Carbon Reduction Treaties and the World Trade Organization

Trade and Climate Change: Proposal
for Reconciling the WTO with Carbon-Reduction Treaties
Executive Summary
The relationship between climate change and the rules controlling the international players is an area that has elicited a lot of debate. Some of the trade agreements undermine the ability of governments to implement climate policies in their own countries. The fight for climate change is a battle for the policy makers in trade since if the conditions are not conducive for trade to happen; their profits will dwindle. Developing countries will have to suffer an extra cost on their exports if the playing field is not level with the international partners. All players in the provision of goods and services should price carbon emission costs correctly to ensure market efficiency. The policy and regulatory changes needed should affect both trade and climate change. This should be a global initiative and not just the leading partners. The effort and implement of proper policies by one party will not be sufficient, as their action will be watered down by the activities by the others. This paper looks at the effects climate change has had on business at the local and international level. It also looks at ways in which the World Trade Organization rules and regulations conflict with International conventions on climate change, especially carbon emission reduction. Finally, I attempt to make proposals on how this problem of climate change could be resolved without necessarily causing an imbalance in the markets.

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Trade and Climate Change: Proposal
for Reconciling the WTO with Carbon-Reduction Treaties
Free trade could improve the welfare
of many countries. This is rarely achievable though since countries have
varying economic powers. They get into trade agreements with neighbors and have
a sort of exchange of resources. These relationships are usually a give and
take with the politics playing a major role. The inter-relation between climate
change and international trade has gravely impacted developing countries. Much
emphasis has not been given to provide a solution to a combined effort to
reduce the effects of global warming caused by human intervention. Our actions
now have far-reaching consequences and will affect generations to come.  In the quest to meet the needs of our
respective countries, we are depleting the natural resources and poisoning the
environment. This paper will attempt to highlight the potential areas of
conflict between various economic interests and the interventions proposed by
the trade partners and advocacy groups such as Wort Trade Organizations (WTO).
The world stands at a crucial
juncture with respect to global economic policy development. Sustainable Development
Goals (SDGs) have been formulated through global governance to bring forth a
new perception of the issue of climate change to protect the earth’s economy,
the human race and the environment (Edouard & Bernstein, 2016).
Carbon-Reduction Treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement on
Climate Change together with the SDGs are examples of currents ways through
which world leaders have come together for the sake of saving the world economy
by agreeing to join forces and tackle carbon emissions with one voice.
The United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is a body of International partners who
have come together to engage on matters concerning the world’s climate. It
started as a call to countries to limit global temperatures and control climate
changes and working towards the impact of already existing effects of climate
change (Park, 2016).
The Paris Climate Agreement is an accord within the (UNFCCC) was adopted in December 2015. This Agreement deals with greenhouse gas emission mitigation, adoption and finance commencing 2020.  The agreement was negotiated by 196 parties and signed by 195 members. The Paris Agreement reached an agreement in 2015 where the signatories concurred to restrict global warming ‘well below 2°C and to pursue further reduction of these temperatures to 1.5 degrees Celsius (Raes, Liao, Chen & Seinfeld, 2010).
Each country is expected to
formulate policies and implement them the best way they see fit and finally
report to the UNFCCC on their contribution towards mitigation of global
warming. They agreed not to set any enforcement mechanisms of this agreement,
but they would at the minimum be expected to go beyond earlier set targets.
This stance was adopted after it was found impossible to ensure compliance
under the Kyoto Protocol (Gupta, 2014).
The concerns about this Agreement are that the current pledges by countries are not going to meet the required quota to meet the global target. Countries are not yet effecting policies to ensure carbon dioxide reduction emissions. The lack of an enforcement mechanism means nothing can be done to anyone who fails to implement policies of engage in activities that are geared towards environmental protection. The agreement was just a promise by the heads of state with no legal binding effect. No sanctions such as carbon tax can be imposed on one for failure of compliance (Park, 2016).
Private investors are to take up the
role of meeting the Sustainable Development Goal No.13 on ensuring action
concerning climate change and its impact (“Goal 13 .:. Sustainable
Development Knowledge Platform”, 2017). This involves low carbon ventures
and clean technology. The government’s role in this instance would be limited,
and hopefully, the conditions in the business environments in the countries
would be conducive.
The existing trade agreements are of
two kinds: Regional Trade Agreements (RTA) and Preferential Trade Agreements
(PTA). The RTAs are reciprocal agreements between partners. They include
customs unions, free trade agreements, etc. PTAs are unilateral preferences
that mean the developed countries are given preferential tariffs on their
imports from the LCDs and other non-reciprocal preferential systems. The most
significant area of conflict between the rules in these trade agreements and
climate change is the status of border tax adjustment within WTO’s General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). At the moment there is no carbon pricing
to enable meeting of the objectives of climate change under UNFCCC principles
(Park, 2016).
Strategies to combat climate change
suggested by partners are many and varied such as: (1) imposing carbon tax or
border tax adjustment. These tax caps are to offset any adverse effects of
capping carbon dioxide releases into countries that are not executing the Kyoto
protocol. (2) Increased reliance on renewable energies thereby reducing
pollution and emission of gases into the atmosphere; and offering inducements
for energy efficiency and preservation; (3) lowered subsidies for fossil fuels;
and (4) transnational transmissions, so developing countries shun burning coal
(Park, 2016).
Effects of Climate Change on
Rapid climate adjustment threatens
the global economy not so much for the current generation but for future
generations. Under the earlier discussed treaties, countries are expected to
meet their targets through national intervention. Their efforts are monitored
and recorded in the International Transaction Log by the United Nations (UN)
Climate Change Secretariat to ensure compliance with the protocol. The Kyoto
Protocol presented 3 market-based instruments to realize the targets by members
(Mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol). These instruments would motivate
sustainable growth through skill transfer and investment; remove carbon in an
affordable manner and inspire the privately owned businesses and
unindustrialized nations to support the decline struggle. These mechanisms
included Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); Joint Implementation (JI), and
Emissions Trading (ET) (“Goal 13 .:. Sustainable Development Knowledge
Platform”, 2017).
A recent study by James Hansen and
other co-authors indicated that the glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica could
be melting faster than had earlier been predicted. This would mean that within
50 years, the sea levels would rise by 10–20 feet (2015). This means that
coastal cities and countries such as New York, Haiti, etc. would suffer
tremendously. This is just a simple example of what climate change can do to a
country. This is the reason why in 2015, the Conference of Parties (COP21) met
in France to discuss International Trade in the face of climate change. The
expectation was that these partners would nurture development, create
businesses and improvement progress. Developing countries that still rely on
the natural habitat for their existence are being affected by global warming,
therefore, perpetuating more poverty. This leaves them impoverished since they
will not produce any resources to engage in trade.  For example, in Africa, tourism is the main
source of income for the countries with tourists visiting from all over the
world to see wild animals in their natural habitat. Due to the effects of
climate change, there are wildfires and drought that ravage them killing the
animals discouraging sightseers. The down at the African Coast of Indian Ocean,
the fish stock has gone down due to overfishing and the fact that the sea
temperatures have increased, it is no longer possible to support the once
attractive marine life (Reiter, 2015).
Most of the African nations rely on
agriculture for cash crops. This is slowly changing, as there has been a
massive loss of biodiversity experienced. Not only will these countries find it
difficult to feed their people, they will have nothing to trade with in
exchange for the good and services they lack. For instance, the Tanzanian coast
which is a central port for trade within the East African community is expected
to rise by 70 centimeters by 2070. This would mean the government revenue will
be affected and so will service delivery to the people.
Reconciling the WTO with
Carbon-Reduction Treaties
In 2010, parties to the Multilateral
Conventions (WTO, UNFCCC) were unable to reach consensus on reduction of
emissions of heat-trapping gases at the Copenhagen climate conference and at
the WTO Doha Round in 2001 since they involved complex issues. The issue of
cross-linking concessions did not make the discussion easier. There are those
scholars who believe that climate change is brought about by countries failing
to observe the environmental cost of production, therefore, the society bears
the brunt of these actions. There exists monopolies appear as a result of the
absence of intervention or if they do not provide a conducive business
environment. At the international level, however, market failure leads to a
dysfunctioning world economy.
As a result of the failure of the
Doha and Copenhagen meetings, the U.S and the European Union blamed China and
India whom they say are the main emitters of CO2 for failing to commit to the
reduction of the emissions under UNFCC (Hermwille, 2018). 3 Policy proposals
were fronted as follows:
BTAFU: BorderTax Adjustment based on Foreign Unrestricted Carbon Content BTADU: Border Tax Adjustment based on Domestic Unrestricted Carbon Content BTADE: Scenario Efficient Border Tax Adjustment
A tax on Carbon would guarantee
efficacy between producers from countries with high carbon taxes when compared
to with no carbon dioxide emission (Hermwille, 2018).
Other trade policy options would include the use of domestic and export subsidies to give national companies an upper hand over international companies. Subsidizing could lead to obligations and subsequently protracted proceedings through the WTO disagreement settlement procedures. If the governments then agree on rights and duties, countries with CO2 reduction policies and existing trade measures may be tempted to reaction as a result of imagined unfair price advantage from countries with policies on carbon reduction (Hermwille, 2018).
There exist general exceptions
provisions within WTO rules and agreement, which would ordinarily be considered
inconsistent with mainstream obligations, which allow trade restrictions of
trade to protect, e.g., animals, plants or health to safeguard finite natural
resources. These processes can be implemented in a general manner avoiding
tedious litigation (Hermwille, 2018).
The parties could use the
Trade-Related Investment Measures Agreement (TRIMS) as a discussed and
resuscitated idea. There was a list of export limitations, trade balancing
requirements and home-grown/ local content requirement. TRIMS were a handy
trade agreements permitting under developed countries to safeguard their
industries. It could be used to now protect industries which committed to
reduction of CO2 and dubbed Green Trims ++ (Hermwille, 2018).
TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of
Intellectual Property Rights) have exceptions which could be used to help the
least developed countries to advance. Technology from developed countries that
aid in carbon reduction could be acquired through the “compulsory licensing”
clause making it easier for these countries (LDCs). TRIPS could be widened to
include TRIPS++ (Hermwille, 2018).
The other solution would be by using
the Plurilateral agreements to combine three different sectors as follows:  a) energy (goods and services), b)
environment (goods and services) and c) trade (Preferential Trade Agreements)
and development (Aid-for-Trade, Enhanced Integrated Framework, TRTAs). This
would enable the countries to align their trade and development interests to a
green objective (Hermwille, 2018).
The WTO’s Agreement on Subsidies and
Countervailing Measures (SCM Agreement) may be applied to combat the excessive
fossil fuel subsidies. This Agreement has general restrictions have previously
not been effective in limiting fossil fuel subsidies since it has been seen as
an expensive endeavor (Hermwille, 2018).
Plausible Solutions to Climate
Changes at National and International levels
To end these problems, there has to
be a concerted effort, especially by all actors both in developed and
developing countries. Trade alterations, trade inducements or subsidizations
that encourage wasteful and unsanctionable trade and industry activities must
cease to exist. The predisposition to create new hurdles touching on
renewables, comprising biofuels, needs to be addressed at the local and
international level. Have strict requirements concerning the burden of trade measures,
which tend to work against sustainable development goals. Doing away with
fossil fuel subsidies such as tax breaks, loans, cheap land, etc. that encourages
big corporations to deplete the non-renewable energy sources as opposed to
investing in alternative energy sources. 

Carbon emissions have increasingly
gotten out of hand with the fossil fuels burning such as gas, oil or coal.
Carbon dioxide is released into the air when these fuels are being produced. It
should thereafter be re-absorbed by plants and animals, but it is too much in
the atmosphere making the global temperatures rise. This is global warming.
These players need to be incentivized to reduce carbon emissions. Trade and
investments are important in making a difference in markets and spreading them.
If the players could be allowed to engage in an open trading system, with
agreed rules, the producers of fossil energy would increase on efficacy and
reduce wastage.
As shown in the below, low carbon
investment may possibly be attained at domestic echelons through state
intervention, industry players, civil societies, private sector etc.
(International governance options to strengthen WTO and UNFCCC1, 2011) Source: (Saner, 2011)
At the international level,
International production organizations should go green. This should be felt at
all levels of production and putting in place a verifiable process to ensure
strict compliance of the final outcome or process. Multilateral agreements and
covenants such as Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) have attempted
to achieve this but with little success.
Financial markets both local and
international could be rewarded for investing in climate adaptation and
mitigation. They could be compelled to have an environmental and social
governance performance report. This will push them to perform in a more
responsible way.
Tariffs on environmental
technologies should be abolished to encourage innovation of environmentally
friendly technologies accessible to many. Wind turbines, solar panels are some
of the examples that come to mind that would help developing countries. The
Montreal protocol is viewed as one of the most successful multilateral
environmental agreements ever. It has received funding from UNDP, UNEP, and the
World Bank and spent this money through environmental conservation programs.
The Clean Technology Fund is guided
by UNFCC principles and finances clean technology transfers, which was to be
used for financing technology transfers. These are all good actions by the
World Bank, but this has not stopped them from also funding carbon-demanding
projects in line with their normal procedures. These funds are in the form of
loans so they will eventually have to be paid off at a steep cost especially to
the developing countries. This cannot, therefore, be said to be a self-actualization
of the Kyoto commitments.
To reconcile trade rules and climate
policies would require the effort of all global partners including the Least
Developed Countries. Governments must take it upon themselves to implement the
proposals stated herein and other dictates in the WTO agreements. Bearing in
mind that WTO is no longer an efficient negotiating partner, countries should
engage in regional, bilateral or Plurilateral agreements that support their
policies on climate change but at the same time do not stifle international
change. A balance can be found where positive climate provisions could find
their way in trade policies and vice versa.
Edouard, L., & Bernstein, S.
(2016). Challenges for Measuring Progress towards the Sustainable Development
Goals. African Journal Of
Reproductive Health, 20(3),
Goal 13 .:. Sustainable Development
Knowledge Platform. (2017).
Retrieved 22 April 2018, from
Gupta, A. (2014). Clean development
mechanism of Kyoto Protocol. International
Journal Of Climate Change Strategies And Management, 6(2), 116-130.
Hermwille, L. (2018). Making
initiatives resonate: how can non-state initiatives advance national
contributions under the UNFCCC?. International
Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law And Economics.
Park, D. (2016). Legal issues on climate change and
international trade law. Springer.
Raes, F., Liao, H., Chen, W., &
Seinfeld, J. (2010). Atmospheric chemistry-climate feedbacks. Journal Of Geophysical Research, 115(D12).
Reiter, J. (2015). What does climate change mean for
the future of trade?. World
Economic Forum. Retrieved 22 April 2018, from
Saner, R. (2011). International governance options to
strengthen WTO and UNFCCC. Retrieved from

The significance of budgeting in a non-profit organization

Budgeting is enormously significant in a non-profit making organization. A profit enterprise centralizes on maximum the profits and shareholder value, whereas, a non-profit organization is focus on their goals. Deficient of financial flexibility always appear in a not-for-profit association as they are not undertake an exchange transaction, they just provide social service and their funds is rely on the donation. There will be a disaster for them if the demands for the social service are increased because their resources may be not enough to deal with and it is hard to predict the demand from year to year. Hence, they will emphasis on manage resources, most non-profit making organizations are using zero based budgeting rather than incremental budgeting, because it presents every decision package in detail so that zero based budgeting can “serves as a tool for systematically examining and perhaps abandoning any unproductive projects”(Drury,2008,P.375).

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Zero-based budgeting is a method of planning and decision making which seek to overcome the deficiencies in traditional budgeting. In traditional budgeting, the organization will take the existing operations as a base to prepare a new budgeting (what has been already spent is automatically allowed). The base will alter for the changes that forecast to happen in the next period and plus changes for the inflation. By contrast, zero-based budgeting begins with zero bases in every period as if the activities were beginning like the first time.
This method requires all manager demonstrate the suggest budgets in complete detail such as how many worker are needed, what material will purchase, what difficulties will occur when implement the activities and so on and illustrate why these budgets the organization should be spend on. Then the management ought to prioritize all budget bases on the importance of the needs, it can merge all old and new budgets into one ranking that permit top management to contrast and estimate the needs of each budget and make funding allocation.
Zero-based budgeting helps managers to classify the activities which should continue, which should withdraw and which should concentrate on. Furthermore, zero-based budgeting can compare different departments which can help the management more easily to ranking each activity.
About the Company
The Samaritan Befrienders Hong Kong (SBHK) is a non-profit making organization. During 1960, it was established and using the name of Suicide Prevention Society. It was no other similar organization established in Asian, they are the fist one. They renamed the organization as The Samaritan Befrienders Hong Kong in 1963. During 70s, SBHK offered services by two languages which are Cantonese and English. SBHK is non-religious in nature. Their missions are on humanitarian basis, to befriend, people that are facing difficulties or are forlorn and disheartened, and then help them to rebuild their confidence. In addition, they will organize seminars, talks, education programme to publicize and further the spirit of their service in the society. Furthermore, they will help South East Asia and near region to set up organizations with a character and mission similar to them.
How zero based budgeting could be used at the organization?
The objective of the activity
The objectives of suicide crisis intervention centre are to provide 24 hours core services to those have high and moderate suicide intention people. Also, they will offer intensive counseling, arrange different types of therapeutic and support volunteer teams. Furthermore, they will share the experience to public and via the training, media and advisory service to develop the awareness of knowledge that how to identify and handle the suicide problems.
What extent are objective achieved
We can see that from the annual reports that the objective achieve is successful, their organization is become more big each year, and the figures of using the service is increase every year which means that their effort is success, because many suicide people look for them to asking a help, it may decrease the number of suicide.
How is the achievement measured
There are some measure methods to evaluate the achievement. For instance, the overall statistics of services which can show how many people have used the service during the year, we can see that the main user group is by phone call, it almost have around 70% of total services. The other main measurement is the figures about suicide in Hong Kong. Because their aim is to reduce suicide in Hong Kong, the figures can illustrate that how many people committed suicide each year. It is easy to see that if the figures are decreased within the year, the activities were successful and vice versa.
Alternative ways to meet objective
They also have other way to achieve the objective which is life education centre. The works of life education is organize the education programmes such as workshops, talks, follow-up groups, volunteers training course, publications and suicide prevention resources library to reduce and prevent suicide and broadcast the message of life cherishment to public.
Also, there are some other organizations that have work on the same objective, for example, International Association for Suicide Prevention, Befrienders International and etc.
Most cost effective alternative
This is a non-profit making organization, the funding is limited, and therefore cost effective is very important. The most cost effective method is to recruit more volunteer workers which are free workers, it can save much money.
Impact of discontinuing the activity
If discontinuing this activity, it will be some problems appear. Some people may have already use this service for a long time, but suddenly closing the activity will make them loss the support, then may suicide again. Moreover, discontinuing the activity will lead the existing user change to other organization to look for help, but it may make other organization overload, therefore, they can not help all people, it will result in increase the suicide numbers.
The types of activities in this non-profit making organization that is best suited to a zero-based budgeting approach.
Decision Packages:
There is several decision packages that are now undertake in this activity seeks to win the funding. We are taking two of them to discuss.
We can see that the case counseling service will be the best, because it is more matches with the activity objective and more directly reach the goal which is offering intensive counseling. The second package has achieved the goal too, but it is indirectly reach the goal, and it may take a long period to achieve the objective. Therefore, the decision packages ranking is that Case counseling service is the first one and Professional talks/Workshops/forum is the second.
The advantages that a zero-based budgeting system may offer to the organization that over an incremental system
The main advantage of the zero based budgeting over an incremental system is that it combine budgeting and planning into one process which is focused on analysis of needs, objectives and priorities. In incremental system, the organization tends to use existing budget as a base, then adjust for changes that they predict happen in the next period. But, zero based budgeting requires manager justify all budgets in detail which can help the top management efficient distribution of funds by organization needs, objectives and priorities.
Furthermore, it can detect inflated budgets and eliminate wasteful and outdated activities because those activities are not cost-effective operation and it will not be allocated funds. This can encourage manager to detect a cost-effective ways to amend the operations, not like incremental budgeting system that previous activities are automatically allowed. Also, it increase subordinate staff responsibility and initiative for decision-making since not only the manager involves in decision process but also include the lower level staff which can improve coordination and communication in the association. In additional, zero based budgeting capable to discover the chances for outsourcing and helpful to measure achievement of results for service departments rather than incremental system.
The problems that might be faced by the introduction of zero-based budgeting
The main problems of zero-based budgeting is that deal with vast amount of work and time consuming as it need to collect and analysis a lot of information and demand managers must distinctly realize the operation at different level for prepare budgeting which will increase the training cost. Apart from time consuming, the other problems arise to management is that it is really difficult to judging and prioritize decision package since they have to read numerous packages source, if compress the data down to a acceptable size the significant information may be removed, and have to follow the internal politics, sometimes, they might use personal sense to estimate therefore it is not truly objective.
Moreover, the organization may face dishonesty managers who might overstate the results or understate the expenditures. In addition, it is costly to operate because of this budgeting is really complexity and it may focus on short term benefits rather than long term planning. There are more managers participate in the operation as a result of difficult to communicate and manage.
Zero based budgeting requires a huge resource and staff to run and prepare the budgeting because of the workload is vast. But this method creates a positive outcome such as better management and allocation of resource. The management cans appraise the operation from the viewpoint of in depth study of productivity, output, and cost and so forth. It encourages manager at all levels in the organization to participate in the budgeting progress. Zero based budgeting is focus on efficient of allocation resource and it depends on the manager capacity of persuasion which has to persuade the other management to support.
At the end, although zero based budgeting has a lot of benefit when it implement, in this organization. But they do not have that much resource to apply full set of zero based budgeting since they are non-profit organization and the resource is limited, hence, the optimum suggestion is that they can exercise part of incremental budgeting and part of zero based budgeting or just partial implementation of zero based budgeting to solve the resource allocation problems.

Swot Analysis Of Health Care Organization Mayo Clinic Health Essay

Mayo Clinic is the first and largest not-for-profit medical group practice, health care organization initially run as a temporary hospital by the practice of Dr. William and his two sons, William J. and Charles H. Mayo when a Tornado struck Rochester in 1883. Today however Mayo Clinic has thrived into a huge organization with three clinics and four hospitals in three states, employing more than 40,000 physicians, scientists, nurses and allied health workers. In addition, the Mayo Clinic owns and operates the Mayo Clinic Health System, which consists of more than 70 hospitals and clinics across Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin. Mayo Clinic also runs   colleges of medicine, including Mayo School of Health Sciences, Mayo Medical School and the Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education. More than a million people get treated at Mayo Clinic from all 50 states and around 150 countries each year.
Through growth and change, Mayo Clinic remains committed to its guiding principle, as articulated by Dr. Will that the best interest of the patient is the only interest to be considered (Mayo Clinic, 2011). As of 2011 Mayo Clinic had total revenue of $8,476 million which reflects the business success of Mayo even in the time of economic downfall.
Mayo’s Mission Statement
As stated on its website Mayo Clinic’s (2012) mission statement is
“To inspire hope and contribute to health and well-being by providing the best care to every patient through integrated clinical practice, education and research.”
Their primary value states that “The needs of the patient come first” therefore we can say that Mayo Clinic is a patient focused organization.
Environmental Assessment
Mayo Clinic maybe considered as a true national brand of Health Care in America since it is well known. Focus of Mayo Clinic since it was established has been on providing highest quality of care to all patients. The organization steadily focuses on team work and group oriented approach, which is why instead of a marketing strategy its success has been built by work-of-mouth after all these years of quality patient care. This quality is what makes Mayo Clinic differ from other healthcare organizations that also tend to provide same kind of services.

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Organizational Assessment
The Environment at Mayo Clinic values strong work ethics and excellence in skills. Expertise is highly recognized and employees tend to show commitment towards their organization. A scholarly environment for education and research is also provided which acts as an edge for the organization. Further physician governance is incorporated in organization’s environment which makes doctors the leaders and provides an egalitarian environment. Mayo Clinic tends to provide exceptional decorum, facilities and professionalism in their service structure. Mayo Clinic realizes that the world is on a rapid quest towards technological advancement. Further employees are the face of Mayo Clinic which is why the organization has taken initiatives like the Mayo Effect survey and using social media which lets employees and patients share their unique experiences at Mayo Clinic (Donlin, 2010).
Human Resource Assessment
Mayo Clinic has long followed the philosophy of its founders which states that since medical knowledge is so cast it is impossible for one man to excel in it. Therefore best interest of patient which is to get benefit from advance knowledge combination of various forces is vital. Due to which it is necessary to incorporate cooperative science including clinician, specialists, and laboratory workers to work in a group oriented approach focusing on the elucidation of problem at hand. Mayo has inhibited a culture of teamwork and collaboration since its founding a tradition which is conserved through scrupulous recruitment procedure (Ramlall, 2009). Mayo Clinic provides facilities like online shared clinical record for peer review, paging system and salary based compensation to its employees. Further the employees are free to practice multi disciplines and enhance their skills and knowledge in the research centers.
Political Assessment
Several acts were enacted in the presidency of President Obama like Patient Protections and Affordable Care Act. This act restricts insurance companies to drop people when they get sick, it allows young adults to stay on their parent’s health plans till the age of 26 and likewise. These policies tend to facilitate general public on their health care. Health Care Organizations are also directly affected by such policies since non-profit organizations depend on grants and funding from the government. Right now the health care bills are how ever being criticized for their not so positive role in improving the health care condition of Americans.
SWOT Analysis
Research and Innovation
Mayo Clinic tends to give a lot of attention to Research and education activities. The teams at Mayo are involved in multidisciplinary a research which helps in rapid discoveries of new treatment and prevention techniques.
Focus on Quality
At Mayo Clinic quality is the in-depth outlook on the experience of a patient. Mayo tends to focus on excellence in knowledge and expertise, care, compassionate staff and technology. Measures of quality are mortality rate, surgical infections, and number of people who have been successfully diagnosed along with the integration of confidential medical record. Mayo Clinic also tends to measure quality in the time given to patient, treating with respect and dignity and making sure that the appointments are on time along with the availability of the doctors.
Integrated Medical Record System and Team Work
Mayo has incorporated a patient scheduling system which allows assigning patients to physicians and organizes the patient’s time at clinic. The system records important details like availability of the patient, laboratory tests, comments by doctors and any other diagnosis being given. Doctors can check patient’s previous history and this way multiple doctors work as a team through this system in treating a patient.
Even though Mayo Clinic has high quality care system and a patient focused multidisciplinary force yet there is room for improvement like
The affiliated regional medical groups researched that the ambulatory care of Mayo Health System ranked below regional average of 12 as of 2008.
A variation in the intensity of care was found at the Dartmouth researchers found “surprising variation” in the end of life intensity of care among patients treated at different Mayo Foundation Hospitals which requires Mayo to show more consistency across hospitals.
As Mayo Clinic brings people from different cultures to work together if a diversity synergy is not created it may cause any conflict inside the organization
The translation of research into practice has always been an opportunity creator for Mayo Clinic. Since their research centers provides innovative systems approach to disseminate benefits of research discoveries in daily medical practice which generates room for new treatments and diagnosis.
Mayo Clinic tends to focus on in affiliations to expand its reach into new states and build a larger. In 2011 incorporated a Mayo Clinic Care Network which helps it to affiliate with other hospitals and broaden its scope (The Advisory Board Company, 2012).
Salary-based compensation system may increase the fixed cost of the hospital
Lack of highly qualified medical practitioners in America
Criticism on researches and innovation by competitors and other authority officials
Increasing number of physicians are likely to demand reimbursement for input, call and other activities in future
Recommended Strategies for the Future
According to Dr. Schwenk three interrelated forces are the pillars on which success of Mayo Clinic rests. First is Salary-based compensation plan for doctors along with multidisciplinary practices which tend to enhance patient care in a group oriented approach. Secondly the well-integrated technological infrastructure along with focus on research and innovation. Last but not the least a business model which states that best interest is focusing on the best interest of the patient and putting patient first.
However along with these strategies there are few additional strategies which Mayo Clinic might need to work on. First is expansion of heath care facility units as according to research due to aging population of the baby boomers in a few years there will be an increase in the number of people looking for quality treatment and Mayo Clinic right now is accommodating maximum number of patients.
Secondly Mayo Clinic needs to find new ways to raise funds for its research programs, since they are unable to continue most of their groundbreaking researches due to lack of funds. Like a research on delaying degeneration of the tissues in 2011 was denied funds since the funding organization’s reviewing committee did not find it up to the mark (Wade, 2011). This might discourage the innovative approach which Mayo Clinic is known for.
Furthermore Mayo Clinic needs to justify its investment policies since it was highly criticized for investing $180 million in building a proton beam treatment facility which critics claimed was even yet proved to be worth the amount (Emanuel & Pearson, 2012). Mayo Clinic should not pose such strategies which make people think that it is only trying to compete with its rivals like Massachusetts General Hospital.
Lastly quality control and improvement techniques like Lean Operations and Six Sigma are being incorporated in Health Care Sector. Mayo is also implementing them in their business model but the management might face resistance while changing the historic practices and bringing new practices in the hope of improving patient access, cost reduction and improved quality.

Organization Theory For General Motors

Organization theory is a sociology branch that focuses on the structure, systems and processes within an organization. Organization theory is thus applied by firms and states the activities and goals of that firm. General Motors Company was established in 1908 in Michigan by William Durant. By then it was a parent company for Buick. Later that year, it acquired two motor track companies i.e. the Reliance motor company which was based in Owosso, Michigan and Pontiac’s Rapid motor company.

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However, General Motors Company came to be the market leader in Motor industry in the early 1980s.It started with employing 349,000 employees and had 150 assembly plants. Currently, General Motors produce tracks and cars in over 34 countries worldwide. It sells the vehicles through such brands as Cadillac, Buick, GMS, Chevrolet, Holden, GM Daewoo, Wuling and Vauxhall. The United States is the largest national market for General Motors. Other markets include the China, England, Germany.Russia, Canada and Brazil. Daewoo Auto and Technology Company of South Korea is the main shareholder of General Motors. It has power training and purchasing collaborations with Isuzu motors Ltd and Suzuki Motor corp of Japan. The genuine General Motors accessories and parts are normally sold under GM Goodwrench, GM performance, ACDelco brands and GM brands with the assistance of parts operations and GM service. The GM transmissions and engines are sold via GM power train (Frederick, 1995).
General Motors Organizational Structure
With regards to its organizational structure, General Motors have transformed form a traditional model to a modern one. The change in the organizational model has had an impact as far as the customers and the local communities of General Motors are concerned. The traditional General Motors Organizational model consisted of a hierarchy with executive or the president on top, then senior managers or vice presidents. Followed by managers and finally the employees. The jobs were usually grouped into departments. The General motors were composed of various independent automakers and each automaker operated differently and competed with each other. The transformation of the organization model saw General motors unified and centralized whereby several individuals work towards achieving a common goal. The corporation is now run in a streamlined manner and the several departments have been abolished (The University of Virginia, 1993).
Multinational Company
With operations in 34 countries all over the globe, General Motors is a multinational company. Multinational companies refer to those organizations which have operations in many countries. The ability of the General motors to operate in many countries is enhanced by globalization. This entails an ongoing process through which societies, regional economies and culture become integrated as a result of execution and globe network communications. This is usually driven through the combination of technological, political, economic and biological factors.
Organization design
Managers at General Motors have encompassed the application of the organization design. They have created processes, roles and reporting relationships in order to match the organization’s form very closely. It is through the organization design that the company is able to improve probability that members’ collective efforts will be successful. The General Motors Company have been designed in a beauracratic manner whereby responsibility and authority have been arranged hierachically.This has enabled specialization and grouping of people who performs similar or related tasks in clusters. The bureaucracy in the General Motors have enhanced logic, rationally and most important, the efficiency. It has also had some demerits as far as rigidity and inflexibility are concerned e.g. slow decision making process e.t.c. (Salmon, 1989).
Divisional Structure
The General Motors Company uses divisional structure. Each organizational function is grouped into divisions. A division which is within the divisional structure usually has all the necessary information and resources within it. The General Motors can thus make a distinction based on geographical aspects e.g. the Russian division and the United Kingdom division and also on its products such as SUVs and another one for subcompact cars with each division having its own engineering, sales and marketing departments. This organizational structure have its own demerits which includes difficulty in product integration i.e. each GM divisional manager concentrates on delivering his or her products and fails to focus on integration and also the employees usually feel a bit affiliated towards their department only and they lacks sense of being a part of the organization. Divisional structure also inhibits the career growth of specialists as technical people may feel alienated from their colleagues in other divisions and also may lack some exposure to major developments taking place in the organization (Cook, & Woollacott, 1995).
Organizational Culture
The strategic leaders in the General Motors should are vested with the responsibility of creating the organizational characteristics that encourage and reward collective effort. The organizational culture is the most fundamental characteristic as it enables the organization to cope well with its environment. For General Motors to survive individuals must be integrated into a whole and also the organization must adapt effectively to the environment in which it is operating (Lung, 2003).
GM External environment
General Moors just like many other organizations does not operate in a vacuum. The organization has to be conscious about what happens outside its factory and office walls. These factors that occur outside the business boundaries are known as the external environment. They usually influence the organizations main functions, objectives and strategies. The main factors include the competition i.e. the extent to which other firms competes with the General Motors automobiles. The main competitors of the General Motors ifs the Ford Company. Ford was established in the 1920s by Henry Ford. It has been struggling to overtake General Motors Company using such strategies as lowering prices. Despite these, General Motors have been the market leader due to its variety and good management. To effectively deal with the competition threat from Ford and other automobile makers such as Toyota, the management should aim at improving the quality of the products so as to add the value to their customers. The company also needs not to flounder in the accounting practices such as derivatives and pensions which have brought huge costs in the General Motors. To improve its management, the General Motors Company has been reshuffling its executives over the years (Helen Dwight Reid Educational Foundation, 1994).
The other factors that affect the General motors are; social i.e. how the consumer and communities at large behave with reference to the company’s products. The other external factor is legal i.e. the manner in which the legislation affects the organization e.g. the change of the laws regarding employees working hours. Economic is the other external factor which affects an organization. This relates to such issues as taxation, interest rates, government spending, global economical factors and general demand. The other external factor that affects the business is the technology. For instance, the General Motors have to move with the current trends in the motor industry as far as its production processes and product innovation are concerned. Others are ethics i.e. the morality aspect of doing a business (Bordenave, 2003).
The Stakeholders approach
The General Motors should adopt the stakeholders’ approach in which case all its stakeholders will be able to know well how the business is being operated. Stakeholders are those people that have an interest in an organization and are affected by the company’s omission or commission of its duties. The managers are required to decide on which views from the stakeholders are necessary to listen. The General Motors Company is currently undergoing through some significant transformations as it strives to become more competitive and so there could be several key things that the company could be involved with without the know-how of the company’s management. In an aim of maintaining its competitive status, it is important to enquire from some of its more insightful people who may be experts in the industry about the things that should be done by the GM management so as to make the organization healthier, stronger and a more competitive one. To achieve this, the managers can adopt stakeholder’s approach which believes that the managers in any organization should consider the views from all the company’s stakeholders and not relying only on the owners views. This inturn enables the stakeholders to have active interest as far as the business welfare is concerned. Some of the stakeholder approach and the potential benefits that can be achieved by business include offering the customers excellent after sale services and also good value products so as to create customer loyalty, social corporate responsibilities such as providing the locals with sports facilities so s to create good relations with them which may inturn help to increase sales.Also,a company should provide the workforce with good wages so that the employees can feel motivated and perform their duties enthusiastically and effectively( Rothstein,2005).
To stay healthier and stronger, the General Motors needs to keep away from its historical tendencies of being in its comfort zone and regarding itself as the greatest. It should focus on achieving and sustained the momentum so as to bring change and improvements.It needs to borrow a leaf from Toyota which is away ahead of GM (Coetzee, 2001).
The General Motors needs to innovate and be ahead of regulation i.e. it should take the opportunity and re-establish itself as a leader in Enviromental technology and avoid being regarded as resistant towards progress on emissions and fuel efficiency. This will enable the company to overtake Honda and Toyota which is deemed as leaders as far as this area is concerned (Greenberg & Baron, 1995).

Structural Causes Of Unethical Behavior Within An Organization

Traditionally, organizations function within a certain set of guidelines and protocols that inherently form a structure in an organization. Pugh defines an organizational structure as a hierarchical concept of subordination of entities that collaborate and contribute to serve one common aim. Activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision are carried out to achieve organizational goals.
Organizations are formal entities that distribute tasks through specialization and create a standard set of processes to create an efficient and effective workplace environment to increase productivity while saving costs. Standard operating procedure protocols, management protocols and standard set of rules and codes are implemented throughout the organization to ensure all employees perform their tasks as they are supposed to in the proper way. For instance, in a car assembly line, factory workers and engineers have to follow a certain set of guidelines to ensure the quality of the cars. Testing for safety and quality are standardized in every manufacturing branch not only throughout the country but internationally. Similarly, McDonald’s provide standard operating procedures for every franchise throughout the globe in order to maintain quality and the company’s reputation (Griffin, 2012).

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Although formal organizations provide a set of guidelines and standard procedures, in a situation where ethical decision-making takes place, these standard codes fail to provide a clear cut solution to the dilemma, thus resulting in unethical behavior which are caused by the structure of the organization. Organizations do provide codes of conduct and ethical code doctrines to employees prior to their hiring but implementing those codes are entirely up to the employees and their immediate supervisors. Even the CEO of a company can make unethical decisions to his own discretion despite being bound to the ethical codes of conduct of the corporation in which he serves. Moreover, considering he is the man in charge of the entire corporation, it is even more likely that he will not be held responsible for his unethical decisions.
When the organization structure fail to prevent unethical behavior, ultimately the profitability and sustainability of a corporation will be affected. This is where strict corporate governance needs to be put in place in order to minimize unethical behavior within an organization. In order to solve unethical behavior and improve organization structure, we must first understand how a structure can fail to prevent unethical behavior. Furthermore, we must identify the types of unethical behavior that can arise in ethical situations where an organization’s structure is ineffective. Finally, we will also expound on previous researches to identify ways to minimize unethical behavior within an organization by, among other things, improving the structure of the organization.
1.2.1 Boston Consulting Group
Founded by Bruce D. Henderson in 1963, The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) is a global management consulting firm that has successfully appeared in the top 15 of Fortune’s ‘Best Companies To Work For’ seven years in a row. As much as it was a subsidiary of The Boston Company, BCG currently has 77 offices of its own in 42 countries all across the World.
In attempts of trying to understand the nature of pricing in a manufacturing industry and as a result of work done for a semiconductor manufacturer, The Boston Consulting Group came up with its first breakthrough known as the ‘experience curve’ in 1966. The ‘experience curve’ states that the unit cost of a product gradually decreases as cumulated volume and production experience increases. Ultimately, the theory stresses that it is crucial and important to enter newly introduced fields and take hold of as much market share as possible. By doing this, an organization will be able to gain advantage over other late-arriving organizations in the same field and thus, eliminating any sort of competition. (Refer to Appendix C)
The Boston Consulting Group Matrix (BCG Matrix) also known as the growth-share matrix was introduced in 1968. The framework of the BCG Matrix consists of a box with four quadrants that is represented using terms such as cash cows, dogs, question marks and stars. The terms of the framework represent growth rate, market share and negative and positive flow of cash. The main goal of the framework is to achieve a balance between cash cows, question marks and stars and to sell off the dogs. As soon as the theory was introduced, the terms of the framework quickly became fixtures in the world of business. In the same year, BCG was released as a subsidiary from The Boston Company. (Refer to Appendix D)
Despite the departure of a few prominent and top individuals, The Boston Consulting Group became an independent company in 1975. BCG was one of the first few companies to practice the Employee Retirement Income Security Act as the company recognized its benefits and was quick to take advantage of the act. Through this act, The Boston Consulting Group was allowed to establish an employee stock ownership program. The establishment of the program made way for the process of buying BCG from The Boston Company to begin. By 1979, the buyout was completed five years ahead of the original schedule. (Refer to Appendix E)
The year 1985 paved way for some major changes at top level management for The Boston Consulting Group as its founder and then Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Bruce D. Henderson retired. He was succeeded by John Clarkeson who assumed the position of CEO and Alan Zakon who took on the position of chairman of the company’s board. In 1992, Henderson died at age 77. “Few people have had as much impact on international business in the second half of the twentieth century as the founder of The Boston Consulting Group,” eulogized the Financial Times upon Henderson’s death. (Refer to Appendix E)
In 2003, Hans-Paul Burkener was elected the fifth President and CEO of The Boston Consulting Group by the company’s partners. As of the year 2011, The Boston Consulting Group was ranked second on Fortune’s ‘100 Best Companies To Work For’, marking its sixth consecutive year on such a prestigious list. BCG continues to explore important topics that have significant effects around the World as the company aims to provide better and more quality service in helping organizations to combat the battle of ever changing landscapes in the management of diversity (Refer to Appendix F).
1.2.2 General Electric
In 1890, Thomas Edison established his own company and named as Edison General Electric Company by bringing his different businesses together. Two years later, Edison General Electric Company incorporated with Thomson-Houston Company and, then they named the new organization as General Electric Company. The new organization the General Electric Company is a diversified technology and financial services company. General Electric Company has different type of products and services. They main product and service is householder appliances and General Electric Company is one of the largest manufacturers of major appliances in the world. Besides that, General Electric Company also has other different type of products and services such as aviation, consumer electronics, customer training, electrical distribution, energy, finance-business, healthcare, oil & gas, water, lighting, software & services, rail, and other.
In the early 1890s, the first General Electric appliances electric fans were produced, and a full line of heating and cooking devices were developed in the year 1907. A few years later, General Electric Company developed the first airplane engine “booster” for the fledgling U.S. aviation industry. Besides that, the plastic filaments for light bulbs were created in 1930, and led to the first General Electric Plastics department.
Through the years, General Electric’s leaders have built a portfolio for the diversity of management and leading businesses. That’s made the General Electric Company become a most success company that drives growth and reduces the production costs; increase financial strength and Controllership that allow it to capitalize on opportunities through numerous cycles. And, they have a set of common values that allows it to face any environment or situation with confidence. In 1971, the General Electric Company with the helped from McKinsey developed a General Electric/McKinsey Matrix.
The General Electric/McKinsey Matrix was developed in year 1971, with the helped from McKinsey and consulting firms. And, General Electric Company used it to measure or decides which Strategies Business Units (SBU) should invest, retain, or divest. The GE matrix/McKinsey matrix is one that cans helps to improve the company’s businesses unit strength and helps to increase businesses unit attractiveness. Besides that, this matrix is measure the business unit through the business unit’s attractiveness and business strength. When the business unit’s attractiveness and strength is high, the company should keep invest for gain more profit. On the other hand, when the business unit’s attractiveness and strength is medium, the company should retain or selectively invest. But, when the business unit’s attractiveness and strength is low, it is the time for the company to exit that business unit or stop invests in that business unit.
The aim of this portfolio analysis is:
To decide the company should invest more or divest.
To helps the new product or business unit to develop a growth strategies.
To decide which business unit should retain or not.
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Unethical Behavior Resulting from Failure of Organizational Structure
Many researchers were found to focus on various aspects that management fails to prevent different types of unethical behavior within a corporation. Some of the unethical behavior that is being studied includes conflict of interest, false advertising, discrimination, insider trading, and harassment among others.
For instance, Sherry, Shilbury and Wood (2007) found that as sport becomes a fully-fledged business, there is an increased complexity of ethical issues within sports management and conflict of interest presents similar structural elements as traditional businesses. Practices such as providing benefits, trust and obligation are magnified, as there are also societal expectations and values emphasized in sport and sporting organizations. To illustrate the issue of conflict of interest arising from structural failing in this matter, five of the seven board members of the Californian Horse Racing Board actively own or breed racehorses and “at least six acknowledge that they gamble at the track” (Sherry, Shilbury, & Wood, 2007). This clearly is a conflict of between the board members personal interest and the interest of the corporation. Conflict of interest issues are usually not clearly outlined within the corporation, especially for people in top management and there is no obvious way to identify a person who has a conflict of interest because a hierarchical organization does not usually scrutinize an employee’s personal life. In this case, the integrity of the sport will be compromised, as society will not look with favor on the races for fear of them being cheated out of their bets.
Furthermore, despite laws and regulation outlawing discrimination while hiring, there is still a substantial informal form of discrimination in the workplace towards different races or genders. As found by Pompper (2011) after interviewing 36 middle aged, middle income women of African-American, Asian-American and Hispanic ethnicity in the communications industry, glass ceilings in communication organization remains impenetrable especially for women of these ethnicities. The research found that there is a higher level of financial uncertainty for middle aged, middle-income women of color within media organizations. None of the participants of the research reported having equal salary or status with male colleagues that do comparable work. While there have been strides to reduce employment discrimination in many countries, informal forms of discrimination that are not specifically outlined in corporate policies will still occur, especially in a society or country that inherently, in their culture, practice discrimination against gender or race.
2.2.1 Boston Consulting Group
In a publication titled ‘Strategic Business Models’, Frederick Betz discusses the six different kinds of generic business models that can be used in operating a company. One of the generic business models that he highlights is The Boston Consulting Group Matrix (BCG Matrix).
Betz defines a business model as a strategic technique of how one’s company now operates and how it should change to operate in the future. Also, he describes a business model as an abstraction of business identifying how that business profitably makes money.
Besides that, he identifies a business model as abstracts about how inputs to an organization are transformed to value-adding outputs. The transformation of input resources into output products or services is performed by the processes and operations of the business. Furthermore, he mentions that a strategic business model is a systematic list of policies that will guide the future specification of inputs, outputs, processes and values of the complete operations of the business of the corporation.
In a publication titled ‘Kiechel’s History of Corporate Strategy’, Robert J. Allio and Robert M. Randall interviewed Walter Kiechel III about his book titled ‘The Lords of Strategy: The Secret Intellectual History of the New Corporate World’ (Harvard Business Press, 2010). In his book, Kiechel chronicles the rise and stumbles of a number of leading consultancies – primarily Bain, Boston Consulting Group and Mc Kinsey after having interviewed originators of the core ideas behind strategy and strategic movement and executives at the companies where it was first practiced.
In his book, Walter Kiechel III regards The Boston Consulting Group as the ‘Lords of Strategy’. He explains that the pioneering consulting efforts of the organization has helped instill a sense of empiricism that is a fundamental key in competing. He defines empiricism as the ability to identify and recognize facts that are essential in gaining advantage over other late-arriving organizations in the same field. Also, the concepts developed by The Boston Consulting Group are made up of easy-to-understand and familiar patterns that make the task of interpreting the data less difficult. This indirectly enables one to figure out what needs to be done.
Besides that, Kiechel did not fail to draw attention to the opinions of critics and his personal opinion about The Boston Consulting Group Matrix (BCG Matrix) in his book. Critics pointed out that a certain organization can define and characterize the shares and size of a targeted market. However, it is impractical and almost impossible for the same organization to predict the exact growth of the market. Kiechel strongly believes that an organization should associate with the hidden message of the BCG Matrix. An organization should take the initiative to identify and accurately comprehend the competitive situation that it faces, the data for understanding the business that it is involved in and the potential that the organization possess. Otherwise, you are left at the mercy of every business unit’s manager telling you that “Next year is going to be different; This baby is really set to take off.” (Kiechel, 2010).
2.2.2 General Electric
Nowadays, General Electric can be more successful. If should related to the McKinsey and Company consulting firm. Because General Electric Company get the help from McKinsey and Company consulting firm, and developed a more complicated matrix (Figure 2.1). Through the internet research, the General Electric Company used GE matrix/McKinsey matrix as their planning system for management of diversity. From my general knowledge about the GE matrix/McKinsey matrix, it is a strategic that will separate from the mother company into many small business units and determine which business unit should invest more, retain, or divest.
From “Strategic Management: theory and case study”, by Tunchalong Rungwitoo, the General Electric / McKinsey Matrix, is a nine cell matrix from two dimensions, which is industry attractiveness and business strength. For the use of General Electric/McKinsey Matrix, they use the GE matrix/McKinsey matrix to identify whether the small business units should invest, retain, or divest. Besides that, it also can fits perfectly to the company’s strengths and helps to exploit the most attractive industries or markets.
Besides that, General Electric Company can see the status of their business units and suggest the strategy the business fell in which categories through the General Electric/McKinsey Matrix (Figure 2.2). The vertical axis of the General Electric/McKinsey matrix is industry attractiveness, which is determined by the factors such as market growth rate, market size, demand variability, industry profitability, industry rivalry, global opportunities, and others. And, the horizontal axis of the General Electric/McKinsey matrix is the strength of the business unit. Some factors that can be used to determine business unit strength include: market share, growth in market share, brand equity, distribution channel access, production capacity, and profit margins relative to competitors.
From “International Journal of Humanities and Social science”, the General Electric/McKinsey Matrix requires the identification and assessment of both external and internal factors, which are industry attractiveness and business strength on a nine-cell grid. To grow, to hold, or to harvest are the categories used to classify both attractiveness and strength (Figure 2.2). When that is high attractiveness and high business strength (Leader), the company should seek dominance and maximize investment. When that is medium attractiveness and medium business strength (Proceed with care), the company should specialize and invest selectively. And, when that is low attractiveness and low business strength (Withdrawal), the company should attack rivals and time exit.
3.0 Data Analysis and Discussion
3.1.1 Structural Causes and How to Solve Them
An organization can have a centralized or a decentralized structure. A centralized organization refers to an organization in which important decision-making tasks and power are given and carried out by few leaders. As stated by Vitez (2012), centralized organization depends on a single person to give direction and make decisions for the corporation. A decentralized organization, on the other hand, give autonomy to individuals in middle and lower management levels to make critical decisions and usually carry out decisions as part of a team (Vitez, 2012). The hierarchy of the organization also tends to be much more flat compared to centralized organizations.
In a centralized organization, ethical conduct is often disseminated in the form of ethical codes of conduct and corporate policies. It is easier to control and minimize unethical behavior within an organization with a central structure as employees have clearly written guidelines to follow in the corporation and if they fail to do so, they will be reprimanded for it. However, an employee’s own personal ethical standards may conflict with what is expected of him as a member of the organization and its corporate culture (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2012). Centralized organization also creates a “groupthink” environment in which in an organization culture where unethical behavior is prevalent, employees knowingly commit unethical acts or ignore unethical acts with full knowledge that these behaviors are morally wrong. As stated by Sims (2003), “the presence or absence of ethical behavior in organizational members’ actions is both influenced by the prevailing culture (ethical climate)” and, in turn, partially determines the culture’s view of ethical issues” (Sims, 2003).
Furthermore, central codes of ethics are created out of context of ethical dilemmas and may not be suited for delicate situations with no clear-cut solution. While having an ethical code may inhibit major ethical problems such as physical and sexual harassments that are clearly morally wrong and unethical to begin with, subtle ethical problems may not be outlined in the ethical code of the company such as alienating co-workers of other races.
Conversely, a decentralized organization gives more freedom to employees to make decisions and top management usually delegate decision making to middle and low management. In this type of structure, there is more flexibility to each unit of business to carry out tasks and make decisions. According to Gitman and McDaniel (2008), decentralized organizations benefit by “quicker decision making, increased level of innovation and creativity, greater organizational flexibility, faster development of lower-level managers, and increased level of job satisfaction and employee commitment” (Gitman & McDaniel, 2008).
Despite this, there is also a risk of unethical practices and behavior occurring in a decentralized organization. As employees are given more power to make decisions, they are now more susceptible to moral hazards in which an employee will have a higher tendency to take risks. As decentralized organizations have fewer internal controls such as corporate policies and code of ethics, these organizations rely on shared values (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2012). Therefore, it is harder to control employee behavior especially if they do not believe in the shared values of the organization.
To solve these structural problems, an organization must first acknowledge the possibility of unethical behavior occurring within its framework. An organization must realize the flaws that each type of structure presents and ways to combat these flaws to minimize risky and unethical behavior among its employees. In this sense, organizations should look into allocating resources to study and research the structural problems and implement the solutions into the organizational structure. Organizational change is somewhat harder and more costly to implement in a centralized organization because it involves changing all policies from top to bottom within the organization as compared to a decentralized organization, which is more fluid, and adapt to change quickly. New rules, values and organizational culture to minimize unethical behavior must always be monitored to gauge the success of these new policies.
Furthermore, an organization must tailor its ethical standards to the type of structure that it uses. For instance, in a centralized organization there should be more room to maneuver ethical dilemmas that does not strictly coincide with corporate policies. Moreover, centralized organizations should provide a form of outlet for employees to air grievances about ethical dilemmas and adopt a situational approach to ethical decision making in the corporation.
On the other hand, in a decentralized organization, top management should constantly portray ethical values outwardly through their actions so that it empowers employees to follow their stride and perform ethically as well. Leading by example is one of the approaches to keep employees from committing unethical acts in this type of organizational structure. There should also be some form of central codes of conduct, even in a decentralized organization to keep employees in check and to maintain the reputation of the corporation.
Other solutions to prevent unethical behavior are to set up a committee that will look into employees’ indiscretions in the company and evaluate whether these indiscretions are justified in the given circumstances. Instead of penalizing the employee by suspending them and creating resentment, the employees should be sent to ethics classes to help them rehabilitate their behavior. Ethics classes are a good way to disseminate ethical values within an organization but having classes in which the instructor tells the employees the rules, there should be a more interactive environment where employees get to try their hand in solving ethical dilemmas in the workplace. Ethics classes and training should also be given to new hires as part of their training in the corporation. Additionally, the organization can provide motivational training for employees to get them invested in the interest of the company and the company’s bottom line that is the customers. A motivated employee is a hardworking and productive employee and an employee that is less likely to make unethical decisions that may jeopardize the company and its customers.
3.2.1 Boston Consulting Group Planning System
Large companies that have diversified its business into other strategic business units usually face challenges in allocating resources among its units. The Boston Consulting Group Matrix Growth-Share Matrix (BCG Growth-Share Matrix) is a planning model for managing portfolio of different business units that is based on combinations of market growth rate and relative market share. The market growth rate represents industry attractiveness and relative market share represents the strength of a company within the industry relative to its competitors. Thus, the position of a company on the BCG Growth-Share Matrix indicates consumption of cash needed to diversify into a particular business and generation of cash through that particular business.
The portfolio planning model of the BCG Growth-Share Matrix is divided into four grids that are represented using four symbols; cash cow, dog, question mark and star. ‘Cash cows’ are used to represent a business unit in a mature industry that has a large market share. It generates more cash than it consumes which in return can be used to invest in other business units. Business units that are categorized as ‘cash cows’ should be ‘milked’ in order to gain profits while investing as little cash as possible into that particular business unit. Besides that, ‘dogs’ are used to represent a business unit in a mature industry that has a small market share and a low growth rate. It does not require high cash consumption nor does it result in high cash generation. Even so, business units that are categorized as ‘dogs’ are cash traps because the cash invested is tied up in a business unit that has little possibility. Instead, the cash invested into that particular business unit can be deployed into other more rewarding business units. (Refer to Appendix A)
In addition to that, ‘question marks’ are used to represent a business unit that has a small market share in a high growth market. Due to this, it consumes more cash than it generates. However, business units that are categorized as ‘question marks’ have the potential to become ‘stars’ and eventually ‘cash cows’ if high investments and resources to grow market shares are fueled into that particular business unit. Nevertheless, it is still a questionable decision as it is unknown if it will succeed and become ‘stars’ and ‘cash cows’. Furthermore, ‘stars’ are used to represent a business unit that has a large market share in a high growth market. It requires high cash consumption but at the same time, it results in high cash generation. Thus, the flow of cash in each direction is evened out. If successful, business units that are categorized as ‘stars’ will eventually become ‘cash cows’ when its industry matures. (Refer to Appendix A)
Despite its many advantages, the BCG Growth-Share Matrix has its disadvantages as well. The main limitation that has been identified is the questionable link between market share and profitability. This is due to the fact that an increasing market share can be very expensive and may not result in high cash generation as predicted. On top of that, the matrix overlooks many factors that contribute to the profitability of a business unit. For example, market growth rate is only one of the many factors that represent industry attractiveness. Also, there are additional factors that represent the strength of a company within the industry relative to its competitors besides relative market share. (Refer to Appendix B)
Moreover, the framework of the matrix assumes that each business unit is independent and does not depend on other business units run by the company. However, in some large companies, this is most certainly not the case. For instance, business units that are categorized as ‘dogs’ which do not require high cash consumption nor does it result in high cash generation may have been formed in order to strategically help other business units run by a particular company. (Refer to Appendix B)
3.2.2 General Electric Planning System
On the other hand, the General Electric also had own portfolio analysis for the diversity of management or Strategies Business Units (SBU), which is General Electric/McKinsey Matrix. General Electric/McKinsey Matrix is a business portfolio analysis on Strategies Business Units (SBU) that based on the business unit strength and the market attractiveness. The business unit strength is determined by some factors such as the market share, growth in market share, and others. And, the market attractiveness is determined by the factors such as market growth rate, market size, and others. Thus, the General Electric will invest the business unit through the market’s strength and the market’s attractiveness.
The General Electric/McKinsey Matrix is nine-cell portfolio matrix which will measure the business unit strength and attractiveness, and let the company know whether they should invest, retain, or divest that business unit. The advantages of this matrix are telling the company their business unit strength and attractiveness and what decision should them make. When the company should invest, retain, or divest the business unit? When the business unit falls into the categories A, B or D (Figure 2.3) is the time for company to invest. Because at that time, the business unit has a quite strong strength and market attractiveness, so the company should invest for growth or to maintain that business unit at that kind of category. On the other hand, when the business unit falls into the categories C, E, or G (Figure 2.3) is the time for company to retain the business unit. This is because the business unit does not have quite strong business strength and market attractiveness. But, the company also can try to invest that business unit for get more earning. And, when the business unit falls into the categories F, H, or I (Figure 2.3) is the time for company to divest that business unit or plan to exit that business unit because the business unit has weak business strength and market attractiveness.
Although the General Electric/McKinsey Matrix has many advantages such as it will looks through all the business unit sides such as market size, market growth rate, market share, and what decision should them make depend on the business unit’s strength and attractiveness, it has forgot about the other competitors and the new business unit. This matrix totally forgot about other competitors and the new business unit, we should look at other competitor’s strength and attractiveness too. This is because other competitors may affect own company’s strength and attractiveness and the growth rate too. And, for the new business unit, what can the new business unit should do, to invest, retain, or divest?
4.0 Conclusion
4.1 Organization Structure and Ethics
Organizations face many challenges when operating, one of which is the moral problems that can potentially occur within its structure. Organizations play an important rol

Organizational Structure The Formation Of An Organization

Organizational structure is very much initial and essential step in the formation of an organization. When individuals are well aware about structure like departments, authorities and responsibilities division they work very efficiently and in good manner. Many schools of thought define organizational structure. The researcher found ( 2010) unique definition of organizational structure that it is a form of an organization that is apparent in the way functions, departments, divisions and people link together and interact. Organization structure may be represented by an organization chart, it reveals vertical operational responsibilities, and horizontal linkages. Organizational structure may be much complex due to its size and its geographic dispersal

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The Researcher realized that organization structure consists on departments, functions and divisions which based on individuals workers at their selected positions. They are all linked together and they are all responsibility at their own working capacity and works in their span of working as a creative part of organization. And intricacy in organizational structure depends upon its capacity, its business worth, its geographical location, its choice of business and many other conditions which effect internally or externally on the organization. As the same statement (George & Jones, 2005) also defines organizational structure as it is the relationship between the management team and the workforce for performing formal task and reporting. Structure of organization designed by the management team and the basic inspiration is the motivation of employees to work hard with best coordination for doing desired work
George and Jones explained the organizational structure as relationship of management team and the individual work force which plays their role at their best. Management also motivates the senior and junior support staff on their efforts and the main task is coordination for best results in favor of organization. Coordination depends on best communication style exercised within the organization and (Hall 1987) also defines organizational structure as communication flows, interaction of individuals and best use of power relationship for all the activities of organization. In the light of above views the organizational structure is complex design of individuals at different positions, different departments and divisions, with appropriate coordination and communication between employees for best and working in stipulated time period in reasonable cost. At present age the need of organizational structure very much essential, but think about early ages of human life or during the evolution of society and economy the need of organization and organizational structure exists, and scholars of this evolutionary group initialized the idea of organizational structure in what sense. The researcher found some references about the history of organizational structure and presented here under
Organizational structure has background from ancient times. Collectors and hunters used to manage tribal organizations. At the next step of revolution of economic history it was observed that through clerical strength industrialists developed structures of organizations at that time. Organizational structures have different types as the revolution of economies and described as:
Pre-Bureaucratic Structures
With the development of economies the concept of entrepreneurial business raised, at this time organizational structures are called pre-bureaucratic structures. Most of the operations directed and controlled by unitary structure and the strategic leader makes all key decisions. But these structures have very low standardization of tasks. The researcher realized that most decisions taken by single person either at very minor level. This may be fits for entrepreneur or sole proprietor ship where business scale may be high but working span based on single decision maker. Supervision of Organizational structure totally summarized by Entrepreneur and all the employees followed the instructions for doing their job with neglecting the results which may be in favor or oppose of business.
Due to this reason the level of standardization exists in minor sense in pre-bureaucratic structure. Set pattern, style of working enhance working efficiency and these were initial frame work of standardization.
Bureaucratic Structures
(Burns and Stalker 1961) indicates organization structures which have certain degree of standardization. Degree of standardization creates the sense of quality maintenance for products and services. (Chandler 1962, 1977) and williamson (1975, 1985) also comment on the shifting of organizational structure from unitary to multi-divisionary structures for market positioning and resource allocation among divisions, because many organizations enhances business at multinational basis and style of structure suite to them. The researcher further observed about standardization in organizational structure and found the term degree of standardization and its benefit also. Degree may help to improve and maintain the quality of product or service. The researcher realized that shifting to flat structure for marketing positioning already applied in organizations. The researcher tried to find the effect of shifting on multi-divisionary structures for enhancement in degree of standardization, due to reducing in implementation time or cost..
Post-Bureaucratic Structures
(Donnellon, Hecscher, 1994) initiates the post bureaucratic organization theory which may include total quality management, culture management and matrix management. The ideas of post bureaucratic structures specifically contrast with the weber’s ideal type bureaucracy. (Grey C, Garsten C) also describes the post bureaucratic organization as such type of organization where decisions are based on dialogue and consensus rather than authority and command. It is used to encourage participation and help to empower people who normally experience oppression in groups. Some researchers studied that how simple structures could be used to generate improvisational outcomes in product development (Miner et al, 2000).
The researcher found the good examples of companies which shifts from unitary structures to typical bureaucracy like shell Group and when the management converted the structure to matrix the company failed in market. Starbuck empowers employees to make their own decisions and train them to develop both hard and soft skills. Some experts initiates the matrix structure as multinational design (Robbin, judge2007) which maintains coordination among products, functions and geographic, and the same design adopted by many global companies like Toyota, Procter and gamble and Uniliver. Over the last decade the competition, global trends, customer demands and many other factor set the mind of business person that many companies has become flatter in which less hierarchical divisions involved which is necessary for survival of the organization. After that another approach introduced and today organization structures designed as per business strategy and the new styles developed in the formation of organizational structures. These are functional structures, divisional structures, Team, Network and Boundary less Structures.
Functional Structure
(Miles, Snow 1992) describes this structure. This style of organizational structure describes the specific activity of business. The organization engaged the employee for specialized set of tasks. In some businesses, when standardized goods and services made at large volume and low cost the functional structure will best fit the operations. In functional structures coordination and specialization of task are centralized which produce a limited amount of products or services efficient and predictable. The advantage of this structure is most useful for those industries which involved in manufacturing of heavy machinery, Electrical equipment and tools which have standardized technical specs. Likewise at the other side functional structures are helpful for organizations provide specific services to their customers. Most of the service provider companies adopt the same structure for their particular scope of work, specified customers, isolated style of workings and pre-determined targets within stipulated time period.
Divisional Structure
(Theraja 2008) consider the style in his book. Divisional structure also known as product structure. Each organizational function is grouped into division. Like an industry makes products of same nature like textile industry which invloves spinning, dying , knittting, Weaving units they consider as individual division as per their activities for each unit. Each division within a divisional structure contains all the necessary resources and functions within it. Divisions can be categorized from different points of view. There can be made a distinction on product/service basis (different products for different customers: households or companies) or on geograpical basis (like UAE and Asian Division).
Matrix Structure
In matrix structure induviduals grouped by both function and product. Structure can combine the best operations of structures which followed separately at their areas. Excellent practice followed in a matrix organization, and the management frequently uses teams of employees to accomplish work, in order to take advantage of the strengths, as well as make up for the weaknesses, of functional and decentralized forms. Matrix structure is amongst the purest of organizational structures, a simple lattice emulating order and regularity demonstrated in nature. As project matrix divided into three categories stated in below:
Weak / Functional Matrix: in this type of structure functional manager manage the resources and asssigned project area. Organization limitize the project manager and he is only responsible to oversee the cross- functional aspects of the porject.
Balanced / Functional Matrix: Such type of structures the best aspects of functional and projectized organizations merged. It is the responsibility of project manager to oversee the project. project manager and the functional managers equally powered from the higher management. In some situations it is consider the most difficult system to maintain as the sharing power is delicate proposition.
Strong/Project Matrix: Project manager is primarily responsible for the project. Functional managers provide technical expertise and assign resources as needed.
(Theraja 2007) Newest concept of organizational structures os team. If the organization have hierarchical or flat sturctures the management works as team. An organization gathered a set of people who synergize individual competencies to achieve unique dimensions, the quality of organizational structure revolves aropund the comptencies of teams in totality. In banking concept of floor financing emerged and management creates a team which have common interest to sell more cars through leasing. Team works for maximum car selling through leasing facility to resonsible and rapport individuals .
(Walker 2007) Managers in network structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations, usually by electronic means. Many businesses involves in this structures and concerned staff engaging in network to sell more strategy for a porduct and service.
Boundary less Structure:
(Andreson 2007) discuss this type of organizational structure that it is such type of organizational structures have no boundary of their business links. They have virtual business entity which engaged in 24 hrs business on internet. This means while the core of the organization can be small but still the company can operate globally be a market leader in its niche.Many businessman follow this type of strategy and have good range of products displays through internet and makes more profit to sell these products at different levels and different quantity but same quality and price.
Magnificient companies develop, modify and change their organizational structures so that they align with their strategies. For the last decades most of the organization shifting back to flatter structures. Being at risk of losing profits or even going bankrupt due to the major financial downturn today, a lot of companies are moving to flatter structures. Losing profit at the basis of cost enhancement and other factors which caused loss in diversed shapes but as per ethics each and every organizational structure has common determinants which observed by organization in formation of organizational structure or shifting from existing structure to another one. These determinants are dicussed as below
Detereminants of oganizational structure
In every organization, management care about all the determinants when creates organizational structure. Main determinants of organizational structure are
1. The Environment
Reseracher found many school of thoughts about determinants of organizational structure like (Burns and Stalker 1961) says that environmental conditions plays prominent role for appropriateness of organizational structure. Further stated by (Lawrence and Lorsh 1967) that performance of such companies much better if their internal capabilities and characteristics matches with environmental requirements. Reseracher realized environment arround the organization or business affected in both sense negative or positive. Some internal environments also conserve the resources and help to use in right manner or some time caused deffciency or decline.
2. The Size of the organization
(Stephen P. Borgatti, 1996) stated that organization size consists on number of personnel., output, capcacity and resources. Also explained that when the size increased the structures and actitivities also increased but concentration of power decreased. When organziation tends to enhancement its volume as working capacity, extension in services or products they have already made, personnel in shape of making new divisions or resources which are in shape of fund flows the structure direclty proportionate with it and increased with the size of organization but concentration of power may be decreased. Planned organization have best solution for concentration of power, they authorized appointed person at their span of working. The authorized person is competent and skilled to take immediate decision as best choice for organization growth.
3. Technology
In current scenario the communication technology is very essential for organzational strucutre. Researcher found the view of different authors like (Parsons 1951) says that coordination and communication processes importance increased at each level, either managerial, technical or institutional. It considers very complex issue in organization and in all dynamics of organization environment (Emery and Trist,1960). In some other school of thought technology is one of the internal important factor of organization. In any organization managerial porcesses and technology has relationship and technology determines the way of organizational management.Technology determines the principles, theories and structures of organization (Zareei Matin, 2003, p-155). Resarcher agreed with this statement and observed that communication technology in organization plays prominent role for managerial activities. Further realized that communication technology raised at each level in organizational structure with growth of organization.
The Organization Strategy:
(Fe`rery 2006) said that strategy consists on three dimension which were called dynamics of strategy, these are value, parimeter and imitation. Researcher realized that all of three factors exercised by organizational structure and also realized that best fit between organizational strategy, structure and management process make it a successful organization (Raymond Miles and Charles Snow 1992). The researcher found that strategies and structure has complex relationship in organization and growth of organization possible in the sense that strategy chosen for business as per requirement of organizational structure or sometime there may be remarkable change required in organizational structure as per market demand.
During research another point explored by researcher and gathered the infromation about organizational structure affects on culture of organization and discussed below.
Effect of organizational structure on organization culture
Reseracher tried to found the effect of strucutre on culture and achieved suggestion that in change process of organization culture is an integral part (R.Dension and K. Mishra 1995)
Sub headings
Community organizing practice
The Organizer’s role
Practice Keys
Quality standards
In an organizational structure monitoring of absolute application of quality standards is very important task and most of the firms exercised it carefully. The researcher observed some standards relevant to the population of study like implementation time, implementation cost, motivation, monitoring, communication and systematic approach. The researcher gathered infromation about these quality standards from different sources relevant to the study and discussed in following
Frame work on literature review
effect on Culture
Organizational Structure and Standardization
Quality standards
Application in current structure
ISO 9001, 14001
Implementation of ISO in current structure

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development: OECD




(OECD 2010)
The OECD is the replacement organization to the Organization for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) whose specific purposes was to help the reconstruction of Europe after World War Two. The OECD development was not always smooth one as it has been perceived as “rich man’s club” its members account for approximately three-fifths of the world’s GNI and has faced many calls for its dismantlement (Woodward, Richard 2009). Over the past 50 years, the OECD has become a valuable source of “policy analysis and internationallycomparable statistical, economic and social data.” (USOECD 2014)

Image showing member nations of the OECD
(OECD 2014)
The OECD mission is “to promote policies that will improve sustainable economic growth and development, maximize employment social well-being of people around the world.” (Woodward, 2009)
The OECD functions as three tier structure. This is comprised of a Council, a Secretariat and Committees.
The Council, which is at the top, consists of ambassadors from the various member states that are in charge of establishing goals and policy issues. The Council holds the power of decision making as they handle the oversight and strategic direction of the organisation.
The Secretariat is made up of the Secretary General, the deputy Secretaries General and directorates. These include economists, scientists and lawyers and several administrative staff, who are responsible for research, data collection and analysis. The Secretary General chairs the Council and thereby manages the work of the Secretariat.
The Committees comprise of representatives from various member countries that come together to form groups such as education, environment, trade and investment.
Table 1 showing: the organizational structure of the OECD

(OECD 2014)
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development has many key roles. These roles include:
The major functions of the OECD are:

To provide a platform in which governments of member nations can use to find solutions to common problems organize policies and share good practices
To set global standards and principles by monitoring economic trends.
and development policies
To offers the know-how and ideas to over 1000 non-member countries for their development.

(Economy Watch 2010)
The OECD used the wide range of information gathered on various topics to help governments promote “prosperity and fight poverty through economic growth and financial stability. They also ensure the environmental implications of economic and social development are taken into account. OECD’s work is based on continued monitoring of events in member countries as well as outside OECD area, and includes regular projections of short and medium-term economic developments.The OECD Secretariat collects and analyses data, after which committees discuss policy regarding this information, the Council makes decisions, and then governments implement recommendations. ” (OECD 2014)
Table 2 showing: The way the OECD works
(OECD 2014)
Types of Publications
The OECD publications fall into three cqtegories Key Publication, which include Factbooks. At a Glance books, Insights, Outlooks, Economic Surveys, OECD Observer, Better Policies Series, OECD Insights and Blogs. They also produce several other types which include statistics, journals,magazines and papers (OECD 2014)
A couple examples are as followed

Africn Economic Outlook 2014
Health at a Glance Asia/Pacific 2012
Agricultural Policy Monitering and Evaluation 2014


Financiaal Market Trends
Competition Law & Policy

OECD Health Statistics
OECD Productivity Statistics
OECD Science, Technology and R&D Statistics


Education Indicators in Focus
Trade Policy Papers

Development Projects of the OECD
“This project is based on the idea that the OECD can provide effective support to countries on how to progress toward fair and inclusive education systems,” It offers data on the policies that are successful in reducing school failure, and supports countries in promoting reform.
This project directly reflects one of the roles OECD—providing the platform where governments can work together to solutions to common problems and share good practices. This project is both comparative and selective. It offers the breakdown of challenges faced by countries as well as an overview of the different policies implemented across OECD countries that aims at equity in education policies. Countries that are interested can have a targeted national assessment seminar during which the precise situation of the country will be examined. (OECD 2010)
The overall aim of this project is to provide assistance and support to countries trying to improving
their education policy and practices, in order to achieve reduction in failure and dropout rates. It updates
and fine-tunes policies giving “tailor-made advice on how to design and model their policies, as well as on
how to overcome barriers to implementation”. (OECD 2010)
Table 3 showing: The structure of the OECD Project Overcoming School Failure: Policies That Work


(OECD 2010)
What is PISA?
PISA is the OCED’s answer to the global call for countries to have a way of comparing the effect of their investments in schooling on the students’ knowledge and skills. (Oxford University Centre for Educational Assessment. 2011) This is an international assessment that examines educational performances on a common measure that is, reading science across countries, OCED member nations, partner nations and other non-members. (OECD 2014)It addresses the questions of if students are ready for real life future challenges? Are they able to analyze and communicate effectively? Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela have all participated in this project. (OECD 201)

With PISA and other data provided by the OECD together with policy analysis,
helps to build more effective and unbiased educational system with improved
outcomes. As PISA addresses the future questions, the data gathered by this
research helps to shape policy plans by identifying possible future issues. (OECD 2014)
PISA represents a pledge by nations to supervise the outcomes of education
systems through measuring student achievement on a regular basis and within
an internationally agreed common framework. It aims to present a new
foundation for policy dialogue and for partnership in defining and executing
educational goals, in inventive ways that reflect judgments about the skills that are relevant to adult life. (OECD, 2009, p.9)
PISA is one of the OECD major policy tools; this programme has pioneered new and highly collaborative ways in which to measure progress in societies on a global scale. There are many lessons that can be learnt from PISA on how to evaluate learning, the pace of achieving learning goal. Some countries have used their PISA results for a policy discussion indicates the likely pace of progress towards achieving a learning goal.

The structure and organization of the human body

Unit 3
The Structure, Function and Organisation of The Human Body
Outcome 1 Handout
The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the building block of life. It is usually a microscopic structure containing nuclear and cytoplasmic material enclosed by a semi-permeable membrane. Some organisms, such as most bacteria, are unicellular(consist of a single cell). Other organisms, such as humans, are multicellular.
Each cell is at least somewhat self-contained and self-maintaining: it can take in nutrients, convert these nutrients into energy, carry out specialized functions, and reproduce as necessary. Each cell stores its own set of instructions for carrying out each of these activities.
Comparison of structures between animal and plant cells

Typical animal cell

Typical plant cell



Nucleolus (within nucleus)

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Smooth ER



Golgi apparatus








Nucleolus (within nucleus)

Rough ER

Smooth ER



Golgi apparatus (dictiosomes)




Cell wall

Nucleus- Controls the cell. It consists of the nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin, and nucleoplasm.
Nucleolus- are non-membraneous matrix of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein. found in the nucleus. Instructions in DNA are copied here. It works with ribosomes in the synthesis of protein.
Chromosomes- Determines what traits a living thing will have,
passes information from parent to offspring.
Cell Membrane- same as unit membrane. Gives the cell shape, holds the cytoplasm, and controls what moves into and out of the cell. acts as a boundary layer to contain the cytoplasm (fluid in cell) interlocking surfaces bind cells together.
Cytoplasm- Jellylike material (cytosol and organelles), most of the
cell’s chemical reactions take place there, and made
up of mostly water and some chemicals.
Vacuoles- Liquid-filled, may store food, water, minerals, or wastes. There maybe more than one. In plants it takes up a lot of space, produce turgor pressure against cell wall for support.
Mitochondria- Produce energy when food is broken down, often
called the “powerhouse of the cell”. It’s structure is composed of modified double unit membrane (protein, lipid). Its inner membrane infolded to form cristae. It is the site of cellular respiration i.e. the release of chemical energy from food
Glucose + Oxygen ——> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy (ATP)
Ribosomes- Where proteins are made, and often connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. A cell may have as many as 500,000. They are non-membraneous, spherical bodies composed of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein enzymes. They are the site of protein synthesis.
Endoplasmic Reticulum- The “transportation system” in the cell, connects the nuclear membrane with the cell membrane. Used in detoxification of the cell. “ER”. Forms a tubular network throughout the cell. Provides a large surface area for the organization of chemical reactions and synthesis.
Centrioles- Found only in animal cells, is used in cell reproduction to
help the chromosomes arrange before cell division. They are nine triplets of microtubules form one centriole. Two centrioles form one centrosome. They form spindle fibres to separate chromosomes during cell division.
Golgi apparatus(bodies)- Stacks of flattened sacs of unit membrane (cisternae) vesicles pinch off the edges. Modifies chemicals to make them functional. Secretes chemicals in tiny vesicles. Stores chemicals. May produce endoplasmic reticulum.
Lysosomes- digests food particles with enzymes, pinched of pieces of golgi apparatus. Are membrane bound bag containing hydrolytic enzymes. Are hydrolytic enzyme = (water split biological catalyst) i.e. using water to split chemical bonds.
They break large molecules into small molecules by inserting a molecule of water into the chemical bond.
Cell Wall- Found only in plant cells. Forms a thick outer covering outside the cell membrane, gives the plant support and shape. Is a non-living secretion of the cell membrane, composed of cellulose. They are cellulose fibrils deposited in alternating layers for strength. Cell wall contains pits (openings) that make it totally permeable. It provides protection from physical injury and together with vacuole, provides skeletal support.
Chloroplasts- Found only in plant cells. Found in the cytoplasm of green plant
cells, contain chlorophyll, traps the energy from light, and is where photosynthesis takes place. It is composed of a double layer of modified membrane (protein,chlorophyll, lipid). The inner membrane invaginates to form layers called “grana” (sing., granum) where chlorophyll is concentrated. It is the site of photosynthesis
Carbon Dioxide + Water —————> Glucose + Oxygen
radiant energy (food).
There are many different types of cells in the human body. None of these cells function well on there own, they are part of the larger organism that is called – you.
Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism. Hence, a tissue is an ensemble of cells, not necessarily identical, but from the same origin, that together carry out a specific function. Organsare then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues.
Cells group together in the body to form tissues – a collection of similar cells that group together to perform a specialized function. There are 4 primary tissue types in the human body: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nerve tissue.

1. Epithelial Tissue- The cells of epithelial tissue pack tightly together and form continuous sheets that serve as linings in different parts of the body. Epithelial tissue serve as membranes lining organs and helping to keep the body’s organs separate, in place and protected. Some examples of epithelial tissue are the outer layer of the skin, the inside of the mouth and stomach, and the tissue surrounding the body’s organs.
2. Connective Tissue- There are many types of connective tissue in the body. Generally speaking, connective tissue adds support and structure to the body. Most types of connective tissue contain fibrous strands of the protein collagen that add strength to connective tissue. Some examples of connective tissue include the inner layers of skin, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone and fat tissue. In addition to these more recognizable forms of connective tissue, blood is also considered a form of connective tissue.
3. Muscle Tissue- Muscle tissue is a specialized tissue that can contract. Muscle tissue contains the specialized proteins actin and myosin that slide past one another and allow movement. Examples of muscle tissue are contained in the muscles throughout your body.
4. Nerve Tissue- Nerve tissue contains two types of cells: neurons and glial cells. Nerve tissue has the ability to generate and conduct electrical signals in the body. These electrical messages are managed by nerve tissue in the brain and transmitted down the spinal cord to the body.

Organs are the next level of organization in the body. An organ is a structure that contains at least two different types of tissue functioning together for a common purpose. There are many different organs in the body: the liver, kidneys, heart, even your skin is an organ. In fact, the skin is the largest organ in the human body and provides us with an excellent example for explanation purposes. The skin is composed of three layers: the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layer.

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The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin. It consists of epithelial tissue in which the cells are tightly packed together providing a barrier between the inside of the body and the outside world. Below the epidermis lies a layer of connective tissue called the dermis. In addition to providing support for the skin, the dermis has many other purposes. The dermis contains blood vessels that nourish skin cells. It contains nerve tissue that provides feeling in the skin. And it contains muscle tissue that is responsible for giving you ‘goosebumps’ when you get cold or frightened.
The subcutaneous layer is beneath the dermis and consists mainly of a type of connective tissue called adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is more commonly known as fat and it helps cushion the skin and provide protection from cold temperatures.
Nervous tissue: is one of four major classes of vertebrate tissue.
Nervous tissue is the main component of the nervous system-the brain, spinal cord, and nerves-which regulates and controls body functions. It is composed of neurones, which transmit impulses, and the neuroglia, which assist propagation of the nerveimpulse as well as provide nutrientsto the neuron. Every time you get pinched, part of your nerve tissue is damaged.
Nervous tissue is made of nerve cells that come in many varieties, all of which are distinctly characteristic by the axon or long stem like part of the cell that sends action potential signals to the next cell.
Functions of the nervous system are sensory input, integration, controls of muscles and glands, homeostasis, and mental activity.
All living cells have the ability to react to stimuli. Nervous tissue is specialized to react to stimuli and to conduct impulses to various organs in the body which bring about a response to the stimulus. Nerve tissue (as in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves that branch throughout the body) are all made up of specialized nerve cells called neurons. Neurons are easily stimulated and transmit impulses very rapidly. A nerve is made up of many nerve cell fibres (neurons) bound together by connective tissue. A sheath of dense connective tissue, the epineurium surrounds the nerve. This sheath penetrates the nerve to form the perineurium which surrounds bundles of nerve fibres. Blood vessels of various sizes can be seen in the epineurium. The endoneurium, which consists of a thin layer of loose connective tissue, surrounds the individual nerve fibres.
The cell body is enclosed by a cell (plasma) membrane and has a central nucleus. Granules called Nissl bodies are found in the cytoplasm of the cell body. Within the cell body, extremely fine neurofibrils extend from the dendrites into the axon. The axon is surrounded by the myelin sheath, which forms a whitish, non-cellular, fatty layer around the axon. Outside the myelin sheath is a cellular layer called the neurilemma or sheath of Schwann cells. The myelin sheath together with the neurilemma is also known as the medullary sheath. This medullary sheath is interrupted at intervals by the nodes of Ranvier.
Neuronal Communication
Nerve cells are functionally made to each other at a junction known as a synapse, where the terminal branches of an axon and the dendrites of another neuron lie in close proximity to each other but normally without direct contact. Information is transmitted across the gap by chemical secretions called neurotransmitters. It causes activation in the post-synaptic cell. All cells possess the ability to respond to stimuli.

Benefits of Training Employees in an Organization

The aim of this paper is to identify all there is to know about training, the impact it has on both firms and employees and then, the reason why, although it is beneficial provision to business growth, still some organisations and individuals are not willing to accept the idea of investing in training and development. In order to come to that claim, it is necessary to mention first the cost-effectiveness of training and development, by which methods it can be reinsured, and the involvement of training in an organisation’s prosperity and even more, when it has to do with the integration in a international market.

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To begin properly, it should be noticed that training at any level and in whatever form this can take, could have only positive aspect. Considering that, training means investing in people to enable them perform better and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities (Armstrong, 1996; 2003). Through the practice of a range of activities, it is believed that learning is an important clue here, as a means for developing a high performance culture and achieving business’s competitive advantage (Pieper, 1990, Salaman, 1992, Tyson, 1996). This appear clearly from the below definitions of training.
According to Heevy and Noon (2001), training is the process of changing the skills, attitudes, and knowledge of employees with the purpose of improving their level of competence. It is a planned process, usually involving a series of stages where incremental improvements can be identified. It takes two main focus 1) on the job training whereby an employee observing the tasks, being guided through them by experts, and then practising them. 2) Off the job training whereby an employee is instructed away from the place of work, either in a training room on the premises or at a separate location. This training is more often theory based and might even take the form of self learning packages (Heevy and Noon, 2001). Furthermore, as Manpower Services Commission defined training in 1981, it is the following: “A planned process to modify attitude, knowledge or skill behavior through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Its purpose, in the work situation, is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and future manpower needs of the organization”. Seeing the definition of the training from the perspective of education as Smith put it: “Development refers to the growth of realization of a person’s ability, through conscious or unconscious education”, where education is “activities which aim at developing the knowledge, skills, moral values and understanding required in all aspects of life, rather than a knowledge and skill relating to only a limited field of activity” (Smith, 1992).
Besides the definition of training, the mention of the potential benefits for both employees and firms and from which methods these are derived, is essential in order to understand why training is so important for the business (Lonr, 1990, Murray, 2007). It is worthwhile to point that it cannot be any development without the training procedure. As it has already been mentioned, training aims to develop employees’ competences and to improve their performance but also, to reduce the learning time needed for employees starting in a new job on appointment, transfer or promotion and to ensure that they will become fully competent as quickly and economically as possible (J. Swart et al, 2005). When a training programme being used effectively, then the benefits for employees are numerous and are illustrated on firm’s performance. It also helps to manage changes and provide to employees the knowledge and skills they need to adjust with new situations and work demands, as well as to adopt new technologies and methods, to be innovative (Armstrong, 2003). In that way, employees’ motivation is increased and the same goes to efficiencies in processes resulting in firm’s financial gain while employee’s turnover is being reduced. Highly trained workforce provides higher levels of service to customers which enhance company’s image (Mullins, 2007).
The cost-effectiveness of training is a vital element because it can help the line manager to establish credibility, to reveal the value of the training by achieving both operational savings and increases in firm’s revenue; then, enforce the organization to look training more as an investment and less as a dispensable cost of operation. By training their employees, companies maximize the potential of this investment (Campbell, 1995). In order to improve the skills of its human resource, an organization can either train its existing employees or recruit pre-skilled labor forces that have been trained elsewhere (Booth, 1998; Jameson, 2000).
The importance of investment in training and development is matter of whether a firm is treating its employees as a resource or as a cost (Tysson, 1996; Long, 1990; Jackson, 1989; Jameson, 2000). By exploiting the meaning of each word that consists Human Resource Management; human implies the workforce, resource implies investment, management implies development (Sisson, 1989). It is demonstrated that the consideration of human asset as investment for the firm through strategic development can maximize its potential, and the training is the tool that can provide it. So, companies with unwillingness to consider employees as investment, can simply be called “not HRM practicing”. In adverse, companies reluctant to invest in their human resources, rely on a short-term human asset, which, mainly, is low skilled training, less loyalty to its work and easy replaceable due to the lower cost of loss for the firm (Harzing, 1995; Jameson, 2000; Mullins, 2007).
Most managers recognize the vital role that continuous learning plays in today’s marketplace in order to maximize company’s competitive advantage (Harzing, 1995; Gordon, 1991). However, some managers are reluctant to invest in their employees and train them. The reasons why is happening are variable.
The market from its own, in which each company is doing business, deduct any potential training (Booth, 1994; Graven, 1998). More specific, the market is divided to the primary labour market, where jobs tend to be supplied by large, highly profitable firms with high capital to labour ratio and high productivity. Here, production is usually large scale with high investment in technology with more opportunities for training. The secondary labour market includes small firms with low capital to labour ratio, low productivity and small scale production. In these firms, wage and skill levels tend to be low, employment is unstable and training opportunities are usually limited. Significantly, small businesses experience problems in providing training for both owner-managers and workers. (Curran et al., 1996)
Reasons for not providing such training are that companies do not believe in the effectiveness of training and they do not consider it as a big component for a better performance. Hence, when profits are under pressure or other developments are on stake, the most common reaction is to cut training fund. Also, recruiting skilled labor is more economical than practicing training and development policies. But they neglect that teamwork, employees’ initiatives, people talents are all part of the financial model and when these figures are maximized the same goes with the business economic growth (Bentley, 1991; Campell, 1995) Traditional styles of management based on authoritarian, non-participatory tenets of employees and managers who have grown up in a system like this, is unlikely to be ready to abandon familiar tried and trusted methods and be welcomed to a better trained, self reliant and questioning human force (Sisson, 1989).
Some of them claim that there is limited time for the practice of training program. Indeed, a training program to be effective needs a lot of both employer’s and employee’s time and commitment, it also may take all employees’ job-life to be efficient. Job conditions change constantly in the business environment, so the continuous learning is required but nobody has the state or the emotional strength to be in a training position all the time. In that point, there are two categories that can be distinguished (Armstrong, 2003; Murray, 2007; Currie, 1997).
Employers that do not believe in the importance of the process and employees that do not find interest to be trained, specifically if they have obtained a high image in the firm and they are known for their distinctive qualifications. Contrary to that, some employees want to develop their skills and knowledge whereby they will contribute to their company’s success (Keep, 1989). They want training but their managers do not want to be confronted by this task, they are unwillingness to try, and simply they avoid it.
From the perspective of the length of a training program, which could take weeks, months or even the entire career of the employees it can be a major expense especially for firms with traditionally high turnover. Besides, the common belief that is the responsibility of the school system to train people to be workers and is the worker’s responsibility to learn how to do a job so they can get hired is another reason why employers not practice their manpower (Collin, 2003). Government regulations, insurance coverages, and common sense dictate relevant training that should be given to every employee. Still, few employers do not find it significant to train their human force (Collin, 2003; Noon, 2001).
A discouragement of not training is, also, the gap that arises when trainees are transferred from the training course to a job, to apply their knowledge and skills in practice. As long as they are in a training centre, they are sheltered from the realities of the rough and tumble workplace. For managers and team leaders, the problem of transferring from learning situation to the real conditions may be even more difficult because most of management training tends to deal with relatively abstract concepts like motivation and leadership, and the connection between what is being learned in the class room and what is really happening in work, may not always be apparent. That is why the training must always be compatible to employees’ needs (Armstrong, 2003, Noon, 2001).
Another reason of not practicing training can be regarded the difficulty in measuring the effectiveness of a training program. Measuring cost of training needs a lot of efforts from the senior manager because apart from training results are also other interacting variables such as administrative costs, relocation, course design and material costs that have to be taken into account. Therefore are different methods that can be used from the manager in order to derive an acceptable figure for the effectiveness of training course. Those methods vary from sector and company’s size. Hence manager has to have the ability to choose the one, which fit to the business needs. Any failure to the accounting of training-cost can mislead to wrong results, to an ineffective training proposal and that will discourage the company to practice training (Murley, 2007; Belcour, 1995t; Gordon, 1991).
Moreover, it can be said that firms are not invested in training because of the flexible working environment. They claim that investing in people can be a boomerang for their business competitive advantage, as it is likely employees will leave the company and transfer their knowledge into competitor’s firm. Despite the likelihood of this event, employers have to understand that the key for organization’s success is the human factor. By investing in human asset training, they invest in employees’ commitment to the firm and more as the firm invests in the development of their skills (Armstrong, 2003; Craven 1994; Hall, 1991).
It cannot be ignored the providence of the HRDF, a levy reimbursement scheme establishing in 1992. Under HRDF, employers pay a payroll contribution of one percent and are eligible to claim a portion of allowable training expenditures up to the limit of their total levy for any given year. The reimbursement rates vary by sector and type of training. Empirical analysis showed that firms least likely to claim from HRDF are small firms and firms providing no training or only informal training. Important factors that employers cite as inhibiting their training: the limited resources available for it, the use of mature technology with low skill requirements, the adequacy of skills provided by schools, and the availability of skilled workers who can be hired from other firms (Tan and Gill, 1998).
Generally, levy schemes have led to an increase in quantity of training. In some countries levy schemes have had some impact on increasing training. A common feature of schemes in which training has increased has been the fact that an effective system is in place for administering the levy – both for levy collection as well as administration of grants. On the other hand, there were very complicated rules governing training requirements for the levy and the criteria for approval, dissuade employers from investing in it (Edwards, 1997).
Firms which may have otherwise invested more in training, tend to reduce their effort to the level required by law in order to receive the minimum rebate or tax credit. There is also some evidence which suggests that if firms are reluctant to train, they organize training which is not relevant to their needs in order to qualify for the rebate or tax credit. Additionally, smaller firms may be less likely to train their workers as they feel that costs are significant and the training which is provided may not be relevant to their needs. Even if training is provided, the bureaucracy involved in persuing reimbursements dissuades firms from submitting claims for reimbursements. (Herschbach, 1993).
Concluding, this paper attempted to define the reasons why there are organizations that are reluctant to see their manpower as an important asset in business success and so invest on them and train them. Now, the interplay between the benefits that are derived from any form of training and the cost-effectiveness of training for the firms is seemed to be more clear. In general, companies which operate in the increasingly competitive international market were forced to attach training and development as equal to the vital acknowledgement that the training needs are more like an investment rather than a cost and that, partly due the cultural diversity that the international integration occurs and partly because of the rapid economic and technological growth. All these also reflect the companies’ outlook on how important is the quality of those they recruit, because a company’s image is as good as is its personnel and it is vital to select and train the best. (Upton, 1987) Unfortunately, in many cases this process is considered by many managers as meaningless, too time consuming, a bureaucratic exercise only, or even as something that intervene to their department’s work. For some organizations, the maintenance and the wellbeing of the equipment and machinery seems more important than to make an effort to the wellbeing and development of their own employees (Sun, 2001). But as it has been already highlighted, the key for success, even profit, for any firm at any size is its human asset and to invest in them infer to business future (Hall, 1991, Armstrong, 2003).

World Health Organization (WHO) Priorities

In the field of international public health policy and international public health, a significant role is played by WHO. To coordinate and direct health is the main responsibility of the World Health Organization (WHO), which is a body of the United Nations (UN). To assess and monitor health trends, to provide technical support to countries, to articulate evidence-based policy options, to set standards and norms, to shape the health research agenda and to provide leadership on global health matters are the other responsibilities of WHO. In the eradication of small pox, a leading role has been played by WHO, since its creation. The current priorities of WHO are networking, publications, driving the development of reporting, substance abuse, occupational health, health eating and food safety, nutrition, aging and development, reproductive and sexual health, the mitigation of the effects of non-communicable diseases, tuberculosis, malaria and AIDS/HIV.
The World Health Organizations
On 7th April 1948, the constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) came into force. In the field of international public health policy and international public health, a significant role is played by WHO. On 22nd July 1946, the constitution of the WHO was signed by sixty-nine countries. To coordinate and direct health is the main responsibility of the World Health Organization (WHO), which is a body of the United Nations (UN) (World Health Organization, 2006). To assess and monitor health trends, to provide technical support to countries, to articulate evidence-based policy options, to set standards and norms, to shape the health research agenda and to provide leadership on global health matters are the other responsibilities of WHO.

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In the eradication of small pox, a leading role has been played by WHO, since its creation. The current priorities of WHO are networking, publications, driving the development of reporting, substance abuse, occupational health, health eating and food safety, nutrition, aging and development, reproductive and sexual health, the mitigation of the effects of non-communicable diseases, tuberculosis, malaria and AIDS/HIV (World Health Organization, 2010).
Health is being considered as a shared responsibility in the twenty-first century that involves collective defense against transnational threats and equitable access to essential care. WHO is increasingly operating in a rapidly changing and complex landscape that extends into other sectors and that influence health outcomes and opportunities, with the boundaries of public health action becoming blurred (World Health Organization, 2008). Through use of 6-point agenda these challenges are responded by WHO that addresses 2 operational approaches, 2 strategic needs and 2 health objectives. Improving performance, enhancing partnerships, evidence and information, harnessing research, strengthening health systems, fostering health security and promoting development are the six points in the agenda.
The agenda of health development of WHO is directed by the ethical principle of equity, i. e. , health-promoting interventions or access to life-saving must not be denied for unfair reasons, involving those with social or economic roots (World Health Organization, 2007). Priority is given to health outcomes in vulnerable, disadvantaged and poor groups by activities of WHO, whose aim is health development. Addressing the neglected tropical areas, treating and preventing chronic diseases and attainment of health-related Millennium Development Goals are the factors that are included within its development and health agenda (World Health Organization, 2005). Through enforcement of revised International Health Regulations and by strengthening the ability of the world to defend itself collectively against outbreaks, the health safety has been fostered by WHO.
For WHO, one of the highest priorities is strengthening of health systems. WHO also ensures that health systems do reach underserved and poor populations of the world (World Health Organization, 2007). It addresses areas, like, access to appropriate technology involving essential drugs, suitable systems for collecting vital statistics, sufficient financing, and the provision of adequate number of appropriately trained staff. To monitor the evolving global health situation, to articulate evidence-based policy options, and to set standards and norms, it generates authoritative health information in consultation with leading experts. With the collaboration and support of many partners, involving the private sector, civil society, donors, international organizations and UN agencies, WHO carry out its business partners implementation programs within countries. These countries are encouraged by WHO through use of the strategic power of evidence, so that the activities are aligned with the priorities established by countries, as well, with best technical practices and guidelines. Both within countries and at the international level, WHO participates in ongoing reforms aimed at improving its effectiveness and efficiency as a means of improving its performance.
For the ten-year period from 2006 till 2-15, the framework for organization-wide program of results, resources, budget and work is provided by the eleventh General Program of Work, whose title is “Engaging for Health. ” (World Health Organization & UniceF, 2009). Core functions of WHO are set out by the General Program of Work. These core functions are assessment of health trends, monitoring of health situation, building of sustainable institutional capacity, catalyzing change, providing technical support, articulating evidence-based and ethical policy options, setting of standards and norms and monitoring and promoting their implementations, dissemination and translation of valuable knowledge, stimulating the generating, shaping the research agenda, engaging in partnerships where joint action is required and providing leadership on matters critical to the health.
The attainment by all people of the highest possible level of health is the objective of WHO as set out in its Constitution. Health is not defined as the absence of infirmity or disease but a state of social, mental, and physical well-being by the Constitution (World Health Organization, 2009). For Who, the supreme decision-making body is the World Health Assembly. It is attended by delegations from all 193 member states and is held annually in Geneva. WHO has 147 country offices and 6 regional offices in which more than eight thousand people from more than one hundred and fifty countries work. Its headquarters is located in Geneva.
Experts in the fields of emergency relief, economics and health statistics, and people trained to manage information, financial and administrative systems and epidemiologists, scientists, public health specialists and medical doctors are all included within the staff of WHO. Since year 1950, a “World Health Day” has been celebrated annually on 7th April, to make the founding of the WHO. For World Health Day, each year a theme is selected and a priority area of concern for WHO is highlighted by this theme. To focus on key public health issues that affect the international community, this celebration is a global opportunity. Longer-term advocacy programs are launched by WHO on this day.
Since year 2001, the themes adopted by WHO were, making hospitals safe in emergencies, protecting health from climate change, international health security, working together for health, making every child and mother count, road safety, shaping the future of life, moving for health and mental health (World Health Organization, 2009). Health and urbanization were focused by World Health Day of year 2010. To make cities healthier, a global movement has been called out by WHO, with the campaign, “1000 cities 1000 lives. ” To open up streets for health activities, cities are being called and events are being organized worldwide. To illustrate the things done by people in order to improve health in their cities, the stories of urban health champions are being gathered. To open up public spaces to health is the global goal of the campaign, whether it may be activities in closing off portions of streets to motorized vehicle in thousand cities, or in clean-up campaigns, town hall meetings and parks.
Working in alignment with UNAIDS strategies and objectives is considered as important by WHO that works within the UNAIDS network, in terms of AIDS/HIV (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS & World Health Organization, 2006). To eradicate polio is also one of the major aims of WHO. Since its Global Polio Eradication Initiative launched in year 1988, it has been successful in helping to reduce cases by ninety-nine percent. WHO also works to promote healthy and active aging for all individuals, to improve reproductive and sexual health, to reduce mortality and morbidity and to improve health during key stages of life, such as, adolescence, childhood, the neonatal periods, childbirth and pregnancy.
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