Purposes of Performance Management and Appraisals

In this report we come across the processes done in performance management in an organisation to link the employee activities with organisational goals. The word performance management can be split up as performance with management. Performance means what is expected to be delivered by an individual or by a set of individuals within a time frame in terms of results or efforts tasks and quality with specifications of conditions under which it is to be delivered. Performance has many dimensions- output or result dimension, input dimension, time dimension, focus dimension, quality dimension and cost dimension.

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Performance management is the process of creating a work environment or setting in which people are enabled to perform to the best of their abilities and talents. Performance management is basically a managerial process which consists of planning performance, managing performance through observation and feedback, appraising performance and rewarding performance. It is a holistic and disciplined approach which includes planning, monitoring, developing, rating and rewarding employee performance.
The purpose is to translate organisational goals into individual goals and to train the employee on how to improve job performance on a periodic basis. This purpose also involves how to communicate management’s expectations regarding employee performance and provide feedback to the employee about job performance. To identify the employee’s strengths and weaknesses and to determine what kind of development activities might help the employee to better utilise his competencies/ skills on the job.
Organization plans and priorities need to be translated into service, team and individual performance objectives. Agreeing individual performance and employee development needs is normally carried out using a combined performance appraisal and staff development process. This approach provides the framework for helping managers to translate service and team plans into individual plans and objectives and agree how these will be met. Individual plans and objectives are most effective when both manager and employee agree them. Objectives should be specific, measurable, agreed, and realistic and time bound (SMART).
Develop an internal communications system:
It is normally accepted that to be effective messages need to be communicated in a range of different ways that really target the group of staff you are trying to reach. There is a wide range of different approaches that can be adopted to ensure staffs kept in contact with key performance issues. For example, there are staff briefings; meetings; lunch time seminars; use of the intranet; mini articles or stories in staff magazines; posters; bulletin boards; email alerts; line management and supervision meetings. Conducting regular staff surveys and running a suggestion scheme are also important ways of ensuring that employees have opportunities to feedback on a wide range of issues that will impact directly or indirectly on organisational performance.
Ensure the performance appraisal system is in place, is well understood and working effectively:
A performance appraisal system is traditionally used to set objectives, identify support needs and measure progress against objectives. For it to work effectively it needs to be clearly understood by both managers and employees. This means ensuring that managers have access to guidance and training to ensure that they manage performance effectively throughout the year and employees at all levels within the organization have the necessary support, guidance or training to enable them to actively engage in the performance appraisal process. The performance appraisal system should also be regularly reviewed to ensure that it is achieving what is required.
Support employees to help them perform well:
Effective induction and probation processes for new employees are extremely important in setting the right expectations for performance on both sides. If this early stage is managed well it may be possible to intervene to prevent or minimise individual capability issues later on through personal development or redeployment. Feedback from this process may also highlight problems with job design or recruitment processes, which then need to be rectified.
Responsibility for meeting staff development needs may be addressed in the team or service or may be fed back to a central HR function for action. Whatever the approach, the organization needs an overview of its organisational capability and how it plans to address any gaps that will hamper the achievement of its objectives. This strategic human resource management would normally be the responsibility of the HR function.
Developing employee capacity to deliver organization objectives is likely to be achieved in a variety of ways. All employees, even those who have been in the same post for some time, should be encouraged to consider how they are performing and what else they could learn or do differently to deliver better services. In some cases these needs will be adequately met through attending training courses but there are many other possibilities, such as job shadowing, mentoring, e-learning, and working on projects or reading manuals. Wherever possible the employee should be given the opportunity to agree the most suitable option.
Performance needs to be actively managed and monitored throughout the year. An essential part of this dialogue is the giving and receiving of feedback. For this to work effectively the organisational climate must encourage the sharing of both success and failure. Without this employees will be reluctant to comply and the quality of the feedback may be lacking. As well as managers, employees at all levels in the organization may also need support, guidance or training to enable them to actively engage in the performance appraisal process.
Seek performance improvement:
At organisational level, this will mean identifying what the barriers are to effective performance and putting in place a plan to deliver improvement. At both team and individual level the principles will be the same, but it may be more difficult to manage, as individual sensitivities and complexities may be at the fore. Having in place a clear process for dealing with inadequate performance is important.
Identifying the reason for inadequate performance is the first step. From this the organization can determine further action, which may involve disciplinary procedures; additional training or support; monitoring and review mechanisms; redeployment; changing job roles or in some cases dismissal. It is also important that learning from these actions is taken on board, for example to improve future performance management mechanisms or selection methods. Formal capability or disciplinary proceedings take time, effort and resources, which could otherwise be targeted at more positive interventions, such as recognising good performance.
If performance management is embedded into day-to-day management practice it is likely that inadequate performance will be managed and improved before it gets to this stage; that is why following the performance management cycle on an ongoing basis is so important. Organization should also review job design and work flexibility as ways of improving performance.
Recognise and reward good performance:
This is the part that many organisations forget; instead they take good performance for granted and focus on those who have not met the standard. However, to retain motivation and continuously improve, it is essential that good performance is recognised and where appropriate, rewarded. Recognition and reward will mean different things to different people; for some financial reward in the form of pay rises or bonuses may be important, whereas for others recognition that their contribution has made a difference will be enough. When determining what will be the most appropriate reward the organization will need to understand what motivates their workforce and how they can meet this need. Pay systems and processes will be important, but it will also be necessary to identify other reward mechanisms such as opportunities for development and career progression.
Recognising performance is also about sharing success stories across the organisation and highlighting how good performance helps the organisation as a whole. This may also help with sharing good practice and learning about what works.
Performance management system in contemporary business organisations in Australia:
In general, the contemporary businesses organizations in Australia mainly implements three major steps in performance management process. They are as follows:

Performance planning
Performance development
Performance appraisal

Performance planning:
Planning is the first step in performance management. This is mainly followed by performance coaching and development. Then appraisal and evaluation come into play. Two of the keys to performance management are planning, setting expectations and making evaluations. Expectations can be goals but they are often nothing more than statements of acceptable, desired performance, activity and progress. What is critical is that expectations be clear, to both manager and the employee. The third key, of course lies in the development process and the skills of managers in carrying out employee development through coaching and problem solving. Although the performance appraiser may help to identify training needs and problems, the appraisal interview itself is not the time to coach. Coaching should take place during the months prior to appraisal. Like effective feedback, training for development requires skills in addition to an appropriately structured situation.
Performance development:
Training is the one of the most important step in the performance development. The Key to performance development is coaching. For example if a manager and an employee have engaged in performance planning, then performance development through coaching should be fairly straight forward, the role of a coach is quite different from that of an appraiser. The coach is a helper, who helps the employee, identifies problems he/she may be having and who helps the employee find ways to solve those problems. The role of the manager is not to assemble information and explain what went wrong to the employee, but to work with the employee to examine the information and identifying whether or not the performance is on track. The role of the manager is to give the employee useful feedback. Effective coaching depends on mutual exploration of problems and development of possible solutions. The coaching mainly consists of telling employees how to do it right. The Coach should work with the employee to help him develop better, more effective ways to do a job or fulfil the expected performance. The managers should take problem solving approaches.
Effective performance development through coaching requires a problem solving approach on the part of the manager. Unfortunately many managers neither understand this, nor do they have the feedback, and problem solving skills, needed to make such an approach work. Coaching forms a critical part of the performance management process. The main function of coaching sessions make sure that performance expectations are fulfilled or that employees make desired changes in their work activities.
Performance appraisal:
The Performance appraisal plays an important role. The performance appraisals can be defined as- any procedure which helps the collecting, checking, giving , sharing, and using of information collected from and about the people at the work for the purpose of adding to their performance at work. Performance appraisal procedures have many different purposes. And appraisal procedures main function is developing people and or organisations by using information about the behaviour of the people at work. It is mainly concerned with establishing controls on the behaviour of people or bringing about change in their behaviour by:

Evaluation.
Auditing.
Constructing Succession plans.
Discovering training needs.
Motivating staff.
Developing individuals.

Performance management in Australian companies:
Many of the Australian organizations are facing human resources related problems especially related to employees. In order to overcome those errors we need to implement better performance management system. These problems mainly arise due to lack of proper planning, development and performance appraisal.
Performance management and performance appraisal system are never the same. People mistake that both are same but they are different. Appraisal is a part of performance management. We have aspects like planning, performance auditing and evaluation. There are several issues raised in recent review of a performance management program implemented in Australian companies. In short, appraisal is the way a performance management programs gains evaluative information. But, the connection between the two is worth emphasising because schemes are often proposed and promoted as purely developmental as being divorced from appraisal processes. Performance management is rarely successful implemented as a formal program with out of some form of appraisal as a way of gathering information about performance and appraisal only succeeds when it implemented as a part of performance management program which provides the necessary supportive structures and opportunities. Due to this indifference between the two, organizations are facing complexities.
The problems inherit in a performance management system deals with if the system is designed to posses certain characteristics these characteristics mainly helpful to reduce subjectivity in implementation of performance management system.

Separate evaluation and development appraisals
Specifying performance standards
Use job related performance criteria
Use appropriate performance data
Provide ongoing feedback
Developing relationship between employer and employee
Increasing appraisals use multiple rate

Train appraisal, apple process, top management support fit with organisational culture and are the main important characteristics that should be followed for implementation of performance management in the organisation for achieving great organisational goals
Responsibilities for effective performance management:
For effective performance management implementation the organization needs to take into account a number of factors. Among these are:
Managers must be fully trained not only in the techniques of interviewing and career counselling but also must be conversant with the aims and objectives of the schemes. Performance management tries to develop the idea of a shared vision and it is the task of the manager to ensure that the employee is able to see his part in that vision.
There must be top management commitment to the system.
The performance management system should be tailor made to the needs of the organisation, and it should be aim to help or support, develop, a culture of high achievement and performance.
The Commitment of the organisation to the scheme, as well as the benefits that will flow from it should be communicated to all employees.
The scheme should be designed properly in such a way as to support the achievement of the organisation’s mission, and realisation of its values.
The principal accountabilities of employees and managers should be clear in order that all are aware of their objectives, the standards of performance expected of them the techniques that will be used to assess their performance.
It is important to develop and integrated approach to achieving more committed employees and better motivated and develops within them attitudes and behaviour that lead to enhanced performance. This would include performance counselling and training and carrier planning
The organisations must follow the main models of performance management; this performance management cycle consists of five elements.

Setting performance objectives.
Measuring outcomes.
Feed back of results.
Rewards linked to outcomes, and
Amendments to objectives and activities

Thus companies in Australia should make sure that the above responsibilities are to be assigned and to follow in order to achieve the organisations excellence.
Performance information and the performance of sales assistance:
The performance of sales assistance in a selected business plays a major role with the help of sources of performance information in one of the main processes in the organisation.
Fairness of performance management:
It is very important to monitor the introduction of performance management very carefully but it is equally crucial to continue to monitor and evaluate it regularly in an organisation.
The method of monitoring and evaluation is to ask those involved managers and individuals. The evaluation can be carried out by members of a group and/or by the HR function. Individual interviews and focus group discussions can be supplemented by a special survey of reactions to performance management, which could be completed anonymously by all managers and staff. The results should be feedback to all concerned and analysed to assess the need for any amendments to the process or further training requirements. An example of a performance review evaluation form and typical attitude survey questions are given as follows:
How effectively was the review meeting conducted in each of the areas listed below?
Rate each aspect of the review meeting as follows:

very effectively
effectively
fairly effectively
not very effectively

How would you rate the overall effectiveness of the meeting?

very effective
effective
fairly effective
ineffective

How did you feel after the meeting?

highly motivated
reasonably well motivated
not very well motivated
motivated

There are different methods being followed for appraising or evaluating performance of employees in an organization. Some of the methods are discussed as below:
Past-Oriented Appraisal Method:
Future-Orientated Appraisal Method:
Past – oriented appraisal method:
The past oriented appraisal method includes the following steps:

Essay
Paired Comparisons
Forced Distribution
Behavioural Checklist
Critical Incidents
Graphic Rating Scale
Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)

Future-Oriented Appraisal Methods:
The future oriented appraisal methods include the following steps:

Management By Objectives (MBO)
Self-Appraisal
Psychological Appraisals
Assessment Centres

These are the main important methods for evaluating the performance management of an employee for achieving organisational goals. Thus we can evaluate the employee’s performance using above methods where we can achieve organizational goals through employees.
 

Sports Review Performance Strengths Weaknesses Areas For Improvement Health Essay

Think carefully about the practices, skills and tactics that you have been working on over the past 4-6 weeks, as a player and as an official.
Strengths
Areas for development
Good footwork because she was quick to pass and move quickly. This will allow her to be free for the next pass.
Dodging was good as she was quick with her feet which helped her be free so that she can accept a ball passed to her.
Catching was good as she didn’t allow it to go to the other players. This will allow her and her team to score more goals and stop her opponents from receiving the ball.
She’s needs to pass on target because if she doesn’t then the ball will be lost to her opponents.
Defence needs improvement. Needs to keep eyes on the ball and jump for ball when needed.
Needs to intercept more when defending. This will allow her and her team to stop the ball from being shot by the other team.
Needs to improve on the power of her passes to her team because if the power of her passes is weak or too strong then the team player wouldn’t be able to catch the ball. This will give the opposing team a chance.
Needs to signal for the ball quickly when she’s free. This means that her opponent won’t be able to know when she’ll be able to get the ball.
Identify three ways in which their performance or knowledge has improved since starting the course.
1 Knowing the rules and technique when it comes to footwork
2 Knowing the technique used when passing and shooting a ball.
3 Being able to dodge, attack and defend effectively.
Give this performer three action points that will help them improve their performance or knowledge in the future. Reference should be made to an appropriate Governing Body course if possible.
1 To be able to improve her performance, she needs to bend her knees and elbows also she needs to add more power when shooting the ball into the net. This will allow her to shoot more accurately when she’s scoring.
2 To be able to improve her performance, she needs to intercept more and stay on her toes which will help her to move more easily and quickly. It will also allow her to stop her opponents receiving the ball.
3 To be able to improve her performance, she needs to practice jumping and catching the ball whilst it’s being passed over her head to the opposing team. She also needs to practice her overhead passes.
Any further comments on the course or the targets that you have set the performer.
OWN PERFORMANCE REVIEW (P9, M5, D2)
Review a sports performance.
In the table below write down what you think your strengths and weaknesses are.
Think carefully about the practices, skills and tactics that you have been working on over the past 4-6 weeks, as a player and as an official.
Strengths
Areas for development
Defending the goal from the opposing team. This means that my team will have a better chance of winning the game.
Dodging is good as I free myself quickly from the player marking me. This means that I able to receive the ball when I needed.
My interception is good as I am quick and always have my eyes on the ball. This means that my opponents have a less chance of receiving the ball and/or winning the game.
My defending is good as I am quick and always moving. This is an advantage to my team as I stop the opponents from scoring in our goal.
Take time when shooting the ball. This means that my team and I will be able to gain more from it.
Need to keep in mind what foot is my landing foot so I can shoot easily as well as pivot.
Be aware of the people around me when I receive the ball. This will allow me to pass to the appropriate player.
Remember to spread legs when shooting. This allows my shooting to be more accurate.
Identify three ways in which your performance or knowledge has improved since starting the course.
1 My defending skills have improved as I am able to stay on my toes allowing me to move quickly and easily.
2 My shooting technique has improved and has allowed me to shoot more accurately.
3 My footwork has improved because I move very quickly allowing me to intercept, attack and defend the ball/goal from the opponents.
Give yourself three action points that will help you improve your performance or knowledge in the future. Reference should be made to an appropriate Governing Body course if possible.
1 To be able improve my performance or knowledge in the future. I need to make sure that when I receive the ball I am aware of all my team player and which team player is the best to pass the ball to.
2 To be able to improve my performance or knowledge in the future. I need to make sure I always remember the shooting technique whenever I’m shooting the ball into the goal. This is so that I have a more accurate chance of scoring a goal.
3 To be able to improve my performance or knowledge in the future. I need to make sure that I always stay with the player I am marking so that I can defend, attack or intercept the ball when I need to.
Any further comments on the course or the targets that you have set yourself.
RULES AND REGULATIONS WORKSHEET (P3, P4)
ACTIVITY _______ ____________________
Who is the Governing Body for this Sport & what is there web site address?
The England Netball is the Governing Body for this sport.

Home


List below 5 National Governing Body rules for this sport.
a) A netball player must be able to pass or shoot the netball in 3 seconds after the ball is caught.
b) When a netball player jumps to catch a ball she must land on one foot and that landing foot must not be moved at any time unless the player passes the ball she’s holding.
c) A netball player must not contact an opponent at any time in the game either by accident or deliberately in such a way that the game and/or the opponent is interrupted.
d) Goal Attack or Goal Shooter are the only players in netball that are allowed to shoot the ball. In order for these players to shoot they must be in the circle.
e) A netball player is offside when the player moves out of their designated area with or without a netball.
What are the timing regulations associated with this sport?
All netball shooter must be able to shown within 3 seconds.
Netball players must also pass the netball with 3 seconds.
In the space below draw a diagram of the playing area, with important specifications
http://www.abcteach.com/basicshapes/images/semici4.gif
Goal
GoalDraw two hand signals in the space below that officials may use in this sport.http://www.abcteach.com/basicshapes/images/semici4.gif
Obstruction – The player’s hands are apart and are positioned in front of their body.
Direction of Pass – The Umpires arm will be pointed in the direction the netball is to be played.
Briefly explain how a competitive goal is scored in this sport.
C has the play passes it to WA who passes it to the GA, then the netball is passed to the GS. The GS then shoots the ball into the net.
Explain below 4 health & safety issues concerned with the game – this could be linked to injury/substitution, protective equipment, playing surface, ground design/surveillance.
a) The end of the netball goalposts must be padded so that the netball players can run around the court without injuring themselves or colliding with other players
b) Netball players must be all perform a small fitness exam so that coaches, officials and other team members are sure that the players are fit enough to play the games.
c) Stretcher, first aid kits as well as a qualified first aid personnel must be available at the game to ensure that if an injury occurs it can be treated immediately.
d) Remove all courtside hazards also examine the playing field to make sure all hazards on the court is removed and the court must be maintained as a hazard free playing surface.
Briefly explain the sanctions applied to players for inappropriate behaviour (e.g. the use of red & yellow cards in football)
A formal warning is first given to a player who demonstrates inappropriate behaviour. If the player shows other signs of inappropriate behaviour the Umpire will take any actions they feel is appropriate for the player. This could be the player’s suspension from the game. If the player still demonstrates inappropriate behaviour the Umpire may order the player from the netball court and the player won’t be able to take part in rest of the game.

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An Umpire can only suspend a player if the said player has been given a warning.
9. How effective do you think the rules and regulations are within this sport?
I think the rules and regulations for Netball are very effective as it makes Netball a competitively fun sport to play and also it makes the s[port one of the safest sports.
Also, I think the rule and regulations are effective as it makes the game fair and strict as well as challenging.
Would you implement any further rules or regulations to improve the game, or make it more exciting?
No.
OBSERVATION OF AN OFFICIAL (P5, P6)
Observe an official in a game situation. This can de done during a lesson, watching a video or a live match outside of school.
Sport: Fixture:
Name of Official: Date:
List three roles of the official:
1
2
3
Attempt to judge their performance in making the correct decisions against identified rules and regulations (please tick):
RULE/REGULATION CORRECT INCORRECT
Did the official control the game?
Analyse the performance of the official.
What mark would you give him/her /10? (1 = inept, 6 = competent, 10 = outstanding)
Comparison of officials
Now watch an official in action in another sport. Compare the two officials from the two sports. Are there any differences in their roles? How they are treated by players/coaches? How they deal with difficult situations? How fit they have to be? Answer in the box below.
Differences between the officials in two sports
Sport 1: Netball Sport 2: Basketball
In Netball there are two umpires, two scorers and two timekeepers are the officials. The umpires are the main officials in netball.
Whilst, in Basketball there are either 2 or 3 officials. The main official is the referee and the others are the official scorer and official timekeeper.
In Netball, the officials use hand signals and whistles to keep the game safe, make sure the players follow the rules and also to make sure that it is played safely.
However, in Basketball is very rare for officials to use hand signals. Most whistles are used throughout the game.
TACTICS WORKSHEET (M1, D1)
ACTIVITY _______ ____________________
Describe and illustrate a defensive tactic that you would use in your sport e.g. zone defence in Basketball.
Describe and illustrate an attacking tactic that you would use in your sport e.g. fast break in Basketball.
Justify the use of these two tactic’s, giving specific examples. (D1)
Identify areas for further improvement.
OBSERVATION CHECKLIST (P7)
ACTIVITY _______ ____________________
Use this space to produce an observation checklist.
Skill
Successful
Unsuccessful
Percentage
Passing
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100%
Successful
0%
Unsuccessful
Shooting
0%
Successful
0%
Unsuccessful
Catching
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80%
Successful
20%
Unsuccessful
Interception
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0%
Successful
0%
Unsuccessful
Skill
Successful
Unsuccessful
Percentage
Footwork
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75%
Successful
25%
Unsuccessful
Shooting
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50%
Successful
50%
Unsuccessful
Defending
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60%
Successful
40%
Unsuccessful
Interception
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75%
Successful
25%
Unsuccessful
OBSERVATION CHECKLIST (M3, P8, P9)
ACTIVITY _______ ____________________
Use this space to produce your own observation checklist.
Use the checklist to review the sports performance of an individual or a team and identify areas of strengths or improvement
 

Mobile Phone Market and Performance of Huawei

A Business Report on the Mobile Phone Market and Performance of Huawei

Table of Contents

1.0 Title Page 1

2.0 Executive Summary 3

3.0 Main Body 3

3.1 Introduction 3

3.2 Analysis of the Industry Environment  3

3.3 Strategy 6

4.0 Reference List 8

2.0 Executive Summary

Huawei are a rapidly growing tech company who have recently become a major competitor in the UK market, growing their market share from 2.7% to 13.7% in 2018. They are also a major global competitor, overtaking Apple on number of units sold in the last year. This reports objective is to gain knowledge of the market environment Huawei face, it’s greatest strengths it needs to take advantage of, and to highlight the weaknesses and threats that are posed to Huawei and how they should overcome them.                                                                                    A PEST analysis of the UK market exposes that in the coming years, exports to the UK will become dearer due to the strengthening pound against the Yuan after Brexit uncertainty is over. Analysis also highlights a growing UK market with increasing GDP/GDP per capita in unison with decreasing unemployment. A socio-cultural hurdle Huawei face ia tackling western mindsets that Huawei have Chinese government military ties, and therefore is considered a threat to security. Technological analysis reveals Huawei’s competitive edge with R&D and new technology innovations leading to a unique selling point but remains to fall behind on patent approvals.                                                                                                                 Huawei’s greatest weakness is its lacklustre customer service which directly contradicts its core value of “Customer First”. My recommendation is large investment in customer service infrastructure for western countries as I believe this is paramount to its growing success and could stop its future brand being tarnished by a bad reputation.

3.0 Main Body

3.1 Introduction

The mobile phone market worldwide is a highly competitive market, which in the UK is highly saturated. This can be seen through overall sales in the market slowing by 2% due to longer lasting phones alongside increases in price (Guardian 2018). The company that leads the market and grows the most is heavily dependent on branding, social trends, and most importantly: who is the leader in the latest technological advancements. The mobile phone market in the UK has seen old competitors such as Blackberry diminish, and new entrants such as Huawei thrive.                                                                                                                              Huawei are a China based technology company who manufacture smartphones alongside other tech. Huawei’s rapid growth in the UK smartphone market was most notably from Q2-Q3 of 2018, where it’s market share grew from 2.7% to 13.7% between May and July of 2018 (Kantar, TechRadar 2018). The second quarter of 2018 was when Huawei overtook Apple in global sales to become the second largest seller of smartphones behind Samsung. This report will analyse the current smartphone market Huawei face, alongside analysing Huawei’s strengths and therefore reasons for its success, the threats that Huawei face in the future and how Huawei can plan to combat these threats.

3.2 Analysis of the Industry Environment

To analyse the macro-economic business environment in the UK and understand what factors may affect Huawei’s decision making in the UK market, we will use a PEST analysis to identify any possible opportunities or threats that are presented to Huawei.

Political Factors

The ongoing Brexit debate is the biggest area of uncertainty in the Political climate of the UK. However, due to Huawei manufacturing and importing its phones from India for its low labour costs to have a price advantage, the change in EU regulations of trade and trade tariffs will have little impact on Huawei’s entry into the UK, and no effect on any new labour laws put into motion.                                                                                                                                            However, if Brexit were to continue, it is a possibility that the UK may seek a trade deal with the US. If the UK were to undergo this procedure, the US-China trade war tensions may have an adverse effect on the UK. This is not helped by Meng Wanzhou’s arrest, who is the daughter of Huawei’s founder and the Chief Financial Officer of the company (Financial Times 2018). She faces extradition to the US and is said to be used as a “bargaining chip” by President Trump. China has now threatened severe consequences if the Huawei executive is not released (BBC 2018).

Economic Factors

The affect that Brexit has had on the economy is that this uncertainty has slowed down economic growth to 1.3% in 2018. During the Brexit negotiations the value of the pound fell by 14%. This weaker pound makes imports more expensive for Britain. The result of this to Huawei mean that their exports are cheaper to the UK because the Yuan is stronger against the Pound, increasing profitability.                                                                                                                 However, these impacts of Brexit are short term. Theresa May states that the pound will be back to its original strength after the negotiations in 2020, reverting Huawei’s profitability back to its original figure as exports become dearer for Huawei, however imports into Britain become more attractive to UK consumers. The slowed growth of 1.3% is set to increase back to 2% after the uncertainty of Brexit. Unemployment remains constant, fluctuating between 4.0-4.2%, with an overall downwards sloping trend as illustrated in Figure 1 (Trading Economics 2018).

 

This presents opportunities for Huawei due to this being a 43 year low, whereby lower unemployment means higher disposable incomes. This links into the UK’s GDP per capita having grown by 1.2% in 2017, leading to a larger market Huawei can trade with due to aggregate demand increasing. This fall in unemployment presents an opportunity to Huawei where some consumers are being able to afford high-end phones such as the P20 Pro for the first time, so Huawei needs to take advantage of this.

Socio-Cultural Factors

There are some socio-cultural hurdles that Huawei face in the UK. One social trend that poses a threat to Huawei is the consumers in the UK holding beliefs that Huawei is a security concern due to its origin with ties to the Chinese military network. Huawei have had this problem in the US and Australia which are influential to the UK (BBC 2018). As a result, Huawei need to prove that their product is safe so not to impact sales negatively.                                           Another issue Huawei face is the social media cultural trend in Western countries to heavily criticize android phone users in comparison to exclusively the iPhone. There is a cultural belief that android is for poorer people, which threatens consumers readiness to buy Huawei phones due to connotations of their operating system being for people of a lower class, which is negatively reinforced with Huawei’s budget line of android phones such as the Huawei Y6 (Business Insider 2014).

Technological Factors

As a technology company, this is the biggest influencer on Huawei. Huawei brand themselves as innovators, and therefore it imperative that they invest a lot on research and development. So much so that a total their budget has been raised to $20 billion for phone development alongside implementing new 5G technologies. This is double Apple’s $10 billion budget putting them at a research advantage. Huawei launched its 5G Roadshow throughout the UK, showcasing their new 5G technologies which it is currently a global leader in since its investments begun in 2009.                                                                                                  A significant strength of Huawei came in 2017 when Huawei partnered with UK based service provider Stratto, and in November of 2018 they announced a new Digital Indoor System (DIS). This provides enhanced 3G and 4G indoor mobile coverage where its demand from business and home owners in confined spaces has grown due to the increased growth of high speed applications such as introduction of 4K video, alongside the growing complexities of older distributed antenna systems (DAS) which are starting to fail to meet the necessary speed and coverage demands in the UK.                                                                                                  However, a weakness of Huawei is that as of December 2017, they have been granted 74,307 total patents with 64,091 pending in China and 48,758 pending outside China. However, this figure is dwarfed with respect to Samsung’s 1.2 million total patents, so Huawei are struggling to keep up. Figure 2 shows a clear lead from other phone companies such as Samsung and Google in the top 10, whilst Huawei sits at 20th showing that in 2017 it’s number of approved patents was just 18.18% of Samsung’s total.                                                        On the contrary, it could be argued that in 2016 Huawei was ranked 25th for number of approved patents, and one year later in 2017 it has increased to 20th. This could show that its increased spending on R&D is proving successful, giving Huawei an upward trend of approved patents. Therefore, Huawei’s 2018 figure may rise even further, but will still only be a small proportion of Samsung’s approved patents.

 

3.3 Strategy

Product

A major driving force of Huawei’s strategy was to create high quality products with great value for their customers, beating competitors with the power of their product. One of their core values is ‘Customer First’, stating that they aim to “create long-term value” whilst “being responsive to their needs”. Their strategy through innovation and continuous improvement of their product with their $20 Billion in research is a great strength of theirs. Their products are reviewed well by customers, so customer satisfaction is being achieved, hence their growing sales and growing market share.                                                                       However, one major downfall that is contradictory to “Customer First” is Huawei’s lack of effective customer service in the western world. They fail to successfully deal with customer complaints. Huawei lack the experience in western countries to compete with competitor’s customer service abilities. As a result, Huawei are at major risk of building a bad reputation which could tarnish their brand image detrimentally (CustomerServiceScoreboard 2018).

Price

To enter the UK market, Huawei used a two-pronged, multi-segmented targeting approach. Huawei entered the market with two lines of smartphone staged at different price ranges to target people of different incomes.                                                                                                                              The high-end P20 Pro smartphone is a competitor to the iPhone X and Samsung Galaxy S9. It can demand a high price due to technology features that its competitors are lacking such as its triple camera, in comparison to the iPhone X’s dual camera. This premium pricing is reasonable because of its differentiation within its innovative features. However, the price of the P20 Pro is higher than Samsung’s S9. I would argue that Huawei are yet to have the brand recognition in the UK to be pricing higher than Samsung, as it gives no reason for loyal Samsung users to switch to Huawei.                                                                                                                              On the contrary, Samsung users with lower incomes could switch Huawei’s P Smart phone. This budget £299 phone was well reviewed and gave people with lower incomes the ability to switch, therefore building brand loyalty with Huawei. This was a smart move because it covered the entire UK smartphone market, meaning Huawei’s market share started increasing as brand recognition and loyalty started to grow with it.

3.4 Conclusion

Huawei are proving themselves to be a strong competitor in the mobile phone market. Their research and development investments clearly pay off as both the P20 Pro and P Smart range of phones were well reviewed and recommended, building a strong and growing product reputation with their UK market share reaching a 5-fold increase in one year.                            Huawei’s biggest strength is its differentiation within its technological advancements due to its $20 billion on R&D. The 3 camera P20 Pro is one example of many competitive advantages the Chinese company has over its main competitors, proving itself by beating Apple in total number of global units sold to become the second highest seller of mobile phones after seven years of Apple and Samsung holding the top 2 places. These technology prowess’s along with Huawei’s cost advantage of Chinese and Indian production gives them a synergistic edge which competitors will need to respond to fast.                                                         One recommendation I have on analysis of Huawei is major investment into development of their customer service network in their western markets. If this is not implemented rapidly, although Huawei have a price advantage, many customers will start to envisage Huawei as lacking in care for customers. This will result in loss of customer loyalty and market share will decrease as western consumers will no longer be satisfied with Huawei’s services.

4.0 References

Improving the Performance of Overbooking

Improving the Performance of Overbooking by Application Collocate Using Affinity Function
ABSTRACT: One of the main features provided by clouds is elasticity, which allows users to dynamically adjust resource allocations depending on their current needs. Overbooking describes resource management in any manner where the total available capacity is less than the theoretical maximal requested capacity. This is a well-known technique to manage scarce and valuable resources that has been applied in various fields since long ago. The main challenge is how to decide the appropriate level of overbooking that can be achieved without impacting the performance of the cloud services. This paper focuses on utilizing the Overbooking framework that performs admission control decisions based on fuzzy logic risk assessments of each incoming service request. This paper utilizes the collocation function (affinity) to define the similarity between applications. The similar applications are then collocated for better resource scheduling.
I. INTRODUCTION
Scheduling, or placement, of services is the process of deciding where services should be hosted. Scheduling is a part of the service deployment process and can take place both externally to the cloud, i.e., deciding on which cloud provide the service should be hosted, and internally, i.e., deciding which PM in a datacenter a VM should be run on. For external placement, the decision on where to host a service can be taken either by the owner of the service, or a third-party brokering service. In the first case, the service owner maintains a catalog of cloud providers and performs the negotiation with them for terms and costs of hosting the service. In the later case, the brokering service takes responsibility for both discovery of cloud providers and the negotiation process. Regarding internal placement, the decision of which PMs in the datacenter a service should be hosted by is taken when the service is admitted into the infrastructure. Depending on criteria such as the current load of the PMs, the size of the service and any affinity or anti-affinity constraints [23], i.e., rules for co-location of service components, one or more PMs are selected to run the VMs that constitute the service. Figure 1 illustrates a scenario with new services of different sizes (small, medium, and large) arriving into a datacenter where a number of services are already running.

Figure 1: Scheduling in VMs
Overload can happen in an oversubscribed cloud. Conceptually, there are two steps for handling overload, namely, detection and mitigation, as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Oversubscription view
A physical machine has CPU, memory, disk, and network resources. Overload on an oversubscribed host can manifest for each of these resources. When there is memory overload, the hyper visor swaps pages from its physical memory to disk to make room for new memory allocations requested by VMs (Virtual Machines). The swapping process increases disk read and write traffic and latency, causing the programs to thrash. Similarly, when there is CPU overload, VMs and the monitoring agents running with VMs may not get a chance to run, thereby increasing the number of processes waiting in the VM’s CPU run queue. Consequently, any monitoring agents running inside the VM also may not get a chance to run, rendering inaccurate the cloud provider’s view of VMs. Disk overload in shared SAN storage environment can increase the network traffic, where as in local storage it can degrade the performance of applications running in VMs. Lastly, network overload may result in an under utilization of CPU, disk, and memory resources, rendering ineffective any gains from oversubscription. Overload can be detected by applications running on top of VMs, or by the physical host running the VMs. Each approach has its pros and cons. The applications know their performance best, so when they cannot obtain the provisioned resources of a VM, it is an indication of overload. The applications running on VMs can then funnel this information to the management infrastructure of cloud. However, this approach requires modification of applications. In the overload detection within physical host, the host can infer overload by monitoring CPU, disk, memory, and network utilizations of each VM process, and by monitoring the usage of each of its resources. The benefit of this approach is that no modification to the applications running on VMs is required. However, overload detection may not be fully accurate.
II. RELATED WORK
The scheduling of services in a datacenter is often performed with respect to some high-level goal [36], like reducing energy consumption, increasing utilization [37] and performance [27] or maximizing revenue [17, 38]. However, during operation of the datacenter, the initial placement of a service might no longer be suitable, due to variations in application and PM load. Events like arrival of new services, existing services being shut down or services being migrated out of the datacenter can also affect the quality of the initial placement. To avoid drifting too far from an optimal placement, thus reducing efficiency and utilization of the datacenter, scheduling should be performed repeatedly during operation. Information from monitoring probes [23], and events such as timers, arrival of new services, or startup and shutdown of PMs can be used to determine when to update the mapping between VMs and PMs.

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Scheduling of VMs can be considered as a multi-dimensional type of the Bin Packing [10] problem, where VMs with varying CPU, I/O, and memory requirements are placed on PMs in such a way that resource utilization and/or other objectives are maximized. The problem can be addressed, e.g., by using integer linear programming [52] or by performing an exhaustive search of all possible solutions. However, as the problem is complex and the number of possible solutions grow rapidly with the amount of PMs and VMs, such approaches can be both time and resource consuming. A more resource efficient, and faster, way is the use of greedy approaches like the First-Fit algorithm that places a VM on the first available PM that can accommodate it. However, such approximation algorithms do not normally generate optimal solutions. All in all, approaches to solving the scheduling problem often lead to a trade-o↵ between the time to find a solution and the quality of the solution found. Hosting a service in the cloud comes at a cost, as most cloud providers are driven by economical incentives. However, the service workload and the available capacity in a datacenter can vary heavily over time, e.g., cyclic during the week but also more randomly [5]. It is therefore beneficial for providers to be able to dynamically adjust prices over time to match the variation in supply and demand.
Cloud providers typically offer a wide variety of compute instances, differing in the speed and number of CPUs available to the virtual machine, the type of local storage system used (e.g. single hard disk, disk array, SSD storage), whether the virtual machine may be sharing physical resources with other virtual machines (possibly belonging to different users), the amount of RAM, network bandwidth, etc. In addition, the user must decide how many instances of each type to provision.
In the ideal case, more nodes means faster execution, but issues of heterogeneity, performance unpredictability, network overhead, and data skew mean that the actual benefit of utilizing more instances can be less than expected, leading to a higher cost per work unit. These issues also mean that not all the provisioned resources may be optimally used for the duration of the application. Workload skew may mean that some of the provisioned resources are (partially) idle and therefore do no contribute to the performance during those periods, but still contribute to cost. Provisioning larger or higher performance instances is similarly not always able to yield a proportional benefit. Because of these factors, it can be very difficult for a user to translate their performance requirements or objectives into concrete resource specifications for the cloud. There have been several works that attempt to bridge this gap, which mostly focus on VM allocation [HDB11, VCC11a, FBK+12, WBPR12] and determining good configuration parameters [KPP09, JCR11, HDB11]. Some more recent work also considers shared resources such as network or data storage [JBC+12], which is especially relevant in multi-tenant scenarios. Other approaches consider the provider side of things, because it can be equally difficult for a provider to determine how to optimally service resource requests [RBG12].
Resource provisioning is complicated further because performance in the cloud is not always predictable, and known to vary even among seemingly identical instances [SDQR10, LYKZ10]. There have been attempts to address this by extending resource provisioning to include requirement specifications for things such as network performance rather than just the number and type of VMs in an attempt to make the performance more predictable [GAW09, GLW+10, BCKR11, SSGW11]. Others try to explicitly exploit this variance to improve application performance [FJV+12]. Accurate provisioning based on application requirements also requires the ability to understand and predict application performance. There are a number of approaches towards estimating performance: some are based on simulation [Apad, WBPG09], while others use information based on workload statistics derived from debug execution [GCF+10, MBG10] or profiling sample data [TC11, HDB11]. Most of these approaches still have limited accuracy, especially when it comes to I/O performance.
Cloud platforms run a wide array of heterogeneous workloads which further complicates this issue [RTG+12]. Related to provisioning is elasticity, which means that it is not always necessary to determine the optimal resource allocation beforehand, since it is possible to dynamically acquire or release resources during execution based on observed performance. This suffers from many of the same problems as provisioning, as it can be difficult to accurately estimate the impact of changing the resources at runtime, and therefore to decide when to acquire or release resources, and which ones. Exploiting elasticity is also further complicated when workloads are statically divided into tasks, as it is not always possible to preempt those tasks [ADR+12]. Some approaches for improving workload elasticity depend on the characteristics of certain workloads [ZBSS+10, AAK+11, CZB11], but these characteristics may not generally apply. It is therefore clear that it can be very difficult to decide, for either the user or the provider, how to optimally provision resources and to ensure that those resources that are provisioned are utilized fully. Their is a very active interest in improving this situation, and the approaches proposed in this thesis similarly aim to improve provisioning and elasticity by mitigating common causes of inefficient resource utilization.
III. PROPOSED OVERBOOKING METHOD
The proposed model utilizes the concept of overbooking introduced in [1] and schedules the services using the collocation function.
3.1 Overbooking:
The Overbooking is to exploit overestimation of required job execution time. The main notion of overbooking is to schedule more number of additional jobs. Overbooking strategy used in economic model can improve system utilization rate and occupancy. In overbooking strategy every job is associated with release time and finishing deadline, as shown in Fig 3. Here successful execution will be given with fee and penalty for violating the deadline.

Figure 3: Strategy of Overbooking
Data centers can also take advantage of those characteristics to accept more VMs than the number of physical resources the data center allows. This is known as resource overbooking or resource over commitment. More formally, overbooking describes resource management in any manner where the total available capacity is less than the theoretical maximal requested capacity. This is a well-known technique to manage scarce and valuable resources that has been applied in various fields since long ago.

Figure 4: Overview of Overbooking
The above Figure shows a conceptual overview of cloud overbooking, depicting how two virtual machines (gray boxes) running one application each (red boxes) can be collocated together inside the same physical resource (Server 1) without (noticeable) performance degradation.
The overall components of the proposed system are depicted in figure 5.

Figure 5: Components of the proposed model
The complete process of the proposed model is explained below:

The user requests the scheduler for the services
The scheduler first verifies the AC and then calculates the Risk of that service.
Then already a running service is scheduling then the request is stored in a queue.
The process of FIFO is used to schedule the tasks.
To complete the scheduling the collocation function keeps the intermediate data nodes side by side and based on the resource provision capacity the node is selected.
If the first node doesn’t have the capacity to complete the task then the collocation searches the next node until the capacity node is found.

The Admission Control (AC) module is the cornerstone in the overbooking framework. It decides whether a new cloud application should be accepted or not, by taking into accounts the current and predicted status of the system and by assessing the long term impact, weighting improved utilization against the risk of performance degradation. To make this assessment, the AC needs the information provided by the Knowledge DB, regarding predicted data center status and, if available, predicted application behavior.

The Knowledge DB (KOB) module measures and profiles the different applications’ behavior, as well as the resources’ status over time. This module gathers information regarding CPU, memory, and I/O utilization of both virtual and physical resources. The KOB module has a plug-in architectural model that can use existing infrastructure monitoring tools, as well as shell scripts. These are interfaced with a wrapper that stores information in the KOB.
The Smart Overbooking Scheduler (SOS) allocates both the new services accepted by the AC and the extra VMs added to deployed services by scale-up, also de-allocating the ones that are not needed. Basically, the SOS module selects the best node and core(s) to allocate the new VMs based on the established policies. These decisions have to be carefully planned, especially when performing resource overbooking, as physical servers have limited CPU, memory, and I/O capabilities.
The risk assessment module provides the Admission Control with the information needed to take the final decision of accepting or rejecting the service request, as a new request is only admitted if the final risk is bellow a pre-defined level (risk threshold).
The inputs for this risk assessment module are:
Req – CPU, memory, and I/O capacity required by the new incoming service.
UnReq – The difference between total data center capacity and the capacity requested by all running services.
Free – the difference between total data center capacity and the capacity used by all running services.
Calculating the risk of admitting a new service includes many uncertainties. Furthermore, choosing an acceptable risk threshold has an impact on data center utilization and performance. High thresholds result in higher utilization but the expense of exposing the system to performance degradation, whilst using lower values leads to lower but safer resource utilization.
The main aim of this system is to use the affinity function that aid the scheduling system to decide which applications are to be placed side by side (collocate). Affinity function utilizes the threshold properties for defining the similarity between the applications. The similar applications are then collocated for better resource scheduling.
IV. ANALYSIS:
The proposed system is tested for time taken to search and schedule the resources using the collocation the proposed system is compared with the system developed in [1]. The system in [1] doesn’t contain a collocation function so the scheduling process takes more time compared to the existing system. The comparison results are depicted in figure 6.

Figure 6: Time taken to Complete Scheduling
The graphs clearly depict that the modified (Proposed overbooking takes equal time to complete the scheduling irrespective of the requests.
 

Human Resource Management and Organizational Performance

Introduction
The study of HRM has come a long way in a relatively short period of existence. In a society that has become increasingly dependent on knowledge and skills it is clear that the companies training perform an important role in overall organization performance. This training comes from Human Resource Management practices. HRM practices are defined as the activities intend to enhance the performance of organizations and employees ability to achieve the goals of organization. HRM practices raise the outcomes of HRM to influence the organization performance

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This study focus’ on the relationship between HRM practices variables and organizational performance, impact of HRM practices on organizational performance and productivity. The performance of an organization depends on many factors and employees contribution. Impact of combined performance of employees on organization performance is greater than individuals. Explanation, importance of relationship and the impact of the HRM practices on the performance of organization. Different approaches of HRM practices and business strategy. It reflects the approach and different factors of the HRM practices. Effect of the individual and shared climate levels of organization
Different Studies have emphasized the contribution of Human Resource Management practices to the organizational performance. These studies focused on HRM practices. There is shared idea that HR practices are only effective when bundles are considered including incentive system, training, flexible job assignment, high selectivity and performance management. These practices contribute to increase employee and organization performance by increasing the level of productivity and financial performance. HRM practices have an effect of motivating employees to adopt the required behaviours, it links to the organizational climate, service environment and customer satisfaction. Outcome of investment on employees training each year, this finding is generally shown to be stronger when an organization provides employees with opportunities for the involvement in decision making and organises work in ways that allows employees a higher level of discretionary efforts in the way work is done
HRM practices and Organizational performance
According to studies of Boselie, Paauwe and Jansen (2000), that relationship between relevant dependant and independent variable will vary according to such influences as technology, unionization, industry, company ownership and location, capital intensity, company age and size. Contingency arguments imply potentially complex interactions between HRM variable, between performance and contingency factors, between HRM variables and performance indicators and contingency factors. Commitment HR practices are based on the idea that the closer an organization’s HR practices resembled the correct prototypical system, the greater the performance gain
Nicolai and Dana (2009), focus on the impact of individual and bundles of HRM practices. The focus of the empirical research has been divergent and it is clear that reward and training have attracted disproportionate. These are important HRM practices, but it is hard to argue on a priori grounds that positive impact of, for example job design variables. They found that practices such as the use of selective hiring, the extent of training and active participation of the employee in decision making were conducive to organization learning, while group performance-based compensation was not found to be significant for organization learning
A number of HRM researchers have argued that synergies are likely to exist among individual HRM practices. These studies indicate that when HRM practices are applied as coherent systems, they have greater effects on organization productivity than the sum of the individual effects from each practice alone
Cristina (2007), explain the relationship and impact of HRM practices in organizational performance. People management should be matter of discussion and investment on the part of companies. As for as the theoretical approaches are concerned, the conceptualization of the relationship among HRM practices and business strategy has given birth to three main approaches, named universalistic, contingent and configurational. Under the common relationship among HR Practices and organization performance or outcome, these models hypothesize different set s of variable and relations among them eventually influence corporate results
In the view of Peter and Donna (2008), firstly approach which reflects the early work examining the impact of HRM practices implicitly assumed a universalistic, rational model of work organization yielded significant performance dividend. This has been closely associated with a best practice model of HRM. Secondly HR practices are required to have consistency with other organizational factors to be effective. These factors include the nature of market and legislative change. Climate of organization both as individual level attribute and as a set of shared beliefs and values – have effect of motivating employee to adopt desired attitudes and behaviour that in the collection, help to achieve organization’s goals. HRM system can be read as communication between employer to employee. The effectiveness of HRM system as communication to employee will depend on those features that define HRM system strength. These features are distinctiveness, consistency and consensus. Rita and Miguel (2004), research has shown that HRM practices contribute to organizational performance. Early studies emphasized the impact of several separate HRM practices, such as compensation, performance management system and training. Later studies reported the positive impact of HRM practices on organizational performance as well as the virtuous impact of HR sophistication, measured by investment in HR planning, in hiring and in employee development on productivity, particularly in capital intensive organization. These latter studies have a common idea that bundle of HR practices improve employee and organization performance. Overall set of HRM practices developed the employee’s skills, ability and motivation. High performance work system contribute to improve employee and organization performance by increasing the level of productivity
Organization’s Demand and outcome for HRM practices
According to Bo Hansson (2002), in estimating the impact of training on the probability of the organization being a top performer in the industry, controlling for the past profitability is an effort to measure the net contribution of training to the profit op the organization. Percentage of wage bills spent on training is significantly and positively associated with the profitability in an organization. The proportion of employee being trained is positive but not significant. Most significant factor to indicate current performance is the past performance
The measure of internal promotion is significantly and positively associated with profitability only in the presence of how much is invested in training and not in the estimates of how many employees are trained every year. Focusing on internal promotion seems to be a good strategy for organization profitability as this strategy reduces the training. Because measure of internal promotion is significantly in the presence of how much is invested in training
Bruce and Benjamin (2009), explain the individual organization’s decision regarding the extent of the investment in HRM practices. Following the mainline of HRM practices they assume the organization short-run objective is maximum financial return, which is simply treating as maximum profit. This assumption limits to private sector for profit organizations. The HRM practices are treat as an input factor in production. That is the organization’s output is assumed produced with labour, capital and HRM practices. HRM is utilized therefore, because of its boost productivity. HRM helps to produced more output and profit
Strength of HRM Practices and Turnover
Rita and Miguel (2004), presents the links between HRM feature and outcome at organizational level, such as financial performance and productivity. HRM system or practices creates the conditions to achieve organizational goals by influences employee attribution. Individual practices intended to achieve objectives, such as promoting innovation, process deals with how the HRM practices is designed and administrated to send signals to employees that allow them to create a shared meaning about the desired response and collective sense of what is expected. According to one study (B Hansson, 2002), turnover is significantly and negatively associated with being a top performing organization. A large amount spent on employee every year. It is crucial for an organization to retain their employee in that turnover reduces the returns to training. This reasoning is in accord with the rational that mobility lowers an organization’s training investment in that reduces the return on these training investments. However, an explanation for the finding that mobility is not determining the provision of training is that the economic benefits to the organization from training their employees outweigh the cost of lost human capital investment that are caused by personal turnover. Important determination of training is personal turnover as it affects the ability of organization to benefit from training
Aims and Objectives
Following are the aims and objectives of this study

To show the Impact of HRM practices on the performance of organization

Effect of HRM practices on employee’s performance, ability and behaviour.

Contribution of HRM practices in organization performance. what package of HRM practices affect performance. The Relationship between HRM and Organizational Performance. Organization Performance and HRM practices

Conclusions
We can conclude that there are possibilities for including the institutional setting in theoretical framework in order to have a full coverage of the relationship between HRM practices and performance. On a number of HRM practices the individual organization cannot differentiate itself from competitors. The best practices are already enforced for majority of organization due to role. Highlight the impact of the individuals and bundles of HRM practices on the productivity and performance on organization
The purpose of study is to explore relationship between HRM polices human capital and organization performance at business and individual level by considering different variables. From the concept of the strength of the HRM system, we can suggest that workplace climate provide a high credible mechanism in creating the basis on which practices are institutionalised into the inimitable asset for the organization. Workplace climate appears to act as a significant mediator between HRM system and performance
 

M&S Performance Analysis and Comparison with NSPCC

Learning Aims A and B – To explore the features of different businesses and what makes them successful

Task – To evaluate the reasons for the success of two contrasting businesses, reflecting on evidence gathered.

M&S Recent Performance

I am going to evaluate M&S’s performance since the year 2012 (5 years ago) and the most recent annual report (2017). I am going to look at Group revenue, Food revenue, Clothing & Home revenue, Group Profit before tax, number of UK stores, number of international stores and number of territories.

I will compare these between the year 2012 and now (2017). The group revenue of M&S in 2012 has been 9.9Billion pounds which was 2% higher than 2011, however 5 years later the group revenue of M&S is 10.6 Billion pounds which was 2.2% higher than 2016. From the group revenue I can see that M&S have been successful in increasing the revenue of its business by 0.7 Billion pounds which is a big improvement for M&S, for example, there was an increase of 7% over the 5-year period. This was also after a difficult time after the 2008/2009 recession.

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In 2012 the Food revenue of M&S was 4.7 Billion pounds with 3.9% up compared to 2011 where the food revenue was 5.6 Billion pounds up by 4.2% from 2016. This show me that the food revenue of M&S has increased as well with 0.9 Billion pounds which means that M&S have been successful in selling their food products. The Clothing & Home revenue of M&S was 4.2 Billion in 2012 which has gone down by 0.9% from 2011. However, compared to 2017 the revenue has gone down even more to 3.8 Billion pounds which is down by 2.8% from 2016 and this also resulted with losing 0.1 million customers in 2017.

As it has shown M&S needs to work on their Clothing & Home because the revenue has decreased from the last 5 years to now.

The group profit of M&S before tax in 2012 was 658 Million pounds, whereas compared to 2017 it was 176.4 Million pounds and this has gone down by 63.5% from the previous year which is disappointing. This shows me that the profit has decreased over the last 5 years which isn’t a good thing because M&S have earned less return in investment. However, M&S had to make substantial expenditure to revitalise the company and short-term costs should pay back in the long run. 

At the moment M&S has 20.5 million customers in its Food firm which is 0.5% more than its previous year and 24.6 million customers in its Clothing & Home firm with 0.1% decrease of customers from its previous year.

In the UK The number of stores M&S currently (2017) has is 942 Food stores and 343 Clothes and Home stores and internationally there are 454 stores with 55 territories. However, compared to 2012 M&S had 731 stores in the UK and 387 stores internationally with 43 territories. This shows me that M&S have increased their number of stores and territories inside the UK and outside the UK, reflecting an overall growth.

In conclusion, I think the overall performance of how M&S have performed well over the last few years because from my investigation I can observe that M&S have done better in most of the aspects that I listed. However, the issues M&S have faced are their Clothing & Home segment and their group profit before tax. Their Clothing & Home firm has always (7 times in a row, so far) been going down and M&S couldn’t find a solution about this. It could have been that customers don’t like the brand or the variations being sold, but it is important to remember that the main customers of M&S are aged around 49 years or older, so they might not be able to afford the expensive priced clothes of M&S and choose to go to its competitor John Lewis.

Reasons for M&S Success

The reasons of M&S’s success and lack of success is because of M&S’s relationship and communication with their stakeholders and its organisational structure which I will evaluate below.

Stakeholders

I will concentrate on the main 4 key stakeholders which I think are Shareholders, Employees, Customers and the Community and what sort of relationship and communication M&S had with each and of them and also how they have impacted on the success and lack of success of M&S

1)     Shareholders

The share price of M&S at the 10th of March 2018 is currently at 277.60p and this is decreased by 0.90p which is 0.32%. From the share chart it shows a 1 year share price where it is shown that the share price has decreased since March 2017 (last year). This may put a strain on the relationship between M&S and its shareholders because from the data it shows that 1 share can be bought for 277.60p and it can be sold for 277.40p. This means that shares will be sold for a lower price than when bought which concludes that shareholders will make a loss of 0.60p per share and this may result in M&S having less shareholders that are willing to invest in the business.

The CEO of M&S was Marc Bolland for 6 years from 2010 to April 2016. Mr Bolland chose to retire and informed the board about this in 2015. He had some good sales and a few bad ones before he left. An example are the Christmas sales, with the Food sales M&S were up with 0.4% in the third quarter and they made a record sale in the Christmas week which was 17%. M&S also had a 20% increase in online sales in that quarter. However, a problem which M&S was having for multiple years is their General Merchandising sales such as Clothing as they fell by 5.8% in the third quarter. In April 2016 Marc Bolland chose to resign and the new CEO Steve Rowe came in his place from being in the Food department for a couple of years.

M&S has many ways to communicate with its shareholders. Firstly, the main shareholders who bought shares off the business have a right to discuss new points and let their voice be known. M&S makes it possible for these shareholders to discuss their point by having an Annual General Meeting (AGM) which is a meeting where shareholders can come together and vote and discuss their point of view about the business. At the 2016 AGM almost all shareholders attended, the resolutions and plans that M&S had set were agreed by 90.53% of the attended shareholders. This showed that many shareholders are agreeing on the new set goals of M&S. M&S also produce an annual report every year for the shareholders to show the statistics of the previous year and their plans for the next upcoming year. M&S also provided webcasts live for shareholders that couldn’t make it to the meeting so that they still know what is happening.

M&S also have Institutional investors who are also shareholders such as banks who provide big amount of money to invest in the business. M&S communicates with them by holding an annual governance event where director’s debate with some of the largest investors in the business. The members of their senior management also held 406 meetings with 245 different institutions during the year of 2016. These big investors also communicate with the business by sending an independent report from Makinson Cowell with their views on M&S’s management and performance.

Lastly there are shareholders known as private investors. M&S used a new communication method since 2016 called Shareholder Panel and this is where private investors are invited to have a one to one discussion with members of the board and senior management. Lastly M&S write out an annual business performance overview where they show and talk about the performance of the previous year.

These communication methods are very successful because this helps the shareholders to understand more about the plans of M&S and know what to expect, and if necessary offer recommendations.

In conclusion, I feel that the shareholders’ relationship has had an important role in M&S’s success, because from these meeting and events M&S were able to understand more clearly what the shareholders wanted from them, so M&S knew what to do and the same thing happened for the shareholders as they knew the statistics every year it was clear for them whether to keep investing in the business would be a good idea as M&S didn’t hide any losses away. Such is the relationship between M&S and shareholders is that the shareholders accept the tough times to re-establish Clothing & Home at present, but are confident the profit will improve in the future.

2)     Employees

From the last 5 years (2012 – 2017) the number of employees have increase from 81,000 to 85,209 and I can conclude from this that M&S have been making acceptable sales and were able to open stores to offer 4,000+ jobs.

Communication between employees and the board of M&S is very vital in order to keep a good relationship with the employees which will keep them motivated and happy working for the business. M&S use multiple ways of communication to help employees understand the plans of the business. Firstly, the business allows employees from all levels to have discussions with directors of the business, so everything is clear for them. Colleagues share their views on customer focused question with the employees to make them aware of what customers want. M&S also provided a survey for the employees to take part and it was seen that 3% more employees took part in it which means that employees are more willing to share their opinions and views about future plans of the business.

Employees are able to see the quarterly CEO/CFO trading update which is sent to every store manager, so that employees are updated with trading updates. Another way M&S also communicates through social media by updating CEO updates to around 50,000 employees every month.

Lastly the biggest influence on employees has been B.I.G. which stands for Business Involvement Group and this is used to engage more with the employees by making them feel part of the business instead of just working for the business. Every store has a (B.I.G.) representative who is a person that informs all employees about new changes but employees can also talk with the representative about their views and opinions about the business.

In my opinion, I find B.I.G. very successful because it creates a stronger and improved relationship with the business and its employees. It also makes it easy to share ideas and opinions to each other.

In conclusion, in my opinion the role of employees was important to help the business succeed because with the communication opportunities employees can speak about their opinions and views of certain plans and by having these opportunities customers feel more to be a part of the business. This motivates them more to work harder and better such as to  have a better mentality towards customers and work more organised which will help the business more as it becomes more satisfying to the customers.

3)     Customers

M&S has made huge improvements and growth in the last few years and at the moment they have 32 Million customers who like to shop at M&S very often. In my opinion I find that the current relationship between M&S and its customers is strong and good because they have a CIU which stands for Customer Insight Unit and this gathers feedback through surveys, reviews and focus groups, so that M&S knows and understands the customer wants and needs in order to make the business a success by for example adding new products which customers like. The CIU is very useful as it helps M&S achieve its goals by showing them what customers want in order to keep them happy. An example of how M&S has communicated with its customers is by engaging and listening to them by creating the 2016 Christmas in Love campaign because thousands of customers asked for it. M&S also send Spark cards to £5.6+ million customers who receive lots of offers but also have a chance to engage and be part of a Plan A charity partner. The business has already raised £2+ million. However, lots of customers didn’t like the website and M&S has tried to make it easier and better to access. However, despite increased weekly visits, sales fail to take-off.

In conclusion, I find that customers have been a key factor to M&S’s mixed success because with their communication by letting know what they want from M&S it was possible to listen to the customer’s and make them happy which encouraged them to come to the business and do their shopping. However, in my opinion, M&S still have much to do on improving their online sales, particularly in Clothing & Home.

4)     Community

M&S communicates with the community by listening to them and making sure to understand their wants and needs in order to help them with things such as improving their health and wellbeing, helping their unemployment and poverty issues.

Plan A has contributed in many ways because M&S made sure that 1000’s of disadvantaged people got the training, work placement and employment to reduce unemployment. Plan A also has a global community programme where the lives of 40,000 people have been made better across the global supply chain and lastly, in 2015 and 2016 there were around 4,000 employee and customers volunteers who helped over 240 community projects across over 12 cities.

The plans that M&S have to improve their relationship and communications with the community is to keep listening to the community and making sure unemployment, poverty and wellbeing are made better and also helping people with more problems to get a chances to work, so they still can get a job and be paid.

In conclusion, I find that the community has played an important role in M&S’s overall success because they helped and created more goals for M&S in order to establish themselves in the business (profits) but also the people in the community (jobs, poverty) and by doing this M&S was and still is able to be a more successful business as they help out the people in need but also earn their profits at the same time.

Organisational Structure

M&S’s organisational structure has contributed to their success because with this structure the employees are put in functional areas and section so they know what to do and this helps the business as employees are able to make decisions and carry them out for themselves. With this structure the job roles are clear and lines of responsibility are high for everyone. With the roles being clear the objectives can be achieved easily, so that won’t be a problem for the business. The structure is in the right place to improve any weaknesses such as Clothing because the former CEO didn’t understand the customer needs properly, so Steve Rowe doesn’t need to introduce new aspect into the business. M&S has functions in the four key areas (Food, Clothing & Home, Online and International), which, I believe ensures M&S are rightly positioned to improve profits over the next few years.

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In conclusion, I find that the organisational structure has played an important role in M&S’s success because as M&S is a huge business there are lots of different levels in the structure with different roles and this means that everyone has a specific task to carry out, so if everyone is told what task they should focus on it would ensure M&S succeed as everyone is doing their task right.

NSPCC’s recent performance

NSPCC have grown a lot in the last 5 years since 2010/11 to 2015/16 as seen from the annual reports. NSPCC have taken action in order to prevent problems with children and worked hard doing this.

For example, they have been going to schools to make children understand how to be safer and what can be done if they feel unsafe and this helped children to be not bullied or abused in their lives. They also had lots of advertisements done such as on the television and use email and direct mail where they explained what could be done if children need help or feel unsafe and asked for donation in order to help the children that are already being helped by the NSPCC.  From the annual report of 2010/2011 it shows that their total income resources were £128.3 million and donations and legacies were £116.9 million (91.1%), however compared to the 2015/2016 annual report it states that the total income was £128.9 million with £106.9 million (82.9%) being from donations and legacies and this concludes that within the last 5 years the NSPCC has been receiving less income from people compared to the 2010/2011 period.

From these annual report it was also shown how much money was used to help the children. In 2010/2011 £128.3 million was expended in total, however £111.6 million was charitable expenditure, so towards children and families, child protection consultancies etc. Compared to 2015/2016 there was a total expenditure of £124 million and £98.2 million went towards charitable expenditure. The expenditure is lower in 2015/2016 than 2010/1011 but that is mainly because the income was more in the older annual report than now.

 In conclusion, I think that the NSPCC is still performing on a high level, however the fundraising with donations for example has been less compared to 5 years ago but this might have been because of these times of austerity. Also real incomes have been falling since the 2008/2009 recession and charities are finding it more difficult to increase their funds.

Reasons for NSPCC’s success

Stakeholders

I will concentrate and investigate the NSPCC’s relation and communication of 4 key stakeholders which are the trustees, employees (full time), donors and children helped by the NSPCC. I will also comment on the role these stakeholders have played in the success of the NSPCC.

1)     Trustees

The trustees have a responsibility of overall control and strategy direction of the charity. The way that the trustees communicate is with meetings which are held 6 times a year where they review the areas of policies and agree upon. One of these meetings between the 15 Trustees take place over an evening and the whole of the next day where the trustees review the performances such as board performances of the last year and then they discuss and agree on new key objectives for the next upcoming year. Trustees also receive presentations informing them about the work of the society and the newest development in the charity sector, so the trustees have a strong and important relation with the board of the NSPCC as they are partly responsible in setting key objectives for each year. The NSPCC’s five goals ‘for 5 years to make 5 million children safer’ has been approved by the Trustee Board.

2)     Full time employees

Full time employees are a huge part of the business as they help to run it, so the NSPCC wants to update them and train them to be the best at what they are doing. The NSPCC finds it very important that the communication is at top, so they have team development sessions every 6 weeks, so that each team meets together. The employees regularly have meeting to discuss their work, practise and development. Next to these meeting the employees get set tasks and objectives to complete on a daily or weekly basis, so that the overall business objective will be achieved in the long term. Community Union plays an important role in representing the NSPCC employees, ensuring that they work under acceptable conditions and are adequately paid.

3)     Donors

The relation between the NSPCC and donors is very important because they are the main reason why children are helped out because they make it possible by donating money or gifts to the charity. The NSPCC usually communicates with the donors through commercials or billboards where they explain their plans and what they will do with the donated money from the donators. I feel donors to the NSPCC are highly loyal to the NSPCC, keen to help children who find themselves in threatening situations through no fault of their own.

4)     Children helped by the NSPCC

The NSPCC is all about helping the children who go through problems such as abuse or bullying and so the relation between those children that are getting helped and are helped is very strong. During the process of providing help to these children, the children will build up a special relation with the NSPCC because they trust them and this is their aim to make people feel safe and calm. After these children are helped, the NSPCC communicates with them by contacting them by phone every month for example in order to make sure they are still doing good and feel safe.

In conclusion, I find that these stakeholders have played a very important role for the NSPCC because they helped and are still helping the NSPCC to achieve their objectives. The trustees make sure the right objectives are set, so the business is doing the right thing, the employees make sure the business runs and with the help of the employees, children are able to contact Child Line 24/7. The most important people are the donors as they make sure there is money to help these children because without their money those children couldn’t and can’t be helped and lastly the children who are helped by the NSPCC have helped their success because the NSPCC is all about helping these children be safe and not het abused.

Organisational Structure

In my opinion, I find that the organisational structure has contributed towards the success of the NSPCC because the structure has different functions which are all related, so all workers know where to go to for help and next to that all workers have very clear and specified tasks of what to do which means if they follow their tasks correctly the business will succeed and achieve their objectives. Indeed, the NSPCC allows employees to have their say about their views, so that the employees will feel more part of the business and stay motivated.

In conclusion, I find that the NSPCC’s organisational structure plays an important role in their success, because lots of people are helped and lots of donations have been made over the last few years which show that people are listening and helping the business, the ‘Fundraising’ function alongside the ‘Celebrity management’ function have continued to generate funds. The structure also helped with their success because everything was organised in the business as all staff knew their role and tasks to do.

Final Conclusion

In my opinion, the main reason for M&S’s success is from the moment that they changed CEO’s from Marc Bolland to Steve Rowe in 2016. I find this the reason because when Steve came in it was shown that their biggest weakness (Clothing) was going up again compared to Marc when clothing sales were performing poorly. There is still a lot of competition within their clothing department and other competitors but the number are going up again. The other departments Food and Home are still up in sales. On the positive side, M&S’s international sales are improving and if the European Market declines after Brexit, India (in particular) and China offer great opportunities.

In my opinion, the success of the NSPCC is mainly because of their strong and powerful promotion that they do always on television and written communication but also in newspapers for the elderly which are very eye-catching. The NSPCC also hold events, so that people donate money such as charity runs and cycling. By doing all these things they get people to donate which allows them to help people in need and that makes them successful.

 

Bibliography

Sleep Deprivation Effects On Academic Performance

Sleeping is a necessity for human survival and crucial to our health. Not getting enough sleep can result in hallucinations, irritability, depressive behaviour, diabetes, poor dieting, interference with daily activities, lack of alertness and motivation as well as poor academic performance among students. The majority of the population realizes the importance of a sufficient amount of sleep, yet based on the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) done in 2002, 18% of the population get an average of less than five hours of sleep each night.1 If teenagers are not getting the required 8.5 – 9 hours per night, they generally “make up” for it by taking long naps, or sleeping in on weekends. Both of which are counterproductive considering it throws off one’s natural body clock.2 Late sleepers tend to interrupt their sleep cycle when they are either in the 3rd or 4th stage of sleeping, which are both considered “deep” sleep or during the 5th phase, REM (Rapid Eye Movement), leaving them feeling groggy and tired. As a result, teenagers sleep instead of attending class, sleep during lessons, or aren’t as alert and observant as they could be during school hours. A study was done on 1,000 high school students and 90% reported feeling lethargic from sleep deprivation, with supported evidence that it had affected their school performance.3 A lack of sleep at a young age also increases ones chances of developing a learning disorder. Although there are other factors that influence student’s performance, sleep is a major one.
Background:
This report outlines the relationship between sleep deprivation among high school students and their academic performance. Academic performance in a way is immeasurable. It is commonly thought that it is measured based on the student’s marks in school, however performance is defined as the manner in which something reacts or fulfills its intended
1 Shields, M. (2005, November 16). “Study: Insomnia.” Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 27, 2010,
2 “Why Catching Up on Sleep Doesn’t Work.” (2007, July 24). Cure:Insomnia . Retrieved May 27, 2010,
3 Taras, H. (n.d.). “Poor Sleep, Poor Grades.” The National Parenting Center. Retrieved May 27, 2010,

purpose.4 Meaning, it’s the amount of effort one puts into their work in an attempt to succeed. A student can try their hardest to complete an assignment yet they still may not fully achieve the teacher’s requirements leaving them with an adequate mark. Although that does not normally seem to be the case, it does happen. For the sake of this report however, it is being measured based on marks. The amount of sleep a person has had can evidentially enough, be measured on a timely basis (hourly, etc.). As one sleeps, they go through 5 series of phases which include5:
Stage 1: This is the transition between wakefulness and sleep. It is a relatively light sleep stage. The brain produces high amplitudes of theta waves. Eyes tend to move slowly and muscle activity slows down. Many people get muscle contractions during this stage. Light sleep lasts from 5 to 10 minutes.
Stage 2: Eye movement stops, brain waves slow down and occasionally produce bursts of sleep spindles (brain activity). Heart rate slows down and body temperature decreases. This phase lasts about 20 minutes.
Stage 3: This is the transitional stage between light sleep to deep sleep. Very slow brain waves called delta waves start to produce.
Stage 4: This is often known as the “Delta Sleep” since the brain excessively produces delta waves. There is no eye or muscle movement. It is during this stage that people experience sleep walking, nightmares and bed wetting. This deep sleep usually happens for 30 minutes.
Stage 5: This is the most commonly known stage – REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep. This is when most dreams occur. Breathing becomes more quick, eyes move rapidly, limb muscles are temporarily paralyzed (to prevent one’s body from physically acting out their dream), brain waves amplify to the equivalent level that they are at when one is awake, also heart and blood rate increases. It is during this stage that males typically develop an erection and if the person sleeping is woken
4 ” Performance – Define Performance.” (n.d.). Find the Meanings and Definitions of Words. Retrieved May 27, 2010,
5 “Stages of Sleep.” (n.d.). Sleepdex – Resources for better sleep. Retrieved May 27, 2010,

up, they most likely will be able to remember their dream. REM sleep occurs about 90 minutes after falling asleep. The first cycle of REM sleep lasts a short amount of time, but with each series that occurs, the phase can gradually get longer and longer.
However, these sleeping phases do not happen in sequence. We start off in stage 1, move into stage 2, 3 and 4. After stage 4, we go back and stage 3 and 2 are repeated before we enter into stage 5. Once REM sleep is completed, the body goes back to stage 2 and the cycle repeats again up to 4-5 times on average, if one is getting the right amount of sleep.

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An insufficient amount of sleep, especially at a young age, can manifest into challenging illnesses. As previously stated, sleep deprivation can result in depressive and oppositional behaviour, irritability, poor impulse control and/or over activity – all of which are some characteristics of common learning disorders. Research has shown that relationships exist between inadequate sleep among children and developing Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB), Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD), and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). 6 These syndromes can make simple tasks involved with learning, difficult for those who suffer from it. The Learn Disability Association of Canada (LDAC) found that over 80% of people with learning disabilities struggle with reading. 35% of students with learning disabilities end up dropping out of school all together. 7 A study showed that among adults ranging from 20-29 years of age, 28.3% had less than a high school certificate due to learning disabilities. 8 These factors obviously make it tough for students to achieve exceptional marks and work to the best of their ability, but what may be part of the solution would be setting good sleeping habits throughout their lives.
6 Ivanenko, A. (n.d.). “Sleep and Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents.” Google Books. Retrieved May 27, 2010,

7 Gudbranson, C. (2000, June 7). “Learning Disabilities Association of Canada – Library and Archives.” Learning Disabilities Association of Canada Activities. Retrieved May 27, 2010,

8 “PACFOLD.” (n.d.). Highlights of Putting a Canadian Face. Retrieved May 27, 2010,

Methodology:
The information collected for this report to substantiate the negative effects sleep deprivation have on student’s academic performance was gathered from an online survey (which is attached as Appendix A) and was conducted on Wednesday, May 20th, 2010 at Iroquois Ridge High School. Thirty-five students from grades 9 through to Super Seniors took part in the survey. Since the analysis does not involve experimental manipulation, it is considered an observational study. Followed by the initial survey, students that were not getting the recommended amount of sleep each night were asked to do a follow up survey (which is attached as Appendix B) in order to determine the reason why they are not getting enough sleep, and to grasp their awareness on the topic.
The data was accumulated by clustered/multistage sampling. The seven participants selected from each grade, all from different cliques, filled out the survey and represented the larger population of Iroquois Ridge High School and out of those, whoever was not getting the right amount of sleep did a second survey. Students were picked from different groups to help prevent bias opinions that can be influenced by friends. Seeing as the thirty-five chosen students do not make up for a significant percentage of the total population, this creates a bias since they are speaking for the entire school.
Other components that could have skewed the final results would be response bias. There is the chance that some students may have lied about their average in school due to embarrassment, or even about having a learning disability or bedtime for the same reason. One way that the affects of this inclination could have been decreased would be if a larger population were surveyed, that way the response bias could be outweighed and the overall results would be more reliable.
The student’s average in school, alertness and hours of sleep per night were questioned in order to correlate the effects that sleep has on one’s academic performance. To get a good understanding of why the individuals who suffered from sleep deprivation lacked sleep, they were directed to fill out a second, slightly more in depth survey to get a grasp of the student’s awareness of the importance of sleep, by asking them to identify illnesses that connect with not getting enough sleep each night and for the reasons why they are not getting a sufficient amount of sleep.
Results:
Thirty-five students attending Iroquois Ridge High School were given a survey in order to answer the question: “Does sleep deprivation have an effect on student’s academic performance?” The results showed that sleeping patterns do affect ones performance and that 22 out of 35 students (63%) were not getting the recommended 8-9 hours of sleep per night, as shown in both Figure 1 and Figure 2.
Figure 1 is a bar graph that displays the results that were collected when 35 high school students were asked “How Many Hours of Sleep Do You Get Each Night?”
Most students seem to receive 6 to 7 hours of sleep per night.
Figure 1
Figure 2 is a pie chart that shows the average hours of sleep students get each night. It represents each total as a percentage of all responses. Merely 37% of students are getting the proper amount of sleep while the other 63% are not.
Figure 2
Trying to Catch Up Can Be Too Much
As a result of not getting enough sleep, students tend to try and make up for lost time by taking long naps, sleeping in when they should be at school, during class and sleeping in during weekends. However, these methods are detrimental because they mess up with the person’s body clock. In some cases, too much sleep can result in a disorder called hypersomnia. Hypersomnia is clinically defined as getting more than 10 hours of sleep per night and feeling daytime drowsiness.9 Surveyors were asked how often they would rate themselves sleeping in during their first period class and ending up late, due to tiredness. The outcome was that 12% of respondents never had this issue, 26% rarely did, 31% would experience it sometimes, 20% had it happen often and 11% of students always have this problem.
Figure 3 is a frequency pie chart that shows how often students ranging from grade 9 through to Super Seniors, end up running late to their first period class due to over-sleeping.
Figure 3
Participants who were depriving themselves of sleep were further questioned in order to find out why. What were they doing that was keeping them up during the night? The most common factors were having stressful lives, part-time jobs and staying up on the computer/ playing video games. Followed by that was too much homework, hanging out with friends, living in a noisy environment, watching television, participating in sports/exercising, and not
9 “Sleep Disorder Types and Symptoms.” (n.d.). Sleep-Deprivation.com. Retrieved May 28, 2010,

being in a comfortable temperature. Options that were not factors at all included having bad dreams and doing chores. A Norwegian survey done on 25,000 people found that individuals who having problems sleeping are most likely suffering from depression and anxiety.
It’s All About Routine and Discipline
Based on the results of the survey, the vast majority of students are able to sleep whenever they want seeing as they do not have a set bedtime that is enforced by their parents.
Figure 4 is the representation of the amount of students that have a set bedtime for every week night that has been imposed by their parents/guardian. It is evident that most high school students do not have such discipline, but a small 17% do.
Figure 4
This leads to adolescents having an imbalanced body clock and if such a pattern develops at a younger age, it increases one’s chances of developing a disorder, as previously mentioned. Teenagers with bad sleeping habits are 6.5 times likely to have metabolic syndrome than people who follow a good routine.10 Adolescents benefit from having constant sleep times that allow them to have the sufficient quantity of hours that they need. This is significantly affected by having regular bed times and rising times throughout the weekend as well. Just like when they were younger, parents need to get involved with their children’s sleeping schedule. Within this collected data 6 out of the 35 students claim to have bedtimes, all of which got approximately 8 hours of sleep a night with an average mark of 75%. While the rest of the students get about 7 hours of sleep a night with a 66% average in school.
10 Pytel, B. (2007, October 4). “Lack of Sleep Can Kill: How Dangerous Is Not Sleeping?.” Student Health Issues. Retrieved May 28, 2010,

The Relationship between Hours of Sleep and Alertness
A study done by the U.S. Army drew the conclusion that the loss of just one and a half hours of sleep can result in a 32% reduction in daytime alertness. 11 A similar outcome appeared in the analyzed data of the students attending Iroquois Ridge High School.
Figure 5 (below) is a scatter plot that shows correlation between the student’s alertness from the time they wake up until lunch, based on the average amount of sleep they get each night. Each student was asked to rate their alertness on a scale of 1-5; 1 being not alert at all and 5 being extremely alert. This data was then correlated with the hours of sleep the students get each night, for a correlation of approximately 55.8%.
Figure 5
The outcome of this examination had a strong correlation between alertness in the morning and the average hours slept at night. This means that the fewer hours of sleep someone gets, the less alert they will be and visa versa. The reason for this would be that the body was not able to completely rest and regenerate itself as it should, so upon trying to function normally the following morning, it will not be able to perform to the best of the person’s ability. The correlation between these two variables was 0.56, proving that getting the right amount of sleep does greatly affect attentiveness.
The Relationship between Hours of Sleep and Academic Performance/Grades
Jennifer Peszka, a psychologist, conducted a survey on freshman at Hendrix College in order to distinguish students as either owls (later nighters), or larks ( moderately early birds).
11 “Sleep Debt | Sleep Deprivation.” (2010, May 8). Google. Retrieved May 28, 2010,

From there she looked at how that associated with the student’s Grade Point Average (GPA). Sure enough, the owls averaged at 2.84 while the larks earned 3.18.12 The results of the survey done for students at Iroquois Ridge High School ended up with a very similar outcome.
Figure 6 (below) is a scatter plot that shows correlation between the student’s average in school and the average amount of sleep they get each night. Each student was asked to identify their average in school based on the intervals of 10 from 0% – 100%. This data was then correlated with amount of sleep each student gets per night, for a correlation of approximately 63.9%.

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Figure 6
The results from this portion of the survey had very strong correlation between the student’s grade and amount of sleep they were getting. Ultimately, this means that student’s who get the recommended amount of sleep each night consistently, will be able to work to the best of their ability during school which should help their overall average. On the contrary, students who lack sleep have a decrease in both physical and mental performance. The correlation between both variables was 0.64, further proving the point that sleep deprivation can negatively impact ones academic performance.
Future Work:
If more time and resources were available to do the survey, it would have conducted much differently. Firstly, a larger group of students would be sampled to get a better grasp of
12 Park, A. (2009, June 10). “Larks and Owls: How Sleep Habits Affect Grades.” TIME.com. Retrieved May 28, 2010,

the general population as oppose to just thirty-five students representing everyone. As mentioned before, a larger population will also help outweigh the response bias. The written portion of the survey would be kept online because that appeals to my target audience (teenagers). However, the questions will be more concise. This way, there can be shorter questions that target certain areas of the study.
To make the survey more reliable, various voluntary respondents, all with different lifestyles, will have their academic performance measured based on their visible level of alertness, as well as their actual marks. After going through their regular daily routine and prepare to go to sleep at whatever time is normal for them, they will be monitored in their sleep using an Electroencephalography (EEG). This measures brain waves and if read properly, it can tell the observant which stage of sleep the person is in. Upon waking up at their normal time, the phase at which they were sleeping in until they were woken up will be able to be determined. With that, predictions can be made on the type of day the person will have due to their emotional, physical and mental behaviour.
Medical Records of the surveyor as well as any information on their family history will be reviewed to get a better understanding of where they came from and what their health is like. Ambitions, goals, hobbies, failures, fears, successes and experiences (good or bad) will be discussed with each candidate in hopes of figuring out where their head is at.
A factor that could have been tested would have been the level of discipline with each student whether it’d be with oneself or at home from their parents/guardian – in terms of school work and sleeping habits. This data could be collected simply by asking; however, physically accompanying the student and observing would be much more reliable.
The importance of this topic is not as widely known as it should be. Students, parents and teachers need to be informed about the effects that sleep deprivation can have on not only students, but everybody. The negative impact sleep deprivation can have on someone’s body, whether it’s physical, mental and/or emotional, is alarming. Try combining all of those struggles and productively make it through a day of school. If the topic were to be further discussed, studied and brought to awareness, academic levels of children all around the world could increase. Not to mention a decrease in depression, mental illnesses, insomnia and more if people decide to change their sleeping patterns to better themselves.
Conclusion:
The relationship between the amount of sleep a person gets and their performance academically correspond to one another quite well. This summative and the statistical data as well as research within it proves that the less sleep a student has will typically result in lower grades. Whereas getting the right amount of sleep (but not too much) can positively influence their performance. The key is to get your required amount of sleep each night. For teenagers, that is anywhere between 8.5 to 9 hours of rest. Out of the students surveyed at Iroquois Ridge High School, 34% claimed to be getting the proper amount of sleep. Adolescents would greatly benefit from having a regular, consistent sleeping pattern throughout the week, including the weekend. Meaning they go to sleep and wake up at the same time every day. This helps their body clock run by routine. Not getting enough sleep can result of a number of illnesses which in turn, will affect not only the student’s marks but their health as well. 63% of students surveyed said they got less than the recommended length of rest time. In both Figure 5 and Figure 6, it is evident that this took a negative toll on the student’s alertness as well as grades in school. Due to not getting enough rest during the week, teenagers often catch up by sleeping in on weekends. Contrary to popular belief, it is not possible to make up for lost sleep whether it’d be by napping or sleeping in on weekends. Getting too much sleep can cause Hypersomnia which leaves victims feeling drowsy all day after having 10 or more hours of sleep the night before. Only 3% of surveyors stated to be getting more sleep then they need. However, in correlation to alertness and marks, it did not seem to have much of a negative impact. If the subject were to be discussed and researched even further, conclusions as to what chemicals are released when they body is at rest can be drawn. With this information, medication and cures for sleeping disorders can be created to help those who suffer. Generally speaking, sleep and performance seem to go hand in hand. Teenagers need to set up their body clocks so that there is a set routine, with consists of falling asleep and waking up at the same time every day. Ultimately this will result in better academic performance as well as health.
Work Cited
Gudbranson, C. (2000, June 7). “Learning Disabilities Association of Canada – Library and Archives.” Learning
Disabilities Association of Canada Activities. Retrieved May 27, 2010

Ivanenko, A. (n.d.). “Sleep and Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents.” Google Books. Retrieved
May 27, 2010,

“PACFOLD.” (n.d.). Highlights of Putting a Canadian Face. Retrieved May 27, 2010

Park, A. (2009, June 10). “Larks and Owls: How Sleep Habits Affect Grades.” TIME.com. Retrieved May 28,
2010

“Performance – Define Performance.” (n.d.). Find the Meanings and Definitions of Words. Retrieved May 27,
2010

Pytel, B. (2007, October 4). “Lack of Sleep Can Kill: How Dangerous Is Not Sleeping?.” Student Health Issues.
Retrieved May 28, 2010

Shields, M. (2005, November 16). “Study: Insomnia.” Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 27, 2010

“Sleep Debt | Sleep Deprivation.” (2010, May 8). Google. Retrieved May 28, 2010

“Sleep Disorder Types and Symptoms.” (n.d.). Sleep-Deprivation.com. Retrieved May 28, 2010

“Stages of Sleep.” (n.d.). Sleepdex – Resources for better sleep. Retrieved May 27, 2010

Taras, H. (n.d.). “Poor Sleep, Poor Grades.” The National Parenting Center. Retrieved May 27, 2010

“Why Catching Up on Sleep Doesn’t Work.” (2007, July 24). Cure:Insomnia . Retrieved May 27, 2010
“Why Sleep is Important and What Happens When We Don’t Get Enough.” (n.d.). American Psychological
Association. Retrieved May 28, 2010

Appendix A
Appendix B
 

Role of the Founder in Succession and Firm Performance.

The Role of the Founder in Succession and Firm Performance.

The topic I have chosen for my individual report is the Role of the Founder in Succession and firm Performance. The founder has a massive role in both these areas. There is a large amount of management literature to support this. The role of the founder is a family business is extremely unique.

Research Action Plan: I intend to research further into these topics. I may use 10 more academic sources for the final report. I intend on interviewing my father who is a first-generation founder of a family firm to supplement the points raised from the literature. If possible, I will try to interview another family firm founder.

Progress report: The project is progressing well. I have found 10 strong academic journals that will form the basis for the final report. I intend on conducting the interview in two weeks’ time. I will continue to research academic journals on the topics I have chosen.

LIT Review: The Role of the Founder in succession and firm performance in a family firm context.

There is a wide body of family business literature dealing with the founder ans his or her influence. A large proportion of the literature deals with the founder’s role in succession. García-Álvarez, López-Sintas and Saldaña Gonzalvo (2002) study the socialisation process of successors in first to second generation businesses. They assert that founders commonly frequently try to shape future successors in their image, this is termed ‘homosocial reproduction’. Leader and successor interactions are more direct in family businesses.  García-Álvarez and López-Sintas (2001) state that founders often emphasise values to potential successors as a means of expediting the succession process. This coherent value transfer can lead to a successful succession process. This value coherence can be more important than formal planning in the succession process. Firm performance is affected by the consistency of values and the content of these values. This is all part of primary socialisation. (García-Álvarez, López-Sintas and Saldaña Gonzalvo,2002)

  Secondary socialisation involves attaining role specific knowledge. Founders should begin planning their descendant’s role in the business early to have a better succession process and to avoid conflict. They should start planning in their 40s. The quality of the relationship between the founder and the successor has a pivotal role in succession and succession planning. Most family business Founders look for continuity of their enterprise through the next generation children first and if not, other family members or non-family insiders or complete outsiders. Different criteria of successor selection exist such as first-born son being the most common. A team of brothers and sisters may be used to manage and own the company to prevent conflict in the succession process and include all relevant siblings. In their sample, the eldest son would be chosen to lead the team. (García-Álvarez, López-Sintas and Saldaña Gonzalvo,2002)

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Four groups of employees based on their value systems are outlined in Garcia and Lopez (2001) These include founder of family tradition, founder achiever, founder strategist and founder inventor. Founders encourage potential successors to start their own businesses. Founders value hard work. A paradox exists in that many founders wanted successors to be autonomous but also to recognise the superiority of the founder. There are two stages for the successors which are family socialisation and business socialisation. The family members are exposed to the founder’s values in family life for example hard work is a common value that descendants are encouraged to adopt. Descendants of founders of family tradition and founder strategists were mainly found to hold master’s degrees. While, the majority of descendants of founder achievers only held secondary school diplomas. Gender differences are prevalent. Generally, Women held higher levels of formal education. In teams of successors, the males tend to be responsible for areas that helped the firm’s start up for example production. Women would then pursue an area that was untouched by family members but that are starting to become relevant for example IT. Business socialisation occurs when the successors begin to work full time in the business. Delayed entry is most common in the offspring of strategists. Entry at low level role was common in potential successors of achievers and founders of family tradition.  Founder’s view of the role of the business in family life influences the mode and process of socialisation used for the potential successors. This displays the lasting influence of the founder. (García-Álvarez, López-Sintas and Saldaña Gonzalvo,2002) Family orientation is very important to most founders. Two dimensions of founder’s values exist which are business and psychosocial. The psychosocial dimension relates to differences of behaviour of founders. The business dimension deals with the trade off family orientation and firm orientation. (García-Álvarez and López-Sintas, 2001) These two journals are similar and present conclusive research regarding values being very important in the succession process.

 According to (Davis and Harveston, 1999) generational shadow can exist in family businesses. This is evident when the predecessor influences the next generation after the next generation has taken control of the organisation. If the it is a second-generation business, if the founder still plays a role in the company, a greater generational shadow will exist. The previous generation’s presence can be seen as excessive and inappropriate and it could lead to social disruptions in the organisation. It may create conflict in family firms. The transition from founder to the next generation is seen as the most critical. The founder has a huge influence on the employees, culture and processes of the family firm. Akin to Garcia (2002) the founder can create a common bond among family and employees and the founder can set out attitudes, norms and values of the company.

 Davis and Harveston (1999) assert that there is less conflict when the founder leads the family firm. But there is more conflict when the next generation assume control. Granted, the level of control the founder had in creating the family firm, the end of their tenure will likely interfere with bonds such as employee loyalty created from long standing relationships and also important relationships with customers and suppliers. Succession effects will be most visible in the first succession as the founder has a dramatic influence on the family firm. The CEO might not possess the same unique traits of the founder and the organisation might have better procedures to prepare for subsequent successions. In a survey by Key Corp, 60% of founders reaching retirement intended to stay involved with the company at a reduced level. There may be a blurring of authority and responsibility due to the founder’s presence. Frustration can occur when children are forced to compare themselves to the founder. They maty feel a lack of autonomy. Overall, conflict increases when the founder still plays a role in the family firm post succession. The generational shadow left by the founder will be much larger than subsequent generational shadows. An increase in organisational processes that are institutionalised by the founder may leave the next generation struggling to affect organisational processes. Founders may not see the impact post succession so the next generation should be able to handle future successions better. Conflicts in third or fourth generations tended to be about money, managerial roles, ownership and control and not generational shadows.

 Handler, (1994) states that succession is a mutual role adjustment between the founder and next generation members. There may be a lag on the founder’s behalf in moving into his or role. The founder may assume the role of a consultant to the family firm upon retirement . Many managers never divest control and stay at the ‘monarch’ stage of having unchallenged power over the organisation. Most next generation members felt the founder had more control of the succession process than themselves. A desire to be immortal is common in some founders who value achievement, control and power. The business may be seen as an extension of themselves. A founder may hold the business as a symbol of what he or she created and managed. Many founders may select successors which are likely to fail. Handler (1994) agrees with homosocial reproduction and also Alvarez’s (2002) point that the quality of the relationship between the successor and founder is hugely important. The founder’s refusal to let go can lead to problematic successions.

 Founders involved in mentoring successors may continue to feel excitement with their work. High founder centrality leads to an alignment of perceptions between the founder and family and non-family employees, better firm performance on the performance indicators that are important to the founder and lastly, a lasting influence of the founder after he or she retires. There are 5 leadership styles which are participative, autocratic, laissez faire, expert and referent. (Sharma, 2004)

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  Kelly, Athanassiou and Crittenden (2000) place a huge emphasis on the founder and argue that the founder can be expected to configure all the family firm’s interactions with the external environment. A founder may shape the family firm’s strategic activities. Founder run organisations are associated with centralised decision making. Mentions of the past founder’s legacy can further inhibit the goals and strategies of future generations. The founder centrality is important, it is evident in the founder’s place in the communication and decision-making processes of the firm. The founder has a huge effect on culture which is an embodiment of the founder’s own values and personality. The culture then influences the operational processes. Overall the founder and the founder’s legacy will play a huge part in strategic planning and decision making.

  The role of the founder was determined positive in Anderson, Mansi and Reeb (2003) as the family firm founder could have a positive influence accounting profitability method, market performance and the cost of debt financing. Founders can contribute unique value to firms in this regard. Most family firm’s place a lot of importance on firm survival and reputation maintenance. They are more likely to increase firm value as opposed to shareholder value.

  García-Ramos and García-Olalla (2011) affirm that the existence of independent directors on the board of directors when the family firm is founder run has a positive effect. Conversely, when the organisation is led by the founder’s descendants’ independent directors on the board will be exhibit a negative effect. Founder involvement in a family business can reduce agency costs through parental altruism, this creates trust and commitment to the firm. A common family bond may be created which aligns incentives. Thus, Founder led family businesses are less in need of close monitoring by a board. Founder led family businesses may have boards that constitute family members with common views and values. This is similar to ‘homosocial reproduction’ that Alvarez outlined.

 Gibb Dyer, (2006) states founder led family firms normally outperform firms that don’t have founders. Also, that 1st generation family firms performed better than 2nd generation family firms illustrate the effect a founder can have on performance.

  Villalonga and Amit (2004) affirm the effect of the founder on firm performance and argue that family ownership of the business is only a positive when the founder serves as CEO or chairman. They also argue that the second generation have a negative effect on firm value.

Bibliography

Anderson, R., Mansi, S. and Reeb, D. (2003). Founding family ownership and the agency cost of debt. Journal of Financial Economics, 68(2), pp.263-285.

Davis, P. and Harveston, P. (1999). In the Founder’s Shadow: Conflict in the Family Firm. Family Business Review, 12(4), pp.311-323.

García-Ramos, R. and García-Olalla, M. (2011). Board characteristics and firm performance in public founder- and nonfounder-led family businesses. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 2(4), pp.220-231.

García-Álvarez, E. and López-Sintas, J. (2001). A Taxonomy of Founders Based on Values: The Root of Family Business Heterogeneity. Family Business Review, 14(3), pp.209-230.

García-Álvarez, E., López-Sintas, J. and Saldaña Gonzalvo, P. (2002). Socialization Patterns of Successors in First- to Second-Generation Family Businesses. Family Business Review, 15(3), pp.189-203.

Gibb Dyer, W. (2006). Examining the “Family Effect” on Firm Performance. Family Business Review, 19(4), pp.253-273.

Handler, W. (1994). Succession in Family Business: A Review of the Research. Family Business Review, 7(2), pp.133-157.

Kelly, L., Athanassiou, N. and Crittenden, W. (2000). Founder Centrality and Strategic Behavior in the Family-Owned Firm. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(2), pp.27-42.

Sharma, P. (2004). An Overview of the Field of Family Business Studies: Current Status and Directions for the Future. Family Business Review, 17(1), pp.1-36.

Villalonga, B. and Amit, R. (2004). How Do Family Ownership, Control, and Management Affect Firm Value?. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Marketing Performance Metrics: Coca-cola

Marketing Performance Metrics
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to investigate the marketing performance metrics with a specific reference to Coca Cola Company and Net Marketing Contribution over the Life Cycle. The study will assist many companies in formulating strategies to be used as benchmark or the strategies to improve NMC.
Marketing Performance Metrics
Introduction
Measuring marketing performance is an external activity that helps to understand the customer’s perception and the competitor’s position in the industry. Many organizations sets different tools to use as benchmarks so as to identify the staffs’ performance and the rate of income. ROA and ROI are the main used financial measures to measure the internal financial statues.
Part 1: Discuss Three Measures of Marketing Performance
Marketing metrics are the numeric data that allows the marketers to analysis their performance against the organizational objectives. The metrics help to take corrective measures in case there is a deviation between the targeted plans and the achieved performance of staffs (Neely, 2001). They have various measurement elements that includes number of produced products, net sales billed, design registrations and a research on the brands to determine to determine the brand’s awareness. Metrics makes it easy for marketers to justify their budget that is based on sales returns.
Three Measures of Marketing Performance
The activity-based metrics among the popular metrics used in analyzing performance. It involves statistical calculating and reporting. The main type of activity-based metrics includes tracking website visitors, downloads and attendees at the firm’s events. This approach rarely link the marketing operations to the business outcomes. Instead, the business results like the customer value, market share and adoption of a new product provides an improved correlation. The main focus of MPM is to measure aggregated efficiency and effectiveness of the marketing firm. These specific metrics have some categories that includes the marketing effect on the preference shares, the average order quantity, the rate of customer acquisition, the growth of consumer’s buying rate, business share, loyalty and net advocacy, margin, growth rate compared to market competition and the total customer engagement. MPM is also used to determine the rate at which operational efficiency and the outside performance. If Coca Cola Company decides to manage its marketing activities it uses the operations performance metrics. The firm will hire extra personnel to work as marketing finance directors and marketing operations director. Basically the marketing team will collect data about program-to-people ratios, cost-sales, awareness-to- demand rate and the rate of conversation.

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This metrics primarily provides the firm with different ways of rationalizing the marketing investments but this strategy fails to correlate marketing to business performance and strategy. The approach helps marketers to find out how the firm’s resources are utilized. The external performance are aligned with the firm’s outcome and helps to determine the firm’s value to its customers and the firm’s performance in relation to its competitors (Neely, 2007).
If Coca Cola Company wants to determine the key performance indicator (KPI), top-down approach is the best approach to use. The first step in this approach includes making decisions that defines the scope. To come up with KPI and metrics, the marketers predicts on the likely results they are trying to influence. Asking opposite questions follows (Shaw et al, 1997), the answers help to determine the relationship between the questions and the outcome. The data that is required to answer the question is then determined. Marketers then searches for this data and determines the corrective measures to be taken. The measures undertaken aims at making it possible to achieve the goals.
The organization needs to continuously monitor and analyze its marketing performance metrics. This gives the organization intelligence in competition, have a chance to assess their market weaknesses and strengths and come up with a calculated budgetary opinions through the marketing mix. This will give the organization competitive advantages over its competitors. The profits of the firm will also increase.
The Major brands use return on marketing investment (ROMI), return on marketing objectives (ROMO) and the marketing return on investment (ROI) to prioritize and distribute their marketing investments. They help them to decide on the most profitable portfolio. A firm needs to analyze the ROMI, ROMO and ROI of a project for more than a year. This will protect the firm’s investigations.
The method selected in monitoring the marketing process must be easy and cheap to implement. Training should be carried out to train the staffs on the best benchmark and how it is used. Staffs should take part in determining the best benchmark to use. This brings a sense of belonging and appreciation of the worker to the company and management when you nvolve them in management roles.
Part 1: Analyze Metrics Used to Evaluate the Measures
The above measures can be measured using the following metrics (Leroy, 2011):
Correct quantity, measuring the weight, counting the units and weighing the contents are the main used types of measurement. Supplying customers with the right quality will strengthen the level of trust with your customers hence making it easy to retain them. An independent team is set aside in an organization to measure the products quantity and to make sure the customer gets what they specify in terms of size.
Elasticity to respond to unanticipated demands, this refers to the ability of a firm to adjust so as to meet the current demand. A metric will be used to measure the degree of change, this makes it easy to identify the level at which the firm is flexible.
Quality level, TQM is a tool to measure quality. The metrics will make sure the level of a product’s level is standardized. Controlling quality can also be done by the state authority to ensure a firm offers its customers with quality products. Firms that offer less standardized products are fined for the same. The total quality management is employed to control the quality of a good or service. The staffs who produce quality products are rewarded with gifts and appraisals. The staffs whose products are below the standard are trained and encouraged to produce quality products.
Existence of accreditation or other certification, after completion of a training a firm is issued with a certificate to show its participation. The certificates act as a measure of qualification and experience attained. Customers prefer to contract a firm that has experience and is highly rated in the industry. On-time delivery can be used to measure how a firm values its customers. If a firm supplies its products on time this shows the supply chain is well managed. In a case of failed or late delivery, less care is taken on the customer and the likeliness to loss the customer is high.
Part 1: Case Study that Exemplifies Best Practices of each Measure.
Coca-Cola Company is an example of a company that demonstrates the best practices of the above measures. According to the company’s website they put their customers to be the king and aims at providing the best so as to retain the customers and to attract new customers.
Coca-Cola Company has an independent department that deals with quality control. The unit makes sure quality is maintained through the supply chain from when raw materials are obtained from the supplier to when they are delivered to the customer. The team tests the product at each level of manufacturing to make sure the right contents and composition are used. The team is also involved in ensuring quality services are offered to the customers. They establishes feedback programs as a way to allow the customers to get back to them.
The company parks its drinks in containers of different sizes. A team is established in the company to make sure only the correct quantity is supplied to the users. The team weighs at random the already packed products and in case of a deviation the whole pack is weighed and repacking is done. Customers have trust in Coca-Cola because there products are correctively packed.
Elasticity to respond to unanticipated demands, the company produces its products in great volumes. The products are then stored in its outlet’s warehouse. If the demand is low the supply is kept low but if the demand changes and more of their products are demanded the firm supplies more. They have special facilities to store their products for a long period.
The firm is certified and customers are confident in its products. It has been in the market for a long time hence gathering more experience on the type of products to produce. The company has learnt different ways of surviving in the market and how to win more customers. They now provide different types of soft drinks.
Coca-Cola Company has set outlets all over the world. This makes it easy to meet the buyer’s order on time with no dely. Transportation of the product from their warehouse to your premises is very fast. The drinks will be transported in crates or packed in cartons to avoid breakages and maintain a deliverable state.
Part 2: Short-Run Marketing Strategy
Short-run marketing strategy refers to a duration of time which only few factors can be changed as there is no enough time for changing the other variables in marketing strategies. Marketing Strategy is a detailed and specific tactics that are established and designed to be used over a period of time depending on the range of the plan (Neely, 2001). Advertising and media relations strategies used by the Coca Cola Company have an effect on the net marketing contribution both in short-term and in long-term.
In short-term, once the firm has decided to increase its efforts in advertisements commercial so that it reaches many people. There will be an increase in the product awareness and hence increase in the sales level. Once the sales are high the NMC will be high. In case the public fails to respond in a positive manner the firm will suffer loss as the advertisement costs will be very high compared to the income from the goods sold (Tanzania Society, 1966). In short-term a lot of advertisement will be profitable to the firm as the sales will be high.
The media relation refers to how a firm uses the media including the social media to market its products. In short-run using the media will be expensive as it needs time to gain publicity. This in return will lead to a fall in NMC. Many large beverage companies like Coca Cola were late in entering the product-markets of bottled water, fruit drinks, sports drinks, iced coffee, and energy drinks due to SHORT-TERM VISION.
Part2: Analyze Net Marketing Contribution in the Introductory Stage
During the product introductory phase the net marketing contribution is negative as no profits are made from selling the product. The income obtained is used to cover the high costs of advertisement and promotional costs incurred. The firm incurs loss (Louw, 2012). With proper advertisement the product survives this stage and the NMC start to raise as the product has gained customers. The advertisement costs are now low.
Part2: Analyze Net Marketing Contribution in the Late Growth Stage
As the product moves through its lifecycle, NMC will reach the break-even point, then grow, to peak, flattens and then starts to decline due to decrease in the market demand. At the end-growth stage the NMC starts to flatten as the product is now in the market and has gained its customers. When a new substitute product is introduced into the market, many customers will shift their preference. This will lead to decrease in demand of the product causing NMC to start falling. If the firm fails to add flavors to the product it might die and overtaken by the new product (Northern Marianas College.).
The graph below shows the movement of the NMC along a product lifecycle.

Conclusion
In conclusion we can summarize the above by saying that a firm must choose the most profitable portfolio to invest. Investment affects both the profitability and the NMC of a firm. The firm needs to understand the product cycle so that it determines the type of advertisement to use.
References
Neely, A. (2001). Business performance measurement: Theory and practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  
Top of Form
Neely, A. D. (2007). Business performance measurement: Unifying theories and integrating practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bottom of Form
Shaw, R., Mazur, L., & FT Retail & Consumer Publishing. (1997). Marketing accountability: Improving business performance. London: FT Retail & Consumer Publishing
Tanzania Society. (1966). Tanzania notes and records. Dar es Salaam: Tanzania Society. Louw, A. (2012). Ambush marketing and the mega-event monopoly: How laws are abused to protect commercial rights to major sporting events. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press. Northern Marianas College. (n.d.). Performance report on strategic master plan implementation and assessment of institutional effectiveness. Saipan, MP: Northern Marianas College, Office of Institutional Effectiveness.
Leroy, G. (2011). Designing user studies in informatics. London: Springer.
Books.google.com,. (2015). isbn:1607522330 – Google Search. Retrieved 8 January 2015, from https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1607522330
 

Emirates Airlines: Key Performance Indicator Analysis

In this simulation you chose a sector to operate in (budget, mid-range or luxury). What have you learned about these sectors as a result of your experience in this simulation? What would you have done differently at the beginning of the simulation and why? What would you have done differently to be more successful during the simulation and why?”
In this sector we operated as Emirates Airlines in mid-range as a view that there is a huge population in the sector and even if circumstances favours even budget and luxury passengers would opt for mid-range. In this sense during the start we sold 3 flights which we had as it doesn’t had head room and toilets and leased three flights for the operation. We started 1st quarter selling tickets for 35 cents and it’s a mistake that we changed to luxury airline selling for 48 cents right after the 1st quarter. As this would have changed our target customer and all the operation should also been changed accordingly. We incurred heavy expenses on Promotion and advertisement which hadn’t created any impact. There were complaints from customer for poor food services which we realised and started allocating cost for quality and services. High concentration would have been made on maintenance and market research which is the important factor in competitive industry like Airline.
There are certain factors which can be focused and done differently at the beginning of the stimulation:
Strategic Approach: we did not have any strategic approach when we started our simulation. And that is the reason we had made unreasonable decisions like shift to luxury and sales of aircraft. if we had a strategic approach we would have sold the flights when there is huge profit and avoided lease payment to be added in the expenses. Also we would have shifted to luxury at least after the 4th quarter when we had a good customer base and market. Hence instead of having a single strategy, it would have been better if we had followed a mixture of strategies in terms of pricing, marketing and services.

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Systematic Approach: there is no systematic approach at the beginning of the simulation. We blindly sold the flights without ascertaining the financial position and brought new flights during 6th quarter which we wrongly numbered and resulted in the purchase of another 3 flights when the company is already in a loss and thereby realised and sold a flight at 7th quarter. The fuel, flight operation and maintenance cost got drastic increase and because of the increase in the number of passengers we did not suffer huge loss. Hence if we had a systematic approach from the beginning we would have reached a good profit.
Pricing: A price cue is defined as any marketing tactic used to persuade customers that prices offer good value compared to competitors’ prices, past prices or future prices (Rao, 2010: 150); at first we sold the tickets for 35 cents as mid-range airline and suddenly hiked the price to 48cents as luxury airline. We did not have idea about the impact and did not take steps to offer service according rather invested in promotion and advertisement. We realised it as mistake and felt that the pricing is an important factor in attracting customers only during 5th quarter and reduce the price to 40 cents and only after that we were about to increase the number of customer. Hence if the pricing factor has given significant importance on the start of the simulation, the company would have escaped from losses.
Actions would have been taken during the stimulation for success:

Proper maintenance of aircraft in order to avoid fine from FAA.
Good system for customer reservation system to be flexible, fast and user-friendly.
Strong investment in market research to enable sales forecast and market situation analysis.
Proper training and quality to make the customer feel satisfied and get the luxury in food and other services.
Good systematic maintenance of accounts in loan interest repayment, lease payment, depreciation in order to have a clear view of the actual profit.
Strategic allocation of expenses on promotion and advertisement, sales forecast and social performance
Strategic approach on pricing and increasing the number of sales person according the number of flights operated.

What were the KPI’s you used in running your airline and did they change? Critically appraise the value of the information you had available to you in the results packs during the simulation. How did you use this to affect your decision making?”
The below are the Key Performance Indicator we as a team of Emirates Airlines believed at the beginning of the simulation which we tried following throughout the quarters but some were forced to reframe it due to company’s situation and response. Thus once an organization has analyzed its mission, identified all its stakeholders and defined its goals, it needs a way to measure progress toward those goals. Key performance indicators are those measurements which help to define and measure progress towards organizational goals (Geoff, 2009: 419)
Flight Operation: The important KPI we followed is in terms of flight operation. We believed that achieving 80% of maximum mileage per day would definitely yield a profit. As flights can be flew only with the maximum passenger and also includes the number of flights used. Hence it can achieve all in one KPI. We achieved this until quarter5 reaching 70% in each but it got changed due to purchase of 3 more flights without knowledge which made the company to focus on the reduction of expenses and deviated from the miles operating.
Promotional and sales forecast: Emirates Airline team believed that high investment in promotion, advertisement and sales forecast can lead company’s success. In terms of sales forecast, our KPI was in a correct way. But in terms of promotion and advertisement we changed and reduced the level of expense as the company started to incur loss.
Financial Perspective: we thought revenue is an important factor for an airline company to be successful as there will arise uncertain circumstances due to weather or fuel price, hence had a KPI to increase the revenue through Fares. We started a s mid-range and attracted maximum customers and shifted to luxury charging huge fare as a KPI of increasing the revenue. We are badly affected till 5th quarter because of this factor and then reduced the pricing.
The information we got through the value packs and incident feedback was very helpful in refining our performance and take corrective measures. Not only in terms of finance but also in terms of flight operation and service, the index feedback gave us the measures for improvement. The company was in a tough situation after the shift to luxury airline, where the incident feedback helped us to identify what was going wrong. The below are the some changes we effected from the information we got through the value packs,
Increased the number of flights and number of flight routes.
Decreased the ticket fares in order to increase the number of passengers.
Concentrated on cabin services to increase the quality service to the passengers and reduce complaints.
Taken measures and allotted funds on aircraft maintenance to avoid accidents and escape from fine.
Got knowledge that the huge loss of the company is due to the purchase of 3 additional flights resulted from mistake in numbering in the software.
Came to know that a flight was unused hence sold the flight to avoid maintenance expenses.
We felt the importance of passenger service and allotted more fund towards it.
Giving due consideration to theory, evaluate how a merger or acquisition might have changed your outcomes and the way you operated during the simulation? What additional implications would there have been for your company?”
Merger and Acquisition are often used inter-changeable concepts while merger is the combination of two companies in order to form a new company and Acquisition is a company’s purchase of another company where there is no formation of new company (Scott C. Whitaker, 2012). Merger and acquisition have a common goal of attaining synergy.
There are certain factors that should be taken care while going in for merger or acquisition as it results in cultural risk, business, employees and customer retention risk. These risks may not be applicable if Emirates would have planned the merger or acquisition in the initial stage that is before 4th quarter but if it is after that the above said risks should be taken care of. Hence it is evident that the nature of company to which going to be merged or acquired should be taken into account that it should be similar in business and should be stronger in operation as emirates are operating in a tough situation.
There are many advantages for company to go in for a merger or acquisition. We as a emirates airlines can merge or acquire a financially strong airline whereby we become economically strong and can reduce the cost of capital (Donald M. DePamphills, 2009). In emirates during 5th quarter, we had a NIL balance of cash flow after the overdraft loan hence during such situation merging with company with good cash flow will be a potential decision. Also there will be a positive impact on the stock price especially for companies like emirates where we had our stock price in negative numbers. Not only in financial terms, merger and acquisition also helps in terms of operation synergy. For e.g., if we Emirates team go for a merger during our mid-quarter with a company which is technologically strong we would have had a chance for competitive advantage and fast growth platform (Scott C. Whitaker, ). We would have not made a mistake of unsystematic approach in buying a flight during our 6ht quarter by which we suffers a heavy loss. There are major operating cost involved in terms of Airlines they are fuel, maintenance, interest expenses, lease amount, promotional activities, market research, taxes and so on. These costs would have been spread between two companies after merging.
Merger and acquisition are also helpful to use the assets and skills of the other companies merging or acquiring with. We as Emirates team lacked in terms of allocation of expenses and proper maintenance of aircraft. Hence merging with a managerial strong company would have helped us to move in the right path. It helps in improving the operating efficiency with a combined activity of the merging firms thereby can enjoy the market power. This is called market power theory. With this the company can have a control on the pricing and suppliers and also can have customer base.
As a team of Emirates Airlines only in the 1st quarter we were able to make a profit. It may be because of the sudden shift to luxury airlines which made us to suffer from continuous losses till 6th quarter. Our stock price also went on negative price. Hence merger or acquisition during the mid-quarter would be the better decision as it would have reduced the cost and share the total cost. We also had a reduction of pricing on 5th quarter which can be avoided when we had merger with our competitor. We lacked in many operation areas like customer satisfaction, aircraft maintenance and proper allocation of expenses, hence merger and acquisition would have been potential at early stage.
Appraise how successful your company was in your industry. Were your relative success / failure due primarily to your analysis and diagnosis or the choices and decisions you made? Which models and theory did you consider when participating in the game and how did this help you?”
Planning, executing and monitoring are the key aspects for a company to be successful. And in industry like Airline where there are ample numbers of risks, it is important that the firm follows a strategic approach. We as a team started to operated Emirates airlines as mid-range where in the first quarter we are able to have a good level of passengers and thereby revenue. We did not have a view on the level of risk in shifting to luxury range all of a sudden in the second quarter and increased the fare at a higher rate. Only during fifth quarter we came to know the importance of price factor and reduced the fare. The team did not understand that shifting to luxury range should be accommodated with high quality service to be competitive. We felt its importance from the incident report at the time when the company is already in loss. To my knowledge the company started off well but faced tough situations and failures and also attained the survival stage where it can reach a decent profit in the next quarters. We had a systematic approach to some extent and made many innovative measures like online reservation system which is a success to us, but the decision what we made to buy a flight when we were in deficit lead to failure. Also we are not managerial approach as we wrongly numbered and the software bought additional 3 flights which added to a further loss. We had a clear view in allocating resources for aircraft maintenance, but because of the above mistakes we made during the simulation, we were unable to allot adequate resources for maintenance which lead to engine failure and fine from FAA.
At the beginning of the simulation we used resource dependency theory (Aldrich, 1977) where we believed the company can be affected to some degree with its external environment. Hence we took measure to influence the environment. Our external environments are customers, public and the airline industry. We thought investing heavily in promotion and advertisement would definitely create competitive advantage and a brand image among the customer where a hike in the fare will become a hidden factor. Hence during the second quarter we allotted $40000 on advertisement and shifted to luxury airlines with fare of 48cents. But only during the subsequent simulation we felt that there is no relation between the promotion and competitive advantage in a highly completive airline industry and understood the importance of cost and service factors. Hence we reduced the price and concentrated on quality and training. We also started concentrating on cabin services and passenger services with the rise of customer complaints which came to our knowledge through incident feedback.
We as a team felt the importance of strategic approach during the simulation. During the end of the quarter we were clear about the strategies to be followed and we were sure that our company will make a good profit if it has another two quarters as we could find the changes in stock price with our corrective measures. The simulation gave us a vast experience about the concept of risk management, strategic approach and resource allocation. We also felt the importance of group dynamics in running a successful business.