Rollo May Theory of Personality

Rollo Reese May was born on April 21, 1909, in Ada Ohio to Earl Tittle and Matie Boughton, he was the first son and the second child of six children. Both of his parents were not well educated and there was very intellectual motivation in the household. May’s parents didn’t get along and ended up getting a divorce. (Dr. C. George Boeree, 1998, 2006, p. 1)

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May older sister was diagnosis with schizophrenic and the father blame the illness on too much education. Growing up May was not close to his parents and really disliked his mother, he considered his mom as a “bitch-kitty on wheels”. He believed that his mother’s behavior and his older sister schizophrenia caused him to have two failed marriages. (Rabinowitz, Good, & Cozad, 1989).
May’s was married three times and had two failed marriages, from his first wife he had three children a son and two daughters, he stood marry for 30 years in his first marriage due to the children, but then realized the marriage wasn’t going to get better and end up divorcing his first wife, his second marriage was also unsuccessful. The last woman that he married was name Georgia Miller Johnson and was a Jungian analyst and that marriage lasted from 1988 until he died of tuberculosis, his son Robert Rollo was a director of counseling at Amherst College and his twin sister Carolyn Jane was a social worker and artist and the third child was Allegra Anne who was a documentary film writer and a single mother of two adopted multiracial children. (Bugental, 1996, p. 418).
May attend college at Michigan State University and major in English and was asked to leave because he became an editor of a radical student magazine, he then transferred to Oberlin College where he received his BA in the year of 1930. After graduating, he pursued in art and was traveling through Europe with a group of artist. He stood in Europe from 1930 until 1933 and addition to his study of art, he taught at an American College in Greece where he took summer seminars that was taught by Alfred Adler in Vienna.
In his second year while being in Europe, he began to question the meaning of his life when he came down with tuberculosis, While being in an sanatorium, he was faced with the possibility of death, he had a lot of time to read many literatures, he came across a literatures that was on the writer named Soren Kierkegaard, who was a Danish religious writer, a person that was inspired of existential movement. May became inspired of Soren Kierkegaard words of wisdom that it gave May the inspiration of coming up with his own theory. (Dr. C. George Boeree, 1998, 2006)
Rollo Reese May was best known as an American existential psychologist and he was referred as the father of existential psychotherapy. May was associated with the humanistic psychology; he had a different way of thinking on the Human existence, then other psychologist, his human existence was sharper on the tragic dimension.
According to Dr. C. George Boeree, (1998, 2006) on May’s personality Theories, stated that Rollo Reese May, used different terms and invented new words from some of existentialism old ideas, for example the word destiny is the same as thrownness and it is combined with the word fallenness, which mean that part of people’s lives that is determine for them, he also gave another example of the word courage, which was used more often than the traditional term authenticity, which meant facing one’s anxiety and then raise above it. (Dr. C. George Boeree, 1998, 2006).
According to Serlin, llene, Mays work was maintained by the balance between darkness and light, between the experiential and the intellectual. May considered the fundamental questions of human existence as the nature of evil, love and will and the meaning of anxiety and the important of myth. May inspired many people and it came from his ability to name the void of create in its face, to name evil but worked toward the good, to see meaningless, but to discover meaning and to face death, but create life. May was in the antiwar movement and many other social causes, he taught and mentored countless students and called himself a “gentle rebel” (Serlin, llene A. Tikkun, January 1995. pg. 65), in the face of an increasing dehumanized world.
Rollo Reese May Theories of Personalities
While being under influenced of Freud, Kierkegaard and Tillich, May developed a theory of personality that was based on existential philosophy and from that, he accepted the following terms:
Dasein means a particular person in a world that is particular time and existing is under a particular set of circumstances.
May’s Three Modes of Existence:
Umwelt is the interaction with the physical world, Mitwelt, is the interaction with other humans and the Eigenwelt is the interaction with oneself.
Alienation is when a person is estranged of aspect of the nature, which results of feeling lonely, emptiness and despair this happens because the three modes of existence is alienated from nature and from other people.
Mays describe freedom, which a person can be free to choose the meaning of their own existence. Since a person is free to choose what type a person they become, they have to be responsible for what they become, another person circumstance of their fate can be praise or blamed for the nature of their existence, because we are responsible for ourselves. Ontology is the study of being. Within existentialism, ontological analysis is directed at understanding the essence of humans in general and of individual in particular. Phenomenology is the study of conscious experience as it exists for the person without any attempts to reduce, divide or compartmentalize it in anyway. Authenticity, if people live their lives in accordance with values that are freely chosen, they are living authentic lives, if however if people conform to values established by others, they have not exercised their personal freedom and are therefore living inauthentic lives, inauthentic is causally related to neurotic anxiety and guilt and the feeling of loneliness, ineffectiveness, self alienation and despair. Death because humans are mortal and because death is the ultimate state of nonbeing, awareness of one’s inevitable death can cause anxiety. The source of anxiety is part of human existence and cannot be voided. The awareness of death, however, can add vitality to life by motivating a person as much out of life as possible in the limited time available. Thrownness is the circumstanced of a person’s lives which it can’t be control. Other existentialist referred this as thrownness and May refers it as destiny.
May was the only existential psychologist that discusses certain stages, not as strict as the Freudian development.
May’s Stages:
Innocence is the pre self conscious stage of an infant, it is the innocent of premoral that is neither bad or good, the description that was given is like a wild animal who kills to eat and since the animal has to eat, he or she has to do what is must. Rebellion stage, the childhood and adolescent is when the ego or self-consciousness of the contrast with an adult from the no of a two years old to the no way of a teenager, which mean the rebellious person wants their freedom and does not yet understand of the responsibility that goes along with it. A teenager would like to use their allowance money on what ever they want, but still what the parent to provide the money and still complain about the parent not being fair. Ordinary stage is when the normal adult ego, conventional and a little boring, perhaps they have learned that the responsibility, but find it too demanding, and so seek refuge in conformity and traditional values. Creative is an authentic adult, the existential stage, beyond ego and self-actualizing. This is the person who, accepting destiny, faces anxiety with courage.
Human Dilemma
According to May (1967), the human dilemma is when people can view themselves as both the subject and the object at the same time. May’s description of the object-subject dichotomy is done in various ways, which is not always consistence. People are capable of seeing themselves as an object to things that happens to them, which are influenced by their destiny. Objectives are events of variables that are caused through stress that can cause a persons behavior, which is the stimulation that happens in certain ways and the way people respond to that certain way. Subjective is when the person is aware of the fact is happening to them and acts on the information, which gives them the determination of experience that are valuable and which one are not valuable to them and then act according to the personal formulations. (May, 1977, pp.198-201)
May description of self-relatedness is distinguished of a human that rest from nature. It is “man’s capacity to stand outside himself, to know he is the subject as well as the object of experience, to see himself as the entity who is acting in the world of objects” (May, 1967, p. 75).
Humans can view the world and we can also view ourselves viewing and the self-relatedness or consciousness of our self allows the humans to escape the determinism and personal influence what we do. Humans consciousness of one’s self can give us the power to stand outside of the rigid chain of stimulus and response to pause and by that pause can throw some weight on either side that can cast some decision and what the response will be, (May, 1953, p. 161).
According to May feeling on these two psychologists, Skinner and Rogers, he felt that they had emphasized one side of the dilemma but was at the expense of others. Skinner had avoided the subjective of experience, May felt that people don’t react to their inner experience of their environment, but they do see their environment in terms of their past experience and they do interpret the terms of their own symbols of hope and fear,(May, 1967, p. 15).
May’s description of intentionality meant all mental acts are purely subjective of the way it is intended or that relates to the events that are from the outside of themselves. The example that was given, love is a subjective experience but one must love someone of something. Perception is a subject experience but one must perceive something. (May, 1969, pp. 224-225)
Importance of Myth
May believed that myth is the way of making sense in a senseless world, and is a narrative pattern that gives the significance to the society of existence (1991, p. 15), the problem in the society as cults, drug addiction, suicide and depression are traced of the lack of myths that can provide the individuals with a sense of their inner security.
Anxiety and Guilt
May was really interested in the human anxiety and guilt; he rejected Freud’s interpretation of anxiety as the result from conflict that is between a person’s biological needs and the demands of society. May felt that Freud’s analyzed was too biological and compartmentalized and Freud’s anxiety viewed his results from the conflict of the id, ego, and superego, but May approved on Kierkegaard’s existential definition instead because Kierkegaard theory of human freedom and anxiety went hand and hand.
Normal anxiety is when a person experience the attempt to expand one’s conscious or when the new values is displaced with the old ones due to changes in the person circumstances and it is an integral of a healthy growth, May’s theory consists that all growth of anxiety is the creation of surrender past values (May, 1967, p. 80).
Neurotic anxiety is when a person hasn’t met their normal anxiety on the time of the actual crisis in their growth and the threat to their values, which the neurotic anxiety ends in the result of the previous unmet normal anxiety (May, 1967, p. 80). In my understanding of May’s theory on normal anxiety and neurotic anxiety, one is when the person is having a problem, but not major and the problem can be solve. Example, when it is time to write a paper my normal anxiety kicks in and I start feeling shortness of breathe and then I can’t concentrate on what I am doing and then I have to walk away for a little while to relax. Neurotic anxiety is when a person have problems and can’t control their feeling and start to think that life is not going to get better for them, they start to become depress, feeling lonely and don’t what to do anything with their lives, but it all depends on the circumstances the person is going through.
May had four description of love and they are Sex, Eros, Philia and agape:
Sex is the biological drives that can be satisfy by engaging in sexual intercourse, the same way eating a meal that can satisfy the hunger drive, which both can be triggered by the need and the availability of an object that will satisfy the need, (May, 1969, p.73).
May one important wad daimons was the eros which to him was love not sex and in the Greek mythology was the minor god pictured as a young man and later the eros had transferred into an annoying little cupid, he understood that love was the need that people have to become as one with another person and was referred of an ancient Greek story that was by Aristophanes, that people was originally a four legged, four armed and a two headed creature and people became to prideful that the gods spilt the people into two, male and female and had cursed us with the never ending desire to recover the people missing in half, according to May, like any daimon, eros it is a good thing until it takes over the personality and the people would become obsessed with it. May also believe that the theory of will is another important concept and it was the ability for a person to organize their lives in order to achieve in their goals and that will is also a daimon that can have potential to take over a person. Another definition of will is the ability to make a wish to come true. (Boeree, C. George, 1998, 2006)
Philia is the third of love which is a friendship or a brotherly love. According to May, Eros cannot last for long without Philia because the tension of continuous attraction and passion would be too great (May, 1969). Philia is the relaxation in the presence of the beloved with accepts the other’s being as being; it is simply liking to be with the other, liking to rest with the other, liking the rhythm of the walk, the voice, the whole being of the other.
Agape is the fourth type of loving, which May, 1969, p. 310), is the unselfishness of concern for one’s partner and the aspect of love that is unconditional.
New Science of Human:
According to May an approach of the study on human nature, should not reduce the collection of habits, brain functions, genetically determined traits, early experiences or environmental events, all that is needed for science of humans are based on the ontological characteristic of humans and that science should take into consideration of human freedom and the importance of their phenomenological experience, the use of symbols and myths and the ability of the past, present and future in making decisions should value the process.
Empirical Research are done by most existential theorists that are unconcern with the empirical validation of their concepts and believe that the place to validate their concepts is when the arena of everyday life, or in the therapeutic situation and not with a systematic laboratory or field of investigations. According to Van Kaam, (1966), an existential psychologist summarized the viewpoint: “Experience such as responsibility, dread, anxiety, despair, freedom, love, wonder or decision cannot be measured or experimented with, they are simply there and can only be explicated in their givenness” (Van Kaam, 1966, p. 187).
May did not rejected the idea of the objective study of humans, but felt that the traditional scientific methodology was not appropriate, but he felt, what was needed was an approach of the studies of humans as whole, unique, complex beings. Many sciences welcomed Mays idea of developing of science more appropriate to the study of humans and not based on the assumptions and techniques of the natural science (Hergenhanh & Olson, 2007, p. 32).
Rollo Reese May theories of Personality was inspiring, because as a psychologist, he consider the people as human beings, not just an experimental objective. His theories explain of different type of anxiety and what they meant in the human nature, he also explains the difference of love and the will to achieve in a goal. I felt that May Reese Rollo, really care for the people and once he became sick of Tuberculosis, he needed to let people know the understanding and the meaning of death and that people shouldn’t be afraid of it, because one day we are going to leave the earth and we shouldn’t be afraid of the word death. I remember telling my mom that I was scared of getting old and scare of dying and I didn’t understand why I felt this way, but as I got older and realized that one day, we would have to leave this earth and we should enjoy the rest of our lives and shouldn’t worry about dying and God would know when it is time for us to go.

Personality Traits And Leadership Abilities

Admittedly, the relationship between Personality traits and leadership effectiveness has generated a lot of interest from researchers in different fields. Many a times, a consensus has been reached suggesting that an individual’s successful leadership is determined by his/her personality traits (Matthews, Deary, & Whiteman, 2003). In such situations, personality traits are used to measure the leadership performance of such individuals. The assessment criteria typical in such a situation are usually based on the Five-Factor framework, which is often employed as a framework account for analyzing individual traits of individuals. Other ways that have been used to identify whether an individual includes using trait approach to determine charismatic leadership (Goleman, 2004).

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Over and above, the general question that needs to be explained is whether personality tests can be applied to determine the leadership abilities of individuals (Hackman, & Wageman, 2007). Although research studies have showed that aptitude with respect to leadership can ascertained through the evaluation of personality traits, the tools that can be employed to determine their personality traits are faced with common errors and therefore subjecting the findings to warrant a discussion.
Nonetheless, the extent to which personality traits can be used to predict an individual’s leadership abilities is a matter that is still open to debate. Worse still, there are no proven universal characteristics or character traits used to measure leadership success of individuals. As certain clear characteristics can be seen in excellent leaders, other traits are acquired naturally. In addition to the Five-Factor Model and Charismatic leadership traits, other methods that can be used to predict leadership characters include the application of narrow verses broader perspectives of success in leadership with respect to how personality traits are applied in leadership activities.
The Relationship between Leadership and Personality Traits
Arguably, leadership ability comprises of various skills that can be acquired throughout an individual’s career. It entails the process that makes an individual to be in a position of influencing the attitudes and behaviors of others. As opposed to leaders whose role is to exert influence upon the behaviors of fellow individuals, an effective leader not only exerts influence but also accomplishes organizational goals assigned to his/her leadership role (Robbins, and Judge, 2009). Generally, leaders are concerned with creating a visionary approach to their followers and in turn improving communication and coordination channels that are essential for the completion of the organizational goals while at the same time motivating their subordinates.
There are several theories that have been put forward to aid in the measurement of leadership effectiveness. This includes but not limited to cognitive approach, situational approach, the behavioral approach, and lastly the trait approach. For purposes of the topic under discussion, the trait approach can be evaluated with respect to its concept of emphasizing an individual’s abilities, personality, and other dispositions that can be used to characterize his/her personality (Matthews, Deary, & Whiteman, 2003). The trait further proposes that majority of individuals with leadership capabilities are born with characteristics that are innate thereby giving them the ability to exert influence over other individuals.
The Big Five or Five-Factor Model
In addition to the issue of intelligence being the most effective trait in measuring managerial effectiveness, five dimensions that are based on personality traits can be used to identify and/or evaluate leadership traits of an individual. It is commonly referred to as the Big Five Model or the Five-Factor model, which is comprised of conscientiousness, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and emotional stability. Each of these factors is made of individual clusters that enable it to acquire specific traits that are closely related. However, all of these dimensions of personality comprising the model are used to describe the personality of human beings.
Several advantages can be associated with using the Five-Factor Model as a choice of explaining leadership abilities based on personality traits (Judge, and Bono, 2000). Firstly, it enables researchers to achieve orderliness in the research field that has been in need of such a model for a long period. Secondly, findings from numerous studies can be compared side by side to using elements of meta-analysis. Lastly, the big five elements are often considered to be a common language when it comes to describing the personality of individuals given that the probability of researcher agreeing over personality aspects is very high.
Limitations of the Big Five-Factor Model
Although the Five-Factor model seems to be a convincing approach of evaluating leadership abilities based on personality characteristics, a number of conceptual and utility drawbacks limits its application. This includes but is not limited to unavailability of agreement between the different aspects that make up the model. For instance, naming of the elements that make up the five personality factors differ significantly in terms of defining each factor (Judge, and Bono, (2000).
Additionally, these aspects do present a broad and cumbersome situation when it comes to describing personality when applied in the field of research. This is applicable when data is collected from the field and researchers have to determine the level of detail that needs to be applied in such a situation. Narrow and broad aspects have to be defined in order for the researchers to come up with a more detailed explanation of how personality traits affect leadership abilities. Lastly, this model has been criticized for its failure to explain all aspects that relate to human personality because it does not consider factors such as manipulativeness, honesty, sense of humor, and religiosity among others (Harris, 2006).
Narrow vs. Broad Personality Aspects as Applied in Predicting Leadership Abilities
In light of the evidence presented in the above analysis, it can be concluded that the application of the Five-Factor analysis to predict leadership capabilities of individuals failed to provide sufficient results. Therefore, narrow and broad personality factors can be applied in different situations to predict leadership abilities of various individuals (Harris, 2006). Narrow personality traits include primary factors whereas broad factors include global factors both, which are measured based on predictive power and utility aspects.
Admittedly, personality has been used for a long time as form of measuring the performance and behavior of individuals in the workplace scenario. As such, narrow and broad aspects of personality do have an impact on the ability of leaders to do whatever they feel is right (Matthews, Deary, & Whiteman, 2003). For this reason, a number of personality aspects, which determines the level of forcefulness that a leader will employ, realize his/her goals. In turn, an indication will be established to show how well a leader is prepared in attending to leadership priorities. The primary factors established include dominance and social boldness, both of which are very important in determining leadership skills. On the other hand, broad factors include those that affect independent leadership abilities such as openness to change and vigilance. However, they are not so important personality traits that influence leadership abilities of such individuals as compared to narrow aspects.
As it can be seen from the above discussion, understanding the factors that influence leaders to do actions that must be done in order to achieve their goals in addition to their independence. It is useful in getting an overall picture of the nature of abilities in leadership and the corresponding relationship to personality. Primary factors enable an individual to determine the qualities that will enable him or her to specify his abilities that will enable him to succeed as a leader. Additionally, the predictive power of leaders are often distinguished in terms of broad and narrow personality perspectives. In turn, competencies in different leadership scenarios can be ascertained by comparing the factors that determine their personality traits.
Admittedly, for a long time, personality traits have been employed to predict the extent to which an individual’s leadership abilities can be ascertained. In fact, the issue has been subjected to numerous debates but over and above all, a consensus that has been agreed upon is that personality traits do predict leadership abilities (Block, 2010). From a managerial point of view, management officials not have a say in the general performance of an organization but also do play an important role in influencing the performance of their seniors or subordinates (Robbins, and Judge, 2009).
Conversely, theories have been put forward to explain ways in which personality traits influence leadership performance. A good example is the application of the Big Five model or Five-Factor model as a method of assessing the impacts of personality traits on leadership performance. This framework has been used to account for reasons as to why individual trait differences exist. Generally, the dimensions used to construct this model differ in terms of the dimensions used to describe it but also the nature in which they are constructed. However, the model failed to consider all personality aspects that make up the general humanity perspectives. This led to the explanation of personality traits from a narrow and broad perspective. Additionally, these factors were found to influence leadership abilities of individual using primary and global factors. Generally, what matters the most is the value of a personality trait in influencing the personality trait of an individual (Hackman, & Wageman, 2007).
In light of evidence presented in this paper, the extent to which personality traits can be used to influence leadership abilities is dependent on the value of the trait in influencing the decision of the individual (Block, 2010). This can be assessed using narrow measures in order to ascertain the effect that the trait brings with respect to the choices made.

Comparison of Winnicott and Freud’s Theories of Personality

Psychodynamic Psychoanalytic Essay


Psychodynamic is about bring unconscious to conscious. The purpose of this assignment is to explore two concepts of two different psychoanalytic/ psychodynamic theorists that is useful in social care practice and to critically evaluate how useful are the concepts and why it relevant to social care setting. social care profession promotes social change, problem solving in human relationships and empowerment of people to improve well-being. The concepts chosen for this essay are: Winnicott’s concept on the good enough mother and Freud’s concept on transference. They are both theory of personality, which is about change.

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Winnicott is object relations theory, he is from psychoanalytic background and he is specialised in relationship between children and parents. His theory talks about how effectively someone can develop going forward; his idea of True-self and False-self related to Jung idea of the Mask and archetypes. Winnicott was moving towards working with children much more and looking into how we create an environment that create a safe place for someone to grow.

Winnicott has different terms, however, good enough mother and holding facilitating environment (moving from one stage of life to another) was choosing for this essay because practicing good enough mother in social care setting will help the client to live nearly independently and develop forward. It worthwhile allowing the clients to explore their environment; let them relate to themselves; give them the chance to make some mistakes by allowing them to do things on their own; let them do what they can do; let them (give them) get angry or sad so that they will be able to know how to manage their emotion and also learn from that experience because without given them the chance to do something themselves and made a mistakes, they will never learn. Although carer need to adapt to the client’s needs at the beginning of the adaptation to help and support clients and gradually withdraw, to give them the chance to explore the world themselves and accept reality. Of course, the carer must be empathetic and caring, and to be preoccupied about clients’ needs but carer must allow the clients to experience sadness or anger. According to Jacobs (1995); Winnicott, 1971Good enough carer provide environment that facilitate clients natural maturation process because there is absolute dependence at initial stage and for client to move from absolute dependence, the carer has to begin to fail to adapt to clients need. Wedge (2016) Winnicott believed that good enough carer starts with nearly complete adaptation to her client’s needs. Carer must completely consistently attend to the clients and sees to their needs, but as time goes by, the carer will progressively allow the client to experience small amounts of frustration. Winnicott states that if client does not feel slight frustration, he/she will not form an idea of external reality, he highlights that the early stage of mothering is essential for the client’s healthy development. The ability to have an illusion is necessary to develop a sense of reality.

Through Winnicott’s idea of ‘Holding’ (Winnicott 1953). Therapist offers Clients a ground to work through their emotions and learn to ponder on it, understand their emotional experiences, and comprehend their feelings (Winnicott 1953).

As a carer, we need to allow the emotion to be, because supressing the emotion by ensuring the client is happy all the time by getting what they wanted is preventing them to realised there is another world beside it self. There is no possibility whatsoever for a child/client to develop and proceed from pleasure to reality, to make a transition (Freud, 1923 cited in W.D. Winnicot, 1971) unless there is a good-enough mother. Good-enough carers are the one that will make active adaptation to the clients’ needs which will be gradually reduce for the client to make a justification for their displeasure adaptation and to tolerate the result of the frustration (W.D. Winnicot, 1971)

Carer is there to support client emotion and create environment that create a safe space for clients to grow by creating a secure attachment and form a health relationship with client. So therefore, carer creates an environment within the therapeutic relationship roles of mother and child, and support the emotional development of the client. the good enough mother will let the client safe without been over protective. This is about balance between create enough safety but not mothering a child, secure environment is creating environment that allow them to made a mistake. According to Winnicott (1965) states that If the mothering is not good enough, the client will fail to form his/her true self or hidden behind a false-self, it is only when there is good enough mother that the client will start on a process of development that is personal and real. As a carer, I am there to support the emotional development of the client. Moving from been dependent into nearly independent

Freud was a Viennese neurologist who became known as founding father of psychoanalysis

When we talk about Freud, we talk about stages of awareness which are conscious, unconscious and preconscious (Wedding & Corsini, 2014)

Freud says that early child development is very important for later life development. What happen to the child at earlier stage is critical that will shapes the child development pattern later on. It might be around attachment, being resistance, avoidance, anxious or behaviour

Transference is one of the key idea of psychoanalysis. Transference is the idea of transfer something you do not like on to another person. it is essential for the carer to apply Free Association by allowing the client to say whatever he/she want to say. According Wedding & Corsini (2014) Transference is when past is presented in present situation. Client relate to their carer in a way that were reminiscent of the way they viewed and related to important person in their childhood. Kahn (1997) states that Transference is when clients transfer their fear; feelings, attitude and wishes from their past experience onto their carer and if transference happened, the carer should be quiet and allow the client to find their way to express their deepest wishes and fear, those conflicts would emerge from unconscious to conscious.

For instance, client with authoritarian father/mother might see his/her carer as authoritarian and the client might transfer the negative reactions such as; anger and dislike towards the carer and at the same time, if client view his parent as vulnerable parent that needed protection, he might begin to relate the same thing to the carer, he views the carer as good and transfer positive transference towards the carer. For example, in my work place, there was a client that always want me to assist him and chat with him all the, he always happy when he sees me but it get to a time that I am getting worried and disturbed about everything, so I informed my supervisor. Supervisor told me that the client once lives in Africa and he had a black girlfriend, whom he view as very nice woman then, therefore he is transferring the feeling he has towards his Africa girlfriend on.

(Introductory lectures on psychoanalysis. 1991) In working with clients, it is important that I recognise transference in a client and my own counter transference response so that I can use a client’s unconscious material in transference to reveal unresolved conflicts the client’s have with figures from their childhoods in order to make progress in care.

gaining insight is what is important in psychoanalysis. As a carer, we need to focus on clients past and present and look at what causes their distress; anxiety or relapse and with right intervention carer can still change clients present no matter the past (CLASS NOTE)

Transference is very important in social care setting if we are able to recognise it. It vital important in understanding types of cure and service client require. For example, when client respond to carer what happen in their past experience or have the feelings they had for their father or brother to carer, this will enable the carer to understand what is going on in the clients life; to understand the root cause of client anxiety; know the type of intervention method/s that need to be use and how to help and support the client. The carer will use interpretation to explain to the client without probing, to help the client get new insight and bring his unconscious to conscious. According to Kahn (1997) Freud saw the transference as the therapist central opportunity and support of therapeutic leverage. Freud see the development of transference as crucial part of the psychoanalytic process (Freud, 1917 in Wedding & Corsini, 2014 ) Client provided carer with an opportunity to help him/her develop an understanding of how past relationships influence the experience of present in an emotionally immediate way, by re-experiencing the past in the analytic relationship (Wedding & Corsini, 2014)


Good enough Carers provide crucial upbringing to allow for the growing client’s disillusionment with the carer and the world, without destroying their craving for life and ability to accept both internal and external reality


Kahn, M. (1997) Between therapist and client: the new relationship. New York: W.H. Freeman,

Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (1991) London: Penguin Books. pp. 483-500

Winnicott, D.W. (1971) Playing and Reality. London: Routledge.

Winnicott, D.W. (1953) “Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena—A Study of the firs not-me”, International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 34(2) pp.89-97. Available at: [Assessed on: 10th November, 2018].

Winnicot D. W. (1965) The family and Individual Development. London: Routledge.

Jacob, M. (1995) Winnicott. London: Sage

Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. (15 Feb. 1991)  Publisher: Penguin Books Ltd

Wedge, M. (2016) What Is a “Good Enough Mother”? Good mothering involves more than devotion. Available at:

Wedding, D. & Corsini, R. J. (2014) Current Psychotherapies [10th Ed.] United Kingdom: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.


Learning Reflection Journal: Theories of Personality

Over the past 7 weeks, we have learned a lot about the different theories of personality from many great personality theorists. We have discussed them all starting with Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory and on through how even culture affects an individual’s personality. We have learned about the different research methods that are used to study personality and how to identify the characteristics of abnormal personality development. Through the weeks we have learned how to take a theory that we have learned about and apply it to a situation or experience we have had in our own lives. The purpose of this journal was to give us a chance to choose something we learned through the week that we found interesting and discuss it further as to what we found interesting about it and apply it to our own experiences in the world.

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The first journal entry I wrote is about Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory. I found his theory interesting in how he felt the mind is made up of three elements. Those elements being the Id, the Ego, and the Superego. In week three’s journal, I found Jeffrey Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity theory of interest. Gray looks at two biological systems as important and they are the behavioral inhibition system and the behavioral activation system. These systems oversee our response to being rewarded and/or punished. Gray adds to Pavlov’s concept of orienting to danger and attraction by use of conditioning. Week five brought in Rollo May, an existential psychologist who placed focus on anxiety. This struck an interest in me as I suffer from mild anxiety. Existential psychology sees anxiety as an element of our existence. In week six, gender came up in the discussion on personality. Here I found the behaviorist approach as interesting. In this approach gender aspects of personality are attained through modeling, learning, and conditioning. Drugs and Designer Personalities struck an interest with me in week seven. Drug use has a big role in an individual’s personality. This struck an interest in me as I have seen how drugs affect personality firsthand by being put on anxiety medication myself and seeing how illegal street drugs can change a person’s personality by observing a close friend. My goal upon achieving my degree is to become a substance abuse counselor so it was not difficult to choose a topic this week.

Learning Reflection Journal: Week 2

 While reading this week’s lesson, I found Sigmund Freud and his Psychoanalytic Theory interesting. According to Freud the mind is made up of three parts: The Id, the Ego, and the Super Ego. According to Freud, the Id runs off the pleasure principle, is biological, and instinctual. The Id contains two instincts: Eros- life instinct and Thanatos- death instinct. The Id looks to obtain what it wants and desires in order to reduce stress. It is seen in babies, as they cry when they need something and will not stop until their needs and desires are met. That is, they obtain what they want. Logic and reality have no bearing on the Id. Then there is the Ego which is centered in reality and follows the reality principle. The Ego is considered a mediator between the Id and the world around it. The Ego finds a compromise to obtain pleasure in a realistic and socially accepted way and to avoid pain. Last, we have the Super Ego. The Super Ego is concerned with what is socially accepted and follows the morality principle. The Super Ego uses morals and values from society and tries to control the antisocial impulses of the Ego like sex and aggression. Freud discussed the conscious and unconscious as well. He felt that if we could bring the unconscious into the conscious then we could diminish psychological stress. According to Freud, the Id is in the unconscious, the Ego is in the preconscious and conscious mind, and the Super Ego is part of the unconscious, preconscious, and conscious mind.

 In real life, I have witnessed this first hand at my place of employment. I currently work in home healthcare and attend elementary school with a nine-year-old child. During recess, I have seen children get upset over wanting a toy that another child has. I have worked with this child since kindergarten and he is currently going to fourth grade. In his kindergarten years, I had witnessed many children get upset over wanting something. One child, in particular, would get angry when he wanted the basketball and another child would not give it to him. I have seen this child push another child down on the ground over his want for the basketball and being denied getting it. I have also seen this same child get angry and stomp off because another child would not play with him. He would in turn stomp over to the nearest corner or wall and pout. Now this same child, when obtaining what he wanted/desired was very happy and nice to the other children. This is an example of the Id playing its part. The Id wants gratification and strives for pleasure by getting what it wants and desires. When the child did not get what he wanted/desired he became aggressive and tense. But when the child got what he wanted/desired, he was happy and pleasant. The lesson this week has helped me to understand why all of this occurs. I have even seen this with my own children as they were growing up. They would ask for a toy or candy at the store and if told no they would immediately get upset and tense, but if they were told yes, they were happy and not tense. This again is the Id playing its role in the mind and seeking pleasure.

Learning Reflection Journal: Week 3

After reading this week’s lesson, I found Jeffrey Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory interesting. Gray’s theory is “an extension of the physiological, brain-based model of personality” (Friedman, 2016). Gray incorporates modern neuroscience findings into his theory. Gray’s theory looks at Pavlov’s concept that the nervous system evolves to orient animals to dangers and attractions. Gray’s theory adds to Pavlov’s by emphasizing rewards and punishments for behaviors. This theory looks at two biological systems as being important: the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the behavioral activation system (BAS). According to the BIS, we stay away from things that are unpleasant or offensive or that may be in some way punishing us. The BAS is in control of how we respond to being rewarded. An overactive behavioral activation system (BAS) leads to a person being impulsive and constantly looking for a reward. This is the case with many drug addicts, thrill seekers, and overeaters. It is said that drug addicts are always chasing that high or feeling of euphoria, that is the reward to them. Thrill seekers like the adrenaline rush they get by doing something dangerous or exciting. An overly sensitive BIS or behavioral inhibition system leaves the person anxious and always worrying that bad things are going to happen or will happen. Anxious people avoid the situations or objects that make them feel anxious. A strong BIS will make a person shy away from events due to risk of being embarrassed, injured, or not knowing the risks.

 A real-life situation for this is anxiety. I have anxiety which keeps me from doing many things. My mind feels like it is in overdrive. I have always liked to sing and was even in chorus/choir in high school. Even then I had the fear of embarrassment but as long as I was in a big group singing I was fine. Even though I wanted to try to do a solo performance, I could never get myself to do it, as my anxiety would kick in high gear and the fear of messing up and getting embarrassed would take over. Today, I still have the fear of embarrassment and fear of what people are thinking about me in just everyday errand running and social events. I have learned to control it a little better, but it is still there. I have an overactive BIS or behavioral inhibition system according to Gray’s theory. On the other hand, a loved one of mine had fallen into drug addiction. This person had gotten so bad with their addiction that they would do anything to get that “high” feeling. They were seeking their reward. Nothing mattered to them, except getting what they wanted. They started off with pain killers for back pain and ended up seeking more when the pain medications were not enough. Eventually this person turned to crack/cocaine, and at this point the addiction took over. They had been in jail several times but that did not stop them, to them the reward (high feeling) was greater than the punishment (jail). They were constantly looking for a way to get more to feel that feeling of euphoria (reward). Gray’s theory would suggest that they have an overly active BAS or behavioral activation system.

Learning Reflection Journal: Week 5

I found the section on anxiety and dread to be of the most interest to me this week. Existential psychologist Rollo May focused on anxiety, and “saw anxiety as triggered by a threat to one’s core values of existence” (Friedman, 2016). In existential psychology, anxiety is a core element of our existence and what it means to be human. Anxiety brings us to search for balance in our lives and the cause for our anxiety. In this section, anxiety is explained not as just a bad thing but also as allowing us to live life to the fullest by taking risks. According to May, having anxiety means you have freedom. May’s view correlates with religious philosophy on the thought of humankind’s worth. He felt if we did not have struggles then we would not have dignity. Although the world is full of threats it is also full of opportunities to obtain accomplishments. Victor Frankl, an existential-humanistic theorist, focused on personal choices and the benefits from them. The unknown produces great anxiety as we grow and develop, and this anxiety can lead us to self-fulfillment and help us achieve great accomplishments. Frankl was a prisoner of a Nazi concentration camp and chose to find the meaning in his suffering and take the responsibility of controlling the little life he had left instead of just accepting and complying with his surroundings. This helped him to survive psychologically. Frankl believed that meaning was more powerful than pleasure. The struggles we undergo in life cause us to have anxiety and how we choose to react to and see the situation can change the outcome of our life. We can be optimistic and see the worth in things or be pessimistic and only see the bad that happens.

I personally suffer from mild anxiety and often times will have an anxiety attack just from my mind wandering to past events or even something coming up in the future. Not long ago, my family and I went to an amusement park and although I have been there numerous times and rode the rides there many times, I still felt an anxious feeling while waiting in the lines. Anxiety makes you feel very uncomfortable. But after successfully riding the ride I felt a sense of accomplishment and excitement. Another case of anxiety that very same day was my son decided to ride a particular ride at this amusement park that the rest of us declined to ride and he had to go by himself. He, himself, felt anxious as he boarded the ride and it got started but after felt a huge feeling of “I did it” and of course picked at us for not doing so. While he was waiting in line and boarding the ride, his father and myself also felt anxious. The fears of something happening to the ride while he was on it ran rampant in our thoughts and anxiety crept in. Those were personal choices made by us. Another example is the feeling of social anxiety by being put in a setting with others. The fears of “what are they thinking about me, are they talking about me, who is looking at me?” all creep into your mind. I feel this when I walk into a room with people. If I notice someone that I am friends with or even know and start talking to them, the anxiety starts to fade away a little at a time and eventually I will start to feel comfortable.

Learning Reflection Journal: Week 6

 The topic I found the most interesting this week was gender differences in personality. I agree with Freuds psychoanalytic theory that gender differences is biological and that basic evolution also plays a part in it. The behaviorist approach sticks out most to me. Through modeling, conditioning, and learning gender type personality aspects are attained. “According to this perspective, parents, as the primary sources of modeling and reinforcement, serve as primary socializers of sex-typed traits” (Friedman, 2016). Often times we model our behavior and roles after what we learned growing up from watching our parents and grandparents. A little girl wearing a pink lacey dress and being told not to get dirty has a role in her personality being shaped. Just as a little boy playing in the dirt plays a role in his personality formation. Many times, I have heard it said, ‘he is a boy and that’s what they do, they play in the dirt.’ That child will learn from that and come to think it is okay to get dirty if you are a boy, whereas the little girl will think it’s not okay for girls to get dirty, girls are supposed to look nice at all times. Children look up to their parents and that is where they learn the most about how to behave and how they should be. Fathers often times will wrestle and play rough with their sons, yet when it comes to their daughters they treat them as though they are fragile and precious. This plays a role in the formation of the child’s developing personality. The child will often grow up and treat their children the same and the process will continue through generations.

 My husband is a clear example of this. We have a son and a daughter. As our son was born and growing up, he would wrestle around with him and play rough just as most fathers. They would play in the dirt and mud. He would have our son working outside with him in grease as he worked on cars or whatever needed fixed at the time. When our daughter was born, she was daddy’s little girl. She was the most precious and fragile little doll to him. They did not wrestle around or play in the dirt. He did not have her outside fixing things with him. She modeled after me and when I would clean the house, she wanted to help. She had her own play cleaning set with a mop and broom and she would follow behind me pretending to sweep the floors. As our daughter got older and started school, interacting with other girls, she got more interested in playing sports and did not mind getting dirty. The friends that she associates with have the same interests as her. So, by interacting with her peers and seeing female athletes in the media, she modeled from them as well and learned that girls could also play sports and did not always have to look their best. Role models play a big role in personality development and how we perceive the way we should behave in social situations.

Learning Reflection Journal: Week 7

In this week’s reading, I enjoyed reading about Drugs and Designer Personalities. I found interest in this topic as I plan to use my degree to be employed as a substance abuse counselor. This topic also hit close to home as I have a friend who suffered from substance abuse and I have seen first-hand how drugs can alter a person’s personality. Drugs and alcohol have been used for many years to alter a person’s mental status. These drugs range from medically prescribed drugs such as Prozac to street drugs such as heroin and more. Drugs that have been and still are used for medical treatment of mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia can become addictive and are often used illegally as well. Ritalin and Adderall are normally prescribed for someone suffering with attention deficit disorders but are also abused on the streets illegally as the drugs can give a hyped up or energized feeling to the user. Prozac is an example of a designer drug as it enhances the users’ mood and alters emotional reactions. Initially Prozac was created to treat depression but now is also used for a wide range of problems from shyness to obsessiveness. “Drugs that alter our thinking and feeling are now being created at a rapid pace, and society will have to decide if, when, and how to use them” (Friedman, 2016).

This topic hit close to home for me as a close friend of mine fell into substance abuse and addiction. They are currently in recovery from their addiction. Over the years, it was very easy to see the changes in their personality. The addiction started after being prescribed pain medication after having back surgery. My friends body and mind got so used to the pain medication that he could not function without them. After a while the pain medication simply was not enough, and this led to trying street drugs such as cocaine, heroin, crack, and whatever else he could get his hands on to numb the pain or alter his mental status enough to not feel it anymore. It became a vicious cycle with no end in sight. This friend was the most loving and caring person I knew. He was always there to help his friends, family, and loved ones. As the addiction to drugs got worse his personality changed drastically. He became the person he said he would never be and couldn’t stand. At one point, he even resorted to stealing from family to support his addiction. This was way out of character for him. He ended up in prison after a few years of the drugs taking hold of him. After his release from prison and he was sober, his personality/character was back to what it was before. He is currently still sober but struggles with his past addiction and probably always will. It is extremely hard to watch someone you love turn into someone you do not know. I have also seen the effects that prescribed drugs such as Adderall can have on a person as well. I have seen a friend who was buying it on the street become extremely hyped up to the point they could not sit still. It is crazy to think how these drugs change our personalities so drastically.


After learning about all the different theories about personality development, I feel that they cannot be merged into one and that there is a place for all of them. I have been able to apply different personality development theories to different individuals that I know personally. I do not believe it is one size fits all, but everyone has a different theory that applies to them and how they developed their own unique personality. While I found interest in many of the different theories from week one through the present, it is easy to see how some overlap or build off others while others are exact opposites.



Psychology in Films: Shawshank Redemption Personality Theory

Engler (2013) describes “personality” as an organised and dynamic set of characteristics, that an individual possesses, which influences their cognition, emotions, behaviour, motivations and environment. Krauskopf (1999) provides a wider definition in that “personality” refers to the patterns of thoughts, feelings, behaviours and social adjustments, which are consistently exhibited over time that intensely influences the expectations, self-perceptions, values, and attitudes of the individual. It can also predict an individual’s reactions to problems, stress and other people.

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There are many theories which aim to understand and explain personality; these include trait, perspective, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, behaviourist, evolutionary and social learning (Maltby, Day & Macaskill, 2010). This essay will examine, using the Five Factor model trait theory (Costa & McCrae,1995) and Carl Rogers (1957) humanistic theory, the character of Andy Dufresne in the film “The Shawshank Redemption” (Marvin & Darabont, 1994) and evaluate which provides the best account of his behaviour.
The Big Five personality traits are the five wide-ranging domains that are used to describe personality. Previously other trait theorist had suggested various numbers of possible traits, these included Allport’s 4,000 personality traits, Cattell’s 16 personality factors and Eysenck’s three-factor. However, many viewed Cattell’s theory as too complex and Eysenck’s in contrast was too limited. As a result of this, the five-factor theory emerged which describes the basic traits employed as the building blocks of personality. These factors are extraversion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. Each consists of more specific primary factors; for example, extraversion includes warmth, activity, excitement-seeking, positive emotions, gregariousness and assertiveness. The Big Five model accounts for different personality traits without overlapping. Research demonstrates that the Big Five are consistent in observations, interviews and self-descriptions. Additionally, the five-factor structure appears throughout a widespread range of participants of different cultures and age groups (Maltby et al., 2010).
Rogers’ theory suggests that people have an actualising propensity, or desire to achieve their full potential, referred to as self-actualisation. Rogers stated that a fully-functioning person is someone who is perpetually striving toward becoming self-actualized. This person has been the recipient of unconditional positive regard from others, places no conditions on their own worth, capably expressing feelings, and is open to the many experiences offered by life. Upon self-actualisation they would become a fully functioning person living what he referred to as “the good life”. Which means the person would maintain a healthy psychological outlook, trust their feelings and there would be congruence in their lives between experience and self. Rogers believed that people are aware of what is causing the psychological imbalance in their lives and that deep down inside they know which actions are required to fully functioning people. Rogers maintained that humans are born with a desire to be the best they can. Self-actualisation is the motivating force to achieving their full potential. As infants the main goal towards self-actualisation is to have basic needs met such as being warm and fed (Maltby et al., 2010).
The “Shawshank Redemption” depicts the experiences of Andy Dufresne, who is wrongfully convicted of killing his wife and her illicit lover. He is handed down two life sentences and subsequently incarcerated in the notorious Shawshank Prison. Andy is initially portrayed as extremely quiet with other prisoners describing him as a “cold fish”. One of the major personality traits identified in the Big Five is Introversion. People who are introverted, that is to say low scoring on the Extraversion continuum, tend to beinward turning, or focused more on internal thoughts. This is demonstrated clearly on Andy’s first day of incarceration where he makes little eye contact, keeps his head down and does not respond to the taunting other prisoners. Viewed from a Rogerian perspective it could be said that Andy’s drive will be focused on the most basic of needs such as water, food sleep and safety (Maltby et al., 2010).
A significant change from Andy’s initial introverted state is seen when during work on a rooftop, Andy boldly manages to persuade the toughest guard there to allow him to assist with his taxes. Viewed from the Big Five perspective this would seem to be large swing from one end of the Extraversion scale to the other. Going from barely making eye contact and being compliant to risking being thrown from the prison roof are worlds apart. Given that that traits are assumed to be relatively stable this gives rise to the question of whether Andy truly in introverted or whether the sock of incarceration affected his normally more extrovert self. However, from a Rogerian perspective this would appear to be the beginning of Andy attempting to meet his innate need to self-actualise. As his basic needs are being met in the form of shelter, food etc. the desire to develop his potential appears to grow. Using his numerical skills will allow him to flourish (Maltby et al., 2010).
The rooftop incident leads to Andy becoming a trustee in the prison library and returning, outwardly at least, to his more introverted traits. He demonstrates from this point a further Big Five trait of Agreeableness. His compliance in assisting the prison officers with their taxes and personal finances demonstrate this. He also gets involved in building a new library for the benefit of his fellow inmates, a clear act of altruism, another sub category of Agreeableness. This continues until donations of books and records arrive at the prison and Andy discovers a copy of Mozart’s “The Marriage of Figaro” record. In another swing of personality, or perhaps a revelation of his true nature before incarceration, he locks the guard assigned to the warden’s office in the toilets and plays the record over the prison’s PA system for his own, and his fellow inmates pleasure. Again this seems in opposition to his mainly introverted outward behaviour as it an assertive act of defiance against both the warden and guards. Simultaneously it could be seen as both Agreeable and Extraverted behaviour. Agreeable in that it is an altruistic act of providing pleasure for all of the inmates knowing they will face no punishment and Extraverted in that is both assertive and clearly excitement seeking behaviour. Rogerian theory may account for this episode as an attempt to bring Andy’s real self closer to his conceptual self. Andy clearly finds a great deal of pleasure and fulfilment in listening to music but prison life blocks that from happening. Andy knew there would be a price to pay, in this case solitary confinement, but was driven to do it anyway (Maltby et al., 2010).
The true nature of Andy’s character unfolds as detail of his daring escape from prison come to light. The length of time that he had been working on his escape plan and the masterful way in which it was planned and executed demonstrated a high level of the trait Conscientiousness. Andy’s self-discipline was incredible, he not only was able to escape but he managed to acquire the finances required to do so and end the corruption within Shawshank whilst doing so.
When viewed longitudinally Andy’s story seems to be a clear path to self-actualisation as theorised by Rogers. Rogers highlights the uniqueness of the individual and that they themselves are capable of working out their own solutions, in this case an escape plan and end to corruption. Additionally, he stated that people have a natural tendency toward self-actualisation and growth, an innate drive to realise their potential (Maltby et al., 2010). Although some of Andy’s basic needs were met within the confines of Shawshank such as water, food and sleep the psychological needs were not. Andy appeared to be reaching to meet these needs by rock carving and building the library but it was clear that he needed more. His entire escape plan seemed to be driven not just by the injustice of being wrongfully imprisoned but by the drive develop his potential and qualities that would make him a worthwhile person.
Roger’s theory does appear to provide a good account of people’s behaviour in this case when compared to The Big Five. However although Rogers approach allows for variation it fails to identify enough constant variables in order to be researched accurately. Additionally the assertion the individuals intuitively seek positive goals, does not explain the presence of deviancy or evil within normal, functioning personalities such as Andy’s fellow inmates or the corrupt prison staff Maltby et al., 2010).
Costa Jr, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1995). Domains and facets: Hierarchical personality assessment using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory.Journal of personality assessment,64(1), 21-50.
Engler, B. (2013). Personality theories. Cengage Learning.
Krauskopf, C. J. (1999). The personality assessment system: A radical hypothesis.Applied and Preventive Psychology,7(4), 235-245.
Maltby, J., Day, L., & Macaskill, A. (2010). Personality, individual differences and intelligence. Pearson Education.
Marvin, N. (Producer), & Darabont, F. (Director). (1994). The Shawshank Redemption [Motion picture]. United States: Castle Rock Entertainment.
Rogers, C. R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change.Journal of consulting psychology,21(2), 95.

Relationship between Personality Traits and Choice of Career

Personality refers to a unique set of characteristic patterns within an individual that work to influence their beliefs, motivations, emotions, behaviours and interaction with their environment (Goldberg, 1993). The study of the psychology of personality has been attempted by various researchers, whom have attempted to decipher the factors behind personality traits and their differing effects on individuals (Hussain, Abbas, Shahzad & Bukhari, 2011). Gordon Allport described particular traits that existed with the individual, which included central, secondary, common and cardinal traits, whilst Cattell’s (1966) research explored sixteen primary and five secondary personality factors, and Eysenck defined only three traits: extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism, which have been demonstrated to be enough to explain the personalities of individuals (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975). However, in more recent years, the Big Five Personality Theory proposed by Goldberg in 1992 has become one of the most accepted personality trait theories amongst psychologists, as it contains and explains core dimensions of personality (Hussain et al., 2011). A multitude of studies have been undertaken to test the effect of personality on choice of career, with results suggesting there is a significant relationship between personality factors and career. Studies conducted by Roberts & Robin (2000), and Gunkel, Schlaegel, Langella & Peluchette (2010), theorizes that the selection of a dissatisfying career path is due to the ignorance of specific personality types of the individual. John Holland incorporated this premise into his Theory of Career Choice, which further explains how an individual can begin on a career path that properly aligns with their respective personality types, using a six item matrix of personality types. The compatibilities among career choice decisions and the personality types of individuals will be further examined within this paper.

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John Holland’s Theory of Career Choice maintains that a career choice that is compatible with one’s personality type is believed to be reinforced and rewarded by an academic environment (Kemboi, Kindiki & Misigo., 2016). His structural theory is centered on the premise that individuals will seek out careers that offer stimulating environments that are consistent with their respective interests and abilities. This premise has become the foundation of Holland’s widely accepted Vocational Personality and Work Environment Theory (an evolved version of the Theory of Career Choice), which incorporates a framework of six distinct work environments (RIASEC) that the aligns to individual and unique personality traits. These include:

 Realistic (R), an environment which requires physically manipulating the environment with tools, machines or animals; Investigative (I), requires modern problem solving and decision making, primarily involving complex and abstract thought; Artistic (A), promotes free and open creativity for problem solving and design; Social (S), an environment and fosters an understanding, interaction and care for other people; Enterprising (E), an environment which requires the ability to persuade or lead others to a common goal; and Conventional (C), an environment which requires the ability to organize, plan and follow directions.

Holland’s theory has been extensively applied to the field of career counselling, which has allowed the relationship between an individual’s personality traits and alignment to work environments to be examined efficiently. This interaction has been broken down into four unique constructs: congruence (similarity), differentiation, consistency (how close together the 6 types are), and identity (how future goals are aligned). Sharf, 2009 conducted an experiment in which Holland’s theory and personality were examined using the Self-Directed Search (SDS) – a form of career interest inventory questionnaire. According to Holland, the SDS has three major subsections, with the individual’s self-reported levels for each section being indicative of that individual’s abilities and preference for career: Activities, Occupations and Competencies. In the current study, a single volunteer was selected to participate in the experiment. This volunteer was a second grade teacher of fourteen years, with a bachelor’s degree in School counselling, and had stated in the pre-interview that she was “unsatisfied with her current job”, further adding “I like working with kids, but often check my watch frequently”. The volunteer listed their dream jobs to be dental hygienist, police officer, nurse among others. These careers, upon initial examination, appear to fall into the Realistic (R) category of Holland’s RIASEC matrix. The participants scores for each of the 6 categories were: R (6), I (14), A (13), S (17), E (10) & C (10). An analysis of the data reveals that these scores only aligned with three of the aspiration job personalities: nurse, veterinarian and dental hygienist, with the scores representing more of a social interest in helping others, with a high level of artistic interest in being creative and expressive. Prior to the SDS, the volunteer appeared to want to work in a Realistic field of work, but post-assessment analysis reveals their scores reflect more of a social type of work. These scores show Congruency and Identity (similar goals) with the participants current role as a teacher, meaning there is a consistency with current work environment rather than aspirational positions.

Upon discussion of these results with the volunteer, it was revealed that the only listed position they were interested in was the dental hygienist position, stating “I don’t know what half of those jobs do”. The volunteer further disclosed that their undertaking of the SDS assessment ‘peaked’ their interest in career, so she took the Myer-Briggs Personality Test (a career assessment tool built from Holland’s theory) online. The results of this test revealed the volunteer’s most salient personality traits were Introversion, Sensing, Feeling and Judging, with recommended careers including dental hygienist, nurse, teacher and librarian. The volunteer further stated that “it was good to see both tests showed me the same jobs”. This further evidences the personality traits that inform ambitious career choices.

Different theories have attempted to explain the effect of personality traits on ambitious career choice, in particular  the Five-Dimension Personality Model also known as the Big Five model of personality (Goldberg, 1992; Sucier and Goldberg, 1998; Hussain et al., 2011). This model consists of five personality traits; openness to experience; conscientiousness, or the affinity to be prepared; extraversion is the propensity to be gregarious and outgoing; agreeableness is the tendency to be sympathetic; and neuroticism is the tendency to be anxious and emotionally unstable (Goldberg, 1993; Hussain et al., 2012). Hussain et al., 2012 associated several career choices of individuals with the five factor model, as he made several claims based on the careers of managers and executives, where the scope of the job requires individuals to manage and operate business perfectly, which demands strong social interactions and an attitude that is ready to accept changes in external environment (Hussain et al., 2012), as well as careers within social, non-profit and public sectors. As stated earlier, recent studies suggest that there is a significant relationship between personality type and career choices, but in practice poor decisions are made due to the individual’s ignorance of specific personality type. Therefore, there has become a need to provide knowledge and guidance for people entering the workforce, in order for them to choose an appropriate career (Moorjani et al., 2007).

Hussain et al studied individuals in various careers and positions in the work force, measuring their respective scores on each of the Big Five traits. Firstly, managers and executives require an ability to respond to demands and have effective social interaction abilities. This role requires socially dominant behaviour to be able to respond to changes in the external environment to get things done more efficiently. Additionally, matching with personality traits, managers need to be highly efficient in time, resource and ability management, which is possible with a high ranking on the conscientiousness scale (Judge et al., 1999). The current study revealed that people ranking high on conscientiousness and agreeableness will perform better in managerial and executive positions within organisations, as well as those that rank low in neuroticism, as managers must possess strong financial and resource-oriented decision making skills, which often tend to make people emotional unstable. Those ranked averagely in openness and extraversion will also do quite well in managerial positions, as these traits allow negotiations to be successful, a capability to argue and clarify point of view.

Scientists, medical professionals and researchers tend to deal with complex problems, and as such need to be extensively experienced, sensitive and open to learn and perceive new knowledge (Catell & Mead, 2008). It has been found that the more people are exposed to an environment, the more he or she will have the capability and strength to cover all aspects of a single problem… meaning they will be more likely to introduce new ways of solving a single problem (Ackerman & Beier, 2003; Capretz, 2003). Hussain et al., determined that sensitivity is an essential personality trait to be able to effectively work in a research field. Individual’s high in extraversion are generally less sensitive to the exposed environment and do not possess the ability to deal with problems in an environment as they occur (Catell & Meads, 2008). Results indicated that people ranking high on openness to experience are more likely to be successful in research, science and engineering roles, in addition to individuals ranking low on extraversion.

Ackerman & Beier (2003) have theorised that conscientiousness is the personality trait that allows individual’s to excel in public sector professions. Public sector roles require punctuality and practicality, and as such a high ranking in conscientiousness allows people to be more time-bound, planned and organised with excellent management skills. Individuals that do not adopt methods to cope with stress and difficult situations often fail in these professions (Barrick & Mount, 1991). Hussain et al., further examined people in public sector officials, which have been shown to demand self-discipline, self-control and conscientiousness, as conscientiousness has been demonstrated to be the personality trait that allows individuals to excel in this industry (Ackerman & Beier, 2003). In his study, Hussain found that people that are more calm, relaxed and emotionally stable are likely to be successful in public sector professions, meaning a low neuroticism score is preferable (Mounet et al., 1998). Individual’s high in neuroticism are less likely to work with time, rule and attitude (Howard and Howard, 1995), and constraints that are important in the public sector.

Lastly, for individuals working in non-profit and social professions, there is an apparent need to have empathy and help others by sacrificing own self interests (Barrick & Mount, 1991). Individuals with a propensity to trust and interact with others, as well as being emotionally stable will perform best in these roles. It has been found that people ranking high on agreeableness and extraversion personality traits are more likely to excel in non-profit businesses, as considering the concerns of others is not possible without ranking on this personality trait (Judge et al., 1999). This trait allows individuals to accommodate and help others at the cost of their own personal resources. In addition, those ranking average on the neuroticism scale are more likely to excel in the same industry as people moderately neurotic have more propensity to be stable in emotionally hampering situations (Catell & Mead, 2008).

In summation, personality is a a set of psychological processes which emerges from our brain, which defined as ongoing natures that craft the characteristic patterns of interaction with individual’s environment (Goldberg, 1993; Oliver and Mooradian, 2003; Parks and Guay, 2009). Different personality factors, including the traits listed in the Big Five personality theory and John Holland’s Theory of Career Choice, can indicate how individual personalities can inform an ambitious career choice. Ambitious careers, including managerial and executive positions, social, non-profit and public sector roles have been demonstrated to be related to the personality factors of Conscientiousness, Openness to experience and Neuroticism. Overall, all of the traits in both the Five-Factor model and John Holland’s theory are good predictors of what careers best align with unique personalities, but an individual’s ignorance of specific personality traits can lead to poor career choices and ultimately dissatisfaction in life.


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Reflection of Personality Test Results

Emotions and personality traits are important to know and understand to help us build relationships and express our feelings. They can be applied to develop good work practices and for social workers to build empathy and trust with our clients.

The Big five project personality test showed the main trait of my personality as extremely extroverted, 94, outgoing, social and energetic. However, also score high for agreeableness 80 and open-mindedness 78. Together they show a picture of an active caring and inquisitive person who is generally conscientious and emotionally stable (Potter, 2017).

Trait theory is a superficial look at personality and does not explain the reasons why a person acts in a certain way (Burger, 2011). Ravelle (1995) suggests that the personality is not made by genetics but is programmed by genetics to be express in certain ways. My top personality trait score is extroversion. I am a very social and outgoing person. However I do not like large parties or places where there is little personal contact or discussion. I also score highly in agreeableness which describes my nature as someone who cares about the feelings of others or is compassionate (Potter, 2017).  For example, when I was young my family were very involved in local government and were required to attend functions as a family. After the event people would gather for refreshments. At this point I would wander off spend time with the caretaker and his family who lived in the building. We became very close friends. This shows the unique structure of my extrovert personality and my need to be genuine in my relationships. In my adult years I still would rather be in the kitchen or supporting the people putting on the party rather than mingling with large crowds.

Trait theory has condensed thousands of descriptive words to create a five domain or trait view of personality (Ewen, 2011). Therefore, the personality is not just one trait but to be described across all five major traits to provide a unique profile (Burgess, 2011).

The personality is shaped by experiences showing traits can develop and seem to change over time (Burgess, 2011). My personality scored in the average range for negative emotionality describing me as neither nervous nor calm (Potter 2017). However, I do have high anxiety and I became aware of its impact to my relationships. For example, I finished school in year ten but had always wanted to go to university. I didn’t feel smart enough to pass exams, so I avoided conversations about higher education or felt inferior around people who had a degree. I decided I to change my behaviour and enrolled to finish high school and gained a place at university.

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Humanistic theory of personality argues that healthy people are generally wanting to grow and change (Myers, 2007). That after they have their basic human needs met, they will become aware of their needs and in an environment of safety and support will go on to fulfil them (Myers, 2007). My behavioural response to feeling this way motived me to study to remove the negative feelings.

Seigl (2012) outlines 10 functions of emotions. Including protecting us from physical harm. For example, as young children my sister and I were fighting next to the stove while we were learning how to boil and egg. Whilst fighting over who would get the first boiled egg we grabbed at the pot on the stove and boiling water went on my arm. I screamed and my body immediately went into damage control. My heart rate increased, I began shaking with the shock and I turned red in the face. Then I cried and screamed in pain. Seigl (2012) describes this emotion an evolutionary autonomic response. It is the bodies way of letting us know it’s in trouble and needing to get back to a safe and healthy state (Seigl, 2012). The physical response of screaming and crying caused my mother to quickly react to stabilise the pain and therefore stop the injury from causing any further harm to the body (Seigl, 2012).

Emotion can also come from a non-physical event (Seigl, 2012). When my father told me, he was diagnosed with stage four cancer I remember feeling an intense pain in my body. My brain was trying to process the information and I found it hard to think clearly or concentrate on work. I had learned through experience that cancer was a debilitating and life-threatening disease. I felt very unhappy and scared for my dad’s treatment. 

As an extrovert I like share my news with someone. If I’m not able to talk to anyone due to keeping confidence or time of day I like to take a moment to collect my thoughts. I generally sit quietly and reflect on the news and try some calming hot drink. I can either find it hard to discuss issues with other people or I become very chatty about a problem to try to make sense of it. To overcome these feelings I channel my energy into understanding or researching the problem.  If news comes at a busy time, I feel quite frustrated that it either interrupts my plans or I want to stop work to spend time with the person. Burger (2011) describes the purpose of emotional response is to help us make changes to our current behaviour to fit in to the new environment. 

In another example I received some very good news that my god daughter was going to have a baby. Her late age pregnancy caused some concern, but she was over the most critical period. I felt quite excited and enthusiastic to offer my support. My energy levels and joy about the situation was quite high. However as to not overwhelm her with my excitement I channelled it into making some gifts for her and the new baby. When I’m around her I smile a lot and I want to ask lots of questions and get involved in all the plans. Facial expressions such a smiling and expressing our joy in material and physical ways such as hugging help us to bond and build relationships (Seigl, 2012).

I have a high sociable or extrovert nature. I believe this will be an asset in my social work practice. In my previous work I supported young people into stable housing. Young people require many different agencies to provide support and management for their everyday needs such as for their income, education and housing. Social work practice is about working collaboratively with many different agencies and people, bringing them together to work to a common goal (Australian Association of Social Work [AASW], 2013).

I also score highly in compassion. If I was working with clients with high needs or trauma situations, I would use self-care practices to support my practice (Gerdes & Segal, 2011). I am also a highly anxious person and I like to talk out issues with people to bring clarity and calm the emotions. Gerdes and Segal (2011) argue that being self-aware in the situation is a stabilising force to create a healthy interaction. Mindfulness practice in daily life and social work practice is noted for developing the skills of self-awareness (Decker, Brown, Ong & Stiney-Ziskind, 2015). Therefore, I would incorporate mindfulness practice through reflective writing or debrief sessions with supervisors to support and stabilise my emotions (Decker et al., 2015; AASW, 2013). I would also engage in reflective practice applying the Gibbs model of refection or another appropriate model to help clarify my feelings and ensure I have effectively managed the situation. This would help me to control my level of anxiety and helpful to lower risk of compassion fatigue (Sicora, 2010). As my personality scores highly in compassion. High levels of compassion are helpful in practice to understand clients and their needs (Decker et al., 2015). But, can mean you are more likely to experience compassion fatigue (Decker et al., 2015).  I often find my high energy levels or exuberance to complete work can impact on overlooking the smaller details of work. In social work practice these are critical to complete correctly and on time. As a requirement of Social work practice the AASW (Australian Association for Social Work) practice standards (2013) we are to incorporate the use of technology for communication and support.  There are many new technologies to support the social worker to complete tasks to higher level such as electronic diaries and grammar checks to organise tasks and produce high level work.

Becoming aware of our individual differences in personality and how we express our emotion can have a lasting positive effect on health wellbeing of a social worker in their practice. It may also be a factor in deciding the type of work they are suited to and when to seek help if needed.


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Personality And Britney Spears Prehistory Music Essay

Singer Britney Jean Spears was born on December 2nd, 1981, in Kentwood, Louisiana. She was the second of three children with an older brother Bryan and younger sister Jamie all born to Lynne and James Spears (Dennis, 2009). Britney Spears has been one of the most successful artist of this generation and yet one of the most controversial. While her music was centre stage at the beginning of her career her personal life and struggles are what makes the news today.

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Born the middle of three children Britney started performing at a very young age, she attended Kentwood high school in her home town of Louisiana, but dropped out to pursue her career in music (Dennis, 2009). Following her dream to sing and perform Britney (eight years old) auditioned and failed for the Disney channel’s The Mickey Mouse Club as a Mouseketeer, deemed too young by the casting director. On Britney’s eleventh birthday she successfully auditioned again for the Disney Club and was cast alongside future stars Justin Timberlake and Christina Aguilera where she appeared for 2 seasons before it was cancelled (
On December 1998 Britney was signed to Jive records and released her first and hit single ” Hit me baby one more time” becoming the first new female artist to have a number one single and album in the same week going which sold more than 22 million copies worldwide (Dennis, 2009). She was later awarded the Female album of the year, female artist of the year and best new artist of the year. Her dream of becoming a successful artist had come true.
Britney was now a permanent fixture in the entertainment world, at that time she was rumoured to be dating fellow Mouseketeer Justin Timberlake. In 2001 in trying to shed her wholesome image she had started her career with Britney released “I’m a Slave 4 U” showcasing a different musical direction and a raunchier image. Controversially on the MTV Video Music Awards 2001, Britney performed live on stage with a seven foot python draped around her neck wearing minimal clothing (Heard, 2010).
2002 was a traumatic year for Britney, she starred in her first feature Film Crossroads which was deemed a flop by critics (Dennis, 2009), she announced her split from Justin Timberlake and her parents announced that they were divorcing.
In 2003 Britney again created headlines performing onstage with her idol Madonna sharing a kiss with her onstage and fellow mouseketeer Christina Aguilera. Again Britney was showcasing her more sexualised persona that she had been trying to shed.
In 2004 following a hectic tour Britney appeared in the news for marrying her childhood friend and annulling the marriage within two days (Heard, 2010). It was also reported that year that her father had entered rehab due to alcoholism. Her turbulent life just got bumpier. She was later involved with backup dancer Kevin Federline whom she married late 2004(Heard, 2010)
In 2005 following rumours that Britney and Kevin’s union was less than perfect, Britney allowed camera’s to follow their lives and showcase it on MTV which drew little audience figures. In April 2005 Spears welcomed their first child Sean Preston. In 2006 Britney was again in the news being caught driving with her child on her lap. Later that year Spears announced they were having a second child Jayden James. But two months later Spears and Federline announced they were divorcing (Heard, 2010)
Britney began to frequent the social club scene with socialite Paris Hilton, Lindsay Lohan and others, For a mother of two her behaviour became more erratic, she was seen leaving various night clubs intoxicated which lead to her reportedly being checked into rehab, she was later caught during her difficult time shaving her head sparking a media frenzy questioning her sanity. She then went on to lose full custody of her children to her ex husband and became estranged from her mother (Heard, 2010). Even with her personal life in disarray Spears found time to continue her music career and release another album. While performing her then new single “Gimme More” Spears seemed lethargic, danced poorly and seen to lip sync her song. Later that month spears was charged in connection with a hit and run. Her album sold a million less copies and her disorganised public appearances led to suggestions she was nearing a breakdown (Dennis, 2009)
In 2008 Britney suffered a breakdown and was entering and re-entering rehab several times. .Her mother admitted publicly in her book Through the Storm that Britney had postpartum depression. Britney’s two sons were still in full custody of her ex husband and controversy started over her manager being claimed to mismanaged Britney by her parents.
Following a short time away in rehabilitation Britney began her comeback, her manager was sacked, her father was now in control of her assets and parents were back together in 2010. Her life seemingly going smoothly, while not in full custody of her children Britney is now supported on tour by her ex husband who tours with her and their two children.
According to Freud personality develops through a person’s attempt to, (1) max their instinct of gratification and (2) minimise punishment and guilt. Freud suggested that there are three main aspects of functioning within the structure of personality; the Id, ego and superego. The id is the “source of all drive energy” (Pervin, Cervone & John, 2005., p. 85). It functions in accordance with the pleasure principle which seeks pleasure at any cost without the consideration of a consequence, and which also avoids pain. The id is “without reason, logic, values, morals, or ethics” (Pervin, Cervone & John, 2005., p. 85). Following from the accounts on the life of Britney Spears, Spears is better known for her personal struggles and her sometimes controversial behaviour, which we can assume is some evidence of the id. According to Freud the id is the unmodified motives and instincts that are usually present in an individual and it contains all the primary processes; impulse, desire and pleasure. It is evident in the accounts of Spears life that she makes numerous attempts to fight against her superego, which Freud suggests is the moral code, “the moral branch of our functioning” (Pervin, Cervone & John, 2005., p. 85). The superego is what can be referred to as conscience; it is the morals, values and ethics enforced on us by society – our parents. Spears can be said to have been fighting against her superego, when she released the video for her hit single “I’m a slave 4u” in 2001, it could be seen that she was fighting so hard to shed her ‘innocent girl’ image. She was trying to go against the laws that had been governing her throughout childhood.
Her upbringing according to Freud plays a huge role in moulding her personality. He suggests that adult personalities can be traced back to handlings of earlier childhood conflicts. Freud suggests that non gratification of early instincts may lead to fixations and psychopathology. Non gratification or love could have then led to a fixation on attention seeking in Britney spears. It seemed like Britney lacked appropriate attention from within her family unit. According to Freud, early events are particularly influential on later behaviour, especially around the age of 5. Although her need for public attention has been evident since childhood, it can be said that, (in relation to her early childhood) she was being pushed by her mother- “ever since I was 7 or 8 years old, my mom would have company over, and I was always performing for everybody in front of the TV…”. This need for attention can also be seen when she allowed the media into her home to document her relationship with then husband, Kevin Federline and also when she shaved her head in 2007. Therefore, it can be assumed that she grew up seeking the attention of others either because of her early exposure to this type of attention or because she lacked appropriate attention from within her family unit. This non gratification within the home could have also led to the fixation, we see later on in her life, when she breaks up with Justin Timberlake in 2002.
In relation to Eysenck’s 2 factor theory, Britney seemed to struggle between traits (Pervin, Cervone & John, 2005., p. 233). She moved from being an emotionally unstable introvert- in 2002 she announced her break up from Justin Timberlake and her featured movie Crossroads, did not sell as much as was expected, she seemed unhappy, worried and anxious. She then started displaying traits of an emotionally stable extrovert, she went binge drinking Las Vegas and married her childhood Friend. This union was annulled two days later. She then got married to one of her backup dancer as stated earlier. All these according to Eysenck’s 1970 2 factor theory suggests, that Britney was (at the time) carefree, outgoing and sociable. As well as these, she has also shown traits of an emotionally stable introvert. This is a very new category within which Britney only entered in the last two years. We can assume that this is the impression she wants to give form the statement she makes in an interview with the Glamour Magazine- “I don’t like going out… I love my home and staying in bed and watching Dancing With the stars or reading a Danielle Steel novel. I’m kind of boring”. An emotionally stable introvert displays traits including; reliability, control, peacefulness, thoughtfulness and passivity.
Adler 1925 on the other hand, believed that “even though children have the same parents and grow up in nearly the same family setting, they do not have identical social environments”. Adler 1925 suggested that the order in which an individual is born contributes to the development of their personality. He referred to this theory as the birth order effect in personality development. In relation to the case of Spears, she was a second child, and as previously stated she had an older brother (Bryan Spears) whom we can only assume she looked up to at some stage during her developmental process. Britney Spears states that he “frequently kept her safe, and out of trouble, when she was growing up as a child”. Adler 1925 advised that the second child competes for attention and affection and finds different ways to earn attention either from parents or others. Spears on the other hand, found attention from the public eye from a very young age, attention we assume, she did not receive at home.
In Adler 1925 suggests that the child develops to be Independent and competitive, especially with the oldest sibling. Sibling rivalry may be initiated by second born as they struggle to identify their role in the family. The second child can be seen as a rebel, especially if they do not feel they are getting equal treatment with that of the first born. A great positive trait is that they can be very expressive and creative, there personality traits can also be different compared to the other children. Adler 1925 advised that Parents are less restrictive, freedom is allowed and the child is able to be more independent and creates own character. The child is able to freely express his/her unique personality and is very adventuresome, fun-loving, gregarious, often creative and artistic. The second child according to Adler tries to surpass the older sibling especially if close in age. They can be rebellious and envious but generally well adjusted. Adler1925 also advised that if different sex than the first born she/he can develop some first-born traits.
According to Ainsworth, from birth, infants are completely dependent on others for care; Ainsworth suggests that a child goes through stages in development of attachment. Having a secure base is very important in the bond the child has with its mother and in forming future relationships. A lack of secure attachments can have a negative consequence in forming a relationship with other in the future. Successful attachment is vital for positive social and emotional development In terms of Spears one can assume, following the information we have in regards to her relationships as an adult. She did not have a very secure base of attachment with her mother. This assumption follows from the breakdown she goes through after her break up with fellow entertainer, Justin Timberlake in 2002 after a 2 year relationship. From this point in her life she began to publicly go on a downward spiral.
In the 1930s Carl Rogers developed an approach to counselling called ‘Client-Centered Therapy’. His Client-Centered Therapy was based around the concept that the client knows best. It is the client who is most aware of his own pain and who will be the one to pave the way forward in his life. Humans are innately good and geared towards self-actualisation.
According to Rogers, an essential element in the creation of a fully functioning person is ‘unconditional positive regard’. This is essential to healthy psychological development.
Unconditional positive regard is something that may have been missing from Britney’s life. As previously stated, Spears was always working hard to gain attention and positive regard, which might have been due to a lack of this from her family. This, according to Rogers, results in a feeling of unworthiness. This could explain her string of unstable relationships and the breakdown in her life following the end of her relationship with Justin Timberlake.
Her life in the 2000s was full of abnormal and maladaptive behaviour, which could be classed as psychopathology. It is possible that the public image she desired was incongruent with her true inner feelings. According to Rogers, the denial of these feelings can result in an exaggerated version of what the person was trying to defend against in their mind. This could explain the bizarre behaviour of Spears. Her non-congruence could also explain her consistent need to impress and get attention.
Conclusion (Ron)
What was wrong with Britney? As Shildrick notes, “we demand of modern biomedicine that all disruptions to the self’s ‘clean and proper body’ should be dealt with, that the actual vulnerability of the embodied self and its propensity to diverge from the normative structures of health and well-being should be covered over, or managed out of existence, by a technologically driven bioscience (Shildrick, 2008, p. 32).  Her management, her friends and especially her family were unable to control her, Britney’s life turned into a mess and the world around her crumbled but luckily for her, and her family’s patience and unconditional support she pulled her life around so it seems.
Whether all that has happened to her is deemed positive or negative, it’s hard to say. The trials and tribulations that a person encounters in there life can either strengthen or weaken a persons resolve. In Britney’s case she seems to be moving onto a more positive route. So what is to become of Britney now?

Perspectives On The Personality Of Marshall Mathers Music Essay

Multiple Perspectives on the Personality of Marshall Bruce Mathers III. Marshall Bruce Mathers III emerged from a poor neighborhood in Detroit, Michigan and quickly gained fame as the American, hip-hop music artist, Eminem. “Marshall declared himself in ‘My Name Is’, the single that announced him as Eminem to the world” (Hasted, 2005). His released albums are compilations of rap songs, each with creative rhymed verses about his life and the people in it, composed by Mathers himself. Some may claim that Eminem is a role model, in terms of his artistic talent and ability to overcome life’s hardships. For others, he sets a bad example in society, as he is degrading to women and homosexuals and he is promoting violence through visual outlets. The controversy remains, but perspective can be gained through psychologies different aspects of personality.
Neo-Analytic Perspective
The central theme of the neo-analytic approach to personality psychology is ego identity. The importance of the ego, a person’s individuality, is emphasized “as it struggles to cope with emotions and drives on the inside and the demands of others on the outside” (Friedman & Schustack, 2009). This “feeling of self” develops through the interactions and conflicts an individual faces during their life, and determines their personality. Unlike many other aspects of personality, neo-analytic theories and theorists agree that one’s personality is not predetermined, or stable, and is shaped by encountered experiences. Marshall Bruce Mathers III is a famous personality whose life experiences can be analyzed in the perspective of the neo-analyst, Erik Erikson.

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Erikson considers the ego to be an influential and independent part of identity formation, and he also brings attention to the effects of society and culture during the process. He developed the theory of life-span development, claiming that there are eight predetermined stages and each involves a certain ego crisis that determines the direction of personality. As Friedman and Schustack aptly phrase, “the outcome of each stage … is dependent to some degree on the outcome of the previous stage, and successful negotiation of each of the ego crises is essential for optimal growth” (2009). The life-span perspective helps with understanding why Mathers behaves and thinks the way he does.
The identity formation of Marshall Mathers began at birth; October 17, 1972 began “the first ego crisis Erikson termed ‘Trust versus Mistrust'” (Friedman & Schustack, 2009). Debbie Mathers-Briggs became Marshall’s mother at age seventeen. As an adolescent, she was preoccupied with her own needs of finding out who she was and how she fit into society. Because of her young age, she was unable to successfully satisfy Marshall Mathers’ needs as a mother, which Erikson considers the most significant relationship of this stage. An infant’s needs are simple and straightforward, and it is necessary for a mother to contribute mature abilities and social support. Many agree that her parenting was inadequate and unreliable, which did not resolve the “Trust versus Mistrust” conflict for Mathers. Instead of developing feelings of hope, which is a psychosocial virtue in Erikson’s theory, he has since been unable to rely on others, believing that the world is not a safe place. It is during this period of infancy that a “child develops a sense of trust and hope” which arises from the satisfaction personal needs (Friedman & Schustack, 2009). “Marshall’s neediness only grew, though as a direct results of his mother’s actions,” (Hasted, 2005). She was in her own state of mind, and struggled to understand her son whose upbringing became hard to handle and caused Mathers’ directionless existence.
The ego crisis, “Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt,” indicates the significance of parents during an individual’s early childhood. Erikson’s theory, when applied to the Mathers’ life, shows the negative impact of abandonment at early age. Hasted writes that it was, “a consequence of his parents’ immature love,” that led to his father’s decision to leave his wife and son (2005). Marshall Mathers was abandoned by his father; he did not ever see him or communicate with him after the day he left. “He was raised by his mother – no father image or figure was there” (Hasted, 2005). It is during this stage of development that Erikson believes the ego skill, will, is formed. Friedman and Schustack write that, “successful negotiation of this stage results in a child who knows the difference between right and wrong, and is willing and able to chose ‘right’ most of the time” (2009). This was not the case for Marshall Mathers, and some of his actions in his later life show this. In accordance to the stage theory perspective, he was unable to develop self-control and self-esteem because of these matters.
Shortly after Mathers was abandoned by his father, Debbie Marshall-Briggs began to live nomadically. Nick Hasted quotes Marshall Mathers, “my mother never had a job, so we used to always stay with my family. We would stay until we got kicked out. Some of the relatives stayed in Kansas City, some in Detroit, so we just kept going back and forth” (Hasted, 2005). The moving took place during his mid-childhood, which is the optimal time of the “Initiative versus Guilt” stage. With Mathers’ father abandoning him as a young child, the responsibility of this child was left to his mother, grandparents, and aunts and uncles. His life so far was lacking stability, and Hasted claims that “he struggled to survive in series of elementary schools,” (2005). It was difficult for Mathers’ to develop any friendships that would last longer than the three months he would spend with him before moving again. During Erikson’s stage of “Initiative versus Guilt”, it is crucial for a child to interact with other children to learn how to “plan and carry out actions” as well as “how to get along with peers” to gain a sense of purpose (Friedman & Schustack, 2009). One’s early adolescent is a time where a lot of one’s time is spent attempting to fit in with a social group. Yet, what happens to the formation of one’s identity if they never have the stability of a school, father, or even a home to help ground them is negative. Marshall rarely had the availability to make friends because of his constant moving and this had him bullied and teased at many of the schools he attended. This had a drastic impact on his identity formation, and is relieved in his thoughts and actions.
It was not until Marshall Mathers reached the age of 12 that he began to reside permanently on the East Side of Detroit with his mother. “Industry versus Inferiority” stage develops competence through the interactions with in the neighborhood and school of an individual. Nick Hasted expresses that Mathers’ had a “reputation as some kind of violent bad boy” (2005) at his school. He was constantly bullied by his peers and let down by his teachers. Throughout his schooling, there have been multiple instances that Mathers’ competence was doubted by his teachers. His attendance was low, and his grades were far from average, which in Erikson’s view is an outcome derived from the previous life stages. Educators would single Mathers’ out and comment that he is unable to make it. He ended up dropping out at a young age, after repeating the ninth grade three times, which was disestablishing to a school-aged child. (Hasted, 2005). Marshall Mathers’ did not complete tasks, especially academic ones, and find pleasure in doing so. His identity formed in this stage to develop the sense of inferiority as he was not able to successfully complete his education.
As Marshall Mathers continued into the “Identity versus Role Confusion” stage of his adolescence, he was beginning to make some friends by being less distant and shy. Friedman and Schustack claim that, “at this stage, the adolescent experiments with different roles, while trying to integrate identities from previous stages” (2009). Mathers was becoming himself at this point in his life, in accordance to Erikson’s theory, and the society is a huge factor to the process. “Living in a white minority, victimized and twice almost murdered by blacks, Marshall could be excused for starting to feel racist himself” (Hasted, 2005).
The goal of the sixth stage of Erik Erikson’s theory, “Intimacy versus Isolation”, is to achieve love during young adulthood (Friedman & Schustack, 2009). It is inevitable that the relationship between Kim Scott and Marshall Mathers is significant in the artist’s identity formation. They became in separable as soon as they met and would later on marry and have a child together.
Currently, Marshall Mathers is in the “Generativity versus Stagnation” stage of his development (Friedman & Schustack, 2009). He has succeeded as an artist in the music industry, and is now able to provide for his daughter, Hailie Jade Mathers. He knew he was not going to raise his daughter in the same conditions he grew up in. Becoming a father was a huge turning point in Marshall’s life; he knew he had to create something for himself and strives to provide for Hailie. His identity at this point in his life is to be the dad that he never had and he continues to do so (Hasted, 2005).
Marshall Mathers’ life-span development has formed his personality and ego. He has gone through many life changing experiences, both positive and negative, that have shaped him into the man he is today. Erik Erikson’s neo-analytic perspective has “the goal of understanding what it means to be an individual in a social world” (Friedman & Schustack, 2009). After living such a difficult childhood and finally making something of himself, Marshall was being changed by the success that he received.
Skinner…the study of behavior, emphasize the role of learning in the development of personality, human behavior. Most recognized amoung behaviorist theorists. Emphasize experience and learning as the primary forces that shape human behavior. “skinner developed a psychology that concentrates not on the person but solely on those variables and forces in the environment that influence a person and that may be directly observed”. Behavior can be understood in terms of responses to factors in the environment. Suggested to concentrate on the environmental consequences that determine and maintain an individuals behavior. Changes in the environment affect the individual’s behavior. Internal forces cannot be operationally defined and their intensity cannot be measured. “skinner believed that the laws of behavior must apply to each and every individual subject when it is observed under the appropriate conditions” “at birth, the human infant is simply a bundle of innate capacities, but consequent behaviors can be comprehended in terms of learning” skinner derived…a reinforcement “is anything that increases the likelihood of a response”. The effect of one’s behavior that determines the likelihood of its occurring again. If behavior results in reinforcement. If the behavior does not result in reinforcement. Behave in alternative ways to find patterns of behavior that are reinforced. Process of operant conditioning. “originally spontaneous behaviors whose consequences determine their subsequent frequency”. Operant conditioning can be systematically described, skinner box, operant conditioning apparatus to train animals and conduct controlled research. Appropriate reinforcement increases the likelihood of that behavior occurring again. Procedure termed shaping, deliberately mold the organisms behavior in order to achieve desired behavior. Induce to perform. Using behavioral-shaping methods. “skinner believed that most animal and human behavior is learned through operant conditioning”. The process of learning to speak ones native tongue involves reinforcing and shaping of operant behavior. “operant behaviors are responses emitted without a stimulus necessisarily being present, they occur spontaneously” “verbal behavior evolved from signaling, imitating, and other nonverbal behaviors, following the rules of contingencies of reinforcement…shaping is involved in learning to speak”
Marshall Mathers has become a famous personality recognized by the music he has created as Eminem. It started in the studio, where he began recording songs that eventually led to his music being played on local radio stations. At the age of 25, Eminem signed his first record deal with a well-known producer and rapper, Dr. Dre. Instantly, they began producing music together and striving to get Eminem out into the public. The hits became world-famous and sparked the beginning of a whole new world that was opened up to Mathers. He was a superstar within the hip-hop culture for his talents of composing and performing (Hasted, 2005).
The behaviorist approach to personality analyzes an individual’s learning experiences, indicating that the environment solely controls human thought and behavior. Burrhus Frederick Skinner is well-recognized for his efforts in developing the principle of operant conditioning. Friedman and Schustack define operant conditioning as, “the changing of a behavior by manipulating its consequences,” (2009). The key element of Skinner’s theory is reinforcement; his approach is that consequences of a behavior determines if the action will or will not occur again (Friedman & Schustack, 2009).
Many people view Eminem and his music as a very angry person because when he released his first few albums he was very upset and angered at the life he had grown up in. Much of the time his lyrics and rhymes are about actual events that have occurred throughout his lifetime. The way he explains situations is in such a harsh, raw way that people listening to his music are shocked. His lyrics are the way he lets out his desires about his emotions and life in a way where he is not thinking about what other people think, but rather “spitting” out the words that best express how he feels (Hasted, 2005). The flow of rap music comes easily to him and it became obvious that he has a special talent.
Eminem uses music is an outlet to release emotions and sometimes the way he says his lyrics can leave society perceiving him as very negative. When he first was coming out into hip hop music scene, he had very controversial items on his albums. His music producer, Jimmy Iovine explained to Eminem that he would need to change some of the lyrics on his album if it were to be released. He found it difficult to do so, as he did not understand why it was necessary. This characteristic of personality is reflected in his music as he says what he wants to say, when he wants to say it. It was often difficult for him to understand why he would need to change the lyrics of his songs. Eminem grew up in Detroit, where these lyrics would be considered normal (Hasted, 2005).
Operant conditioning explains why he has continued to produce music and grow from his fame. “According to B.F. Skinner, personality is a repertoire of behavior learned from an organized set of environmental contingencies … personality is the group of commonly performed responses that a person has learned. Because it is environmentally determined, behavior is therefore very situation specific” (Friedman & Schustack, 2009). The reinforcements, both positive and negative, establish Eminem’s personality.
Positive reinforcement is a reward to a desired response in the means of a stimulus. Some types of positive reinforcement are good grades and verbal praise, (Friedman & Schustack, 2009). Grammy nominations, growing number of fans, and monetary success are some positive reinforcers that have strengthened Eminem’s behaviors. He learns from the reinforcement that his behaviors are accepted, which leads to increased occurrences. He responds to these stimuli by recording more songs and releasing more albums.
There is also a biological reinforcement that plays a role in Eminem’s personality. The lifestyle of those that reside in Detroit, Michigan complies with that of Eminem’s. They are accepting to this type of music and way of life.
Negative reinforcement is another aspect of Skinner’s theory that increases the likelihood of behavior. These are stimuli that, when withdrawn, increase desired behaviors, (Friedman & Schustack, 2009). Because of his music career, Eminem has been withdrawn from a life of poverty. He struggled all throughout his early life to provide for himself, and his family. The behavior that is reinforced is his fame, and he continues to try his hardest to continue success to live a comfortable life.
Eminem has learned a lot from his past experiences and represents them in his music in a way where the outside public can relate to him. He is in touch with his emotions and feelings and it is because of this that he has such a raw personality, and has the ability to show the world how he has become the person that he is.  

The personality disorders | Analysis

Personality or personality traits are the basis of what makes a person who they are. When expressed in a healthy way that is beneficial to a person, they are described as “an enduring pattern of our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. They are how we think, feel, make decisions, and take actions” (Barker, 1995). They are determined both by a person’s genetic makeup and environmental factors and are a determining factor as to how a person lives their life. When a personality trait becomes rigid and dysfunctional, where it significantly hinders healthy thoughts and activities and harms the person who has them, this may be the basis for a personality disorder.

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According to the DSM-IV a personality disorder must show a “lasting pattern of behavior and inner experience that markedly deviates from norms of the person’s culture” (James Morrison, 2006). This could include personality patterns that are normal in some people, but are exaggerated or accentuated in those with a personality disorder. In order for a person to be diagnosed with a personality disorder, the symptoms must show a lifelong pattern of manifestation. This means that the disorder is typically identified in late adolescence or early adulthood and persists throughout a lifespan. Another requirement for the diagnosis of personality disorders is that the negative behavior patterns must have a pervasive effect on all areas of a person’s life; this includes employment, intimate relationships, social functioning, and family. The behavior must routinely causes problems or dysfunction, and cannot be attributed to any other sort of mental or physical illness (James Morrison, 2006). An individual with a personality disorder will show maladjustment in all aspects of their life and the disorder will be reflected in the ingrained, rigid, and dysfunctional patterns that they present throughout their lifetime. According to Frances, “personality disorders usually produce ego-syntonic behavior, or consistent with the ego integrity of the individual, and, therefore, are usually considered appropriate by the individual. This may cause the negative behavioral patterns to be inflexible and tough to change.” (Frances, 1999) The treatment of personality disorders is usually difficult and often has limited results.
In the DSM-IV there are three “groups” or clusters that each of the 10 personality disorders fall into. People with cluster A disorders are characterized by odd or eccentric behavior, abnormal cognitions or ideas, strange speech or actions, and difficulty relating to others (Frances, 1999). People diagnosed with personality disorders are more frequently diagnosed with an Axis I disorders as well (James Morrison, 2006). Frequent co-morbid diagnosis for cluster A personality disorders are: agoraphobia, major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance abuse (Frances, 1999). Type A disorders include paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders.
Paranoid personality disorder, the first of the cluster A disorders, is characterized by extreme or unnecessary paranoia, suspiciousness, and a general mistrust of organizations, groups, and others, is found in 0.5%-2.5% of the population, as a whole and occurs more commonly in males (Frances, 1999).
A person with paranoid personality disorder often thinks, without reason or cause, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving them, which inhibits them from developing close relationships. According to Dobbert, “The delusional belief that others are disloyal and untrustworthy precludes their ability to confide in others. The afflicted person believes that the information that they provide in confidence will be later utilized to bring them harm” (Dobbert, 2007).
People with paranoid personality disorder also tend to hold grudges and become angry for seemingly benign perceptions of insults or injuries. These grudges can be long lasting and based out of perceived threats or insults. Even if the intention to harm or defame the person is not present, due to the constant expectation that others are trying to hurt them, an individual with a paranoid personality disorder creates a threat and will then hold malice toward another person for an exaggerated amount of time. This malice will evoke anger and hostility that will eventually lead to the alienation and isolation (Dobbert, 2007).
The second of the cluster A disorders is the schizoid personality disorder, it is characterized by a general detachment from social settings, a restricted or muted range of emotions, and need for solidarity. It is found in 3% of the general population and affects women more commonly then men (Frances, 1999). A person with schizoid personality disorder neither desires nor enjoys close or intimate relationships.
According to Dobbert, “Persons afflicted with schizoid personality disorder find no interest in initiating, developing, and maintaining close relationships. It is not uncommon for these persons to lack the interest or desire to be considered a part of their biological family” (Dobbert, 2007). These people do not find inclusion in groups or social settings particularly interesting or desirable and work to avoid such settings.
A person with schizoid personality disorder is described as “appearing introverted, but not shy”, and seems to prefer their own company instead of seeking relationships with others. This often leads the person showing little if any interest in sexual or intimate experiences, preferring acts of self-gratification and sexual fantasy over personal contact. (Dobbert, 2007)
Due to the indifference of intimate relationships, the person with schizoid personality disorder develops limited interest in activities they enjoy and does not seek to share these activities with others. They would prefer to focus their attention on a few activities and interests of a solitary nature and to obsess about those interests with little regard to the perceptions of others.
They also seem to be unaffected by the acceptance, praise, or criticism of others involving their actions and isolation. It becomes obvious to those around them that a person with schizoid personality disorder does not care what others perceptions are and they often seem cold, detached, and unemotional, “presenting a bland or blank expression to the world” (Dobbert, 2007).
The final disorder in cluster A is the schizotypal personality disorder which is a condition characterized by distorted thoughts, behaviors, and functioning. “Magical thinking”, relationship difficulties, severe anxiety, and poor social skills are also common. (James Morrison, 2006) This disorder affects 3% of the general population and is diagnosed slightly more in females then males. (Frances, 1999)
People with schizotypal personality disorder perceive things in an odd or unusual way. Their interpretation often differs from that of others and is “specific to themselves” (meaning nobody else shares similar perceptions and thoughts), but is not based out of delusional thought or differing cultural norms. Many of these people believe that that they have extrasensory or magical powers and attribute their odd perceptions to this ability (Dobbert, 2007).
The belief in clairvoyance, mind control, the “sixth sense” and other forms of “magical thinking” often lead others to view these people as odd which strains social and work relationships. To compound this, many people with schizotypal personality disorder have a reduced ability to understand other people’s actions and respond to them inappropriate and in a socially unacceptable manner. Having few successful experiences with others often leads to social anxiety, suspiciousness, and paranoid ideation. Dobbert states “rather than examining one’s self to determine the source of others avoidance, people with schizotypal personality disorder believe that the others are conspiring against them. Due to the inability of self-introspections, the afflicted person withdraws deeper and further isolates themselves, leading the person to further fall into their delusional thinking” (Dobbert, 2007).
People with cluster B disorders are characterized by dramatic, unpredictable, and destructive behaviors as well as difficulty with impulsiveness, the violation of social norms, and being self-abusive and hostile to others. It is common for these disorders to share co-morbidity with eating disorders, social phobias, somatization disorder, pathological gambling, substance abuse, and post traumatic stress disorder (Frances, 1999). Included in cluster B are antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders.
According to the DSM-V, the first of the cluster B disorders is “the antisocial personality disorder, which is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violations of, the rights of others” (James Morrison, 2006). It is characterized by failure to conform to social norms, deceitfulness, impulsivity, aggression, irresponsibility, and lack of remorse. It affects 3% of men and 1% of women, and is distributed evenly throughout all races (Frances, 1999).
People with antisocial personality disorder act against social norms and show little respect for lawful behaviors. They are often arrested or commit acts that could lead to confrontations with law enforcement. According to Dobbert, people with this disorder “don’t just violate social norms…but, perform behaviors that are significant violations of the criminal code” (Dobbert, 2007). This indicates that people with antisocial personality disorder are capable of committing “the most heinous of crimes” including rape, armed robbery, and murder. This diagnosis had been applied to many of the documented serial killers such as Ted Bundy, Jeffery Dahmer, and John Wayne Gacy. (Dobbert, 2007)
The level of deceptiveness that is involved in antisocial personality disorder has been directly linked to the intelligence of the individual. While all people diagnosed with this disorder pathologically lie, as intelligence increases the use of aliases and conning operations also shows an increase. Deception contributes to the notable involvement with law enforcement and is often utilized in criminal acts (Dobbert, 2007).
As displayed by criminal and deceptive acts, a lack of impulse control is noted for those diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. This impulsivity often leads to the disregard for personal safety and the safety of others. “In the ever increasing need for heightened stimulation, those with antisocial personality disorder do whatever gives them the feeling of power over others” (Dobbert, 2007), this may include hurtful, violent, and aggressive acts done with little regard for other people’s feelings or of the consequences of their actions.
The second disorder in cluster B, borderline personality disorder, is stated by the American Psychiatric Association as “pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects and marked impulsivity” (James Morrison, 2006). It is characterized by identity disturbances, self-damaging behavior, feelings of emptiness, anger regulation problems, and stress related paranoid ideation or dissociative symptoms. Affecting more females than males at a rate of 3-1, it is found in 2% of the general population (Frances, 1999).
Dysfunctional relationships are the key area that defines borderline personality disorder. Dobbert states that “persons afflicted with borderline personality disorder are obsessed with the potential for rejection and abandonment. Their perception of the environment and persons’ response to them influences their feeling of self-worth and image” (Dobbert, 2007). They often misconceive common circumstances and situations as rejection. This then manifests itself in anger, resentment, and feelings of abandonment.
In order to tailor themselves to a relationship, the person with borderline personality disorder will illustrate a sudden change in self expression and perception. These changes may include sudden changes in the style of clothing, attitude, and social preferences of the individual and may also encompass hobbies, interests, and activities. If an individual is rejected by the object of that relationship, they will change themselves again to distance themselves from their past relationship and attract a new one (Dobbert, 2007).
In order to manipulate others and stage off real or perceived abandonment, a person with borderline personality disorder will threaten or attempt suicidal behavior, and self-mutilation. Threatening self-injury or suicide allows the individual to control the other person in the relationship and allows them to postpone the abandonment that they so fear. While attempts are made on the part of a person with this disorder, many of them are half-hearted and not meant to be successful; they are simply utilized as a device evoke a desired reaction from another person.
Histrionic personality disorder is the third of the cluster B disorders, and is described as “pervasive and excessive emotionality and attention-seeking behavior” (James Morrison, 2006). It is characterized by sexual promiscuity, rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotion, self-dramatization, and suggestibility. It is found in 2-3% of the population and is diagnosed more often in women (Frances, 1999).
Typically, people with histrionic personality disorder exhibit a compulsatory need to be the center of attention. When they find themselves being ignored or not admired they feel anxiety and identify confusion. These people are very socially motivated and expect to be noticed and envied by others. In order to gain attention many people with histrionic personality disorder focus intensely on appearance or act overdramatically in hopes of creating a scene to gain attention.
Seductiveness and overtly sexual and provocative behavior is another way for people with histrionic personality disorder to gain attention. Flirtatious and intimate behavior is often used, even in inappropriate settings such as work, to gain attention. A conflict surrounding this inappropriate behavior, instead of inhibiting the behavior, only works to reinforce it as the center of attention again shifts to the disordered person.
Narcissistic personality disorder, the final disorder of the cluster B sub-type is characterized by exaggeration of achievements, preoccupation with success and power, excessive need for admiration, a sense of entitlement, exploitation, envy, and arrogance (Frances, 1999). The DSM-V states that narcissistic personality disorder is “a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, with a need for admiration, and a marked lack of empathy” (James Morrison, 2006). Of the general population less than 1% of the population suffers from narcissistic personality disorder and it is diagnosed 3-1 in males over females and is commonly classed the “male ego disorder” (Frances, 1999).
Those who suffer from this disorder are prone to overinflating or creating achievements in order to brag about or prove their superiority to others. They often daydream about unlimited success and about the admiration that it will bring from others. They may also suffer from delusions that allow them to believe that they are entitled to act in any way they want, despite the effect it has on others.
Because they view themselves as superior, the narcissist does not feel that they should be concerned themselves with the feelings of others. They will often defame and exploit others for their own self promotion. This marked lack of empathy is a dominate feature of narcissistic personality disorder and is brought about as a defense mechanism to protect their grandiose ideals about themselves.
Cluster C disorders, including avoidant, dependant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders are characterized by fearful and anxious behaviors, as well as avoidance of social situations and feelings of loss of control (Frances, 1999). Typical Axis I co-morbid diagnosis are: social phobias, anxiety disorder, adjustment disorder, myocardial infraction, and obsessive compulsive disorder.
Treatment- (Dingfelder, 2004)
Individuals at this end of the continuum commit rape, murder, and genocide. Will a person afflicted with antisocial personality disorder start at the lease serious end of the continuum and move to the far extreme?
Works Cited

Barker, R. L. (1995). The Social Work Dictionary. In R. L. Barker, The Social Work Dictionary (p. 104). New York, New York: NASW Press.

This source is reviewed and published by the NASW press, a division of the National Association of Social Workers, which is a leading scholarly press in social science research field. The information used gives a broad and comprehensive definition of the role that a personality plays in the life of an individual. This definition of personality and personality traits was chosen because due to its association with social work and because of its encompassing definition. This definition is used as a contrast point for the explanation of personality disorders.

Dingfelder, S. (2004). Treatment for the Untreatable. Monitor on Psychology , Vol 35, No. 3, p. 46-48.

This article, found in a peer reviewed scholarly journal, discusses the effectiveness of treatment for personality disorders. It states that many practitioners have had difficulty in treating personality disorders, which continue to present a pervasive and persistent pattern of dysfunction despite many treatment methods. It also discusses some effective treatment options and the hope for recovery from personality disorders.
Frances, A. M. (1999). Your Mental Health: A Layman’s Guide to the Psychiatrist’s Bible . In A. M. Frances, Your Mental Health: A Layman’s Guide to the Psychiatrist’s Bible . New York: Scribner.
Written by one of the authors of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, this book provides general information about diagnosis of personality disorders and other mental health problems. It gives more detailed information on the cluster groupings (A, B, and C) for personality disorders than the DSM-IV Made Easy, as sited below. It also gives descriptive character traits that are associated with each of the personality disorders and discusses Axis I co-morbid diagnosis that are often found with personality disorders.

James Morrison, M. (2006). The DSM-IV Made Easy. In M. James Morriosn, The DSM-IV Made Easy (pp. 461-495). New York: Guildford Publications, Inc.

This book, containing information released in the DSM-IV, released by the American Psychological Association, is a stripped down, simplified version of the original DSM_IV. It provided detailed information on each personality disorder as well as diagnostic criteria for personality disorders. It also provides classification information and Axis diagnosis. The information in the source is considered to be extremely accurate and is therefore used to give a thorough and comprehensive information in relation to each personality disorder.

Mayo Clinic. (2010, April 6). Personality Disorders. Retrieved April 6, 2010, from

This source, written by the psychological staff at the Mayo Clinic, is retrievable online. The Mayo Clinic, an internationally renowned medical practice and research group, has given a general overview of personality disorders and discussed some treatment options that are available for the disorders. The information for treatment is not found in the above references, and the idea of using psychotherapy and medication to treat personality disorders is discussed.