Humanism and the Baroque Periods of Art

Humanism, specifically during the Renaissance, was a huge movement towards the human mind as a whole and how individuality in expression of thoughts and ideas was celebrated. Tradition was not something to be blindly followed anymore. One might argue that humanism played the biggest role in creating the Renaissance. This was because of the huge focus on studying Roman and Greek texts, which gave a new outlook on their modern world focused on the human ability. Painting was influenced by humanism by becoming more realistic while also keeping forms classic. It also heavily focused on the human experience. The two paintings I found to show this well were “The School of Athens” by Raphael and “The Tribute Money” by Masaccio. In “The School of Athens” it is clear education is the main theme, which makes sense because humanism during that period had a lot to do with educating and thinking for yourself. “The Tribute Money” portrays a biblical scene in which Jesus performs a miracle to satisfy the tax payment. It has multiple things going on from the story at the same time and the people are all doing different things. They are both great examples of focusing the attention towards everyday life. You can also see that, in every person depicted, they have a mind of their own. They look in different directions and are carrying out different actions, there is no one true center focus. Secularism and naturalism can be seen throughout Renaissance art as well. There is less focus on church scenes and more focus towards the outdoors and creating an environment of the world. They aimed for accuracy in the paintings as well, which can be seen especially well in “The Tribute Money”. If you look towards the feet there are cast shadows and the lighting is used to create a much more realistic scene had there not been shadows. What can also be seen is the movement of the people depicted, except for Jesus, which sets the scene as more of a photo in time instead of a perfectly posed scene that was recreated.

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The Baroque period was started around the 1600s. It is thought to be that the most important pieces of history relating to the Baroque period were the reformation and the Counter Reformation. The Catholic Church declared at the Council of Trent that art was to depict religious ideas and themes. It focused on the most dramatic point in the story, compared to Renaissance art which focused more on a casual portrayal of the scene. Baroque art is very dramatic and uses light to dramatize the scene even more. The technique used, in reference to the lights and darks, is called chiaroscuro. It used harsh lights and dimly lit scenes to make the painting even more dramatic. The color use was also very dramatic, although they might not be bright the emotional appeal behind colors was used to help stimulate and evoke emotion in the viewer. The common themes behind Baroque art were visions, ecstasies, death, and overall intense moments. One big difference in style between Baroque and Renaissance art is that the planes and depth in Baroque is much more limited than in Renaissance which had clearly defined planes and objects or people in the planes. Renaissance’s use of perspective gave them realism, which didn’t allow the emotion that was trying to be depicted. It fell a bit flat, but Baroque came along and “solved” this issue by their use of style and lighting to bring back the emotion that was lost in the Renaissance period. Two pieces of art from the Baroque period that showcase this are “The Ecstasy of St. Teresa” by Giovanni Bernini and “The Conversion on the Way to Damascus” by Caravaggio. “The Ecstasy of St. Teresa” held a very common theme in Baroque art, a meeting of the divine and human. The sculpture is of the moment St. Teresa recalled an angel coming down and piercing her with an arrow of love. The way light is used on the sculpture is Baroque in every sense, from the light coming down from a yellow tinted window above and wooden rods falling from behind being lit the same. “The Conversion on the Way to Damascus” is a great example of how Caravaggio used light and dark to create drama and emotion. It is a dimly lit scene with harsh light coming from out of view, lighting one side of the horse and Paul, while the man in the back is slipping away into the darkness.
John Donne was known for his unusual style in writing. He had abstract verses, weird lengths, and often confusing metaphors. Although he went against the grain of writing at the time, he was given a better appreciation in later times. His unique style stemmed from religion and lust. He expressed both in a way those had not done before him, and it worked. I read that he was an Anglican minister, which gave his many contradictions live. His life was a bit of a contradiction seeing as he wrote about the physical nature of life and death while also weaving spirituality into his poems. Thomas Wyatt, on the other hand, took much of his ideas from Petrarch, although he did write poems of his own. They were more consistent in style. All of the sonnets we read by Wyatt were octaves followed by a sestet, and he had consistency in most of his writing. This is unlike Donne who was sporadic and had little continuous style. One thing they had in common was their impact on the poetry of their times, both could be called innovators. The poems of Donne were also livelier in the sense that they had more emotion. They both had poems dealing with thoughts that might run through your head at certain times in your life, which I enjoyed. Wyatt’s poems were more pleasing to me, aesthetically, because I can enjoy poems more when they have a consistent theme and style. His writing is very similar, and I was able to get more into it when I was able to understand the rhyme scheme. His theme behind his sonnets that we read was dealing with love and a loss of love. I was able to understand these even more as well because, as most everyone, has loved and loss that love at some point in their life. Not specifically a romantic relationship but any relationship allows you to feel those emotions and they are powerful, which made me enjoy them more.

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Aesthetics, to me, is almost indescribable. It is all around us, beautiful and appreciative. What makes it interesting is everyone views and appreciates the visual and literary arts in their own subjective way. It brings up questions that are hard to answer. What is beauty? These questions are what made aestheticism a movement to begin with. To find something aesthetic is to have a sense of beauty and emotion, the art itself provokes emotion within. To me, an artwork that sticks out as aesthetic are sculptures, specifically marble. “David” by Michelangelo is what stands out to me the most. When I saw the David in person, I was not stuck pondering the idea or sitting there thinking purely intellectually about the statue, but instead had this emotion fill me that almost made my jaw drop. The sheer size alone had me breath taken and in awe. I think what makes something aesthetically important to me is the understanding of the time and craftsmanship it took to create it. The David is 17 feet tall and pure marble. Michelangelo took more than two years to create it as well. All that I learned after, which made it even more appealing, but even in that moment I knew there was something beautiful and great about the piece. It is hard to describe why I liked it so much at the time, but I think that is why some of the beauty in art is so amazing, an indescribable appreciation and affection for the piece. It can be a different piece or everyone, which I’m sure will be seen by the responses to this question. Aesthetics of art is beautiful because of the subjectivity it innately has within. Whatever you are to find beautiful is justified, even if no one else does.

Characteristics of the Renaissance and Baroque Periods

 Music is a form of expression that has changed over time with the discovery and formation of different techniques and characteristics across the eras. The Renaissance and the Baroque periods have many similarities, but also many differences that make them unique. Contrasting the characteristics of the Renaissance and Baroque periods, reveals how history repeats itself while advancing in specific areas.

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 History played a role in how Renaissance music was composed and performed. The Renaissance era spanned the years 1450 to 1600. This period is known for the rebirth of human creativity, with “rebirth being the literal definition of renaissance” (Ongaro 1). It was a time of exploration and adventure with the voyage of Christopher Columbus and scientific advancements. It was also an age of curiosity and individualism, with humanism becoming a huge intellectual movement. These changes played a major role in the variations of musical works and techniques in this era. While history changed the sound the Renaissance, printing widened the circulation of its music across the nations. While sacred music was still a major player in the music world (with typically male church choirs growing) secular music became more prominent and widely accepted. Musicians not only worked in the churches, but also in courts and towns. This shift of musical activity allowed town musicians to play civic proceedings such as weddings, this is important because secular music was not acceptable in the middle ages. During the middle ages musicians typically played for aristocrats instead of public events. With the rise of secular music, Vienna, Austria became the leading music capital of the world.

While the Renaissance was known for the rebirth of human creativity, the Baroque period was known for its distinctive chaos and change in musical styles. The Baroque period spanned the years 1600 to 1750.  The word baroque is of Portuguese origin with an original meaning of “irregularly shaped pearl” (Buelow 1). The term was popularized in the English language as “meaning variously strange, distorted, extravagant and so on.” (Buelow 1). The changes in technique of musical works can be tied into the events of this time. Specifically, the Reformation which began in the year 1517 ending in 1648. Martin Luther was a major figure during the protestant Reformation, he was said to believe that “music was the greatest gift of God after religion itself” (Butt 2017). Luther had a major impact on the sacred music of this period that was sung in churches. He practiced the “glorious polyphony of catholic practice”, however he incorporated chorales that could be sung by an entire congregation (Butt 2017). Heinrich Schütz composed 3 sacred concertos (polyphonic concertos sometimes with instrumentation sometimes without) that became some of his most well-known vocal sacred pieces (Britannica 2018). While sacred music was preserved and advanced in the Baroque period secular music advanced as well. Music during this period typically had a continuous mood throughout a movement. The basso continuo became the go to bass line of musical works and church modes were replaced by major and minor keys. During the baroque era different forms were used more often such as operas, sonatas, suites, fugues and concertos. Ternary dynamics were prominent as well.

 The Renaissance and Baroque periods can be distinguished from one another by their distinctive sound. The texture of the Renaissance period was majority polyphonic. During the Renaissance secular music became more widely accepted in society. Among the important genres of secular music was the Italian Madrigal. The Italian Madrigal was written using lyrical poetry. Madrigal composers set texts that aspired to be, of high literary quality, instead of simple strophic poems (Ongaro 81).  Lyrical poetry featured word painting, this occurs when the sound of a lyric purposely describes its literal meaning, these features gave secular pieces multiple emotions. While secular music was on the rise, the Mass and Motet became the most significant arts of scared music.  A Mass is described as “the central liturgical celebration of the catholic church.” (Ongaro 69). A Mass is composed of some unchanging parts these remaining parts are known as the ordinary of the mass. This specific musical work was typically polyphonic and had 5 parts that were specifically chosen to be set to the polyphony, these parts included the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and the Angus Dei. (Ongaro 71). The Mass quickly became one of the most important sacred genres, constantly testing the imagination of sacred composers. A well- known mass from this period is Palestrina: Gloria, from Pope Marcellus Mass, it was composed in 1567 and uses Gloria as a setting from the Ordinary Mass.  On the other hand, the Motet, is a sacred composition usually composed of Latin text and anywhere from 3 to 6 voices. (Ongaro 68). Motets were more emotion based than the mass because the lyrics behind a motet were more suitable for experimentation, giving the composers more room for emotional expression. While the Renaissance was known for its fluidity and emotional expression, the Baroque period was quite the opposite. The early Baroque years were considered mainly homophonic while the late Baroque period was generally polyphonic in texture. The music of this period was known to have a unified mood throughout the entirety of the movement, with sudden and abrupt changes in loudness. During this time masses and motets were still prominent for sacred tunes, however the rise of the opera came towards the end of this period and grew quickly. Henry Purcell became one of the most renowned opera composers of the baroque period. His most well-known opera is Didos and Aeneas, Composed in 1689.

 While sound characteristics of the Renaissance and Baroque periods blended together in some respects, the harmonies differed completely. Harmony is “the effect we hear when two or more musical parts are played or sung together” (Ongaro 26). Consonance and dissonance are terms used to describe harmonies. Consonance is when we hear two or more notes together that give us a sense of satisfaction and ease. (Ongaro 26). Dissonance is typically described as a misplaced sound, it is not a sound our ears are used to hearing so our brains tell us something is off with the sound combination. Renaissance music is pleasant to the ear because it has a consonance to it with controlled dissonances, as to not make the change so harsh. While the fluidity of the music sounds sweet to the ear, the musical works can sound unpleasant because the composers of this period used modes instead of the major and minor scales that we use now. Baroque Harmonies were classified as functional harmonies in the sense that they were constant and stable, the beginning and ending were typically the same with some abrupt dissonance in the middle. Functional harmonies came from a theory that stated, “each chordal identity within a tonality can be reduced to one of three harmonic functions -those of tonic, dominant, and subdominant.” (Whittall; Latham 496). The most important harmonic advancement of the Baroque period was the change from church modes to the major and minor scales that we use now, this forever changed the composition of music.

 Melody is the part of the song that is hummed by individuals because it is the most distinguishable aspect of a musical piece. The term melody in music indicates “a series of notes that are arranged in succession in such a way to create a recognizable musical unit” (Ongaro 28).  Melodic lines of the Renaissance period can be greatly different depending on the genre of music. Sacred music for example, typically had more of a unified melodic line as compared to secular music which was more fragmented. Later Renaissance melodies seemed to have more of a grasping affect on the listener, where it could easily be remembered and repeated. These melodic lines were shorter and more repetitive. Tone painting was significant during the Renaissance period on regards to the melodic line as well. Tone painting is another word for word painting, this quality bled over into the baroque period. However, the most significant aspect of the Baroque period was the addition of the basso continuo as an accompaniment to the melodic line. Basso continuo became prominent in the later years of the baroque period but the idea of a bass-line accompaniment started much earlier in the era. (Buelow 25). The figured bass accompaniment typically consisted of bass instruments such as the cello and harpsichord. The melodies of the baroque period vary more than the Renaissance because they were composed specifically for multiple voices or various instruments.

 Just as the melodies differ the forms and dynamics of the Renaissance and Baroque periods differ the same. The Renaissance period was greatly varied in the aspect of form. Secular music was composed of simple forms, for example strophic from was the repetition of several stanzas of text in music. On the other hand, sacred music during this time “did not have significant repetition of musical ideas or phrases so we call this a through-composed work” (Ongaro 37). Some significant forms of the baroque period included concertos and oratorios. Concertos combined solo voices, large scale orchestras, along with various solo instruments. Concertos were sometimes used to describe polyphonic sacred music. Oratorios were the large-scale combination of orchestras and voices, typically with a religious narrative, very similar to operas. In the baroque period Terraced dynamics became a well composed style, these dynamics played a major role in the chaotic sound this period was known for. Terraced dynamics were abrupt and sudden changes in volume without the gradual crescendos and decrescendos. (Latham 1267).

 Music has been developing since the beginning of time, it has changed and advanced the art in thousands of cultures. The characteristics of the Renaissance and the Baroque periods distinguished themselves from one another in many ways. Their sounds, textures, harmonies, melodies and forms are all different making the period not only easily distinguished but unique in every aspect.

Works Cited

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Heinrich Schütz.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2 Nov. 2018, www.britannica.com/biography/Heinrich-Schutz.

Buelow, George J. A History of Baroque Music. Indiana University Press, 2004.

Butt, John. “The Reformation: Classical Music’s Punk Moment.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 18 Aug. 2017, www.theguardian.com/music/2017/aug/18/the-reformation-classical-musics-punk-moment.

“Functional Harmony.” Oxford Reference. . ,. Date of access 5 Nov. 2018, 

Latham, Alison. The Oxford Companion to Music. Oxford University Press, 2002.

Ongaro, Giulio Maria., and David. Brinkman. Music of the Renaissance. Greenwood Press, 2003.

Social Sciences at Hunter College (CUNY), maxweber.hunter.cuny.edu/pub/eres/MUS105.00_DEFORD/BaroqueIntro.html.

 

Effects of Two Different Inter Repetition Rest Periods on Maximal Strength in the Back Squat

An 8-week intervention with cluster training: The effects of two different inter repetition rest periods on maximal strength in the back squat.

Introduction

Cluster training is a system where the use of short rest periods between repetitions are used (Haff et al., 2003; Tufano, Brown & Haff, 2017). These pre-planned rest periods typically occur between 15-45 seconds (Haff, Burgess & Stone, 2008). The use of short rest periods between sets allow for a positive effect upon repetition performance whilst minimising fatigue which is associated with the use of traditional set structures (Tufano, Halaj, Kampmiller, Novosad, & Buzgo, 2018). During traditional sets, movement velocity and power output decreases to a greater extent than when using cluster set structures (Tufano et al., 2018). This is interesting and supports the use for cluster set protocols for when seeking adaptations for power development. It has been hypothesised that 15-30 seconds of rest periods between repetitions in a set allows for partial replenishment of phosphocreatine (PCr) stores and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) whilst traditional sets increase the production of lactate and lactic acid due to a greater demand for the use of muscle glycogen (Haff et al., 2003). Furthermore, with an elevation of lactate concentration there is a significant decrease in the amount of force generating ability (Sahlin & Ren, 1989). The authors suggest there is a positive increase in maximal force generating capacity with additional rest periods during a set. This provides evidence to support the use of pre-planned rest periods during a set when seeking improvements in strength and power. Some studies suggest cluster set training may be most beneficial to use for the improvements of explosiveness and ballistic methods such as weightlifting methods (Lawton, Cronin, & Lindsell, 2006). The current literature also supports this as most of the exercises investigated during cluster protocols have been on weightlifting movements (Haff et al., 2008). Rooney, Herbert, and Balnave (1994) suggests that the use of cluster sets do reduce the amount of fatigue however do not result in the same strength improvements when compared to traditional set configurations. This is based on the theory that when using traditional sets, an increased activation of high threshold motor units and the production of metabolic fatigue induces adaptations for developing strength (Lawton et al., 2006; Rooney et al., 1994). Studies have suggested that cluster set training offers no long-term strength gain benefit however not many of these studies to date have long enough training studies to ascertain this. For the development of muscular strength, it has been thought that the importance of fatigue should be present (Krieger, 2009). However, training to failure is not regarded as a necessary means when trying to develop maximal strength (Drinkwater et al., 2007; Folland, Irish, Roberts, Tarr, & Jones, 2002). When trying to develop maximal strength, studies suggest that cluster set training may be beneficial because of the better maintenance of movement velocity as opposed to traditional set training whereby velocity decreases (Iglesias et al., 2016; Oliver et al., 2013). Not only does cluster set training allow for greater maintenance of movement velocity and quality of repetitions, the use of them also allow for a greater number of repetitions to be performed with a given load which therefore results in a greater volume load (Denton & Cronin, 2006; Iglesias et al., 2014). Increases in volume load have been shown to be a way to create a stimulus for the improvement of maximal strength (Krieger 2009; Sooneste, Tanimoto, Kakigi, Saga, & Katamoto, 2013). Lower body strength training with heavy loads at 85% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) is certainly a way to increase maximal strength, this essentially is a result of neural and coordination adaptations such as motor unit recruitment, synchronization, activation of muscles and increased recruitment of muscle units (Behm & Sale, 1993). Training at these intensities therefore also allow for an increase in athletic performance along with performance markers (Nimphius & McGuigan, 2010). The main premise for  85% of 1RM to be used for developing maximal strength is primarily based on the size principle of motor unit recruitment (Henneman, 1957) and how progressively higher forces enable the recruitment of higher threshold motor units. There are currently two studies that provide supportive evidence for the use of cluster training when trying to improve maximal strength (Nicholson, Ispoglou, & Bissas, 2016; Oliver et al., 2013). Although there are other studies surrounding the use of cluster set training as already suggested earlier in these writings, most of them fail to consider that a more frequent rest can allow higher intensities to be used without sacrificing repetition number (Iglesias, Boullosa, Dopico, & Carballeira, 2010). Interestingly, the study from Nicholson et al. (2016) investigated the acute and chronic responses to strength, hypertrophy and cluster resistance training and used various intensities. For the cluster set group, 90% of 1RM was used on the back squat and improvements were seen using 25 second inter repetition rest periods. Within the literature, there are two main types of rest periods associated with cluster training; intra set rest and inter repetition rest (Tufano et al., 2017). Intra set rest describes the rest periods associated between repetitions within cluster sets of more than 1 repetition whereas inter repetition rest describes the rest periods associated between single repetitions only. An example is shown in figure 1 along with how a traditional set structure is set up. Set structure is of huge importance not only for this study to have an outcome, but also because of the need for strength and conditioning coaches and sport scientists to not confuse terminology as has often been the case within the cluster training literature.

Fig. 1 Two sets of 4 repetitions with 120 seconds of inter set rest using 3 different set configurations. Arrows indicate number of repetitions performed in sequence, triangles indicate intra set or inter repetition rest periods, and quadrilateral shapes indicate inter set rest periods. (A) Traditional sets with neither intra set nor inter repetition rest. (B) Cluster sets doubles with intra set rest periods. (C) Cluster sets single with inter repetition rest periods. (Tufano, Brown & Haff, 2017).

 

Hypothesis/Aims

Much of the literature discussed and observed seems to mostly justify the effects cluster set training has on power. Whereas for the development of maximal strength, it seems that only acute variables are used within studies such as force production, training volume and muscle activity. These acute studies do provide supporting evidence to positively support the use of cluster set training and therefore allow scientists to extrapolate further hypotheses on maximal strength development. However, acute studies should not be used to determine the effect that chronic studies have on maximal strength development protocols (Tufano et al., 2017). This is a key issue within the current literature and why the current study being proposed will explore this area. The purpose of this investigation will therefore be to investigate the chronic effects of two different inter repetition rest periods during a cluster set protocol on back squat 1RM. Specifically, subjects will be tested on their 1 repetition maximum back squat strength at pre, mid and post intervention. The secondary investigation that will be examined will be the acute effects of the workouts on mean concentric velocity throughout all repetitions on every workout. The independent variable within this study will be the rest period, this is the variable that will be varied in both research groups. The dependant variable will be the maximal strength of the back squat, this will be the response that will be measured. Controlled variables held constant will be total volume load, intensity, the exercise type and order of exercises performed for both groups (Fig 2). The investigation will hypothesise that the cluster group 1 with longer inter repetition rest periods (30 seconds) will increase maximal strength greater than that of cluster group 2 (15 seconds) and from an acute perspective, will also maintain concentric barbell velocity greater than that of cluster group 2.

Cluster Group 1 (CG1)

3 sets of 5/1 repetitions @ 90% 1RM

30s inter-repetition rest

4 min inter-set rest

Pre-conditioning

Pre-testing

Mid-testing

Post-testing

Cluster Group 2 (CG2)

5 sets of 3/1 repetitions @ 90% 1RM

15s inter-repetition rest

4 min inter-set rest

Fig. 2 Schematic representation of the experimental groups and design. 5/1 and 3/1 denotes repetitions performed as singles.

Methods

Subjects

14 males aged between 25-40 years old will participate in this study. All participants will have at least 2 years of strength training experience using the barbell back squat and will all be experienced training with regular maximum or near maximum loads ( 6RM). Participants will all be able to back squat a minimum of 150% of their bodyweight for 1RM. To qualify for inclusion in the study, all subjects will be screened using a physical activity readiness questionnaire form (PAR-Q) which will be the same one used by St Marys University (Fig 3). Participants will be excluded if they report any musculoskeletal injuries. Participants will be able to continue with their usual upper body strength training throughout the intervention. During the 8-week training period, participants will not be allowed to participate in any other lower body strength training outside of the experiment. The only supplementation subjects will be allowed to consume will be protein supplementation, all other nutritional and/or ergogenic aids will be banned from use during the 8-week study. All participants will also need to give written consent prior to participation.

Study design and procedures

A longitudinal research design will be devised to compare the effects of two different inter repetition rest periods during cluster set training in a program designed to develop maximal strength in the back squat over 8 weeks. The 14 subjects will be randomly put into one of two groups. To eliminate any possible cofounding factors, the type and order of exercises performed and volume load will all be equal between both groups. This is critical to the design of the study as others have shown variations between these variables impact training adaptations (Campos et al., 2002). The volume, loads and rest intervals involved are shown in figure 2 and the training programme for the 8-week intervention is shown in table 2. Both groups will begin to work at an intensity of 90% of 1RM, group 1 will do 3 sets of 5 single repetitions whilst group 2 will do 5 sets of 3 single repetitions. The program will be split into two 4 week cycles with weeks 4 and 8 being a deloading week where subjects will reduce volume by 40% whilst maintaining or increasing training intensity. A reduction such as this has been shown as an effective way to enhance maximal muscular strength (Pritchard, Keogh, Barnes, & McGuigan, 2015). During the deload weeks, participants 1RM will be tested. The reason for a mid-intervention test will be to then adjust the new 90% of 1RM for the final 4-week training phase. The strategy used for progressive overload will be simply to only allow subjects to increase their weight if all repetitions are executed with success. Participants will perform their testing and workouts whilst being supervised by a certified strength and conditioning coach who will be part of the research project. Prior to baseline testing, all participants will undergo a familiarization session with a certified strength and conditioning coach to establish correct exercise technique for testing and training. A standardised 2-week pre-conditioning period will take place prior to baseline testing so that all participants are not only proficient at the back squat, but are also prepared psychologically for working at intensities at  90% of 1RM. During this 2-week period, participants will also have a group meeting and be advised on sleep, nutrition and recovery. Regards to sleep, participants will be advised to sleep 6-8 hours per day and try their best to maintain a regular sleep pattern. Nutritional advice for participants will be simply to maintain their regular eating habits and consider a regular 3-4 meals per day and adequate amounts of protein, calories and water. Recovery advice will be reflected in both sleep and nutrition advice, as well as keeping stress minimal and getting post workout nutrition on-board in the form of protein and carbohydrates. Prior to testing, baseline group characteristics will be measured for both groups and will be presented in Table 1.

CG1

CG2

Combined

p

Age (y)

Height (cm)

Body mass (kg)

Years trained

No. days trained per week

CG1 = cluster group 1; CG2 = cluster group 2; Combined = collapsed across time.

Data are mean ± SD

Table 1. Baseline group characteristics.

1 repetition maximum testing

Back squat 1RM will be performed as a testing measure for lower body maximal strength. Subjects will be asked to report to the training facility after having done no exercise for 48 hours before testing on week 1, week 4 and week 8 of testing. Training logs and self-reporting estimations of 1RM will allow loading on the barbell throughout the warm up to be as safe as possible during week 1. However, on weeks 4 and 8 of 1RM testing, training logs throughout the intervention will be used for warm up loading strategy. The warm up will consist of 5 minutes on an ergo rower (Indoor Concept 2, Model E). Once the subjects have done this, warm up sets will commence using an Olympic barbell (Klokov, IWF standardised 2.2m length, 20kg weighted barbell). The warm up will consist of a protocol used by McBride et al. (2009). 8-10 repetitions at an estimated 30% of 1RM, 4-6 repetitions at an estimated 50% of 1RM, 2-4 repetitions at an estimated 70% of 1RM and then 1 repetition at an estimated 90% of 1RM. Following this, weight will continue to increase until subjects’ 1 repetition maximum has been reached. All back-squat depth will be measured to a point of where the knee angle is at 70. This angle will be determined with the use of a goniometer during the familiarization session as previously mentioned. Subjects will be given up to 4 attempts to reach maximal 1RM and rest periods will be between 3-5 minutes. Foot and hand placement will be recorded at baseline to keep testing conditionings consistent as well as bar placement along with footwear used. All tests will be supervised by a certified strength and conditioning coach. The same method for testing will be used for all testing days; pre, mid and post intervention.

Intervention training

Throughout the training intervention, the use of an accelerometer (PUSH, Inc., Canada) will be used to monitor mean concentric velocity throughout. The device will be attached to either one of the arms on the subjects. Research has shown the PUSH device to have reliability (Balsalobre-Fernandez, Kuzdub, Poveda-Ortiz, & Campo-Vecino, 2016). The typical speed that experienced squatters maintain at 90% of 1RM is 0.34m/s, whereas the typical average squatter should be able to maintain a slightly faster velocity at about 0.46m/s (Zourdos et al., 2016). Helms et al. (2017) showed that powerlifters who are strong (squat 1RM average 202.5kg at 87.9kg BW) typically have an average velocity score of 0.44m/s when training the back squat at 90% of 1RM. This data suggests that the stronger more experienced squatters should be able to move heavy loads at slower velocities because of technical mastery and the ability to grind out loads at higher intensities. Average concentric velocity scores will be measured over the 2 training phases to establish acute effects of inter repetition rest periods on repetition quality. The use of the push band will be to also provide augmented feedback for the subjects as feedback can help increase force output (Kellis & Baltzopoulos, 1996). Because feedback can help maximise movement intent which is a critical component to strength adaptations the use of the push band to monitor mean concentric velocity will therefore be used. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) will be recorded after each training session using the 10-point scale (Borg, 1982). From this data, the mean RPE for the training phase will be established for each group and compared.

Data Analysis

The use of SPSS software will be used for data analysis. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be used to firstly determine if there are any differences in baseline characteristics (Table 1). Overall total volume load and training intensity will be analysed by independent t-test as well as overall 1RM mean differences between groups pre and post test. Independent t-test will also be used to determine the mean differences between concentric velocity of both groups pre and post test. A sample size of 14 subjects will be used, this was determined from ensuring a confidence level of 95% and a margin of error of 5%. A big limitation with this study will be the small sample size as this can affect the true effect. Because of this limitation, it would be beneficial to conduct a larger study in the future to provide further evidence. For all tests, statistical power will be of at least 80% and statistical significance will be defined as p 0.05.

Fig 3. Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire.

Weeks 1-4

Lower Body 1

Sets

Reps

Rest

Back Squat

Cluster Protocol

240

DB Split Squat

4

8

90

Lying Leg Curl

4

6

90

Leg Press

3

10

90

BB Goodmorning

3

10

90

Ab Rollout

3

15

60

Lower Body 2

Sets

Reps

Rest

Back Squat

Cluster Protocol

240

Above The Knee Deadlift

4

6

180

45 Degree Back Extension

3

12

90

calf raise

3

12

90

Pallof press isometrics

3

5

60

Weeks 5-8

Lower Body 1

Sets

Reps

Rest

Back Squat

Cluster Protocol

240

Alternating DB Lunge

4

6

90

Seated Leg Curl

4

6

90

Romanian Deadlift

3

8

90

Reverse Hyperextension

3

12

90

Garhammer Raise

3

15

60

Lower Body 2

Sets

Reps

Rest

Back Squat

Cluster Protocol

240

Hex Bar Deadlift

4

4

180

BB Step Up

3

10

90

Standing Calf Raise

3

12

90

Decline Sit Up

3

15

60

BB = Barbell, DB = Dumbbell.

Table 2. Training program intervention, 2 workouts per week, weeks 1-4 & weeks 5-8.

Reference List:

Balsalobre-Fernández, C., Kuzdub, M., Poveda-Ortiz, P., & Campo-Vecino, J. d. (2016). Validity and reliability of the PUSH wearable device to measure movement velocity during the back squat exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(7), 1968-1974.

Behm, D. G., & Sale, D. G. (1993). Velocity specificity of resistance training. Sports medicine, 15(6), 374-388.

Campos, G. E., Luecke, T. J., Wendeln, H. K., Toma, K., Hagerman, F. C., Murray, T. F., … & Staron, R. S. (2002). Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones. European journal of applied physiology, 88(1-2), 50-60.

Denton, J., & Cronin, J. B. (2006). Kinematic, kinetic, and blood lactate profiles of continuous and intraset rest loading schemes. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(3), 528.

Drinkwater, E. J., Lawton, T. W., McKenna, M. J., Lindsell, R. P., Hunt, P. H., & Pyne, D. B. (2007). increased number of forced repetitions does not enhance strength development with resistance training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(3), 841-847.

Folland, J. P., Irish, C. S., Roberts, J. C., Tarr, J. E., & Jones, D. A. (2002). Fatigue is not a necessary stimulus for strength gains during resistance training. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(5), 370-373.

Haff, G. G., Whitley, A., McCoy, L. B., O’Bryant, H. S., Kilgore, J. L., Haff, E. E., . . . Stone, M. H. (2003). Effects of different set configurations on barbell velocity and displacement during a clean pull. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17(1), 95-103.

Haff, G., Burgess, S., & Stone, M. (2008). Cluster training: Theoretical and practical applications for the strength and conditioning professional. Prof Strength Cond, 12, 12-17.

Helms, E. R., Storey, A., Cross, M. R., Brown, S. R., Lenetsky, S., Ramsay, H., . . . Zourdos, M. C. (2017). RPE and velocity relationships for the back squat, bench press, and deadlift in powerlifters. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(2), 292-297.

Henneman, E. (1957). Relation between size of neurons and their susceptibility to discharge. Science, 126(3287), 1345-1347.

Iglesias, E., Boullosa, D. A., Dopico, X., & Carballeira, E. (2010). Analysis of factors that influence the maximum number of repetitions in two upper-body resistance exercises: Curl biceps and bench press. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(6), 1566-1572.

Iglesias-Soler, E., Carballeira, E., Sánchez-Otero, T., Mayo, X., Fernández-del-Olmo, M., & Dept of Physical Education and Sports, University of A Coruña, A Coruña, Spain. (2014). Performance of maximum number of repetitions with cluster-set configuration. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 9(4), 637-642.

Iglesias-Soler, E., Mayo, X., Río-Rodríguez, D., Carballeira, E., Fariñas, J., & Fernández-Del-Olmo, M. (2016). Inter-repetition rest training and traditional set configuration produce similar strength gains without cortical adaptations. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34(15), 1473-1484.

Kellis, E., & Baltzopoulos, V. (1996). Resistive eccentric exercise: Effects of visual feedback on maximum moment of knee extensors and flexors. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 23(2), 120-124.

Krieger, J. W. (2009). Single versus multiple sets of resistance exercise: a meta-regression. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(6), 1890-1901.

Lawton, T. W., Cronin, J. B., & P. Lindsell, A. R. (2006). Effect of interrepetition rest intervals on weight training repetition power output. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(1), 172-176.

McBride, J. M., Blow, D., Kirby, T. J., Haines, T. L., Dayne, A. M., & Triplett, N. T. (2009). Relationship between maximal squat strength and five, ten, and forty yard sprint times. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(6), 1633-1636.

Nicholson, G., Ispoglou, T., & Bissas, A. (2016). The impact of repetition mechanics on the adaptations resulting from strength-, hypertrophy-and cluster-type resistance training. European journal of applied physiology, 116(10), 1875-1888.

Nimphius, S., McGuigan, M. R., & Newton, R. U. (2010). Relationship between strength, power, speed, and change of direction performance of female softball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(4), 885-895.

Oliver, J. M., Jagim, A. R., Sanchez, A. C., Mardock, M. A., Kelly, K. A., Meredith, H. J., . . . Kreider, R. B. (2013). Greater gains in strength and power with intraset rest intervals in hypertrophic training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(11), 3116-3131.

Pritchard, H., Keogh, J., Barnes, M., & McGuigan, M. (2015). Effects and mechanisms of tapering in maximizing muscular strength. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 37(2), 72-83.

Rooney, K. J., Herbert, R. D., & Balnave, R. J. (1994). Fatigue contributes to the strength training stimulus. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26(9), 1160-1164.

Sahlin, K., & Ren, J. M. (1989). Relationship of contraction capacity to metabolic changes during recovery from a fatiguing contraction. Journal of Applied Physiology, 67(2), 648-654.

Sooneste, H., Tanimoto, M., Kakigi, R., Saga, N., & Katamoto, S. (2013). Effects of training volume on strength and hypertrophy in young men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(1), 8-13.

Tufano, J. J., Brown, L. E., & Haff, G. G. (2017). Theoretical and practical aspects of different cluster set structures: a systematic review. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(3), 848-867.

Tufano, J. J., Halaj, M., Kampmiller, T., Novosad, A., & Buzgo, G. (2018). Cluster sets vs. traditional sets: Levelling out the playing field using a power-based threshold. PloS One, 13(11), e0208035.

Zourdos, M. C., Klemp, A., Dolan, C., Quiles, J. M., Schau, K. A., Jo, E., . . . Blanco, R. (2016). Novel resistance Training–Specific rating of perceived exertion scale measuring repetitions in reserve. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(1), 267-275.

 

Mozart’s Influence on Beethoven’s Early and Middle Periods

 Mozart’s Influence on Beethoven’s Early and Middle Periods

 

Choice of Tonality

As a prolific composer, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote more than 600 compositions.  However, he wrote only a few works in minor keys. Mozart’s compositions in minor keys include only two symphonies (K. 183 and K. 550), two piano concertos (K. 466 and K. 491), two string quartets (K. 173 and K. 421), two piano sonatas (K. 310 and K. 457), plus some doubtful transcriptions, incomplete fragments and sacred works.[1] The rarity of these works shows that for Mozart minor keys have unique characteristics and significant expressive purposes. Mozart was careful in his choice of keys and used the key based on its special character. For instance, in Piano Sonata in C minor, K. 457, Mozart used the Pathétique character of C minor to express a sorrowful emotion,[2] illustrating the association between his choice of key and musical expression.

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 Mozart’s Piano Sonata in C minor K. 457 was composed in 1784, the year Mozart had several crises of various kinds—psychological, philosophical, and emotional, particularly his separation from Theresa von Trattner, who was one of Mozart’s pupils in Vienna. Theresa was certainly an important figure in Mozart’s life, receiving a special attention and affection from him..[3] In September 1784, Mozart left Theresa’s residence abruptly without apparent reason, maybe seeking to distance himself from Theresa and avoid any possibility of a social scandal. Mozart dedicated Piano Sonata K. 457 and Fantasia K. 475 to Theresa, and also sent her two letters in which he explained how these works should be interpreted. Jorge Cova states, “The dedication of K. 457and K. 475 reveals Mozart’s deep sentiments toward her.”[4] It is reasonable to assume these crises made Mozart choose the dramatic C minor as the key of Sonata K. 457 as Thomas Richner states, “C minor is the ‘Pathétique’ key to Mozart.”[5] Mozart expressed dramatic, dark, sorrowful, and tragic emotions as well as “grim seriousness” in this work.[6]  Furthermore, the Beethoven-like emotional intensity and power of this sonata are obvious. “Beethovenisme d’avant la lettre” (Beethovenism before the fact) is how a French critic described it.[7] Einstein states, “This very sonata contributed a great deal to making Beethovenism possible.”[8] The musicologist Joseph Kerman says, “Back of all these pieces lay on an expressive vision of Mozart’s, in such compositions as the great C-minor Concerto, the C-minor Quintet, and especially the Fantasy and Sonata for Piano in C minor. This latter work was published in 1785. What an effect it must have made on the emotional boy at Bonn (Beethoven)!……”[9] The dramatic tension in Mozart’s C minor works strongly foreshadowed Beethoven’s famous “C minor mood.”[10]

C minor is commonly regarded as a special key for Beethoven. Beethoven wrote a number of works in C minor such as Piano Sonata, Op. 13, “Pathétique”, Opus 10, No.1, and Piano Concerto, Op. 37. As George Grove argues, “The key of C minor occupies a peculiar position in Beethoven’s compositions. The pieces for which he has employed it are, with very few exceptions, remarkable for their beauty and importance.”[11]  

Beethoven often used C minor to express emotions similar to those in Mozart’s C minor works.[12] For instance, Mozart composed Piano Sonata in C minor, K. 457 when he had suffered from various crises. For Mozart, C minor is connected with misery and especially with turmoil, and had been a powerful key. It gives this sonata a beautiful sadness and dramatic intension. Beethoven’s C minor works are also associated with crises and convey similar emotions. As early as 1797, Beethoven began to experience the first symptoms of deafness. By 1798, Beethoven likely realized this would become a chronic disease, since Beethoven wrote to Wegeler on June 29, 1801, “For the last three years my hearing has become weaker and weaker.”[13] Beethoven composed Piano Sonata, Op. 13 in 1798. It is possible that Beethoven wrote this work in response to his growing deafness.

In addition to the tragic mood conveyed in Mozart’s and Beethoven’s C minor works, there are numerous features shared by these works. For instance, the dynamic design of Mozart’s Piano Sonata K. 457 (Ex. 2-1a) is similar to that of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata Op. 10, No. 1 (Ex. 2-1b), in which the forte opening is followed immediately by a piano passage. The contrast between forte and piano gives the opening a dramatic effect, which reinforces the emotional character of the key. These C minor works, furthermore, are filled with diminished chords or intervals to add harmonic intensity. In Mozart’s Piano Concerto, K. 491, the opening features a series of upward diminished seventh intervals (Ex. 2-2a), and similarly, a series of diminished seventh chords are introduced in the Grave opening of the first movement in Beethoven’s Piano Sonata, Op. 13 (Ex. 2-2b). In Piano Sonata, Op. 13, the Grave introduction reoccurs in the middle and end of the first movement. Beethoven uses this unique design to create a dramatic recall. It is not customary for an introduction in a classical sonata-form movement to return.As demonstrated in these compositions, it is obvious that Mozart had a significant influence on Beethoven’s choice of tonality. Both of them selected C minor to express a dark and tragic mood and used similar compositional designs to reinforce the character of this key.

Ex. 2-1a. Mozart, Piano Sonata K. 457, Mvt. I, mm. 1-4

Ex. 2-1b. Beethoven, Piano Sonata Op. 10, No.1, Mvt. I, mm. 1-4

Ex. 2-2a. Mozart, Piano Concerto K. 491, Mvt. I, mm. 1-8

Ex. 2-2b. Beethoven, Piano Sonata Op. 13, Mvt. I, mm. 1-4

Beethoven and Mozart employ another similar design in minor works. Beethoven often associates C minor with its relative (E-flat) and parallel (C) majors. While a modulation from a minor tonic to its relative major in the second theme is typical in traditional sonata form, moving to its parallel major is unexpected. The move to the parallel major is an innovative choice of tonality in the sonata form, and Beethoven employs it frequently. In the first movement of the fifth symphony, for instance, the opening presented in fiery C minor modulates to lyrical E-flat major in the second key area. In the Recapitulation, the tonality changes from C minor (first theme) to C major (second theme). Furthermore, the symphony ends in victorious C major rather than C minor, which is Beethoven’s compositional characteristic. As Beethoven explains his choice of tonality, “Many assert that every minor piece must end in the minor. On the contrary I find that in the soft scales the major third at the close has a glorious and uncommonly quieting effect. Joy follows sorrow, sunshine—rain. It affects me as if I were looking up to the silvery glistering of the evening star.”[14] This special tonal design, however, can be traced back to Mozart’s Piano Concerto in D minor K. 466, where the first movement begins in minor but ends in D major. The same design is employed again in the third movement. The music starts in D minor and ends in joyful D major. Both Mozart and Beethoven use this minor-major structure to create a similar effect in minor-key works.

Harmony

At Mozart’s time, the diminished chord was the most dissonant sound ever heard.[15] He used diminished harmonies to create a sense of tension, particularly for a dark, tragic, or Pathétique mood.[16] The powerful diminished seventh chords that show up in the beginning of the final scene of Don Giovanni, for instance,imply Giovanni’s approaching tragedy (Ex. 2-3). The dead Commendatore’s statue comes back and gives Don Giovanni one last chance to repent, but Don Giovanni firmly rejects. Then the statue disappears and Don Giovanni cries in fear and pain surrounded by a chorus of demons, who take him down into hell. This is the most dramatic and scary scene in the entire opera. Mozart used diminished chords to convey a tragic and dark mood, which influenced Beethoven’s use of diminished seventh chords to create a similar effect.  Ex. 2-3. Mozart, Don Giovanni, the Commendatore’s aria of the finale, mm. 1-7

Beethoven also used the diminished seventh chord in his compositions and was aware of its dramatic effect and expressive potential. A compelling instance can be found in his Piano Sonata in F minor, Opus 57 (Appassionata), where the last two bars (mm. 95-96) of the second movement in D-flat major are interrupted by two E diminished seventh chords transitioning to the final movement in F minor (Ex. 2-4). The first arpeggiated diminished seventh is played pianissimo to evoke mystery and terror, and then the second diminished chord is played an octave higher, a sharp, sudden fortissimo as a crash of thunder breaks the tranquility. This is followed by the fierce storm of a series of thirteen identical E diminished chords opening the final movement. This intense moment, where the music changes from the dreamlike and contemplative second movement to the turbulent and passionate finale movement, is created by both the change in tonality and the series of diminished seventh chords.

Ex. 2-4. Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Opus 57, Mvt. II, mm. 90-96 and Mvt. III, mm. 1-4

Mozart’s chromatic harmony, which was rare until his last decade, also influenced Beethoven’s harmonic design. As the nickname of Mozart’s String Quartet in C major, K. 465, “Dissonance” suggests, the composition is full of dissonant chords created by chromatic harmonies and cross-relations. As seen in the second measure of the introduction in the first movement, the first violin plays A against A-flat in the viola (Ex. 2-5).[17] The second violin plays chromatic motive (Eb-D-C#-D) in response to the viola (Ab-G-F#-G) (Ex. 2-5). Mozart’s use of chromaticism foreshadows Beethoven’s avoidance of harmonic resolution which gives rise to harmonic ambiguity. As Lewis Lockwood suggests, the introduction of Mozart’s string quartet “Dissonance” “is unmistakably Beethovenian every lineament.”[18] In addition, Mozart uses chromatic figuration to evoke dark and sad emotions. In Piano Sonata K. 457, a descending chromatic line in mm. 8-12 represents a sorrowful motive (Ex. 2-6). He also used chromaticism in mm. 44-45 to create a dramatic contrast, where an ascending chromatic line in forte is abruptly inserted after a quiet passage (Ex. 2-7).  

Ex. 2-5. Mozart, String Quartet in C major, K. 465, “Dissonance”, Mvt. I, mm. 1-5 

Ex. 2-6. Mozart, Piano Sonata, K. 457, Mvt. I, mm. 8-12 

Ex. 2-7. Mozart, Piano Sonata, K. 457, Mvt. I, mm. 36-47

Like Mozart, Beethoven integrates chromaticism in the introduction to project harmonic ambiguity and an unstable mood. The introduction of the first movement in Piano Sonata Op. 13, for instance, is harmonically ambiguous due to the chromatic chords (Ex. 2-8). The introduction ends with a long descending chromatic scale leading directly into the Exposition (Ex. 2-9).

Ex. 2-8. Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op.13, Mvt. I, mm. 5-9

Ex. 2-9. Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op.13, Mvt. I, m. 11

Like Mozart, Beethoven uses harmony to enhance emotional effects. Both composers employ the diminished seventh chord and chromaticism to convey sadness and turmoil and to create harmonic ambiguity in the introduction of their compositions.

 

 

 

Thematic material

Regarding Mozart as his source of inspiration, Beethoven studied all of Mozart’s major works and imprinted themes from Mozart’s works in his head. In October of 1790, Beethoven wrote down a short two-staffed C-minor passage in 6/8 and, in the middle of the staves, he noted, “This entire passage has been stolen from Mozart’s Symphony in C, where the Andante in six-eight…” While he rewrote the passage and signed it “Beethoven himself” later, this instance shows that Beethoven realized he was coping Mozart when composing. Nothing can reveal more than this instance his admiration for Mozart: his musical god and artistic father.[19]

Beethoven borrowed Mozart’s themes in his music and modeled many compositions after Mozart’s pieces. The first movement of Piano Sonata, Op.10, No.1 is an excellent example. This Sonata opens with a powerful C-minor chord followed by the right hand’s ascending broken chord in dotted rhythms (Ex. 2-10). This heroic theme recalls the ascending arpeggio that opens the first movement of Mozart’s Piano Sonata, K. 457 (Ex. 2-11). The thematic resemblance between these two movements is reinforced by their same choice of the forte dynamic and key tonality. The beginning of the first movement of Mozart’s Piano Concerto in C minor, K. 491 also exemplifies his thematic influence on Beethoven. The orchestra plays the theme in unison, piano dynamic, and staccato articulation (Ex. 2-12).[20] These characteristics also comprise the opening theme of Beethoven’s Piano Concerto in C minor, Opus 37 (Ex. 2-13). Both pieces are in the same key of C minor and open with the strings softly playing a rising figure. 

Ex. 2-10. Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Op.10, No.1, Mvt. I, mm. 1-2

Ex. 2-11. Mozart, Piano Sonata, K. 457, Mvt. I, mm. 1-2

Ex. 2-12. Mozart, Piano Concerto in C minor, K. 491, Mvt. I, mm.1-12

Ex. 2-13. Beethoven, Piano Concerto in C minor, Opus 37, Mvt. I, mm. 1-4

Fugue

The music of Johann Sebastian Bach greatly influenced both Mozart and Beethoven.  Mozart was familiar with Baroque music and had showed tremendous interest in J.S. Bach and his son C.P.E. Bach.[21] Mozart introduced a fugue as the finale of Sonata for Piano and Violin in A major, K. 402.[22] This sonata was composed in 1782, the year in which Mozart and his wife discovered the fugues of J. S. Bach and G. F. Handel. On April 20, 1782, Mozart wrote to his sister, “Baron van Swieten, whom I visit every Sunday, gave me all the works of Handel and Bach to take home… when Constanze heard the fugues she was completely enraptured…She would listen to nothing but fugues….”[23] In K. 402, Mozart used counterpoint to link the violin, the piano’s right hand, and the left-hand parts. This contrapuntal writing is rare in the Classical period which is characterized by homophonic texture (Ex. 2-14). Fugal sections also appear in Mozart’s sacred music such as Requiem in D minor, K. 626, where the chorus sings a double fugue in the Kyrie (Ex. 2-15). This part will be addressed more in Chapter 3. Mozart’s greatest contribution to the history of fugue is to insert fugal imitation in sonata form.

One remarkable example of this category is the final movement of Symphony in C major, No. 41, K. 551. This movement combines sonata form with fugue. The second violin starts the fugal section and presents the subject, followed by the first violin, the viola, and the cello together with the double bass. Mozart used several counterpoint techniques in the fugue section, including all strings playing stretto in mm. 65-70 (Ex. 2-16), the second violin and viola introducing inversion in mm. 95-98 (Ex. 2-17), and the first violin presenting the subject in retrograde in mm. 207-13 (Ex. 2-18). The entire fugal section has five different motives based on variations of the four-note idea: C, D, F, E. All of the five motives are brought together in the coda and build up to the climax. This movement synthesizes classical sonata form and baroque fugal style, representing Mozart’s mastery in counterpoint.

Ex. 2-14. Mozart, Violin Sonata in A major, K. 402, Mvt. II, mm. 1-12 

Ex. 2-15. Mozart, Requiem in D minor, K. 626, Kyrie, mm. 1-4 

Ex. 2-16. Mozart, Symphony in C major, No. 41,K. 551, Mvt. IV, mm. 65-70 

Ex. 2-17. Mozart, Symphony in C major, No. 41,K. 551, Mvt. IV, mm. 95-98

Ex. 2-18. Mozart, Symphony in C major, No. 41,K. 551, Mvt. IV, mm. 202-9, 210-12

Like Mozart, Beethoven also employs fugal imitation in sonata-form movements, such as the final movement of String Quartet in C major, Opus 59, No. 3.[24] In this movement, the viola introduces the subject and is imitated by the second violin, the cello, and the first violin. The fugal devices found in Mozart’s Symphony K. 551 are also used in this piece: inversion and stretto, the subject in the second violin is imitated inversely by the viola simultaneously (Ex. 2-19), and the imitation starts before the subject has finished (Ex. 2-20).

Ex. 2-19. Beethoven, String Quartet in C major, Opus 59, No. 3, Mvt. IV, mm. 305-9 

Ex. 2-20. Beethoven: String Quartet in C major, Opus 59, No. 3, Mvt. IV, mm. 108-11  

 

A parallel in attitude toward Bach’s contrapuntal technique occurs between Mozart and Beethoven. They both admired Bach’s fugues and composed polyphonic finales. Mozart’s innovative insertion of contrapuntal imitation in sonata-form movements further contributed to the creation of the final movement of Beethoven’s String Quartet Op. 59, No. 3.

Mozart influenced many aspects of Beethoven’s compositional style, including the choice of tonality, harmonic design, thematic materials, and fugal writing. Beethoven’s lasting connection with Mozart passed through several periods. It began with a period of “imitation” that characterized Beethoven’s early period, and then developed to a period of “plagiarism” during his rapidly growth toward maturation from 1792 to 1802. During these years of “plagiarism,” Mozart’s style and works were deep in his memory while he gradually established a high level of independence.[25] The next chapter will discuss how Mozart continued to influence Beethoven’s late style.

[1] “Mozart in Minor Keys,” accessed March 15, 2016, http://www.allegroclassical.com/mozart-minor-key.html.

[2] Thomas Richner,Orientation for Interpreting Mozart’s Piano Sonatas: Mozart’s Tonalities and Harmony (New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1953), 25.

[3] “Therese, Mozart’s Beloved,” accessed March 15, 2016, https://mozartschildren.wordpress.com/tag/mozart-piano-sonata-no-14-in-c-minor-k-457/.

[4] “Mozart: A minor K. 511, Piano Sonata in D major K. 576, the last great W. A. Mozart’s works for the fortepiano from the Viennese Period,”

Jorge Cova, last modified August 2006, accessed April 23, 2016, http://www.swissmusicfactory.com/CDmkmozartE.htm.

[5] Thomas Richner, Orientation for Interpreting Mozart’s Piano Sonatas: Mozart’s Tonalities and Harmonies (New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1953), 25.

[6] “Therese, Mozart’s Beloved,” accessed March 15, 2016, https://mozartschildren.wordpress.com/tag/mozart-piano-sonata-no-14-in-c-minor-k-457/.

[7] Neal Zaslaw, and William Cowdery.The Compleat Mozart: A Guide to the Musical Works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Symphonies and Symphonic Movements (New York: Mozart Bicentennial at Lincoln Center, 1990), 314.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Joseph Kerman, The Beethoven quartets: Disruption (New York: A.A. Knopf, 1967), 70.

[10] William Kinderman, Mozart’s Piano Music: An Artistic Microcosm (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 58.

[11] George Grove, Beethoven and his nine symphonies: Symphony No. 5, in C minor (Op. 67) (London: Novello and Company, limited, 1903), 181.

[12] “Therese, Mozart’s Beloved,” accessed March 15, 2016, https://mozartschildren.wordpress.com/tag/mozart-piano-sonata-no-14-in-c-minor-k-457/.

[13] Lewis Lockwood, Beethoven: The Music and the Life: Years of Crisis (New York: W.W. Norton, 2003), 112.

[14] Ludwig van Beethoven, Friedrich Kerst, and Henry Edward Krehbiel, Beethoven: the man and the artist, as revealed in his own words: On Composing (New York: B.W. Huebsch, 1905), 26.

[15] “Fear after Death: Mozart,” Justin Mathis, last modified August 7, 2012, accessed March 15, 2016, https://justinmathis.wordpress.com/tag/diminished-chord/.

[16] Thomas Richner, Orientation for Interpreting Mozart’s Piano Sonatas: Mozart’s Tonalities and Harmony (New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1953), 24-25.

[17] Neal Zaslaw, and William Cowdery. The Compleat Mozart: A Guide to the Musical Works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Chamber Music without a Keyboard Instrument (New York: Mozart Bicentennial at Lincoln Center, 1990), 267.

[18] Lewis Lockwood, Beethoven: The Music and the Life: Music of The Bonn Years (New York: W.W. Norton, 2003), 60.

[19] Lewis Lockwood, Beethoven: The Music and the Life: Music of The Bonn Years (New York: W.W. Norton, 2003), 57-9.

[20] Neal Zaslaw, and William Cowdery, The Compleat Mozart: A Guide to the Musical Works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Concertos and Concerto Movements (New York: Mozart Bicentennial at Lincoln Center, 1990), 133.

[21] “The Fugue and The Sonata: Reconciling the Two Worlds,” accessed March 16, 2016, http://wiki.youngcomposers.com/The_Fugue_and_The_Sonata:_Reconciling_the_Two_Worlds.

[22] Alfred Einstein, Mozart: His Character, His Work: Mozart and Counterpoint (New York: Oxford University Press, 1962), 152.

[23] Neal Zaslaw, and William Cowdery. The Compleat Mozart: A Guide to the Musical Works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Chamber Music with a Keyboard Instrument (New York: Mozart Bicentennial at Lincoln Center, 1990), 133.

[24] Paul M. Walker, “Fugue,” Oxford University Press, accessed March 17, 2016, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/51678.  

[25] Lewis Lockwood, Beethoven: The Music and the Life: Music of The Bonn Years (New York: W.W. Norton, 2003), 59.
 

Overview of the Middle and Upper Paleolithic Periods

In the Paleolithic period, specifically the middle and upper Paleolithic periods, humans were beginning to advance and culturally develop at an unprecedented rate. The production of food and the creation and implementation of different tools defined these periods as quintessential to growth and the progress of technology. A substantial part of these periods are the traditions and lifestyle habits that developed.

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Starting of with the middle paleolithic period, humans had begun to develop a cultural sense of awareness, such as burying their dead with flowers. This is before more modern humans adopted a similar tradition in the Upper Paleolithic period of time (anthropology, 2017). We can assume that basic traditions like this would start in the earlier (middle) time period. The Upper Paleolithic period saw the beginning of traditions like spiritual awareness and beliefs, artistic expression, and trade between neighboring groups (anthropology, 2017). Groups in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic periods started to expand and eventually grow larger. These bigger groups were found to have built semi year-round settlements. Staying in certain environments for extended periods of time enabled these people to focus on improving their homesteads (more homesteads are found in the upper period than the middle period).
This segues into how the different tools of these time periods were manufactured to carve, build and hunt. Middle era tools included points, which could be tied on to shafts to make spears. (Smithsonian, 2018) Smaller points made from stone were also crafted and made into weaponry like darts and arrows. These darts and arrows enabled humans of this time to refine their hunting skills and self-defense.  Shaved flecks of stone were transformed into scrapers that were useful in preparing animal hides for clothing. This and sections of wood were typical tools in the middle paleolithic age. (Smithsonian, 2018). Upper paleolithic tools are further along in design because of the cultural diversity that allowed more advancement. Different materials were introduced: Ivory, bone and antler as well as more stone. These different materials allowed more craftsmanship. The new materials also were more malleable than stone, which led to the tools being sharper and thus more effective. Each group developed their own cultural footprint and sought their own identity. Humans in both middle and upper periods discovered different ways of making things. (Smithsonian, 2018)
With the expansion of the human population, eventually the density of human groups increased to greater numbers. This led to competition and conflict over the best resources and land. (Kahn Academy, 2017). Due to the limited natural resources of the landscape, middle and upper paleolithic communities were smaller in size. They were however large enough to develop a degree of hierarchical organization: groups of labor, leadership and security. They also had exogamous patterns of reproduction, which is marring and producing outside of the standard group. (Kahn Academy, 2017)
Anthropologists have been able to draw these conclusions about Paleolithic humans by extrapolating different data from recent hunter-gatherer communities, like the Khoisan from the African Kalahari Desert. The theories and ideas based on the life and experiences of more modern societies help researches form an idea of what middle and upper paleolithic communities did. (Kahn Academy, 2017)
The increased numbers of people living in groups also highlights the hunting and gathering methods that were used. Hunting strategies that targeted large numbers of animals in herds that migrated seasonally became predominant (Johnston, Strayer 2020). Anthropologists know this from the cave art that occurs in different regions. Different art in different territories suggests a more defined sense of social organization. Burials started to become common which points to social differentiation (Johnston, Strayer 2020).
These two periods of time additionally saw the progression of cultural pursuits. The basic techniques of drawing, building sculpture, and painting, as well as the early inclusion of dancing, ceremonies and music are also seen (specifically more in the upper paleolithic) periods. (Adams, Pittioni, 2019). Humans of both periods also started to develop linguistic behaviors and symbolic thinking. Groups began to create and settle into villages, which led the way to more dynamic interactions and interpersonal relationships (Johnston, Strayer 2020) This had an important effect on daily human life. More communication let to more advances in almost every sociological/physical category.
In conclusion, both the middle and upper Paleolithic periods saw numerous areas of cultural and physical/social progress and growth. There were advancements in weaponry and agricultural cultivation, as well as art forms and language. The development of social practices and hierarchy are also very present, which is why the middle and upper periods changed the way humans operated which led the way to modern practices.
Sources:

“Middle and Upper Paleolithic.” ISS 220: Time, Space, & Change in Human Society, August 11, 2017. http://anthropology.msu.edu/iss220-us17-ss2/2017/08/11/middle-and-upper-paleolithic/.
“Middle Stone Age Tools.” The Smithsonian Institution’s Human Origins Program, September 14, 2018. http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/behavior/stone-tools/middle-stone-age-tools.
“Paleolithic Societies (Article).” Khan Academy. Khan Academy. Accessed March 3, 2020. https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world-history/world-history-beginnings/origin-humans-early-societies/a/what-were-paleolithic-societies-like.
Adams, Robert McCormick, and Richard Pittioni. “Middle Paleolithic.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., December 18, 2019. https://www.britannica.com/event/Stone-Age/Middle-Paleolithic.
Johnston, William A, and David L. Strayer. “Upper Paleolithic.” Upper Paleolithic – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. Accessed March 3, 2020. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/social-sciences/upper-paleolithic.