buying behavior. The participants will be asked to complete the survey before they go shopping and after they go shopping then send it back. I’m pretty sure there are various reasoning why a compulsive buyer may feel the need to talk about or write about the way she feels before and after engaging in compulsive shopping behaviors. Participants will be asked various questions regarding what drives them to engage in CB and how strongly they feel the need to tell or write their experience. For each time an individual has a weak or strong sense of urgency to talk about behaviors she would be asked to mark it on the scale. The participant’s urgency to talk about their compulsive buying behavior will be measured using and  inferential test. Where the sample of this study represents the larger population of women, who engage in compulsive buying behaviors.
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            [1] Compulsive Shopping: A Review. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.csam-asam.org/sites/default/files/pdf/misc/Black_-_Compulsive_Shoppi
            [2] Compulsive Shopping: A Review. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.csam-asam.org/sites/default/files/pdf/misc/Black_-_Compulsive_Shopping
            [3] A Literature Review Of Compulsive Buying – A Marketing … (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.na-businesspress.com/JABE/GuptaS_Web14_1_.pdf
            [4] A Literature Review Of Compulsive Buying – A Marketing … (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.na-businesspress.com/JABE/GuptaS_Web14_1_.pdf
            [5] Ibid., A Literature Review Of Compulsive Buying.