“Jetsmart” Engineering Parts Management System

Engineering parts management system
Q: What were the main factors that played a major role in the flop of the $40 million project?
This report was commissioned to examine the failure of an IT project called “Jetsmart” at Qantas airlines. The project initially costed $40 million but miserably failed to stand up to its expectations. We interrogated the potential reasons of the failure with the help of information and data available online. Methods of analyzing included questioning the scope of the project, identification of key stake holders and difficulties in communication due to complex IT structure at Qantas.

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Most of the IT projects by Qantas faced failures even though they have invested millions of dollars on IT. These failures had a huge impact on Qantas but that didn’t stop them from investing in IT. Qantas began its long haul modernization plan simply after the organization’s IT framework had turned out to be perplexing and awkward. This evident lack of common sense put the whole overhaul program, including its individual venture segments, at expanded hazard. The purpose of the project “Jetsmart” was to provide assistance to the engineers in the repairing of aircrafts. But it actually increased their workload and they completely refused to use the system. One of the major reason was that engineers (eventual users) were not engaged in the development phase of the project. They had no say in this until project was actually implemented. They lacked proper training and knowledge regarding the usage of the new software.
Besides this, unstructured top level management was another factor which played a vital role in project’s failure. It lacks proper communication ability with the mechanics and engineers. Only if there was flexibility within the communication channel, this project might have been cancelled in the initial stages. This could have saved Qantas a lot of time and not to mention $40 million.
Qantas Airways is the banner transporter aircraft of Australia and its biggest carrier by armada estimate, universal flights and global goals. It is the third most seasoned carrier on the planet, after KLM and Avianca having been established in November 1920. It started worldwide traveler flights in May 1935. As of March 2014, Qantas had a 65% share of the Australian residential market and conveyed 14.9% of all travelers going all through Australia. It additionally works different auxiliary aircrafts to local focuses and on some trunk courses inside Australia under the QantasLink standard. Its backup Jetconnect gives benefits amongst Australia and New Zealand, flying under the Qantas mark. Qantas likewise possesses Jetstar Airways, a minimal effort carrier that works both universal administrations from Australia and local administrations inside Australia and New Zealand; and holds stakes in various other Jetstar-marked aircrafts.
In February, 2008, Qantas scratched off Jetsmart, a $40 million engineering parts IT system. Inability to draw in the specialists who might be the possible clients of the framework into the prerequisites and configuration forms brought about a framework that the users esteemed to be unusable once it was propelled. After only a couple of years in operation (amid which time some staff declined to utilize it and unions undermined mechanical activity), the framework was dumped and another framework was presented. In this report we will examine the significance of IT in Qantas carriers and research the potential explanations behind the disappointment of such ventures. In spite of the fact that contributing a great many dollars on IT (roughly $430.98 million AUD on yearly premise since 2005), a large portion of the ventures did by Qantas were brought about to disappointment. The effect of these disappointments was cataclysmic for Qantas Group, however despite everything they have faith in putting resources into IT.  Main focus will be on the engineering parts management system “JetSmart”. What were the main factors that played a major role in the flop of the $40 million project? And how those factors could have been avoided if the project was to be successful?
The Qantas Group’s long term vision is to achieve the status of world’s best premium airline as well as best low fare carriers. As indicated by the financial review report, Qantas are concentrating on five basic objectives keeping in mind the end goal to accomplish this. These objectives are “safety is our first priority”, “right aircraft right routes”, “customer service excellence”, “operational efficiency” and “two strong complementary brands”.
IT has helped the flight business flourish. In today’s aggressive world IT and Business methodologies ought to be firmly adjusted to make progress particularly in the carrier business. At Qantas’ it is trusted that the IT systems determine the business methodologies.
Safety is Our First Priority:
To accomplish world’s best well-being hones so as to give clients sentiment security IT finds flyers who may posture danger to others in flight utilizing database frameworks. Utilization of amazing scanners for examining of things can likewise uncover things that could be of potential danger to different flyers.
Right Aircrafts Right Routes:
Fleet restoration with better navigational framework, giving ideal courses to flyers. Online flight booking uncovers ideal courses. Realizing that you are in the right flight by legitimate filtering of tickets by means of the scanners before loading onto the flight.
Customer Service Excellence:
Qantas views fabulous client benefit as the foundation of the business. IT conveys Qantas’ administrations nearer to the client. It permits 24 hours a day and 365 days consistently benefit, for instance online flight booking framework. It helps data in a flash be accessible for the clients. IT additionally catches client inputs by means of sites or portable appointments which help to additionally enhance services.
Operational Efficiency:
Significant IT anticipates are in progress to help expand profitability at Qantas. Private email administrations and groupware help in better joint effort between offices, representatives, clients and providers at Qantas. IT helps rushing the improvement of more open and inventive societies that can prompt to Operational Efficiency.
Two Strong Complementary Brands:
For Qantas and Jetstar to be the best premium and low charge brands, online pursuit of various carriers’ flight times and tolls can help Qantas contend. Because of the quick extension of the Airline Industry and the focused way of charges and flight bargains, interest in IT is vital as it can prompt to development which will give Qantas driving edge.
Qantas had made a substantial investment in venture Jetsmart in mid-2004, which was viewed as a vital initial phase in the organization’s interest in new data innovation frameworks to drive its support, repair and upgrade operations. The Jetsmart framework was an interval stage to hold together Qantas’ current frameworks until they settled on a substitution framework. Consequently Jetsmart will in time be eliminated and the new framework will supplant it. In February, 2008, Qantas drop Jetsmart, a management framework usage that cost them $40 million.
Issues with the venture backpedal to no less than 2004, when the union entered a debate with Qantas, asserting the product pointlessly expanded its individuals’ workload. It obliged engineers to do extra information section and bookkeeping work. Around then, the union exhorted mechanics utilized at Qantas to “not help with the execution”. Australian Licensed Aircraft Engineers Association government secretary Steve Purvinas said “support specialists discovered Jetsmart unusable”. Mr Purvinas faulted the issues with Jetsmart for Qantas administration, which he said was not doing what’s needed to elevate experienced engineers to senior administrative parts. Purvinas clarified the product was inadequately outlined and hard to utilize, and that engineers didn’t get adequate training. “Management is not qualified to determine what the software needs. Jetsmart was a white elephant that didn’t work. When you have an airplane holding 400 passengers that needs repair, you fix the plane, not play with software”, said Mr. Purvinas. (“Qantas to Axe 40 Million IT System”)
Qantas Engineering executive general manager David Cox admitted there were problems with the Jetsmart system. Mr Cox said “During the development phase some issues arose with the system, training and the management of change. It became obvious that the IT structure at Qantas is complex. There was again huge loss of revenue and another major IT project failure which again cost loss of shares and investors pulling plug on investments. Attitude towards the engineers that resulted to strike gave the management bad reputation. Media embarrassment for Qantas continued as they had no faith in their engineers and began outsourcing maintenance, repair and overhaul operations”. (“Qantas – Why Do Projects Fail?”)
There were many causes regarding the scope and implementation of the project. Conflict between stakeholders and lack of change management’s vision led to the disastrous failure of the whole project.
Failed to identify key stakeholders
Qantas should have identify the people and groups that were important to the success or failure of the project. In case of Qantas, upper tier and middle tier should have had continuous communications with the engineering department and considered them a key stake holder for the success of the Jetsmart. Qantas considered only the management department which wasn’t a viable alternative to the important of the engineering sector. (“Impact of It on Airlines Sector Qantas Group Management Essay”)
In the process, Qantas should have analyzed and documented relevant information with respect to both the management and engineering sector of their interests, interdependencies, influence, involvement, and potential impact on the success of the project.
Lack of stakeholder engagement
Stake holder engagement was another issue in the process of the implementation of Jet Smart. There should have been emphasis on continuous communications with stake holders regarding their expectations and needs throughout the project life cycle. This would have helped the company establish the dos and don’ts of the implementation of the new management system.

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Change management failure
Monitoring of the overall project holder relationship and plan for engaging stakeholders was completely absent in throughout the project implementation. The engineers who were supposed to be the eventual users of the software had no proper knowledge of the system. They were lacking the training on how to effectively and efficiently use the new software. This could have been avoided and could’ve eventually led to a possible success of the project. Proper engagement should have been constructed between the management and engineering department as a smooth engagement between two important stakeholders would have contributed to proper resolving of grieve and resentment with the new management system.
Complex structure
Qantas Group has an unstructured administration that needs correspondence capacity and does not comprehend IT issues. A decentralization of the venture administration and building divisions are imperative so as to expand time and productivity of tasks. Additionally all departmental administrators, financial specialists, extend directors and worker agents should be incorporated into system arranging gatherings to enhance correspondence and to share views.
To conclude Qantas has been pretty much out of luck when it comes to undergoing IT projects. Jetsmart was an utter failure of the Qantas group and cost them loss in revenue and reputation. The inability to engage stakeholders (engineers) in the initial stages of the project was one of the factors of project failure. Strong union tides led to the unacceptability of the new software among engineers and mechanics. The scope of the project was to increase the performance of the system and to be more time efficient.


But it failed to do so as this scope was not aligned with interests of stakeholders. Eventually the project was dumped by Qantas in 2008. We trust Qantas is balanced for progressing IT disappointment: complex specialized foundation, obsolete legacy frameworks, authority that doesn’t comprehend fundamental IT issues, union issues, and a recorded example of disappointment join to paint a questionable future. It’s fascinating to take note of the organization’s IT consumptions expanded 8% in the second 50% of 2006 and 26% in a similar period for 2007. Now Qanats has replaced the old Jetsmart management system with “project Marlin” and hopes it will reduce maintenance and repair cost. Let’s see what future holds for this new venture.
“Impact of It on Airlines Sector Qantas Group Management Essay”. UKEssays. N.p., 2006. Web. 18 Feb. 2017.
Krigsman, Michael. “Qantas Airways: A Perfect Storm for IT Failure? | Zdnet”. ZDNet. N.p., 2017. Web. 16 Feb. 2017.
“Qantas – Why Do Projects Fail?” Calleam.com. N.p., 2017. Web. 19 Feb. 2017.
“Qantas to Axe 40 Million IT System”. The Australian. N.p., 2017. Web. 16 Feb. 2017.

Automatic Stamping of Operating Parts



Firstly this project consists of the operating hand which is a robotic arm which is equipped with a stamp under the arm surface to get is stamped on the operating parts which are sliding on the conveyor belt and it is controlled by programming. As it has objects rolling over the conveyor belts there is a sensor in the robotic arm which is used for stamping of the parts senses the object and its position of the stamping and goes down with after the signal from the sensor to give a stamp on the object.


Background of the project


Firstly stamping was introduced during the 7th century B.C by the LYDIANS people also the place I modern days is called turkey from where the coin is introduced to the world and it has been from there that stamping their own marks on the product or making of thin metal sheets from the same machines with the stamp on it of any certain company and thus this has been modified by after every passing years. Before it was done manually with the help of humans and that was the time where human efforts were more and technology was used less but nowadays it has been changed to less efforts and more technology and thus working on the project to make it automatic stamping of operating parts. (Thomas, 2015)


Problem Statement

This machine of automatic stamping of operating parts is not fully completed, as it does not have a collecting arm to collect all the stamped parts.

The previous machine did not had the control on the stamping arm and also it had an issues with the stamping arm because of it irrelevant pressure or getting too hot while in operation.



To stamp of any name on the object with an accuracy.

To reduce time and manual efforts of humans and save stamping ink as well.

To provide a collection unit of the stamped parts.

To get control over the stamping arm while in operation automatically.



Description of the PLC project with some of its inputs and outputs signals is given below and also the switches in it and thus we can say that there are many things to control by programming:

I:0/0 – Start

I:0/1 – Stop

I:0: 2 – Level switch to detect position 1

I:0/ 3 – Level switch to detect position 2

I:0/ 4 – Level switch to detect position 3

I:0/ 6 – Level switch to detect lower most position

I:0/ 5- Level switch to detect upper most position

O: 1/ 10 – Motor coil for reverse direction rotation

O: 1/ 11 – Motor coil for forward direction rotation

Working of the project is not that complicated but the programming of the project is bit complicated and thus the detailed description of the project is as such as following: When a part is placed on the conveyor belt at initial position and then the start button is pressed and part being on the conveyor belt it will start moving towards position 2 and once it reached to position 2 it will stop there and another operation is carried out that is stamping of the product, once that is done automatic movement on the conveyor belt it will go to position 3 where it is removed manually from the conveyor belt and thus the product which is stamped is being checked by human also and accuracy level will be high. Using of limit switches, interlocks, push buttons, etc. as required.

Application of stamping machine can be in many different industries that are given below:

Automotive industries

Industrial machinery

Aerospace industry

Electrical industries

Telecommunication industries.

Printing industries. (botor, 2011)

Robot type used in the stamping machine is drill station robot which has been picked up from the UDC library, which has been given different inputs and thus it can have its movement from up and down and stamp different parts with its head and tails where different stamps can be stuck on and in this project I have made the head of a blue color so every work parts which passes through gets a blue color on it as a stamp.

Design of the system is such that there are two conveyors in which one is small conveyor and one is large conveyor and other one is small conveyor belt, there is a drill station robot which has been edited with its head and drill tool with the stamp and also there are other components which are as follows:

Conveyor belts small and large

Drill station robot

Work parts

Work-parts modifier

Work parts destructor

A containers

Inductive switches

Parameters are as follows:

The lever switch 1 detects rung000- when pressing the start button and then the position 1 starts the machine, and thus the relay goes ON.

As CR 1 is high on its latch the continuous signal pulse from the rung007 is sent through which energizes the coil and the motor is started and it is stopped only when there is any movement in lever switch 2 and lever switch 3.

In case of any emergency the manual switch of the machine to avoid any accident stops the motor.

CR3 relay is used to operate the forward direction of the conveyor motor and which is being used in the machine in the two-way direction of the conveyor roller.

As the CR3 is already energized and it helps to energize the UP motor coil due to which the stamper comes in the position and thus we can have a stamper arm coming down.

As the stamping is done the stamper arm needs to be moved to upward position which is known as Level switch up position and thus the stamper arm moves upward due to energized CR4.

Stamped work part needs to be moved on to the conveyor to position 3 and there is again an inductive switch, which senses the work part, and it stops the conveyor.

Block Diagram

The below given diagram is the block diagram of the automatic stamping of moving parts and get it stored in the box.

Figure 1 Block diagram of automatic stamping of moving parts.

It works on the two cylinders which are known as pusher arms and they help to transfer parts from initial position to the stamping station and than from their after stamping the pusher arm 2 helps to push the stamped work part to the conveyor line 2 and thus it rolls to the container where it needs to be stored.

Results and conclusion

From the whole of the above project we can conclude that all the contacts available are open type and push buttons for starting of the machine and stopping of the machine, use of level switches to detect the different positions of the work-parts. Two coils with UP coil and DOWN coil for moving the stamper arm upward and downward directions, conveyor motor used to move the part from one position to the other and also the stamping at position 2 and than to position with the help of conveyor belt. To prevent malfunctioning we can use XIC contacts and for safety there is a manual switch given as well. The simulation and all the inputs will be shown during the presentation.


Table 1 Variables and its Inputs and outputs



Stamper arm down


Stamper arm Move down


Stamper arm Move UP


Stamper arm work Start


Stamper arm UP




New Part


Photocell 1


Photocell 2


Pusher 1 Adv.


Pusher 1 Advance


Pusher 1 Back


Pusher 2 Adv.


Pusher 2 Advance


Pusher 2 Back


Start Button


Stop Button


Work Part Modifier




Ladder program

Figure 2 Ladder programming


Control Process and simulation

As the ladder programming is done the simulation is done on basis of that and from that control process the system is based on the inputs and outputs given to different components and thus the system work as follows: When the work parts is generated from the work part creator it transmits through line 1 conveyor belt by the help of Pusher arm 1 which will make it easy to travel for work part and the initial position of the work part is sensed by the photocell and thus the work part moves to second position where the main process is carried out and thus we can say that the stamper arm works as the input and output is given and which comes down and stamps the work part with its design and the work part now moves to the conveyor line 2 with the help of pusher arm 2 and thus it travels to the box where the work parts need to be stored in.


Model Design

The below given figure is of the model design which is designed on the basis of the simulator 3 software and there are certain limitation in getting the robots and other components and the designed robot is the robot which is used a stamper arm robot and work-part movement from initial position to final position on the conveyor is also given an outputs and inputs to get the simulation work and perform different parts and thus we can say that all the parts in the simulator 3 software are arranged in such way that it gives us the perfect working machine for a industry. The model of automatic stamping of the moving parts is designed in this attempt of project and thus the figure below will show the designed machine.

System control and process

The system designed in the software for the stamping of automatic stamping of moving parts is such that the inputs and outputs are given in a pattern and order as per its availability and requirement. The process work as follow like the work part creator creates the work part and it is sent to the position 2 or stamping location with the help of pusher arm 1 which operates after the work part creator creates work part, after reaching at the position 2 the work part is to be stamped which is done with the help of stamper arm which is having its movement vertically and thus we can say that after the stamper arm comes down the stamp on the part is done and the work part modifier shows us the difference and the work part turn into blue color as the stamp for now is equipped with a blue color dye and now its time to move the work part to the position 3 which is the conveyor line and to push the work part till the conveyor line there is again a pusher arm 2 given which pushes the modified work part on the conveyor line and thus the modified work part after the stamping operation it will travel to the container where there will be storage of the product will be done and the cycle is repeated for the 12 parts in a set and there is also the work part destructor in the system which will help to destruct the work part and send it again back to the cycle and this is the way the system of the automatic stamping of the work part is done and this is just the designed model in a software but in real there can be many changes done in choosing of robots and other part.


Thomas. (2015, June 15). thomas engineering Company. Retrieved from http://www.thomasengineering.com/contact-us.html: http://www.thomasengineering.com/blog/a-brief-history-of-metal-stamping/

botor, A. (2011, february 12). II Applied automation. Retrieved from Appliedautomation.com: https://www.thomasnet.com/articles/custom-manufacturing-fabricating/precision-stamping-applications


Parts that Make Up a Knife

Most people don’t care about the knives they use in their kitchen. Meanwhile, there are a lot of things about knives that everyone who uses knives needs to know.
There are four things that make up the knife:

The Construction
The Steel
The Edges

The Handle: Most commonly used knives either have a wooden handle or a plastic handle. Some knife manufacturers make knives with metal handles. But these knives are not commonly Used.

Wooden handles are better than plastic handles because they are attractive when they are new but they are very unsanitary. They absorb liquids and grease over time and accumulates bacteria in them. This poses danger to the health of users.
Plastic handles on the other hand are much more sanitary but they are not strong. They are slippery when they are wet and they tend to melt, chip, crack or
break over time. They are not durable.

The Construction: Another important thing to know about knives is the way they are constructed. The construction depends on two things:

The Tang: This is the part of the knife that goes into the handle.
The Rivets: These are the round piece of metal that hold the blade and the handle together in some knives.

The tang of a knife is either partial or full and a full tang is better than a partial tang. This is because knives with full tangs are stronger and safer to use. Knives with partial tang are weak and dangerous. The tang can fall out even while you are using the knife.

The steel: The two major types of steel commonly used by knife manufacturers are carbon and stainless steel. Each type has both

advantages and disadvantages. Carbon steel are very strong and even much more expensive than stainless steel. But they rust and corrode over time which makes them unattractive and unsanitary to use.
Stainless steel on the other hand are much more attractive to use
but they get dull easily and need to be sharpened almost before every use.

The Edges: The edges of knives are either straight or serrated. Straight edged knives make a smooth cut but they must be sharpened constantly almost at every use. Serrated edge knives don’t need to be sharpened constantly. They cannot even be re-sharpened and they also rip and tear into food as we cut with the knife.

After researching a lot of knife brands and their products, I have decided on which brands of knives best satisfy both health and kitchen needs.
Number one on the list is Cutco, I believe they have are the best knives because of the following reasons.
The first is their type of handle. This handle is made to fit into anyone’s. According to cutco.com, the design was made by industrial designer,  Thomas Lamb who studied over 700 pairs of hands. This means that the knives will fit your hand whether you are left handed or right handed or you have small or big hands. This design is called the UNIVERSALWEDGELOCKHANDLE.Another important feature of these handles is the property from which it was made. The handles are made from thermo-resin handle material. According to materialstoday.com, thermo-resin is a very strong type of plastic that can withstand up to 330 degrees of. Heating this plastic only makes it stronger and not otherwise.

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Cutco knives also have a full tang construction that ensures durability and makes sure the knives are very strong and the blades won’t pop out while you are using them. The full tang is held into the thermos-resin handle with silver nickel rivets that are flushed smoothly on the surface of the handles for smooth grip on the knives. This silver-nickel material will not expand and contract under various heat conditions and leaves no room for harboring bacteria.
The steel is neither stainless or the common carbon that rusts and corrodes. The steel is made up of High-Carbon stainless steel 440A, Rockwell hardness 55-57C. This material is used to make surgical knives and build ships so it is strong and very sharp at the same time and it will never rust or corrode.
The edge of the knives are designed as the Double-Dedge.This edge has points like serrated knives but these points are not doing the cutting. In between these points are 3 razors  that cut food. The points protect the razor from being dull and the knives stay sharp for 7-10 years or even longer according to customer reviews from cutco.com.
The second choice of knife manufacturer is Wusthof.These knives also have blades that are made of the same material like Cutco’s but the blades are only a little harder with Rockwell Hardness of 58C compared to 55-57C of Cutco knives. The handles have an ergonomic design that fits good in different hands as well as the wedge-lock design in Cutco.
The edges of the knives have an angle that is so small to provide a very sharp and precise cut on food. The edges only have a 14-degree angle. The  smaller the angle of the edge of a knife, the sharper the knife is.
The rivets in Wusthof’s knives are made of brass, which will expand and contract over a long time but they are flushed fitly on the handle and also have other metals inside the handle that help the blade to fit snugly into the handle. This makes these knives very durable and they will not pop out while they are used.
The third and the last best option is Shun, they also have high quality materials like Cutco and Wusthof. The knives are incredibly sharp and. They use hard wood for the handles and cover them with resin so it does not absorb moisture, grease or bacteria.
Of all the three knife manufacturers, Cutco was the best option because of the following reasons:

They have the cheapest knives of all three of them
It is American-based; this is most important to Americans. An American based company means that if there is a problem with the product, you can easily contact the manufacturer and fix it. Compared to Wusthof which is in Germany and Shun that is in Japan.

Helicopter Toy Parts and Material Analysis

Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. Selection Process of Suitable Materials
3. Potential Failure of Product
4. Sustainable Engineering Aspects of Selected Materials
5. Practical materials evaluation
Helicopter Base
Heli Pipe
Helicopter Case
Helicopter Rotor
6. Conclusion
7. References
1. Introduction
Now-a-days all over the world use of technology has been increased more than demands. In all aspects technology is surrounded us. Such use of technology comes from the concept of automation. To automate the communication system in the air helicopter connects the era to a new technological world. Helicopter has made the communication easier than before. It is used even the security purpose recently.
Helicopter mainly is used in the defense sector of a country. But today at every university is taking advanced step to do research on helicopter. Helicopter toy is used to do aerodynamic research in university laboratories. Drone is the latest recent research of helicopter.
“Everything should be automated” that is the motive of people of every sphere. Complexity of parts selection increases with the demands of them. To select the appropriate parts for a product implementation one is to take so many risks and hazards. It is not easy to choose quality products to be implemented. Quality product selection process enhances full process of the product implementation. New research demands new types of parts to buy for latest technology. Latest technology expands the way to do research more in the advanced level.

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2. Selection Process of Suitable Materials
Before running a project or product we need to select appropriate materials that are available and appropriate for our design and design implementation. Some points need to be remembered before buying parts such as costs, availability, acceptability, material properties, environment friendly or not, stressing capability etc. Depending on these properties product is designed and shows performance. The best the quality of material the best the performance of the product. Performance evaluation completely depends on these properties.
For designing a helicopter the following parts are needed for basic functioning. Such as body, blade, blade shaft, fans, case, rotor, heli base, heli pipe etc. These parts are made of aluminum, plastic, carbon fiber, fiber glass etc. All the parts are available at stores. All the parts are bought separately from the near able and reliable stores and then assembled. After complete assembling a helicopter gets ready. After doing that rotating parts are set. The machine code need to be embedded and make the helicopter ready to fly. Maximum helicopter runs with remote control. If it happens then a remote control need to be bought with higher performance and radio frequency quality. If the remote control efficiency degrades then helicopter will not be operated from remote distance.
Remote control contains some area embedded on the board. The left portion controls the collective control and right side button controls the cyclic controls. It also contains throttle stick, direction stick, left and right trims buttons etc.
3. Potential Failure of Product
Some critical moments rises after buying the materials. The parts do not show their performances perfectly according to their specifications. Like, for helicopter, a rotor does not rotate according to the code embedded. This occurs because of the temperature or other natural effects. If any product says it is 100% efficient it shows 80-90% efficiency in reality. Some deviation happens each time. Calculations should be done considering these unavoidable issues.
Potential failure contains the metal fatigue and creep and their effects. When fatigue occur the metal get weakened and metal stress capability is lessened. Frequent loading and unloading cause fatigue to the metal properties. Fatigue depends on some other natural criteria such as temperature, humidity and metal stress. The stress tolerance capability of metal indicates the longevity. High stress tolerance let the metals to be lasted for more time. Steadiness of materials provides services to the developed products.
Another effect of failure or damage is creep of metal. Creep stands for deformation. Deformation of particles inside the metal depicts in the microscopic view.
4. Sustainable Engineering Aspects of Selected Materials
At the time of choosing materials for design engineering value should be added to this design. Engineering term increases the value of products. Engineering terms introduce a product with technical aspects. Every materials/parts should be technically evaluated. Technical evaluation makes the product acceptance to all. If a product meets the technical specification perfectly then the product is good for use. Technical specification depicts the product life cycle at once. Having higher product development life cycle lasting for long times.
Sustainability aspects of engineering contain four types of aspects. These are very suitable for a design a product and its implementation. These are

Development process aspect defines sustainability of a process of product development at initial level. It considers the usage not only of natural but also financial resources.
Maintenance process aspect defines the sustainability of product during its maintenance time. It occurs until the new system replacement.
System production aspect is the sustainability of product as a real product.
System usage aspect is the sustainability in the application level of a product as a real life product.

5. Practical materials evaluation
Helicopter Base
For better performance of helicopter base material should be strong and stress free. Corrosion is a real enemy of any metal substance. Base should be designed like a helicopter can land easily and comfortably. For this design magnesium and aluminum has been selected. The total substance of the heli base is a mixture of Magnesium and Aluminum. Where the percentage of Aluminum is 2.38% and Magnesium is 97.62% in the aspect of weight. The table showing the percentage of Aluminum and Magnesium is given below:
Heli Base Material List


Weight %

Atomic %

Mg K



Al K






Heli Pipe
Heli pipe is very important portion of helicopter development. It stands with the heli rotor. It helps rotor to move smoothly and swiftly.


Weight %

Atomic %




Si K



Cr K



Mn K



Fe K



Ni K



Cu K






Helicopter Case
Helicopter case is for carrying the helicopter equipment together. All the equipment can be settled here. The case may be made of aluminum, fiber, plastic or steel.
Table for case of helicopter



Specimen width b0 mm


Specimen thickness a0 mm


S0 mm­­2


Rp 0.2 MPa

E-Modulus MPa




W up to break J


Rm MPa


Fmax %


Break %


Helicopter Rotor
Heli rotor is the part that rotates and helps the helicopter to move upward. It rotates horizontally. It depends on the aerodynamic effects. The rotor consists of spider, blade, slider, pitch control rod, mast, damper, scissors assy, extension rod etc. The rotor moves not only horizontally but also vertically. It functions with the decentralized force to move. Using this feature it move left, right, up and down direction.




Specimen width b0 mm



Specimen thickness a0 mm



S0 mm­­2



Rp 0.2 MPa



E-Modulus MPa






W up to Fmax J



W up to break J



Rm MPa



Fmax %



Break %



From the above table it is clear a comparison has been done with Nr = 3 and Nr = 4. Column 2 stands for Nr3 and column 3 stands for Nr 4. Column 3 S0 value is less than column 4 where, W value upto Fmax is greater than column 4.
6. Conclusion
As helicopter is used frequently in the university researches its parts should be used more carefully. Doped materials can be harmful for product performance and evaluation. Aero dynamic calculation should be done very carefully with technical evaluation because if there is an unwanted occurrence from nature the product will face failure permanently. This should be in mind.
7. References
Budiyono, T. Sudyanto, H. Lesmana (2008), First Principle Approach to Modeling of Small Scale Helicopter
J. Gordon Leishman, Second Publish (2006), Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics
Al-Oqla, F.M. and Dweiri, F.(2006), Material selection using analytical hierarchy process, International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology, vol.26, no.4, pp.182-189
Ashby, M.F. and Johnson, K.(2010), Materials and Design: The Art and Science of Material Selection in Product Design, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann
Ashby, M.F.(2005), Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, MRS Bulletin, vol.30, no.12, pp.994-997
Ashby, M.F. and Cebon, D.(1993), Materials selection in mechanical design, Journal of Physics, vol.3, no.C7, pp.C7-1- C7-9
Bijker, W.E.(1997), Of Bicycles, Bakelites, and Bulbs: Toward a Theory of Sociotechnical Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press
Boks, C. and Diehl, J.C.(2006), Integration of sustainability in regular courses: experiences in industrial design engineering, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.14, no.9-11, pp.932-939
Lemaitre, J. and Desmorat, R.(2005), Engineering Damage Mechanics: Ductile, Creep, Fatigue and Brittle Failures, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Miller, W.S., Bottema, J., Zhuang, L., Smet. P.D. and Haszler, A.(2000), Recent development in aluminium alloys for the automotive industry, Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol.280, no.1, pp.37-49
Gareth D. Padfield, 2008, Helicopter Flight Dynamics, Page 75
Alastair Cooke, Eric Fitzpatrick, 2009, Helicopter Test and Evaluation, page 268
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Modeling the Process of Straightening Low-stiff Cylindrical Parts by Transverse Rolling with Smooth Plates

Modeling the process of straightening low-stiff cylindrical parts by transverse rolling with smooth plates

Keywords: straightening; deflection; transverse rolling, stress intensity; residual stresses; low-stiff cylindrical part; finite element.

Abstract. To restore the shape of curved low-stiff cylindrical parts such as shafts and axles, the process of straightening by transverse bending is considered with subsequent hardening by the method of surface plastic deformation based on the transverse rolling of the cylindrical part with flat plates. The stress states of parts during editing are determined using the Ansys Workbench software package. The results of the distribution of the intensity of operating voltages and residual stresses over the cross-section of the cylinder, depending on the absolute compression, are presented.


Cylindrical parts of low rigidity such as shafts and axles are widely used for the manufacture of various products in the agricultural, mining, automotive, aviation industry and household appliances. Such parts allow not only to transfer power over long distances (within the overall limits of the machine) but also significantly reduce the metal consumption of products. Low-stiff shaft-type parts have one important drawback – this is a distortion of the geometrical shape both during manufacture, assembly, and during operation. Therefore, at all stages of the technological process in the manufacture of non-rigid parts such as shafts and axles with a ratio of length to the diameter of more than 10, several editing operations are usually included in the manufacturing and assembly process [1, 2].

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Straightening is the traditional way of restoring the geometric shape of the curved parts. A great contribution to the development of the theory and technology of editing cylindrical products was made by domestic and foreign scientists: Ya.D. Vishnyakov, A.S. Donskov, V.N. Yemelyanov, G.V. Muratkin, I.I. Manilo, N.P. Shchapov, E. Albert, and others. However, the non-uniformity and instability of the stressed state of parts after straightening serves as a limitation for the inclusion of this process in the manufacture of very precise structures. Many ways of editing give a temporary effect or lead to damage to the surface layer, which is unacceptable when the straightness of the finished parts is restored [1-4].

The authors have developed new kinematics of the editing process, which allows reducing the unevenness of the stress state in the machine parts. As a promising direction, we can consider straightening by transverse bending followed by hardening of the workpiece using surface plastic deformation (SPD), based on transverse rolling of the workpiece with flat plates [5]. This effective method is largely free from the above disadvantages. For the practical implementation of the new method of straightening, it became necessary to calculate the working voltages required for straightening parts and residual stresses after lateral straightening. The effect of residual stresses on the quality of products after surface plastic deformation is described in [6].

Mathematical modeling of stress-strain state

The solution of the elastoplastic problem was carried out using the finite element method (FEM). The area under study is a set of finite elements of the form – a hexahedron (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Mapping an element to the natural coordinate system

Components of the movements.Offset field in a three-dimensional element using the functions of the form Ni [7]:

, , ,     (1)

in which ui, vi and wi are nodal values of the displacement on the element, and N is the number of nodes on that element. Formula (1) in matrix form is:


Matrix (2) can be represented as:

Shape Functions:


Note that we have the following relations for the shape functions:

Coordinate Transformation (Mapping):

, , ,     (3)

That is, for the geometry of the element, the same form functions are used for moving the field. This kind of element is called an isoparametric element. The transformation between (ξ, η, ζ) and (x, y, z) described by equation (3) is called the isoparametric map (see Fig. 1), we have the following equations [7]:

where J is the Jacobian Matrix.

Inverting this relation, we have:


withand so on, similarly for v and w. These relations lead to the following expression for the strain:


Using the relationships given in equations (2), (4) and (5), we can derive the deformation vector to obtain:

in which B is the matrix connecting the nodal displacement vector d with the deformation vector ε.

Strain energy is evaluated as:

That is, the element stiffness matrix is

In ξηξ coordinates:


It is easy to verify that the dimensions of this stiffness matrix are 24 × 24.

To compute the stresses within an element, one uses the following relation once the nodal displacement vector is known for that element:

Stresses are evaluated at selected points (Gaussian points or nodes) on each element. The voltage values at the nodes are often intermittent and less accurate. Averaging stresses from surrounding elements around a node is often used to smooth the results of the stress field.

Modeling the straightening process in Ansys Workbench

Finite element modeling of the straightening process. The influence of the main parameters of the straightening process on the residual stresses in cylindrical parts was investigated by FEM using the ANSYS program [7], intended for mathematical modeling of various physical processes. Modeling the process of editing in the Ansys program allows you to determine the stress-strain state of the workpiece, which is necessary when developing the optimal process.

To determine the stress state in the deformation zone and residual stresses in the straightened parts, a FEM is constructed in the form of a cylinder and two plates in the Ansys Workbench program (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Finite element model of the editing process

Simulation parameters: The blank is a cylinder with a diameter of 10 mm, a length of 200 mm with a deflection of 0.5 mm from steel St45 (yield strength σт = 360 MPa and elastic modulus E = 2 * 105 MPa); working plates with dimensions of 5x205x205 mm are considered rigid. The finite element form is a hexahedron, a thickening of 9030 elements, 40620 knots; coefficient of friction between the workpiece and plates μ = 0.15; boundary conditions: rigid fixation of the bottom plate. In [4], for the transverse rolling of a workpiece with a diameter of D = 10 mm, the maximum value of absolute compression ∆H = 0.43 mm was taken. According to experimental data [5], in practice, to straighten a cylinder with a diameter of D = 10 mm with a deflection of 0.5 mm, the total deflection will be equal to 2.65 mm.

Processing modes: the upper plate moves to the right 2.65 mm (total deflection is 2.65 mm), then the initial position of the plate is unloaded and straightened in the direction of the workpiece. Then it moves down by the value of absolute compression ∆H (∆H = 0.05; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4 mm are used in the work). Next, the top plate moves to the left by 62.83 mm (the workpiece is rotated 1 turn) and moves up by 1 mm (unloading).

Calculation results

The dependence of the intensity of operating stresses arising during transverse rolling, on the absolute compression ∆H is shown in figure 3. In the deformation zone, the intensity of the operating stresses increases rapidly with increasing ∆H to 0.07 mm, reaching 410 MPa, and then slightly increased with increasing ∆H to 0.25 mm. When the value of ∆H is less than 0.05 mm, the working stresses are less than the yield strength (360 MPa) and therefore only elastic deformation is expected in this case. When the value of ∆H is greater than 0.25 mm, the working stresses are greater than the tensile strength (600 MPa) and therefore, under such processing conditions, the material may be destroyed. Thus, the rational value of the absolute compression is in the range ∆H = 0.07-0.20 mm.

Figure 3. The dependence of the intensity of the working voltage of the absolute compression

Residual stresses after alignment of parts by transverse bending are shown in figure 4. After straightening by transverse bending, non-equilibrium stresses are formed over the entire volume of the workpiece (see figure 4), therefore, over time, the shape of the part may become distorted again. To equalize the stress state of low-stiff cylindrical parts, it is proposed to additionally process workpieces using surface plastic deformation based on transverse rolling in with smooth plates.

Figure 4. Residual stresses after straightening parts in a transverse bend: a is the intensity of residual stresses, b is the axial residual stresses in the cross-section (in the middle of the shaft).

In figure 5 shows the residual stresses after transverse rolling with the absolute compression ∆H = 0.15 mm. As a result of the calculations, it was established that after transverse rolling with flat plates, equilibrium residual stresses are formed both along the length and across the cross-section of the workpiece. From figure 5 it follows that in the center of the cross-section of the workpiece residual stresses are tensile. The outer layers of the workpiece are deformed in thickness to a greater extent than the inner. By reducing the thickness of the deformation, the perimeter of the outer layers tends to increase and, therefore, they experience a desire to detach from the shaft core. Therefore, tensile radial stresses arise, maximum at the center and equal to zero at the periphery. Tangential stresses are balanced by radial, and axial stresses are balanced by each other.

Figure 5. Fields of intensity distribution and components of the residual stress tensor after straightening by transverse rolling with smooth plates: a – the intensity of the residual stresses; b – radial stress; c – tangential stress; d – axial stress


1. When straightening cylindrical parts by transverse bending, non-equilibrium stresses are formed over the entire volume of the workpiece and over time the shape of the part may again become distorted. Therefore, after performing this process, it is proposed to additionally harden the workpieces by the method of surface plastic deformation based on transverse rolling with flat plates.

2. For straightening by transverse rolling in with flat plates it is necessary to choose a rational amount of compression to exclude the possibility of material destruction. The optimal value of the absolute compression is in the range ∆H = 0.07–0.20 mm.

3. After straightening by transverse rolling with smooth plates, equilibrium residual stresses were obtained along the length and cross-section of the workpiece. At the center of the cross-section, the residual stresses are tensile and on the surface are compressive.


[1] Baier W., Zusset A. Straightening technology and machine. – Germany: 2001.

[2] Sjogren С. Choosing the right Wire Straightener for Specific Applications / Carl Sjogren // Euro Wire. UK: November 2001.

[3] Zaides S.A., Gorbunov A.V. Improvement of low-rigidity shafts by centrifugal rolling // Russian Engineering Research. 2016. Vol. 36 (3), pp. 213 – 217.

[4] Avent R. R., Mukai D. J. and Robinson P. F. Heat Straightening Rolled Shapes. – Journal of Structural Engineering. USA: July. 2000.

[5] Zaides S A, Le Hong Quang 2019 Evaluation of the stress state of cylindrical parts with lateral straightening.  Metal Technology 2 23 – 28. (In Russian)

[6] Jahromi B.H., Nayeb-Hashemi H., Vaziri A. Elasto-plastic stresses in a functionally graded rotating disk // Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Transactions of the ASME. 2012. Vol. 134. No. 2. P. 021004 111.

[7] Chen Xiaolin, Liu Yiijun. Finite Element Modeling and Simulation with ANSYS Workbench: CRC Press, 2014.  411 p.

Automatic Pneumatic Pressing Robot and Packaging Work Parts

Automatic pneumatic pressing robot and packaging work parts

Introduction and Project background

In this project the main purpose of this project is to know how to use easy PLC software. Moreover, how to use robotic arm for doing any operation is very useful for understanding PLC software. First of all, in this project to use PLC is the main purpose of the project. In this project consist of the operating automatic robotic arm which is connected to the system. It is working horizontally or vertically direction. The work parts are moving on the conveyor belt and it is controlled by PLC programming. As it has objects are transporting on conveyor belt there is a sensor which is used for pressing any metal parts. The main sensor sense the object and robotic arm will press the work part. Then after it is go ahead for another operation if is there any operation needed. However, the robotic arm goes ahead horizontally then the work part is pressed by it then the arm goes back at its actual position. In the PLC Simulation software there are many online software’s are available for simulation but in this subject we just have to simulate this project in Machine simulator software.

Problem statement

In problem statement there is a one common problem in all industries, like how to make final product without making any extra effort. In current industries there are different work stations are working for making final product. Like one is for pressing the metal parts, another is for shape then another is for packing, moving etc. But in this project two or three operations are done in one continuous process line like shape changing, moving and packing as well. But, in previous project the metal parts should pressed in any shape and dimension as well. 


We can press any parts and change its shape.

It saves the human effort, time and schedule.

It can be packed automatically and continuously

Easy to control and store changed work part in one box.


In this project the idea is basically common which is work in every automatic industry. Firstly, in this project the work parts are coming on the conveyor belt then the sensor sense the work part then I have to set the time between sensor and robotic arm because after sensor sense the work part the robotic arm press or punch the work part for changing the shape of the work part.

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In project description firstly the PLC software and PLC programming is totally new thing for me because it is not inter connected with my previous study. So it’s too difficult to choose the project which should be work on the PLC then I have to simulate this project in simulation software again this is new thing for me. In PLC types there are many types of PLC software with applications available in market nowadays like,

Easy PLC


PLC bus or rack

ABB PLC power supply

PLC Architecture

PLC I/O modules

Compact PLCs

CPU module of PLC etc. [1]

PLC SCADA is the well-known software all around the world. But for this project I am working on Easy PLC for ladder programming and Machine simulator is for simulation or making prototype of the project.

In automation process there are mainly five types of robots are used nowadays like,





Delta [2]

Each and every industrial robot has its own specific elements that makes them best for different applications. The main difference among them are their workplace, size and speed.

For this project I am using gantry robot as a robotic hand like, it is working up and down so I use it for pressing work parts. This is a one type of SCARA robot. Its working type and applications are very similar to it.

Block Diagram

Work part


Conveyor belt-1


Robotic arm

Conveyor belt-2

Boxes for storing Work parts

Figure (1) Block diagram of the Project based on simulation software

This project is totally based on automation system. PLC program and simulation software is the main important thing do this project. Its working principle is based on that.

Working principle

In this project working principle it is working based on industrial automation and robotics. Totally work done is in Easy PLC software and machine simulator software. Its working like, firstly the work part creates the work part. In simulation I am using one robot for changing the shape of work part. I use gantry robot as a robotic arm. Moreover, when work part comes on the conveyor belt the sensor sense it and transfer on second belt. On second conveyor belt robotic arm change the shape of the bottles then it moves ahead for storing in one empty box.   

Result and discussion


Table (1) Variables explanation

Sr. no

Variable name


Variable type
























































Upper table shows the explanation of the different types variables and its address and then its types and description as well. 

Ladder Diagram

Figure (2) Ladder program of the project

Figure (3) Ladder program of the project

Upper both figures show the ladder diagram of the project. Ladder diagram is the main thing for running the project in simulation software. In this PLC software there are many options are available for creating the ladder diagram like, add coil, add start coil, add reset coil, open switch, close switch etc. I am using many functions in ladder program.

Simulation Work

Figure (4) Figure of Simulation work done in simulation software

In upper figure firstly I just put work parts on the conveyor belt-1. Metal parts are moving on the conveyor belt for operation. Then sensors sense the object and do the operation on the work part. Then it will move further on the conveyorbelt-2 for packing. Moreover, it will be pack in boxes which are moving on the conveyorbelt-2. So in the simulation I get my both objectives in that like operation on work part and then pack it.

Moreover, in this simulation software there are limited robots for doing any operations like, drill robot, soldering robot, filling and packaging robot etc. In work part as well there are no any particular work part for pressing so I just use solid part as a work part.



“sanfoundry education,” [Online]. Available: https://www.sanfoundry.com/plc-program-heat-bend-glass-tubes/.


“Automation Forum,” Sivaranjith, 12 August 2018. [Online]. Available: https://automationforum.in/t/plc-different-types-of-plc/4380.