Photographer: Thomas Hoepker

Photographer: Thomas Hoepker
Title: September 11, 2001. New York, Brooklyn
Year: 2001
This photo is said to have been taken by Thomas Hoepker on the 11th of September 2001. The photo shows a group of New Yorkers relaxing in the sun in a park with clear blue water behind them and in the background the dust and smoke coming from the area in which the world trade center once stood. In 2001 when this photo was take, Hoepker refused to publish it as it didn’t seem an appropriate image when such a serious disaster had occurred.
This image was eventually published in 2006 and caused a lot of controversy as some people felt that the photo portrayed Americans in a way that even though a horrible disaster that has killed thousands of people had happened that there was no need for people to change or reform as an united nation.
However others felt that the photo captured a historical moment which shows that regardless of what terror attack or war is going on, life doesn’t stop it goes on.
This photo 13 years on from the date of the disaster is one of the defining photographs from 9/11.
Image source:
http://www.magnumphotos.com/C.aspx?VP3=CMS3&VF=MAGO31_10_VForm&ERID=24KL5351FG
Photographer: Eve Arnold
Title: Childbirth, a baby’s first 5 minutes
Year: 1959
From The Series: First five minutes of a baby’s life
The subject of the photograph is a baby who has just been brought into the world and captures the first 5 minutes of the baby’s life. The image manipulates our emotions by drawing us to the subject through the use of an extended depth of field.
The rule of thirds applies to this photo with the mother in the bottom of the image with the baby in the centre and the doctor who has delivered the baby at the top of the image. There is an intense light behind the doctor, which gives a sense of an angelic / holy person; this makes you think that the baby is a gift from a higher presence.
When Eve Arnold decided she wanted to become a photographer, she showed her mother some of her photographs, which happened to be photos that documented the first five minutes of a baby’s life.
Her mother never seen the potential of her daughter’s photographs even though her work led to numerous awards, first female member of Magnum and respect from peers and fellow photographers but despite this, she wanted approval from her parents. She did eventually get approval from her mother but it did not come easily.
At the time this photograph was taken, the Nikon F camera, Nikon’s first SLR was introduced. This was one of the most advanced cameras that contained all of the concepts that had previously been introduced but combined them all in one camera. AGFA also introduced the first fully automatic camera.
Image Source: https://www.magnumphotos.com/C.aspx?VP3=SearchResult&STID=2S5RYDIET7XL
Photographer: W. Eugene Smith
Title: Dr. Ernest Guy Ceriani going to visit patients
Year: 1948
From the Series: Country Doctor
This portrait shows a country doctor, Dr. Ernest Guy Ceriani (aged 32), going to visit his patients in their remote villages. The ‘Country Doctor’ series was W. Eugene Smith’s 1948 feature for LIFE magazine. He spent 23 days in Kremmling, Colorado following GP Ernest Ceriani. His images capture the emotional and physical challenges faced by the doctor and also the reality.

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This portrait is very dramatic as the image is in black and white and is intensified by the large dark cloud that is above the doctor. The black cloud could suggest the doctor may be on his way to deliver bad news to a patient but captures him in a natural way. The doctor is in the centre of the image with the focus being mainly on him but the fence to the right of the image is a bit distracting. The viewer is instantly drawn to the subject due to his dominance in the frame.
Image source: http://www.magnumphotos.com/C.aspx?VP3=SearchResult&ALID=2TYRYDDWML5P
Photographer: Marilyn Silverstone
Title: Mask room at the Pemayangtse Monastery
Year: 1967
Marilyn Rita Silverstonewas an accomplished photo-journalist and ordainedBuddhistnun. She spent a lot of time travelling around Europe, Middle East & Africa and ended up having a lifetime love of India.
This photo makes me feel a bit weary because of the amount of masks hanging, the bizarre appearance of the masks and also the way in which Silverstone has shot the photo.
The masks are in the darkness and the two young boys in the lower corner are In the light, this creates a feeling off demons in the shadows.
The ferocious masks are a preview of the visions of the after-death state, presented so that the viewer may recognise them in future as reflections of one’s own mind”
The expressions on the young boys’ faces suggest that the boys aren’t sure of the masks and may be scared of them.
Image Source:
http://www.magnumphotos.com/C.aspx?VP3=CMS3&VF=MAGO31_10_VForm&ERID=24KL535FI3
Photographer: Bill Brandt
Title: Nude, Hampstead, London
Year: 1952
This is a photo of a person’s feet taken whilst facing the soles of the feet. The person would appear to be lying on the floor of an empty room with two doors in the background
The picture has been printed with high contrast and the tonal values of the image play an important part. A wide angle has been used, which has caused an unusual perspective in the picture. The feet take up a large part of the frame and appear to almost touch the celling.
A dramatic look has been created by using a wide angle lens and the use of light adds a variety of attractive tones on the subject. The empty room gives a sense of being alone.
Brandt is considered one of the 20th century ’s greatest British photographers. He originally had a very documentary approach to his work and this changed over time to focusing on the nude form and making images appear more poetic.
Image source:
http://chloe328.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/bill-brandt-feet.jpg
Photographer: Annie Leibovitz
Title: A portrait of the Queen
Year: 2007
This photo is a beautiful portrait of Queen Elizabeth II seated in an unlit room in Buckingham Palace.
The natural light coming through the window creates Rembrandt lighting and Leibovitz has balanced the exposure from the outside with the available light within the room.
The light casts a wonderful silvery light on her white dress and fur creating a fairy-tale regality.
The placing of the Queen makes the photo more aesthetically pleasing on the eye. The queen has her crown on in this photo which shows power but at the same time the use of space shows a sense of loneliness.
Image source:
http://image.guardian.co.uk/sys-images/Arts/Arts_/Pictures/2007/05/02/leibovitz460.jpg
Photographer: Daido Moriyama
Title: Stray dog, Misawa
Year: 1971
Moriyama almost always shoots in black and white with very high contrast. He uses a technique he calls are-bure-bokeh which basically means rough, blurry and out of focus.
Instead of using a large single reflex camera, Moriyama prefers to use a small compact camera which allows him to be more spontaneous. He was influenced by his friend Yukio Mishima to add existential darkness to his subjects.
This picture shows a stray dog which fills the frame. The dog is black against a white background with some white highlights where the light touches the dogs ear, side and back leg. Moriyama has taken this photo from behind the dog and to the left
Image Source: http://www.worldphoto.org/_assets/images/DaidoMoriyama_Misawa.jpg
Photographer: Olivia Arthur
Title: Shopping at a mall in Jeddah
Year: 2010
Olivia Arthur is a uk photographer who began working as a photographer in 2003. She has been working on a series about women and the East-West cultural divide. This work has taken her to the border between Europe and Asia, Iran and Saudi Arabia.
This photograph shows a female dressed in a black abaya facing a male dressed in jeans and a white t-shirt who is handing her some cosmetics. All shop keepers are males in Saudi Arabia. You can see the difference between the sexes in Saudi Arabia, females must wear an abaya if they go out which shows only their hands and eyes unlike men who can wear what they want.
The female is the main focus in this image, they tall black figure catches the viewers attention instantly and without her the photo wouldn’t tell a story.
Image source:
http://www.magnumphotos.com/C.aspx?VP3=CMS3&VF=MAGO31_10_VForm&ERID=24KL535OLY
Photographer: Richard Mosse
Title: Come Out (1966)
Year: 2011
Richard Mosse is a photographer who is more documentary than photo-journalistic. He has spent time in areas of conflict including the Congo which is the subject of his Infra series.
Mosse has used Kodak aerochrome film which is an infrared sensitive film normally used to survey vegetation and camouflage detection. By using this, the vegetation in the photos appear pink adding interesting elements to the photos.
This is a photograph of a small grass hut surrounded by a pink hue of palm trees and other foliage. The hut is at the bottom of the photo and centered. Behind the pink trees there is a grey misty sky.
Image Source: http://www.richardmosse.com/works/infra/
Photographer: Gueorgui Pinkhassov
Title: Cock of the walk
Year: 1992
Gueorgui Pinkhassov was originally a set photographer but after meeting Tarkovsky he changed direction and became a photo-journalist as Tarkovsky had advised him that Russia was a a closed society, but that things would change soon and that photojournalists were needed.
Pinkhassov used Kodachrome 200 ASA film which produced high contrast photos and reproduces reds very well which helped make the cockerel stand out from the dark shadows.
He has said that he never considered the composition of the image as he had a very tight timeframe to capture the cockerel poking its head out. The background is other cockerels and people hidden in the shadows reducing any unwanted details.
Image Source:
http://www.magnumphotos.com/C.aspx?VP3=CMS3&VF=MAGO31_10_VForm&ERID=24KL53ZVNE
Photographer: Moises Saman
Title: Marja’s new district chief meets with local elders in Marja’s district center.
Year: 2010
Moises Saman is a photojournalist who regularly works in some of the most conflicted places in the world.
This image shows a group of older men sitting on the floor whilst a man reads a document on a table. The men’s faces appear sad and show uncertainty towards the younger man who would appear to be the new district chief.
The photo could have been taken at any point in time if it wasn’t for the photo of the country’s president.
Saman has said this photo was to shows that
Leaders come and go but it’s the local people who suffer.
Image source:
http://mediastore4.magnumphotos.com/CoreXDoc/MAG/Media/TR2/c/2/7/4/NYC105993.jpg
Photographer: Hugh Hood
Series Title: Glasgow 1974
Year: 2013
This is a photograph featured in Hugh Hood’s Glasgow 1974 exhibition at Street Level Photoworks in Glasgow. The exhibition features photographs of the streets of Glasgow from 1974 to 1978, during this time Glasgow’s social and architectural history was changing, half the tenements were being pulled down and the other half were being renovated or built.
This photograph shows an old abandoned tenement building which would have been demolished. The side of the building is bare and the windows throughout the tenement are smashed.
This image shows Glasgow in a past that older generations will remember and that younger generations can look at and get an understanding of how Glasgow was and how it has moved forward but also how communities and society have changed.
Image Source: http://www.streetlevelphotoworks.org/product/hugh-hood-unttitled-3-glasgow-1974
Photographer: Constantine Manos
Title: Ku Klux Klan rally
Year: 1952
Constantine Manos was a student at the University of South Carolina which was a segregated university. He wrote the first anti-segregated editorial in the university newspaper, this caused the university and Manos to receive threating phone calls. He used to sneak out to the cotton fields at night and see the Ku Klux Klan.
This image of the men is quite daunting with the background black this gives a dark feeling to the image and it also makes the man in white stand out. Staring at this image can make one feel uneasy because the figure in white has his face covered. What makes it so terrifying is that the man could be anyone a friend ,family or someone close.
The composition of the mans body is relaxed but even though his face is covered you can see within his eyes that it’s a serious and angry look that he has. The Ku Klux Klan member’s robe has a cross within a circle that contains a blood drop in the middle which is believed to represent the blood that was shed by Jesus Christ as a sacrifice.
After the American civil war, the Ku Klux Klan was formed, they were a secret society that wanted white supremacy and to do this they terrorized and intimidated people
Image Source:
http://www.magnumphotos.com/C.aspx?VP3=CMS3&VF=MAGO31_10_VForm&ERID=24KL53ZOQY
Photographer: William Eggleston
Title: Untitled
Year: 1695-1968
This is a picture of a woman sitting at a green diner booth. The photo is taken from behind and shows the woman’s greying hair that has been wrapped into a perfect beehive with no loose strands. The bobby pins used to hold her beehive hairstyle in place simulate a continuation of her spine. The male sitting opposite her is obstructed completely from the lens with only his arms visible. Eggleston’s consistently controlled gaze focuses on the attention to detail in the way the woman has styled her hair.
Eggleston’s personal documentary style is recognized worldwide along with him being the pioneer of colour photography. Since first picking up a camera over fifty years ago, Eggleston’s work is said to find ‘beauty in the everyday’. He captures the ordinary world around him and creates interest by using sharp observation, dynamic composition and great wit.
Image source: http://arttattler.com/Images/NorthAmerica/NewYork/Whitney/William Eggleston/02.-eggleston_untitled1965beehive.jpg
Photographer: Diane Arbus
Title: Patriotic Young Man with a Flag
Year: 1967
Diane Arbus was known as a ‘photographer of freaks’ as she preferred to photograph the normal within an abnormal society. She photographed dwarfs, nudists, circus performers and transgender people amongst other subjects.
Arbus had a talent for being able to relate to people which can be seen in her photos as her subjects appear to be at ease and comfortable during the experience. Arbus felt that if it wasn’t for her no one would see the true aspects of her unusual subjects.
Arbus’s photo shows a young man who is proud to be an American citizen but he doesn’t look like the kind of person a photographer would use to show this. The young man is in formal wear with his badge on his jacket and flag in his hand but has scruffy hair, bad acne on his face and a shirt with an undone collar. The light used in this photo is quite harsh and makes him look as though he has had a hard life.
When Arbus first started, she was using a 35 mm Nikon camera which produced grainy rectangular images, she swapped to a twin-lens reflex Rolleiflex camera which produced more detailed square images
Image source: http://diane-arbus-photography.com/
 

Observations Of A Landscape Photographer And Architecture

The objective of this thesis is to see how the ob­servations of the landscape photographer can fur­ther inform the relationship of architecture and the landscape. Observing how landscape photogra­phers perceive their subject and define the issues that influence their personal perspectives becomes the tool for better understanding issues shared by architecture. For example, framing, the role of the horizon, natural and artificial light, texture, mood, scale, geography and the juxtaposition of man-made and natural elements are issues shared by both disciplines. In addition how landscape pho­tographers observe and interpret the landscape in its many moods challenges architects to under­stand realizing how similar transformations occur in works of architecture over time. To demonstrate such findings, relevant examples of photography and architecture will be juxtaposed, discussed and supported by explanatory diagrams. In this man­ner, an analysis of landscape photography will hopefully clarify and inspire alternative ways of defining the interface between the building and the landscape.
TYPES OF LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY
Figure 3:
Man in water
Abstraction
Barcelona, Spain
Abstract
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Types of Landscape photography:
• Representational
• Impressionistic
• Abstract
3
TYPES OF LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY
“Photographers usually use three different styles in landscape photography, which are representa­tional, impressionistic and abstract”(1). Represen­tational style results in pictures that show us the most realistic and natural look of the scene without any artifices. It is straight forward, that is what you see is what you get. Although the photographer does not add any props or foreign components to the scene, the best result is not a simple snapshot, rather far from it. The best attention is paid to com­position, and details of texture, light, foliage, tim­ing and weather are critical. For the architect who chooses to incorporate this style of photography in his or her work, paying attention to all the details mentioned above is mandatory. Then a personal interpretation of the work can manifest itself in the related architectural subject(Figure 4,5).

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The second style of photography is impression­istic. Photographic techniques result in images with elusive or vague quality. These pictures are less touchable and more unreal, while they still retain their values that make them landscape pic­tures. Studying the works of this second group has helped me to have a better understanding of texture in design(Figure 6,7). One example is when I used the unclear glass in the building, and the onlooker could not tell what or how the inside looked. He or she could have their own imagination about the subject.
The last style of photography is called abstract, which deals with shape, form, contrast and color in a particular scene, of which often nothing may be recognizable. One part of the landscape may be combined with another in order to bring out the beauty or danger, water or desert, or red and blue of the scene. Abstract landscape photography isn’t really intended to depict a particular scene at all, rather to create a piece of art that is only loosely based on a real scene in the real world( Figure 3,8). One good architectural example is the work of ar­chitect Luis Barragan. His works deal with texture, light, shadow and repetition, which he applies to his creation. His works for me represent the transi­tion of abstract landscape photography to architec­ture.
Figure 4:
San Sebastion, Spain
Representational photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 5:
Sidi bou said, Tunisia,
Representational,
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 6:
Musse Historie Naturelle,
Paris, France
Impressionistic
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 7:
Chateau de Chenon­ceau,
Tour, France
Impressionistic
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 8:
Anger
Abstract
Maryland, USA
Abstract photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
1-Landcape photogrophy. http://www.photographyicon.com/landscape/index.html.
-Sontag, Susan. On photogrophy. New York: farrar straus and girouxn.d.
4
ISSUES FOUND IN LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY
Geography:
Landscape photography consists of three important sub-sections. First, it is about geography of the site and the contrast of sky vs. earth, cliff vs. plateau, sea vs. land and the rule of horizon. Architects deal with the same issues in their work, for instance the Cliffside house by Michael Rotondi ,which explores the concept of sky vs. earth; Salk institute by Louis Kahn for the concept of rule of horizon; Casa Malaparte by Adalberto Libera in the concept of cliff vs. plateau; and Gilardi house by Louis Barragan in the concept of sea vs. land. I do assume that each of the aforementioned examples were somehow influenced by landscape photogra­phy. An architect should have a good grasp of the effect of the terrain and climate on his design and in achieving that the work of the landscape photographer can be beneficial.
Landscape photography
Architecture
Sky vs. Earth
Figure 9(Left):
Marmata, Tunisia
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 10(Right):
Cliffside house by Michael Rotondi
Rule of Horizon
Figure 11(left):
Ocean City, Maryland
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 12(Right):
Salk institute by Louis Kahn
Cliff vs. Plateau
Figure 13(Left):
Gozo, Malta
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 14(Right):
Casa Malaparte
Sea vs. Land
Figure 15(left):
Gozzo, Malta
Figure 16(Right):
Gilardi House by Luis Barragan
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
5
ISSUES FOUND IN LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY
Scale:
These second section deals with the question of scale, whether grand, pieces and part, close up, or micro. From the beginning of architecture, architects, such as Andrea Palladio, used the ratio founded in nature to create the harmony with the building. In addition there are some buildings that are designed based on human’s body. It means that there is a proportional correlation between human’s body and building’s elements such as doors and windows size. Sometimes, building are scaled more to their environment or purpose that it’s the building elements landed their self to present the grand, over powering or even transcended appear­ance. Regardless of these approaches, the way architect chooses to manipulate scale affect the users by making the building feels, comfortable, divine or even unreal. In short, the scale of architecture is not only the system of size in various levels (physical, visual, technological, economical, etc.), but also the all relations between the proportions, which exist in similar forms of different size each other. Landscape photography can help him acquire a better sense of detail in his design, one thing which can be of utmost importance.
Landscape photography
Architecture
Grand
Figure 17(Left):
Naples, Italy
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 18(Right):
Casa Malaparte, Capri, Italy
Pieces and parts
Figure 19(left):
Paris, France
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 20(Right):
Beyeler Foundation
by Renzo Piano
Close up
Figure 21(Left):
Paris, France
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 22(Right):
Beyeler Foundation
by Renzo Piano
Micro
Figure 23(left):
Paris, France
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 24(Right):
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontance Chapel, Rome, Italy
Jenkins, Eric. To Scale. New York: Simultaneously, 2008.
6
ISSUES FOUND IN LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY
Light:
Both of paramount importance in the work of a landscape photographer and an architect is lighting, which encompasses bright vs. dull, clear vs. mist, sun vs. rain and day vs. night. The photographer and architect both have to consider the light and shadow and their different qualities in their work. The photographer consid­ers which light applies best to his object and the architect does the same in his design process. Light is a necessity for the sight and a utility in architecture, but also a powerful, though ephemeral, vehicle of expression. Since light moves back and forth from its source, it changes character and has the power to convey many of the quality of nature to the inert mass of architecture. An architect may not be able to control the light, but can predict its behavior well enough to catch it mean­ingfully in his work, he channels it through the openings into his space and then molds it into masses, and brings the site to life by contrasting it with the shadows.
Architecture
Landscape photography
Bright vs. Dull
Figure 25,26(Left):
Ocean City, Maryland
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 27,28(Right):
Citroen Park, Paris, France
Arab Ins., Paris, France
Clear vs. Mist
Figure 29,30(left):
Viaduc Des Artes Park, Paris,FR
Luxembourg Park, Paris, France
Photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 31,32(Right):
Arab Ins., Paris, France
Sun vs. Rain
Figure 33,34(Left):
Capri, Italy
Paris, France
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 35,36(Right):
Dominus Winery, California
Day vs. Night
Figure 37,38(left):
Capri, Italy
Figure 39,40(Right):
Effie Tower, Paris, France
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
7
ISSUES FOUND IN LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY
Texture :
The last section deals with texture and the comparisons smooth vs. rough, foliage vs. dying, spring vs. fall and fertile vs. barren. Texture lends a dimensional qual­ity to photos and enable the photographer to break up large areas of tone to create special effects. It has long been used by architects too in order to breath life into buildings as well create a unique experience visually for the visitor. To express the true quality of materials, to shape an interior space or simply to articulate a pat­tern, texture is a fundamental tool in all of the above. It can also be used to create a more complex language for architects to express themselves. The juxtaposition between both digital and natural materials will certainly emphasize texture via patterns and rhythms. In addition, texture between the two will call for varying degrees of occupant touch.
Architecture
Landscape photography
Smooth vs. Rough
Figure 41,42(Left):
Capri, Italy
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 43,44(Right):
France
Foliage vs. Dying
Figure 45,46(left):
Paris, France
photo by
Stanley Hallet
Figure 47,48(Right):
Quai Branly Museum
Dominus Winery, California
Fall vs. Spring
Figure 49,50(Left):
France
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 51(Right):
Egerstrom House
by Luis Barragan
Fertile
Figure 50(left):
Washington, DC
photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
Figure 51(Right):
Paris, France
8
SPECIFIC LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHERS
Figure 52:
Natural Frame
Capri, Italy
Photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
• How are they explaining these
issues?
• What kind of the issues that photographers interested?
• Shows different issues on each one:
• Rule of reflection
• Rule of Sky
• Rule of extend
• How does he set up the camera to do this?
• Where the sun will be? Or moon?
• Deconstruct photos
o Analyzing each photograph:
• Foreground
• Background
• Color shot
• Black and white shot
• What do I learn from each one
• What kind of lenses are they using
9
ANSEL ADAMS
One of the most famous landscape photographers is Ansel Adams, who has influenced many people in different field. He likes black and white because there is no distraction for him and is really inter­ested in the grand panorama and in how much de­tail can be shown in the large context. Most of Ad­ams work is about the relationship between the sky and earth. He is aware of the sun’s position at any given point of the day and knows how to use it. He also pioneered the idea of visualization(2) (which he often called ‘previsualization’) of the finished print, based upon the measured light values in the scene being photographed. One of the best known and most sought after photographs in the field of fine-art photography is called “Moonrise”. Ad­ams took this photo in Hernandez, New Mexico in 1941(Figure 53). He used a technique called “rules of thirds”, which many artists think of it as boring , that is looking at symmetrical images , divided in three parts. This type of photograph has three layers and each a different tone: the black sky, the white cloud and the gray landscape(figure 54). Ad­ams made an interesting composition that became very popular. Adam said ” Moonrise combined serendipity and immediate technical recall”(3). Serendipity means lucky chance. He “felt at the time it was an exceptional image”(3) and when he took it, “he felt an almost prophetic sense of satis­faction”(3). Ironically, Adams happened upon this shot by chance while driving along a roadside head­ing towards Santa Fe, New Mexico, after an unpro­ductive day of photography. The conditions were perfect, but he was basically unprepared because he didn’t have access to his light meter. Adams used his knowledge of the luminance of the moon and was able to get this precious shot. He said “it is a romantic / emotional moment in time”. Another example is called the “Winter Sunrise”(Figure 56). Adams never intentionally included a human or an animal in his creative landscape, but in this pic­ture, horses have added an earthy touch to the un earthly beauty of the scene. Control, as absolute as possible, was at the heart of Adams’ photography.For him, the critical variable was light and he used light, reflection, rule of thirds, layers and different tones in his work. Each of these techniques can be used in architecture as well. Studying this process can help me as a designer to improve my work and have a better understanding of the correlation at work.
Figure 53:
Moonrise
Photo by
Ansel Adams
Figure 54:
Deconstruct Moonrise
Figure 55:
Winter Sunrise
Photo by
Ansel Adams
Figure 56:
Deconstruct
Winter Sunrise
2-Adams, Ansel. The camera. New York: little brown, 1972.
3-Adams, Ansel. The making of 40 photography. New York: little brown, 1980.
-Adams, Ansel. Auto biagraphy. New York: little brown, 1987.
10
Eliot Porter is a photographer much influenced by Ansel Adams, yet more interested on the effect of color and its distribution throughout the land­scape; detail and texture in nature was his focus, so he expanded his attention in order to celebrate the sheer beauty of nature(4). Porter’s photogra­phy was more about balance, layering and object vs. the field. To him, photography was a creative art and was the first to successfully bridge the gap between photography as a fine art and its roots in science and technology. Eliot porter is known to be the first nature photographer to artistically craft color images, in both the taking and developing processes, to a degree achieved by Ansel Adams in black and white photography. So delicate was Por­ter’s processing technique that a leading photog­raphy critic at the time, Weston Naef, wrote that “Porter was captivated by colors that had not yet been named”. In architecture also, an architect tries to breathe life into buildings by bringing different textures along thus creating a visual experience for the eyes to see. Texture is a fundamental tool in expressing the true quality of materials, shaping an interior space or simply to articulate a pattern. It is as I mentioned before, used by architects to create a more complex language of expression. Vi­sual textures are produced by the patterns given to the lighting of the surface, both through the way materials are worked (e.g., vertical or horizontal chiseling of stone) and through the way they are employed in the building (e.g., vertical or horizon­tal boarding, projection and recession of courses of brick). Like all patterns, visual textures create as­sociation of movement, giving rhythm to the sur­face. A single texture is rarely used in buildings. The variety of materials and treatments typically produces a complex of textures that must be com­posed and harmonized like the forms and spaces of architecture, into a consistent expressive whole. So understanding the perception of a photographer in relation to texture can give the designer a better outlook in choosing the right pattern and texture for his work.
ELIOT PORTER
4- Porter, Eliot. The place no one knew. Utah: gibbs smith, 1991.
11
JERRY UELSMANN
There is another photographer with a completely different technique, Jerry Uelsmann. In his work, he combines several negatives to create surreal landscapes that interweave images of trees, rocks, water and human figures in new and unexpected ways. He uses several enlargers, each of which have a different negative placed under the lamp. The photographic paper is sequentially moved from one enlarger to the next, “burning in” and” dodging out” the light wherever it needs to be ma­nipulated. The paper is then processed to create a one of a kind (irreproducible) print. As an architect always has a concept behind his work, so did Uels­mann. He believed that “a picture should show your own familiar world”, that’s why his photog­raphy wasn’t about thinking; it was about surprise and discovery. Both in photography and architec­ture, there exists a concept, vision, idea or inspira­tion, which most likely emanates from one’s own experiences. When one has worked arduously on a project, and for a long time, his or her inspiration or rather light of inspiration, shines through. In photography, the subject or the concept behind it can be upside down and still be effective. The pho­tographer can play with your mind and make you see things you won’t normally see. In architecture also, the architect can create a compositional con­cept and take you on a journey not expected.
5-Uelsmann, Jerry. Process and Perception. New York: university press of Florida, 1986.
-Uelsmann, Jerry N. Photo Synthesis. New York: University Press of Florida, 1992.
– Ward, John. The Criticism of Photography As Art: The Photographs of Jerry Uelsmann. New York: University Press of Florida, 1988.
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SPECIFIC EXAMPLE IN ARCHITECTURE
Figure 65:
Representational
Vals, Switzerland
Photo by
Rouzbeh Mokhtari
• How do these issues effect architecture
• Opening as a framing device:
• The Doorway
• The window
• The Close porch
• The detail in the landscape
• Architecture holding the landscape(Court)
• Architecture in the landscape(site)
• Architecture viewing the landscape(widows)
• The following are examples of how photography and architecture are
correlated. The first example, talks about the effect of the frame and how it can make you focus on a certain point. Second one is the concept of nature and how it can be incorporated into a
building. Third, talks about the pattern and how your eyes can lead to a certain impression. The last one, is about
reflection and layering , which are both essential in architecture.
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MARY MISS
The artist Mary Miss has been redefining how art is integrated into the public realm since the early 1970’s. “For more than three decades, Mary Miss has reshaped the boundaries between sculpture, architecture, landscape design and installation art. She has articulated a vision of the public sphere where communal and private experiences co-ex­ist.”(6) Her work is grounded in the context of a place, from which she constructs situations where the visitor becomes aware of the site’s history, its ecology, or aspects of the environment that have gone unnoticed. The individual viewer moving through the site, experiencing it in all of its con­figurations, becomes the primary focus. One of the best examples is Battery Park City Landfill project in 1973 New York City. Its five rough wood panels with deascending circular cutouts were aligned as you walked up to the opening. The built and nat­ural materials are both laid out for examination, consideration and potential redefinition of their re­lationships. The visitors were engaged in the mak­ing of the piece and movement was necessary for it to become visible. Also it is intended to relate the visual with the physicality of the objects and landscape. She is not the photographer nor the ar­chitect. She is an artist who is following the rules of both in her work. She used rule of horizon, sky vs. earth, fore ground vs. background, layering, composition and object vs. the field.
All the issues discussed above are also influential in architecture. For instance, one issue that the photographer deals with is framing, the same goes for the architect also. When the architect deals with the landscape, he may create a space called court or window, which can be directly associated with the way the photographer creates a frame.
6-Abramson, Daniel M. Mary Miss. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2003.
14
CURZIO MALAPARTE
Italian rationalist architect Albetto Libera, for Curzio Malaparte, conceived Casa Malaparte house around 1937. Malaparte actually reject­ed Libera’s design and built the house himself with the help of Adolfo Amitrano, a local stone mason. The conveyance of communication of values and beliefs through architecture, which best defines the intention of writer and political activist Curzio Malaparte in the design and con­struction of his house on a bluff in Capri, Case Malaparte is a great example. All of the rules are going against established theories of architec­ture, such as building should fit in with its natu­ral surroundings. Malaparte was determined to construct a house that would be his house, con­veying his values, beliefs and personality. The house is an object in the landscape and it stands alone. When you enter, each window is a snap­shot and frameS the landscape, and this is due to the way the frame is made.
It’s according to the Le Corbusier theory, when exterior and interior of a building become one. When you are in the main hall, the walls are white and the floor is stone, you don’t feel as if you are inside. When you are on the roof, the sail vs. horizontal line connects the nature to the building, or as Vittorio Savi and Adalberto Libera have said, “one realizes then that there is an extreme contrast between looking from the inside or from the outside. They (windows) are empty like ‘hollow eyes’. From the inside these windows however are filled with the isolated worlds they frame; terrific worlds provoking a sublime anxiety through revealing the distance between subject and object, man and nature, and the impossibility of processing those worlds that they create”(7). Photographers have their cam­era and work with their lens to create a frame, where as architects construct the building and bring out their windows as their frames.
7-Talamona, Mardia. Casa Malaparte. New York: Princeton
Architectural Press, 1992.
15
PETER ZUMTHOR
A great example of framing the landscape is when you cannot say when the building starts and land­scape stops; and it can be seen in the work of Peter Zumthor called Therme Vals. Zumthor uses images of quarries and water flowing spontaneously from the ground to describe the conception of the build­ing, its geometric rigor reflects a huge rock embed­ded in the hillside. When you are in the building and in front of the glass wall, the sun is moving from behind the mountain during the day and it is a great example of grasping the landscape through the building. When you are outside in the water, it is still framing the landscape. The building is made of local Valser quartzite and concrete. Water, light and to some extent steam and heat, add to the defi­nition of areas within the ritual of the bath(8).
The Therme Vals offers a seductive shift from the paradigm of the Bilbao effect, where architecture is a vehicle for economic health through spectacle and display. The space is used for the engagement of mind, body , soul and the whole community. This is a great example of how photography can play an important role in framing the landscape in architecture.
8-Zumthor, Peter. Therme Vals. New York: Annalisa Zumthor, 1991.
16
As I mentioned before, sometimes the architect holds part of the landscape and creates a court, such as Renzo Piano having the court yard in the middle of lobby of New York Times building. This cube of space, open to the sky, isn’t acces­sible , but it’s like finding a park in the middle of an office building. The sight of it alone has a calming effect. Retail tenants are required to keep their glass walls uncluttered in order to pre­serve the view from either side of the court yard. On one side of the courtyard, there is a theater and has a view to the yard, which can be seen as a background or foreground in photography. This is a great example of how landscape pho­tography, and framing it is useful to architecture prior to design.
Another example of the importance of landscape in architecture can be Katsira detached palace in Japan. The palace includes a drawing room, teahouses, and a strolling garden. It provides an invaluable window into the villas of princes of the Edo period. The strolling garden takes wa­ter from the Katsura River for the central pond, around which are the tea houses, hill, sand, bridge and lanterns. Its garden is a masterpiece of Japanese gardening. In this palace , the land­scape is framed outside of the main building and the viewer catches it from outside, where as in the New York Times building, landscape was brought inside and one could experience it from a different angle.
RENZO PIANO vs. KARSURA PALACE
17
Lius Barragam is a master at presenting nature in his work through large stucco or plain walls. Shadow is really important in his design and he uses texture, light, shadow and repetition to create architecture. In his work, one cannot tell when the building stops and the nature begins.Barragan said ” Beauty speaks like an oracle, and man has always heeded its message in an infi nite number of ways…Life deprived of beau­ty is not worthy of being called human.”
Ricardo Legorreta is a disciple of Luis Barragan and took his ideas to a wider realm. He used el­ements of Barragan’s work , like bright colors, geometric shapes, light and shadow and created architecture with elements of nature. Legorreta said ” “This world of Mexican spaces fi lled my life in such a natural way that light, walls, color, mystery, and water,with all their beauty, became part of me. I am not an exception, that is the way we Mexicans are.” Legorreta achieves Mystery and Surprise, through the use of Mass, color, symbol , light and lighting , through holes, slots, squeezes and releases.
His color is Red, deep blue, yellow, pink and Li­lac. Pure color, as if it came out of a painter’s tube. His teacher in all this has been vernacu­lar architecture which has been also teacher to many other good architects.
RICARDO LEGORRETA & LUIS BARRAGAN
9-Pauly, Daniele. Barragan space and shadow, wall and colour. New York: Birkhouser, 2004.
– Mutlow, John V. Ricardo Legorreta. New York: Rizzoli international publication, 1997.
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POSSIBLE PROGRAM
Figure 85:
Beyond Being
Photo by
Unknown
Meditation Center
1- Garden / Spread at multiple locations with connotations
a. AID/ help in creating moods and set the scene.
2- Bathing / Purifying
a. Cold water
b. Hot water
c. Jasmine water
d. Waterfall in different locations
3- Healing: Travel with your mind by being exposed to inspiring images
a. Color, light –> Chromatography
b. Smell –> Aromatherapy
c. Image/ Elements/ Shape —> something inspiring
d. Sound/ music
4- Tea house
a. Garden
1- harmony -> Nature
2- purity -> drinking tea
a. Created for aesthetic and intellectual fulfillment
b. it is an interlude in which one leads oneself for the moment to the spirit of beauty, quietude, and politeness toward others.
5- Mediation
a. Single/individual spaces
b. Common spaces
c. rest/ stretch
19
POSSIBLE PROGRAM
The essence of nature, life, and the earth is wa­ter. Water provides the means to exist and to live. There are several examples to imply this idea as water being a pure element. In my opinion, Nature eases the mind. Nature provides birth and death, such dervish dance of existence and non-existence creates a spatial environment to not only ease the mind but also to comfort the body. Another ex­ample to indicate the importance of water is the human body, which is 60% water. This close rela­tion between nature and water is the epic of ones calmness.
According to Le Corbusier’s theory a building’s interior and its exterior should be as one to create a comfortable place. Creating such a calm environ­ment requires a neat correlation among each parti­cle to its surrounding nature. Consequently build­ing a Meditation Center, is a metaphorical bridge to transport a negligent mind to the realm of purity and to detach from the daily pressures of life in order to energize the spirit, and to reconnect with one’s inner being. It is a space that is designed to create a feeling of being welcome, safe, and peace­ful.
I used three types of photography, representation­al, impressionist, and abstract, to embody Le Cor­busier’s idea show itse