Explain the factors to consider when planning a safe, but challenging environment for children.

Explain the factors to consider when planning a safe, but challenging environment for children.

The environment plays a major part in children’s safety, learning and development. Not only the material objects within an environment, but the emotional and social environment accounts also.
“The health and safety of the environment is essential to ensure the safety and well-being of the children and in creating an enabling environment. In an enabling environment, babies and children will feel emotionally safe and secure, and will develop and learn most effectively.”
Health and safety is one of the most important factors to consider when a practitioner provides an appropriate environment for learning and development. All staffs should have a responsibility for ensuring health and safety in their environment at all time. All staffs should meet minimum requirements for space within the room environments and staffs ratios. “These requirements will initially be calculated by ofsted when the setting is first registered, and they will provide a maximum number of children allowed in setting at any one time. This will also be broken down into how many children can be present in any one room at one time, depending on the age of the children.”
“Children learn and develop well in enabling environment, in which their experiences respond to their individual needs and there is a strong partnership between practitioners and parents and carers” (EY – Development Matters Document)
Meeting staff ratios is important because this ensuring the safety of the children by making sure children can be safety supervised whilst in their environment. “Failure to meet these ratios could cause accidents or injuries, as staff members would find it difficult to care for and surprise a larger number of children. “
“Children from birth to two years require 3.5m² space per child, at least half of the remaining staff members must be qualified to at least a recognised level two child care qualification. Child aged two to three years old require 2.5m² space per child, at least one practitioner must be qualified to level three. Children aged three and above require 2.3m² space per child, at least on practitioner must hold a level three qualification.” There are major pieces of health and safety legislations that play a role on the provision of an environment and must be followed by all employers.

Explain the practitioners’ role within the wider, multi –agency environment.

The role of the practitioner within a wider, multi-agency environment is to value and recognise the importance of this wider network for children. “Valuing this wider network demonstrates respect for the individual needs and characteristics of the child and family and enables all members of the community to work together.”
Wider community plays role in children’s development and learning. “When a child has been identified as having additional needs, other professionals are a vital part of their care learning and development and will work in partnership with practitioners within the setting.”
“The role of the practitioner has been identified as important in the provision of an enabling environment for children, with the practitioner holding an important role in the wider, multi-agency environment.”

Describe the regulatory requirements that must be followed when organising an environment for children in the early years.

The regulatory requirements that must be followed when organising an environment for children in the early years is the process of identifying any additional needs a child may have early in order to organise the best possible care and intervention for the children. “Practitioner has concerns around any area of a child’s development”. “The employer has overall responsibility for ensuring that health and safety is implemented”.
All staff is responsible for ensuring health and safety at workplace is observed. “The building must be appropriately maintained and be suitable for purpose”. The environment should be clean, safe and appropriate for everyone in the setting. All equipments must be used safely. Accidents must be recorded and reported. The act also provides protection for employees is personal protection for employees is personal protective equipment must be provided free of charge and employees should be given instruction on its use, a safe working environment must be provided, first aid facilities must be provided.
“COSHH is the law that all employers must follow in regards to harmful substances. All workplaces use harmful substances and the COSHH regulations are in place to ensure the safe use and storage of these materials”.
All staff must carry out a COSHH risk assessment this because to identifying the potential risk of explosive to any harmful substance. All staff must ensure safety for the children by ensuring high levels of security across their premises, doors at the setting should be locked at all times. “Practitioners also need to make sure that the toys and resources they provide to the children are appropriate for their age and stage of development”.

Evaluate the effectiveness of the environment in meeting children’s individual needs.

Every setting should work closely with parents and multi-agencies. All setting should be aware of the support and services that other agencies provide, practitioners will support parents/carers to access these services. As a practitioner I should know that whenever I prepare environment for children or young people, I must know it’s important to consider their age and stage of development. I also need to ensure that the experiences and play opportunities offered carer the areas of development outlined in the EYFS. I also need to consider whether the environment meets the needs of the individual children. I should know children develop at different rates. As a practitioner I should know that some children will need more challenging activities while others may need a different type of activity or different resources. I should observe individual children to see how they engage with the environment will help me to plan appropriately.
The most important activities during the day, such as playing, eating, sleeping, washing hands and going to the bathroom. “Children need to explore equipment and learn basic knowledge through direct experience”.
Children with disabilities should be given the opportunity to take risks in their own play. As for with other children this will enable them to develop their self-esteem and confidence.
“It is often difficult for parents to allow children with physical disabilities or medical conditions, such as epilepsy, to engage in physical play or ‘rough and tumble’ activities for fear of injury or seizure. They may therefore need reassurance to allow their children to participate.”
“The emotional environment extends further than the furniture and resources contained within a space, and looks at feelings and emotions of the children within the learning environment”.
The indoor environment have an immediate effect for children, this is when they will spend a large amount of their time. “The indoor environment should support the many different types of play that will support children’s learning and development”.
“The EY values children’s independence and encourages child-initiated play and active learning. This needs to be reflected in the environment by organising toys and resources at child height to encourage children to access resources they wish to explore”.
“The outdoor environment holds equal value to the indoor environment and provides many opportunities for learning and development. The outdoor environment provides a new context for learning to take place within and provides new opportunities”.  

Literature Review Of Production Planning And Controlling Accounting Essay

Last year couple of authors tried their best to attempt to identify production planning and control (PPC) top authors. Fernandes, et al. published an article whose main goal is to classify the top PPC authors by means of a survey on PPC researchers. They identified top 10 authors, their influence and impact in PPC. The main contributions of Fernandes et al. (July 2009, pp. 461-478(18))
‘Identified (among a great number of books regarding PPC) the books that has more influence on the PPC area, Guided the study of PPC by means of presenting the main books and authors of PPC, Showed the most valuable work of the PPC top authors, initiating a process of determining who the PPC gurus are’.
Gonzalez, et al. (July 2008, pp. 461-474) investigated the relationship between planning reliability and project performance and found out that ‘variability is a well-known problem in construction projects which leads to the general deterioration of project performance. In this paper, the authors report on a detailed research analyzing this relationship during the construction phase of a home building project at activity and project levels. By doing so, two indexes proposed
An activity planning reliability index called the process reliability index (PRI) &
A project aggregate labor productivity index, called the project productivity index (PPI).
Statistical analyses using the proposed indexes conducted showing positive and strong relationships between planning reliability and performance at activity and project levels. The research findings provide the guidelines of a preliminary methodology to forecast the impacts of planning reliability over project performance when lean production methodologies are applied in project planning and control’.
Orsoni et al. (July 2007, pp. 19-31) Tried to explain remote scheduling of production activities they said “remote scheduling is a fast growing area of research in the wider area of Production Planning and Control (PP&C). Many solutions reported in the literature and many scheduling tools are currently available, however, the criteria for their evaluation and comparison remain loosely defined. This paper proposes an overview of existing solutions highlighting their advantages and limitations, to support academics and industrial users in their choices of scheduling techniques and Inter Process Communication (IPC) solutions for the remote and online scheduling of production. This paper also proposes design guidelines and performance measures against which production managers can evaluate and improve their solutions”.

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Lima, R. M. et al. (October 2006, pp. 3693-3709) did some work on distributed production planning and control agent-based system and said ‘remote scheduling is a fast growing area of research in the wider area of Production Planning and Control (PP&C). Many solutions reported in the literature and many scheduling tools are currently available, however, the criteria for their evaluation and comparison remain loosely defined. This paper proposes an overview of existing solutions, highlighting their advantages and limitations, to support academics and industrial users in their choices of scheduling techniques and Inter Process Communication (IPC) solutions for the remote and online scheduling of production’.
Stevenson, Mark (Feb2006, pp. 767-790) conducted research on ‘Refining a Workload Control (WLC) concept to improve the applicability of the approach to the shop characteristics found in practice. This is a two-stage process leading to significant conceptual refinements to a key WLC methodology. The first stage focuses on the development of a Decision Support System (DSS) based on a WLC concept designed for Make-To-Order (MTO) companies. Refinements made include changes to the backwards scheduling procedure and the way in which jobs are released onto the shop floor. The second stage focuses on the process of implementation. Using a case study of a MTO company, the paper describes the strategy taken to overcome a number of prerequisites to the successful implementation of a Production Planning and Control (PPC) concept. Issues addressed include grouping machines and determining capacities. This case study adds to the available literature by looking specifically at implementing WLC from the customer enquiry stage, while the case study experience also provides further refinements to the WLC concept’.
“Manufacturing companies often complain about the difficulties they face in meeting their customers logistic requirements. Many blame the perceived inadequacies of their production planning and control (PPC) software for their performance deficits. PPC software is just one of six configuration aspects of the entire PPC system. The authors argue that the configuration of the PPC aspects objectives, processes, objects, functions, responsibilities and tools has carried out methodically and consistently in order for the PPC system to function properly. The analysis of examples of so-called `stumbling blocks’ of PPC, inadequate configurations of one or several of the aspects supports this claim. There investigation closes with the proposal of a checklist that the authors suggest as a first approach to ensure the consistent configuration of PPC systems”. (Wiendahl et al. Oct 2005). Investigated Stumbling blocks of PPC they found out
M. Stevenson et al. (March 2005, pp. 869-898) presented a review of production planning and control. The paper reviews classic approaches to Production Planning and Control (PPC) such as Kanban, Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) and Theory of Constrains (TOC) and elaborates upon the emergence of techniques such as Workload Control (WLC), Constant Work In Process (CONWIP), Paired cell Overlapping Loops of Cards with Authorization (POLCA) and web- or e-based Supply Chain Management (SCM) solutions. A critical assessment of the approaches from the point of view of various sectors of the Make-To-Order (MTO) Industry presented. The paper considers factors such as the importance of the customer enquiry stage company size degree of customization and shop floor configuration and shows them to play a large role in the applicability of planning and control concepts. The paper heightens the awareness of researchers and practitioners to the PPC options, aids managerial system selection decision-making, and highlights the importance of a clear implementation strategy. WLC emerges as the most effective Job Shop solution; whilst for other configurations there are several alternatives depending on individual company characteristics and objectives. The paper outlines key areas for future research, including the need for empirical research into the use of Workload Control in small and medium sized MTO companies.
Zülch G., Fischer J. (March 2003, pp. 146-154) enumerated that during the realization of the CAESAR planning games, which has been supported by the European Leonardo da Vinci Programmed the use of modular planning games within a global scenario has shown to be very effective in concisely relaying educational content from the area of production management. In particular the close-to-reality situations have proven time and again to be highly motivating for seminar participants. In order to improve the transferability of acquired knowledge into practice the IFAB-Institute of Human and Industrial Engineering of the University of Karlsruhe has further developed the INSIGHTS-PPC planning game for production planning and control in such a way that the planning tasks to be tackled are set in direct relation to market similar repercussions. This realized in a new market share model. The market share model explained, paying particular attention to the practical consequences, which come along with the implementation of such a model. Despite the potential of the developed market share model and the positive feedback from seminar participants there is a risk of the participants being diverted from the intended educational content, that of production logistic fundamentals and techniques, and of them perceiving the focus of the seminar as a relaying of market mechanisms.
Starbek M. & Grum J. (December 2000, pp. 443-450) found out ‘there is much computer-aided production planning and control (PPC) systems available on the market which can provide a solution to the complex task of production planning and control. However, the question remains, how can a company find an optimal system from the vast amount of available systems?’
Olhager J. & Wikner J. (April 2000, pp. 210-222) worked on Production planning and control tools, ‘There are numerous tools available to be used for production planning and control purposes. The number of tools is ever increasing, and so are the levels of sophistication as well as complexity. For the specific manufacturing firm, the task of selecting the most appropriate set of tools is not trivial. However, in recent years, the understanding of the relationship between tools and manufacturing environments for which they are suitable has increased. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of production planning and control tools available today, as well as new trends, issues and ideas’.
Wiendahl et al. (December 1999, pp. 718-726) touched a general approach to disassembly planning and control and their findings are ‘closing product and material cycles have emerged as a paradigm for industry in the 21st century, and are directed towards an economical and responsible use of our limited resources. Disassembly plays a key role in recycling. It enables the recovery of functioning components for re-use of pure materials for re-utilization and the separation of harmful substances. Major challenges presented by the enormous variety of products disassembled, by uncertainty as to quantity and by their unknown properties. An appropriate planning and control of disassembly processes is essential for an economic disassembly. Based on an investigation of the suitability of common production planning and control (PPC) methods for disassembly, a specific disassembly planning and control concept (DPC) outlined’.
Moscoso P. G et al. (November 1999, pp. 1492-1506) Investigated on modeling framework for complementary design of production planning and control systems and said ‘In a business era characterized by a dazzling rate of change, the improvement of production planning and control begins to be a main objective for manufacturing industries. This paper postulates four main statements to be considered for the design of production plans and control systems (PPC-systems) comprising human and technical sub-systems. The first is that production models required for the design of PPC-systems (i.e. design models) cannot be identical to production models required for planning and control of production systems (i.e. regulatory models). The design of PPC-systems must primarily focus on the quality of interaction between the regulatory models. This insight supports the second statement, which postulates that the design of PPC-systems requires a complementary design approach. Complementary design means to take explicitly into account that human and technical sub-systems- based on the differences in strengths and weaknesses of both- can achieve through their interaction a new quality, possible neither to human nor technical sub-systems alone. The third statement is that a complementary design of PPC-systems will only be possible if a fundamental change of mind from a static to a dynamic as well as from a technical to a socio-technical perception (i.e. a complete perception) of production systems takes place. Without a complete perception of production systems, designed PPC-systems will not be sufficiently reliable, maintainable and flexible, will be difficult to comprehend, and their elements will not be re-usable for further applications. The fourth statement is that the integral support of the design process requires a dual modeling framework comprising a meta- and an object-model. Considering these fundamental insights that were confirmed by a practical case study, a dual modeling framework for the design of PPC-systems which incorporates criteria for complementary design is outlined’.
Tatsiopoulos I. P. & Mekras N.D. (July 1999, pp. 414-425) tried to find out an expert system for the selection of production planning and control software packages and presents a rule-based expert system that can be used for the selection of a suitable production planning and control (PPC) software package to be applied in a manufacturing firm. ‘A production system’s typology and a compact PPC software reference model are included in the knowledge base, which created. The inferences made based on rules that relate a semantic network of PPC software features with a semantic network of production systems’ attributes. The results given by the expert system include the module architecture and the set of features of the PPC software package, which are applicable in a certain manufacturing setting’.
Wiendahl H-P. & Breithaupt J-W. (June 1999 pp. 389-401) Worked on modeling and controlling the dynamics of production systems and infrared that nowadays, in a fast-changing production environment, companies have to adapt their production structures rapidly. Therefore new methods for production planning and control (PPC) are required that consider these dynamic changes. Today’s PPC systems mainly based on static models now a dynamic production model has been developed applying methods of control theory. Using the funnel model and the theory of the logistic operating curve, a continuous model of a single production system developed. For the control task, backlogs as well as a work-in-process (wip) controller developed. The controllers interact to adjust the capacity and input rate of the work system to eliminate the backlog as soon as possible and to set the wip to a defined level. Simulation experiments confirm that this concept ensures the synchronization of capacity and work. In an ongoing research project, an extended model for several work systems connected via the material flow designed, which based on the elementary one. A suggestion to integrate the strategy into PPC on the planning level already been generated. The objective of this approach is to develop the present open-loop control realized in PPC into a closed-loop control with defined control and reference variables.
Gaalman G.J.C. & Suresh N.C. (February 1999, pp. 5-17) Conducted research work towards an Integration of Process Planning and Production Planning and Control for Flexible Manufacturing Systems and this introduction article attempts to present some major issues relating to the integration of process planning and production planning and control (PPC) for flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs). It shows ‘the performance of an FMS significantly improved and FMS capabilities more effectively utilized by integrating process planning and PPC functions. The various types of flexibility to be planned and provided for in process planning and manufacturing are summarized in the article, as well as emerging conceptual frameworks for integration, along with their implementation requirements and problems. Distinctive elements that differentiate these frameworks, such as the extent of integration of process planning and PPC activities, number of alternative process plans, and the time at which numerical control programs are generated, are discussed, followed by a brief summary of the articles compiled for this special’.
Luczak H. Et al. (July 1998, pp. 448-456) Analyzed PPC-systems, re-engineering or replacement and concluded ‘the growing number of production enterprises that use software systems to support the production planning and control (PPC-systems) and the limited life-time of these systems imply that many enterprises have to decide whether or not an existing PPC-system is worthwhile reengineering. The factors that have an impact on this decision are non-quantifiable’.
Porter, J.K. et al. (1996) discussed Production planning and control system developments in Germany and briefly explained the impact of MRP on UK manufacturing industry in the context of the next generation of developments. Draws a contrast with production planning and control systems in Germany, which derive shop floor control through different architecture of business control systems. Presents the state of these developments in Germany as analyzed by a leading academic institution (the FIR at Aachen University of Technology). Compares this with UK developments, as seen by the Liverpool short-term scheduling group, which recently has analyzed production planning/ scheduling practice in a range of different companies across various industry types.
In early 1990s computer aided process planning with relation to production planning and control brought into practice, which provided integration between both of them. Hermann Kühnle et al. (1994, pp. 21-27) ‘Introduces concepts for the integration of Computer-Aided Process Planning (CAPP) and Production Planning and Control (PPC). Characterizes the current situation regarding integration by a one-way communication from CAPP to PPC, since a revised link not envisaged. Introduces a new approach to full integration by the extension of functions within both systems’ components as well as integration of both data and information technology’.

Planning a Game Show

Title: All About Women
Genre : Television Game Show
Logline: It is all about eight women with lack of confidence go on a trip to learning a lot of skills from playing games to reinvent themselves, from an ugly duckling to the white swan.
The main objective of this show is to change people’s behaviour to makeover themselves to be more confident in their life. People nowadays are lazy to be nice on their inner and outer beauty, so this show is to make them to have the motivation of changing themselves to be better.
Secondly, our objective is to increase their knowledge of beauty. Women nowadays normally they are lack of the knowledge of beauty. In this show, we invited a lot of professional make up stylist to guide those competitors to make up, diet and so on.
Lastly, our objective is to change the attitude of women by making them more attractive. There are no ugly women but lazy women in this world. Some people think that natural is beautiful. But after 20 years old, it no longer works. Through the game show, they will reinvent themselves into perfect women.
Theme: fantasy fulfilment
“All About Women”, is the Malaysian Television game show. It is the first television game show to offer a Royal beauty treatment to the winner. This show will air every Sunday at 8.30pm on 8tv.
“All About Women” is to help those women who are lack of confidence on themselves in the Malaysia. We will seek the competitors through some interview. Program group are choose 8 competitors to our TV game show. In the beginning, competitors will have a lot of training such as makeup, dressing and so on. After that, there will have small station game to test the competitors. The participant will get marks according to their performance in the station game. These marks is helpful in semi-final as the participant will get some mysteries gift that will boost them to get marks in the semi-final. The last two episodes are our semi-final and final. In the later period of the contest the progress of the competitors is determined 70% by public voting through text messaging or social media and 30% judged by three judges, Jimmy Lee, Grace Wang and Bernard Chandran. The show is hosted by Natalie Ng.
Target Audiences
The primary audience that we targeted for this show is Malaysia women and men with the age range between 20 to 55 years old. This range of people is more mature in their thinking and they can understand well about the importance of take care for their outer look. Besides that, they are more affordable in buying things to make them look more beauty. After that, this show is joyful and knowledgeable. They can watch this show in weekend to release their stress and also increase knowledge.

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The secondary audience that targeted for this show is all teenagers that between 13 to 19 years old. The range of this teenagers are more concern about their skin condition. Teenagers nowadays are more likely to care about their inner and outer beauty. So this TV shows can attract them to watch. Besides that, teenagers like to watch something special and excite so they will choose to watch this TV show as they will felt excited when participant are playing station games.
Moreover, this TV show is first broadcast during their holiday so they are free to watch the show.
The host that we invited is Ms. Natalie Ng. (refer to appendix 1.) She had been working for the English and Chinese markets in 2007. She had confidence to take Malaysia market after she finished her Diploma in Mass Communication. She is 8TV’s Entertainment Live Show 8 E-news in year 2008 to 2013. She had also won the 2012 Golden Award for Most Popular Host.
The first mentor that we invited is Mr. Wang Ming Yong (refer to appendix 2.) which will be shown in episode two. Mr. Wang Ming Yong is a healthcare professional from Taiwan. He had studied at Australian School of Herbal Medicine. He is also a well-known dietary nutrition health care consultant. Mr. Wang had be invited before to the ‘Ladies First’ and ‘Health 2.0’ as counsellor of health care.
The second mentor that we invited is Mr. Robin Niu (refer to appendix 3.) and he will appear in episode three. Mr. Robin Niu is a skin care professional which is also from Taiwan. Everyone address him as ‘Beauty King’ in Taiwan. He is graduated from a medical school in Taiwan. He have 18 years of experience in investigating skin care product. He get an award by Sogua for the most outstanding contribution to beauty. Mr. Robin have his own brand name ‘Naruko’ which is favourite by billion online users in China. This is the only beauty brand that been awarded the 2009 Top 80 Most Trusted Celebrity Brands and Best New Brand 2010 in Taiwan and China.
The third mentor that we invited is Mr. Jimmy Lee (refer to appendix 4.) from Melaka that will be in episode four. Mr. Jimmy Lee is a hair stylist which have 8 years of experience in the hair do industry. When he was 18 years old, he is studying at Hair Connection Academy that is located in Bukit Bintang, Kuala Lumpur. He had also once been offered to be Hair Lecturer by Snips Academy in Sabah for 4 years. He now had formed A ‘Hair and Makeup Art Studio & Academy’ in Sabah with Ms. Ryana Yong.
The fourth mentor that we invited is Ms. Grace Wang (refer to appendix 5.) that will be in episode five. She is a makeup artist and have 5 years of experience. Ms. Grace Wang is more professional in bridal makeup. She had completed her hairstyling and makeup course in Taiwan and now all the product that she use is high quality product such as Mac, Bobbi Brown, Lancome and more. She also believes that makeup will enhance personal features and will make people feel good about themselves.
The last mentor that we invited is Mr. Bernard Chandran (refers to appendix 6.) that will be on episode six. Mr. Bernard Chandran is a fashion designer and people call him as ‘Malaysia’s Prince of Fashion’. He is a former student of prestigious Paris American Academy in France. He is also the local Celebrities most favourite fashion designer. His cloths infused with bold colours and draw inspiration of Malaysia’s multicultural influences. Mostly of his collection is made up of complex, traditional Malaysian costume with modern touches. Mr. Bernard Chandran collection had been worn by Hollywood Stars and also Lady Gaga.
The TV games shows will be on air at 8TV, from every Sunday 8:30pm to 9:30 pm. The first episode will be on air at 15 March 2015 while the last episode will show on 3 May 2015. 8 TV is one of the free-to-air TV stations that are privately owned by Media Prime Berhad in Malaysia. The reason we choose 8 TV as the channel to broadcast this TV game show is the target audience of 8TV is similar to this show which is Chinese audiences and urban youth. Besides that, we choose to broadcast this games show at Sunday as Sunday is weekend and most of the Malaysians are not working or studying at that day. Most of the Malaysian will customarily watch the Chinese news that broadcast at 8:00pm so the show is on air at 8:30pm as we wish to attract the attention of audience after watching the news. Furthermore, this games show will start to broadcast during the school holiday of primary school and secondary school which is 15 March 2015 because we hope that student can watch this game show when they felt boring and continue to support this show.
Episode 1:
The first episode is an introduction about the TV game shows “All about Women” and the participant selection. The hosts, Natalie Ng will give an explanation about screening condition for choosing the 8 participant. For example, participant must be a woman at the age range of 18 to 30 who brace up to learn and change themselves into a perfect woman. The interview is held in the studio by 5 mentor of the TV show. They are Mr Wang Ming Yong, Mr Robin Niu, Mr Jimmy Lee, Mr Bernard Chandra and Mrs Grace Wang. The interviewee need to prepare a short video to introduce themselves and the reason why they want to change into a perfect woman. They also need to answer the questions asked by 5 mentors. The list of participant will deciding by 5 tutors and announce at the end of the show.
Episode 2:
For the first part of this episode, the participants will start to attend the training class. The mentor of this episode is Mr Wang Ming Yong who is a Taiwan health care professional. He will listen to the participant lifestyles and give a comment on whether it is healthy or not. He will also share his own experience on how to maintain a healthy life and the importance of healthy life. The second part of this episode will be a station game. This game is aims to improve cardiovascular fitness and helps them to maintain a healthy weight. In this game, participants are required to run on a 7 meters foot sole massager in a playground. They need to gain the lead in race in order to win the games. The champion of this game will get 6 marks while the first runner-up will get 5 marks and the second runner-up will get 4 marks, and so on. These marks will continue to increase in following episode according to their result in the station game.
Episode 3:
The first part of this episode will be the skincare training class. The mentor of this episode is Mr Robin Niu who is professional in skin care. He will explain the symptom of different types of skin condition and the way to take care of it. He also explains about which kind of skin is suitable for which type of skin product. After that, he recommends the best seller product and the right way to use it. For the part of station game, participants are given 20 minutes to memorize 10 types of ingredient that widely used in skin care product and its use. After that, a lightning round will hold by the host, Natalie Ng. A total of 10 questions will be asked and the participants need to be the first to blow a balloon in order to answer the question. Participant will get 1 mark when they give the right answer. The marks they gain in this episode will be added on into the marks they got in previous episode.
Episode 4:
In this episode, Mrs Grace Wang, a professional makeup artist, will be the mentor for makeup training class. She will first points out the mistake that done by the participant and shows them some basic makeup that is easy and suitable for everyone. Besides that, she will explain and show them the most suitable makeup for them. After that, participant will draw lots to decide who will be their partner in the following part of this episode. They need to help their partner to make up and it will be judged by Mrs Grace Wang. Both of the persons in one group will get same marks. The champion will get 6 marks while the first runner-up will get 5 marks and so on. The marks they gain in this episode will be added on into the marks they got in previous episode.
Episode 5
A well-known hair stylist, Mr Jimmy Lee will be the mentor of this episode. He will first indicate the mistake that usually done by most of the women and show them the suitable hairstyles for them. He also shows them the latest hairstyles and the hairstyles that fit in different situation. After that, each of them will be given one picture that showing different hairstyles. They are required to complete the hairstyles same as the picture in a period of 30 minutes. Participant who be the first to complete the hairstyles will get 6 marks while be the second faster to complete the hairstyle will get 5 marks and so on. Participant who be the last or cannot complete the hairstyles in a period of 30 minutes will get 1 mark. The marks they gain in this episode will be added on into the marks they got in previous episode.
Episode 6
The first part of this episode is a fashion training class and the mentor is Mr Bernard Chandran, a famous fashion designer. He will show them the wrong way of matching clothes and teach them how to matching outfit. He will then show them the newest trend of clothing. After that, they will move to a dressing room that contains hundreds of clothes. They need to match 3 outfits that suitable for working, shopping and outing in a period of 10 minutes. They will wear the outfit they choose and judged by Mr Bernard Chandra. Participant will get the marks at a range of 0 to 18. The marks they gain in this episode will be added on into the marks they got in previous episode.
Episode 7
This episode will be a live semi-final. This episode is aim to select 4 participant who can continue proceed to final. In this episode, participant need to make over themselves in 40 minutes will the themes of traditional costume. They can use the marks they get in the previous episode to exchanges some preponderance for their makeover. For example, participant can use 10 marks to exchanges a chance to ask the mentor to help them and 7 marks to changes the brand of a tool. These participant after makeover, will show their picture of before and after. These picture will show in TV and open voting to all audience around the world through messaging or social media. Four participant who have higher votes will proceed to the final. The result will come out in the end of this TV show.
Episode 8
The last episode of this TV shows is a live final competition. In the end of this episode, one winner will be the selectedparticipant and will be required to go inside a room full of clothes, accessories and cosmetic product. They need to make over themselves, at the same time, prepare a talent performance in 1 hour. After 1 hours, the photo of their outfit will upload to social media and let public to vote. The judgment criteria for the final is quite similar with semi-final except there are three judges in the final. They are Jimmy Lee, Grace Wang and Bernard Chandran. The criteria for the judges are 30% and the other 70% are from the public voting. The winner will be given a Royal Beauty Treatment.
In conclusion, even though we face a lot of problem during completing this assignment but we still manage to complete our assignment due to teamwork. While doing this assignment. We learned how to create a television game show. It is not easy to form an idea. We learned how to make a trailer for TV game show as well. When doing this assignment, we find out that it is difficult to invite the host to participate in our TV game show because they are very busy and maybe some are come from foreign country.
The purpose for our TV game show is to let the public know more on how to makeover themselves to be more confident and pretty. We invite some famous and professional make up stylist to our TV game shows to attract more people participate in our TV show. We hope that teenagers can improve the knowledge of beauty through our TV game shows and became a person who perfect in both inner and outer look in the future.

Benefits Of Manpower Planning

Reliance telecommunications LTD is an Indian telecommunication company founded by Anil Ambani in 2004. The headquarters of the company is in Navi Mumbai India. Reliance telecommunication is the 15th largest telecommunication provider in the world with 150 million subscribers and the second largest telecommunication provider in India. The company has segments like wireless and broadband in telecommunication industry.
The company achieved a high growth in telecommunication industry from the beginning stage itself. Customer satisfaction and good company policies made them to competitive with other companies.
Reliance communications follows good human resource policies and procedures even though it has some draw backs.
Vision of the company-Providing information, communication, entertainment services and being the benchmark in customer experience, employee centricity and innovation is the main vision of the company.
Mission of the company-meeting beyond customer needs and wants with a segmented approach, relentless offering of services and products that are value for cash and stimulate customers, offer a network experience that is best in the communication industry, make reliance in to an international brand which is a iconic brand by others and lead industry in target to purchase and faithfulness.
Human resource management refers to an assortment of policies used to systematize work in the employment relationship and centres on the management of work and the management of people who undertakes this work.
Therefore HRM is concerned with recruitment, selection, learning and development, reward, communication, teamwork and routine management. While it is relatively easy to list activities that make up HRM, It is a subject that stimulates much debate and disagreement.
The hr process is considered as important for the management of the consumer pleasure with human recourses. The clients find comfortable and will be satisfied when they understand the hr processes and how they are connected and the hr processes interact. Modern hr processes are measured and frequently analysed and identifies the irregularities in the activities and it brings the improvements for the benefits of the organisation.

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The success of Human Resources Management is in the connection of all HR processes as they provide the adequate supports to workers and the managers. So the main aim of Human Resource Management is to keep the human capital ready for action on the market and the rational grouping of HR Processes helps to interact and manage the individual processes.
Every organisation has their own HR processes, but the main HR Processes are always same in all companies as it is the market HR Best Practices.
Human Resource Management is considered as a comparatively new approach to Personnel Management. HRM emphasizes primarily on its strategic contributions and its closer alignment to business, HRM is a vital component of any organization, its involvement among other components of line management is notable (Paauwe. J, Jan 2009). Paauwe further suggests that HRM aims on its ultimate goals such as High job performance, low absence and high cost effectiveness through the efficient utilization of the man power of the company. Human resource is really the major component of any organization, the success or failure of an organization heavily relies on its Man power management. Maslow’s need Hierarchy theory is considered as guiding principle for HR Management across the globe. Maslow identified the very basics of human motivation factors. Following this principle it can be assumed that to motivate an employee HR manager should understand his level of expectations, potential of the employee, and should evaluate the performance before and after certain motivational measures implemented.
Human Resource Planning is the integral part of Human Resource Management Human Resource Planning estimates the optimal level of Man power requirement on the basis of quality and quantity. Thus HRP can be considered as the foundation of Human Resource management. Although HR planning is very important it cannot be executed faultlessly in all cases, as HR is dependent on various factors such as employment situation of the country, influence of technological advancement, changes in the organization structures, Demographic factors such as age, population, composition of workforce, lack of skill, multicultural workforce etc. Certain pressure groups will also affect the precision of the HRP. Understanding of competencies of the Human resource is vital in forming a successful HR frame work. Lengnic-Hall, 1988, Milliman et al., 1991, describes the terms Internal and External fit, “Internal fit” refers to the extent to which the manpower constituents are linked in a logical way and how effectively they support themselves, on the other hand external fit primarily focus on the strategy of the organization, external fit reveals to what extent human resources systems are integrated.
Manpower Planning or Human Resource Planning includes putting exact number of people, exact kind of people at the exact place, exact time at a low cost. Personnel Planning hold an important place in the world of industrialization. Personnel Planning has to be a systematic approach and is managed in a set of model operations. The procedure is as follows:

Assessing the present manpower in the company
Forecasting the future needs
budding employment programmes
Organising training programmes

Manpower planning is very important part of human resource management. A few importance of man power planning are.
concentrated labour cost.-with the help of manpower planning there is most favourable operation of labour force in the organisation workers are given those jobs to implement for which they are skilled (right person for the right job).it leads to overall progress of the man power in the organisation.
Optimum utilisation of manpower: it helps to utilise the labour force in the company which helps in the growth of manpower in the organisation.
Develops business plan-Man power planning is an important part of overall business planning. No business can survive without having the right type and number of people doing the right work at the right time.
Helps in career succession planning-with the help of better manpower planning it helps to produce a good career succession of employees which provides much lead time for internal succession of workers through higher position through encouragement.
Development of the organisation- The man power planning helps in the expansion of an organisation.
Growth in overall business planning-Manpower planning is a main part of overall business planning. Efficient manpower planning will help to improve the business.
Recruitment and staffing is the process of selecting the right labours in to the organisation. The main aim of recruitment is to look for and be a magnet for persons with skilled to fill the vacancies. This process includes job analysis preparing personnel requirement sources of skilled employees.
Job analysis
Job analysis is a process of analysing the job in detail and providing the details of job needs to the HR planning department they present details as job specification and job analysis. Job analysis is important in the whole organisation. And they will provide the details of manpower requirements.
The main sources of recruitment are
Reliance communications have two main sources of recruitment internal and external
internal external sources of recruitment(figure.2)
Internal sources of recruitment are.
Promotion-This is a normal source of recruitment, which means providing higher position, salary and responsibilities to the employee. So the position of the job vacancy is filled by promoting the suitable employee within the organisation.
Transfers-It means transferring one employee to the other organisation without change in salary and position, so the vacancy can be filled by transfer.
Advertising internally-Here the job vacancy is advertised within the organisation so the existing employees in the organisation can apply for the post. So the recruitment is take place inside the organisation.
External sources of recruitment are.
Selective recruitment through job boards-This is a major source of recruitment .To ensure most appropriate qualified candidates are being applied for the major position. The agency considers the following details for every positions junior, intermediate, senior, Level of education degree, diploma etc. Using these details the company determines which job boards, communication channels, and advertisement strategies are suitable for attract the right skilled candidates to apply for the job positions.
Management consultants-For the vacancies in the higher positions in the company, management consultants are used to find the qualified and skilled employees. They act as a recruiter on the behalf of the company.
Advertisement for public-The Company advertises the vacancy in internet, newspapers, Television etc. And this will provide the details of the company, job and the qualification required for the position.
Keep space with new development-New developments are happening every day. A business will have to keep phase with new changes. This will be possible only if competent persons are employed who can adjust as per the new situation.
Manpower Development-man power planning will have to be done in advance. The future requirements of personnel will be estimated quite in advance. The new staff will be recruited, people will be prepared for talking up higher responsibility jobs, and all this will be possible with a well planned staffing function.
This function helps the employees to develop their skills and knowledge for increasing their output. This process is not only done for the fresher’s but also to the existing employees in the firm to develop their skills and responsibilities. Human resource development helps to increase the total knowledge, abilities, skills, talents, and aptitudes of an organisation’s work force. Human resource development includes function such as training, career development.
Training-Training is providing to improve the knowledge and skills of the employees there are mainly two types of training they are on the job training and off the job training.
On the job training is a process of giving training in normal working situations using actual materials or documents, equipment, actual tools trainees will make use when completely moulded.
Off the job training is usually provided away from the usual working environment, it may include more general skills and knowledge which is useful for the job. This type of training is given by the specialised trainers or from an outside company who outsource the trainers.
H. Internet and distance Training – Internet training includes video conferencing and web based training, distance training means traditional training paper and pencil correspondence course.
1. Tele training – where a trainer in a central location teaches groups of employees at remote locations via television hookups.
2. Videoconferencing – allows people in one location to communicate live via a combination of audio and visual equipment with people in different locations-another city or country or with groups in several cities.
3. Training via the Internet – the Internet based learning programs are very popular. Several companies simply let their employees to take online courses provided by online course providers while others use their intranets to facilitate computer-based training.
Diagram demonstrating your personal development
Carrer developement of employees is a crucial part of the organisation, It helps to identifies the overall acheivement of the employees .Career developement is becoming an essential part of HR departement due to today’s everchanging organisaton enviornment and work place.
Reliance communications helps the employees to attain a good carrer graph based on the company HR policies and procedures. First of all the company gather the strength and weakness of every individual, then they provide different opportunities to develop their carrer based on the strength and weakness. The basic formula for the career developement is self awareness every individual asses their own problems and issues and then the company will help to over come this issues .Now days people are changing their jobs to attain a good carrer success .Reliance communication identifies this problem and they had a good career sucession plan for every individual employee in the organisation.
Compensation and benefits is a basic motivational factor to the employees.Every employee will search for high paid jobs,benefits is also another important factor if the company provides good benifits the employees will get good attachment to the company benefits include bonus, medical insurance,retierment policies, life insurace, vacation etc.Reliance communicatons provide basic pay which is satisfiable for every employee to motivate the employees and to attract to qualified employees to the organisation.
Leadership development helps the organisation to achieve the goals, through the development of good leadership in each employee reliance aims at the overall development of the organisation as well as the growth in employees functioning.Every employee in the organisation is gaining a better leadership quality through the leadership development function.Each emloyees in the company are closely monitored by the management and if they are weak in the work the company will encourage them.And the workers are councelled by the management to increase work efficiency.And their will be a structured plan to create a positive working enviornment.The main aim of leadership development is to leading self, leading others and leading the organisation.
Cash and compensation issues is a major problem faced by HR managers in reliance communications. There is more pressure on HR function to pay more incentives and basic pay for the employees.However reliance paying basic salary to each individual employees the company faces more pressure to meet the employee beniefits .
Most of the companies face the same problem of employee lay-offs. So the organisation have to prevent the issue by retaining the employee by providing good working condition and benefits whichever the employees need. In reliance industries there are so many employees leave the company due to lack of co-ordination between workers. The organisation tries to check the issue but fails sometimes.
The plocies and practices adopted by the HR managers regarding their networking sector is an important example. They brought some new plans in mobile networking sector like low call rate for mobile users, low internet browsing charge.etc., but the competitors like AIRTEL communications, BSNL network, VODAFONE facilitated some more exciting offers than the reliance. In that situation the Reliance communication hesitated to change their HR policies and techniques.
Nowdays telecommunication industry is facing high competition from other telecommunication companies,
If the company has no good HR stratergies the company cannot exist in the high competative world.Reliance communication is facing some HR issues as mentioned above, to overcome this problems company must do some good HR restructuring process in the company .The first main issue is ;
Cash and compensation issues- As it is a major problem the company must find a good solution to overcome this issue, the suggestion to solve this problem is to pay cash and compensation based on the experience of the employees.As mentioned above the company is paying a basic salary to each individual, first of all the company must change this basic payment method,and the compensation and benifits must be paid according to the experience and skills of each individual. So the company can reduce the cost of labour so the company can meet the compensation and benifits of each individual according to the profit earned by the company.
Employee retention issues-Retention of employees is another HR issue faced by the company, nowadays a lot of employees are leaving the company due to high pressure of work and lack of co-ordination between employees are the main employee retention issues faced by reliance communication, to reduce this problems reliance must provide good working enviornment to reduce the pressure of work, communication is another way to over come this problem good communication between the management and staff will make a good understanding between the employees and management, this will increase employees confidents and reduce the work pressure.A high rate of employees resigning their job and going to another companies who offer better working enviornment. Better co-ordination is the another way to improve employee retention,co-ordination will improve better relationship between employees and management.And this will result increase employees confidence and work efficiency.
Poor HR policies-Due to high competition in communication industry lots of companies introducing new HR techniques to improve their company goodwill .Reliance communication is following the traditional HR policies and plans so the company is facing high market competition from other companies, to exists in the competative market company must improve their HR stratergies and policies.Nowadays companies are providing good offers to the employees so the company must realise the problems and try to overcome such issues.

Variance Analysis As A Tool For Effective Planning Accounting Essay

This project analysis the significance of variance analysis as a tool for effective planning in flour mills industries the project view planning variance analysis and standard costing primary and secondary are used. The use of primary data was heavily relied upon via questionnaire administered, the research adopt simple percentage in testing research Hypothesis.
The finding of the project show the significant variance analysis in providing information to management to meet the objectives of an organisation. On the basis of the findings the projects finally offered some recommendation aimed at improving the efficiency and effectiveness of variance analysis information.
table of contents
Title page
Declaration page
Approval page
Dedication page
Table of content
Chapter one
General background of the study
Statement of the problem
Objectives of the study
Research hypothesis
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Limitation of the study
Definition of key terms
Chapter two
Literature review
Variance analysis
The purpose of variance analysis
Responsibility for variance
Making variance analysis more useful
2.5.1 Types of planning
2.5.2 Long term (strategic) planning
2.5.3 short term (tactical) planning
Standard costing
2.8.1 the basic steps involved in standard costing techniques
2.8.2 objectives of standard costing
2.8.3 the benefits of standard costing
chapter three
Research methodology
Population of the study
Sample size
Sampling technique used
Method of data collection
Method of data analysis
Chapter four
Data presentation
Data analysis
Test of research hypothesis
Chapter five
Conclusion (findings)
Chapter one
General background of the study
The survival of any organisation is dependent upon its decision to achieve its desired objectives. A definitive guide to management decision is information. Manage net need information for planning a2nd control for decision making.
“Accounting is of great importance to all levels of man agement and without accounting there would be stagnation and confusion which in extreme cases may lead to a complete break down of the system”.
(Kalu, 2002) in todays business environment, the development and use of information especially management accenting information is a critical factor in the effective management of an organisation.
Management inform nation is not only concerned with the provision of financial information about cost and revenve it is also in response to the changing environment involved in the provision of non-financial information about productivity quality and other key success factors for the organisation.
To ensure effective use of vaciance /analysis for planning the information provided by the management accounting system must be relevant, timely, complete, reliable, objective and under stardable amongst others.
Statement of problem
Effective planning of variance analysis has been playing a greater role as a tool of corporate survival especially in the present day complex business environment where having the best information is the key to success.
Therefore the problem of the research work includes Non-Implementation variance analysis which may cause in effective planning in the flour mills industries. These problem necessitate the flour mills industries.
objectives of the study
The following are the objective with the study was conducted.
To analysis how variance analysis assist in effective planning,
that is how it helps in determining future prospers and objectives.
To examines the efficiency and effectiveness of variance analysis. By looking into how it maximized wealth or production and minimizes wastage for the producing of expected out put and achievement of desire objective of the organisation.
Research hypothesis
For the power of this research, the following hypothesis were formulated and tested,
H0 valance analysis would serve as a tool for effective planning.
H1 valance analysis would serve a tool for effectine planning
Significant of the study
The significance of the study includes:-
(To provide a successful way in which management would achieve their organisational objective through proper planning and sound control in the process of making decision by careful forecasting of future objective and maximizing or boosting of out put and avoiding or minimizing was tape for the achievement the organisation goals and objectives.
Scope of the study/research
The scope of the study cover the flour mills industries in Nigeria with particular reference to BUA Flour mills Nigeria Limited, Kano. This company is choose to be the case study out of the flour mills companies in Nigeria. Finding obtained there from were generalized on all flour mills companies in Nigerian. This is due to the fact that they belong to the same industry having Uniform method of preparation or modes as well as being guided by the same law status.

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Limitation of the study
In the course of conducing this research work, making constraints were encounter which is beyond the control of the research due to their intensive nature. And gives the researcher tough time, among of which is sufficient time; inadequate time factors contributed to the smooth running of this researcher work. Also financial constraints is the key factor that contributed major by. Inadequate money given the researcher a very hard time in getting enough data.
Other activates such as lecture time assignment and what have you contribution getting enough data for this research work.
Definition of key terms
Analysis:- this is the detailed study or examination of some thing in order to understand more about it.
Decision:-This is a choice or judgment that you make after thinking and talking about what is best thing to do.
Efficiency:- The quality of doing something well with no west of time or money.
Effective:- This refers to producing the result that is wanted or intended, that producing a successful result.
Management:- The act of running and controlling a business or similar organisation.
Organisation:- A group of people who from a business etc together in order to achieve a particular aim.
Planning:- his is any arrangement for closings using or achieving something in the future.
Variance:- This refers to the amount by which some thing changes or is different from something else.
Chapter two
2.0 literature review
2.1 variance analysis
(lucey, 2006). The term variance is revelry used on its own. Usually it is qualified in some way, for example, direct material cost variance, direct labour efficiency variance and soon. The process by which the total difference between standard and actual costs is sub-divided is known as “Variance analysis” which can be defines “The evaluation of performance by means of variances, whose timely reporting should maximises the opportunity for managerial action”.
(Dandago & Tijjani, 2005): variance may be define as the difference between the “Actual and standard” cost while variance Analysis:- is the process of analyzing variance by sub-dividing the total variance in such a way that management can assign responsibility of off standard performance.
Variance arise form differences between standard and actual quantities and / or differences between standard and actual price. These are the course of variance the reason for the difference have to be established by management investigation.
Variance may be adverse, i.e. where actual cost is greater than stranded or they may be favorable i.e where actual cost is less standard. Alternatively they may be know as minus or plus variance respectively.
2.2 the purpose of variance analysis
The purpose of variance analysis is to provide practical pointer to the causes of off-standard performance so that management can improve operations, increase efficiency ultilise resources more effectively and reduce costs it follows that overly elaborate variance analysis which is not under stood, variance that are not acted up on and variance which are calculated too long after the event do not fulfill the centre purpose of standard costing.
2.3 responsibility for variance
ideally, variance should be detailed enough so that responsibility can be assigned to a particular individuals for a specific variance. Cost control is made much more difficult if responsibility for a variance is spread over several managers in such circumstances it is all too easy to- “pass the back”.
2.4 making variance analysis more useful
it is not sufficient merely to be able to describe and calculate variance to make variance analysis in to a useful aid to management it is necessary to probe and investigate the variance and the data used to calculate them. Typical questions which should ask are follows.
Is there any relationship between the variance? For example, there may be pleasure in observing a favorable material price variance caused by the purchase of a job lot of material, but if this favorable variance is more than offset by adverse used and labour variance caused by the poor quality material, then there is little cause for rejoicing.
Can further information than merely the variance be provide for management? Remembers, Variance analysis is but a means to an end. Management task is to find the reason for the variance and to take action to bring operation into line with the plan.
Is the variance significant worth reporting? This is an importance matter for both the accountant and the manager and the ways of assessing the significance of variance are death with.
Are the variance being reported quickly enough, to the right people in sufficient or two much detail with explanatory notes?
2.5 planning
ack off (2001) as cited in Drury (2005) defined planning as “the design of a desired future and of effective ways of bringing it about” “planning is any arrangement for doing, using or achieving something in the future “(Dandago & Tijjani 2005:p305). It is the “establishment of objective and the information, evaluation and selection of the policies, strategies, tactics and actions required to achieve these objectives” (KMA)to pandey (2004:) “Planning is statement if what should be done, how it should be done, and when it should be done. It is the design of a desired future state of an entity and of the effective ways of bringing it about. Planning establishment enter prises objectives and cletermines the future course of actions for accomplishing of those objectives planning gives manager a warning f possible fature crises and enables him to avoids having to take uncalculated decision. Malomo (1999:2)”Planning is a feed forward process to reduce uncertainties about the future” the process of planning is based on the conviction that management has the capability of planning its activities and conditioning the state of the firm that determines its destiny.
The task of planning the firms activities involves the entification of relevant variable controllable and non-controllable (pardey, 1994:8).
Kalu (2001) as cited in onah (2001) state “a sound planning is that which is capable of achievement, the chances of achievement will be enhance if they people responsible for the execution of the plan can claim collective responsibility of its information”.
The formulation of the plan relies upon information from many sources, both internal and external to the organisation. Information for planning includes cost and financial data amomst others (lucey 2006)
The management account can make a valuable contribution in the planning stage by preparing studies covering past performances, product mix, capital expenditure and by analysing cost-volume – profit relationship cash flows etc
2.5.1 types of planning
the are basically two types of planning: long term planning and short-time planning.
2.5.1 long term strategic planning
sizes (1989) cited in Drury (2000:545) defined long term planning as “a systematic and formalized process for purposely directing and controlling future operations towards desired objectives for periods extending beyond one years” it “the formulation, evaluation and selection of strategies for the purpose of preparing a long term planning of action to attain objectives” (ICMA).
“The span covered by long term plan depends on the organisation, the industry in which it operates and the particular environment involved. The periods involved may be 3, 7, 10 or 20 years. The process of corporate planning is a detailed part of the management. (Lucey 2006).
2.5.3 short term (tactical) planning
for operational purpose, it is necessary for the organisation to concert its long range planning to sections, functions and departments. (Lucey 2006)
ICMA defines short-term planning as “Planning the utilization of resources to achieve specific objectives in the most effective and efficient way”.
Those part of short term plan that monetary values van be attached becomes budgets (Lukey, 1996:270) this bring the issue of budgeting as an instruments of planning
2.6 1- The comparison between standard and actual reveals the variation so that management can at once take advantages of prime of exception concentrating its attention upon these factors which have not proceed according to plan.
2- Carefully planned standards are an aid to more accurate budgeting.
3- Variance analysis can provide a way of motivation to managers to achieve better performance. However care must be taken to distinguish between controllable and non- controllable cost in variance reperting.
4- It provides a basic for comparison between one period and another (i.e using common denominator).
This is particularly true of that standard cost system which uses as its basis an index figures for comparing other figures with it.
2.7 disadvantage
Deciding how to incorporate inflation into planned units cots.
Agreeing a short-time labour efficiency standard (currant attainable or ideal).
Deciding on the quality of material to be used, because a better quality of material will cost more, bat perhaps reduce material wastage.
Estimating material princes where seasonal princes vacation or bulk purchases discount may be significant.
2.8.1 standard costing
adeniyi A. Adeniji (2008) sees the word standard cost represents an estimated or a predetermined total cost product permit for an organisation. The process of estimating the total cost of production permit is described as standard costing technique if the estimated total cost of products for a big organisation is based on the total unit produced then; the procedure is described as budgeting system.
Standard costing technique therefore represents and integral part of management accounting control technique which will also include budgeting system and responsibility accounting statement. Standard costing technique many either be viewed from the perspective of marginal costing technique or absorbtion costing technique. By relating standard costing technique with marginal costing technique, variance analysis will be determined on the total relevant costs of products excluding fixed over head. But if it is viewed in the context of absorption costing then variance analysis will involve the total cost of product to the organisations.
2.8.2 the basic steps involved in standard costing technique
identify the long term corporate objective of a business outfit.
determine the short term achievable objective from the corporate objective.
conduct a research or a market survey to identify the specific needs of consumers.
design a particular product or service that will be used to satisfy the need of the consumer.
obtain top management support for the standard costing technique.
identify the quality as well as the quality of raw material required in a unit of the product.
estimate normal loss in the course of production.
identity labour rate per hour together with the standard hour required in producing a unit.
2.8.3 objectives of standard costing
to provide a basis for estimating
to provide guidance on possible ways of improving performance.
to provide a formal basis for assessing performance and efficiency.
to assist in setting standards.
to control costs by establishing standards and analysis variances.
to enable the principle of “management by exception” to be practised at the detailed operational level.
to motivate staff and management.
to assist assigning responsibility for adverse variance of (non-performance) in order to correct deficiencies or to maximise the benefit associated with favorable variance.
2.8.4 the benefits of standard costing
standard costing provides a consistent base where by performance may be measured on the basic of what an item should cost or how much should have been produced, on the basis of the expected levels of activity.
It provides a method whereby labour and overheads can be consistently recovered and charged into stock.
It provides of control for buying. Usage and efficient work levels.
In setting up standards, management can reappraise activities to ascertain if they are being done in the most effective and efficient way.
It creates an atmosphere of cost-consciousness amongst all levels, motivation staff and wokers to see if there is a better way of performing a particular task.
By cresting a realistic target, it motivates staff and operatives to achieve or better the standard laid down.
It is recognisable method of performance monitoring through variance analysis motivating investigation into causes of shortfall and improving methods and procedures for the future.
It provides a recognisable basic for budgeting forecasting & planning
Chapter three
Research methodology
3.0 introduction
Methodology is very important aspect in the research project it is a way by which the researcher follows in order to obtain relevant information as regards the research project it will enable the reader to under stand the basic methods and procedure used in acquiring the data for conducting the research work.
3.1 population of the study
The population considered or the purpose this researd in work is the flour mills industries.
3.2 sample size
a sample is that portion of a population which is studies closed in order to gain some knowledge or make generalization about the population it represents.
The sample size for this study is flow mills Nigerian limited kano.
3.3 sampling techniques used
the sampling techniques used in the selection of sample for the study is the convince sampling technique. Conveniences sampling is where the researcher simply get information or data conveniently without any land ship, that is he simply choose the closest person, institution or organisation as respondents in order to save time and money.
3.4 method of data collection
The method employed in the collection of data for this study is primary and secondary method.
Source:- is the texts books, journals, consulted for the purpose of this research work.
Primary source:- Questionnaire were used to collect relevant information or data form the case study
3.5 method of data analysis
the method the researcher use in analysis the data collected is presentation of data in a tabulation form to permit analysis and inference. And simple percentage is used to test the hypothesis.
Chapter four
Data presentation, analysis and interpretation
4.0 introduction
in the chapter, the researcher would summarized all the data collected through the questionnaire administered and present them in table form to permit analysis and inferences.
4.1 data presentation
the research dispatched (14) questionnaire, out of which (11) (73.33%) were returned while (3) (26.67%) were not the questionnaire contained one structured questions and open ended questions. The data would be tabulation and grouped.
4.2 data analysis
the data is analysed below:
table (1) gender
Source: Questionnaire Administrated 2009
The above table show that only (2) out (11) respondent are female while () the male are (9).
This shows that its gender bras since most of the information would be getting form the males since they are the highest respondents.
Q2: Has your company adopt variance analysis as a tool?
Table 2: responses
Source: Questionnaire Administered, 2009 100% say yes while no negative responses. Form the above responses it is apparent that the company is adapting variance analysis as a tool for effective planning in adveing set goals.
Q3 Does variance analysis have any significances to management?
Table 3 Response
Scarce: Questionnaire Administered 2009
Obviously, the table above shows that 100% shows that all the respondents answered positively.
This implies, variance analysis provide a way of motivation to managements to achieve better performance towards realising the company’s objectives.
Q4 if yes state the significances
Types of significance
Control of operations
Forecasting cash flows
Monitoring performance of management
Cost of ascertainment apportionment and reduction
Fixing price
Product costing
Source: Questionnaire Administered, 2009
These are some of the significance of variance Analysis to management given by the respondents.
The above signifies that panning, control of operation, price fixity and product costing are the areas which helps in establishing and administering operational controls to help the effective planning and desired objectives of the company.
Q5 Does your company encounter problems in the use variance analysis
Source: Questionnaire Administered, 2009
It is clear that 100% of the responses are “No” Implication: it assist management in the evaluation of alternatives and assessing the financial feasibility of proposed course of action.
Q6 Does variance Analysis aid in effective planning?
Table 6 Responses
Sources: Questionnaire Administered 2009
Total responses from the above 11(100%) are yes while 0% No.
Implication: it is a recognisable method of performance monitoring through variance analysis, motivation investigation into courses of shortfall and improving methods procedures for the achievement of future prospects & objectives.
Q7 if yes in what ways
Table 7:
Ways in which it Aids in effective planning
Variance Analysis
Setting performance standard
Provision of information for effective Planning
Cost of products
Evaluation of alternative
Source: Questionnaire Administered, 2009
These are some of ways it aid in effective planning.
Implication: variance analysis, effective planning cost of product the and others, assist in setting performance standard and costing of operation also monitoring performance of management: since they solemnly depends on the implementations variance analysis for the achievement of organisational objectives.
Q8 Does variance Analysis information assists management in attaining the company’s objectives?
Table & Responses
Source: Questionnaire Administered 2009
In view of the table, response were all made favour of “Yes” (100%)
Implication:- It provided the management with information of care full forecasting of future objectives and prospects and means of implementing it for controlling purpose to ensure better performance and to avoid wastage for the advisement of the organisational goals and objectives.
Q9 How effective and efficiency variance Analysis serve as tool for effective planning.
Very Good
Source: Questionnaire Administered 2009
Above are the suggestion given by the respondents:
Implication: From the stated above, it appears that, the management with the use of variance Analysis it helps tremendously in producing a succeful result intended by the organisation and the qualify of minimaxes wastage of resources for achieving better results and performances.
Q10 How could the effectiveness be improve upon:-
Suggested Improvement
Number of Respondents
Effective monitoring
Reporting variance quickly
Information should be timely, accurate and comprehensive
Training staff on Accounting system
Profer and adequate Accounting
Source: Questionnaire Administered 2009
Above were the various suggestion given by the respondents to improved in the above areas for the betterment of the organisation.
Q11 can management achieve their aims without the use of variance analysis information.
Table 11 responses
Source: Questionnaire Administered 2009
It is clear form the table the “No” has all the responses which 11 (100%).
Implication: it is obvious that the management can not improve their performance without the adoption of variance analysis information on the information provided by the Variance analysis for effective and efficiency panning of its activities.
Q 12 What advice will give toward making things better:
Table 12 Responses
Number of Respondents
Giving required resources and free hand to the Management
Training of staff for proper Accounting
Adherence to variance and effective cost control
Proper account of material and Money should be earned out weekly
Sentiment should not form the basis for decision making
Strict adherence to costing policies
Source: Questionnaire Administered 2007
Implication: The above were the suggestion, and its observed that some areas need improvement and adherence to stated policies for decision making and evaluation of perform ances.
4.3 test of research hypothesis
research hypothesis
H0: Variance Analysis would not serve as a tool for effective planning.
H1: Variance Analysis would serve as tool for effective planning
Q Daes variance analysis serve as a tool for effective planning
Source. Questionnaire administered 2009
From the above 100% respondents say yes while known say No
Implication: it quite clear precise that the management rely on the variance analysis who provide practical pointer to the causes of off standard performance so that management can improve operations, increase efficiency, utilise resources more effectively and reduce costs.
Therefore alternative Hypothesis (Hi) is accepted that is variance analysis would serve as tool for effective planning
Chapter five
Summary, conclusion and recommendations
5.1 Summary
the aim of the study is to examine the relevance of variance analysis and its facilitation to the effective planning using flour mills as a case study.
Variance Analysis is concerned with providing broader for nancial and non-financial information in order to cater to the internal need of an organisation to facilitate effective planning.
The evaluation of performance by means of variances, whose timely reporting should maximise the opportunity for managerial action.
Variance arise from difference between standard actual quantities and/or differences between standard and actual prices. Those are the causes of variance, the reason for the differences is established by the management investigation. Effective planning is concerned with the designed of a desire future state of an organisation through the use of variance analysis and standard costing techniques.
The pr

Career Planning in Human Resource Management

Untill recently talents or employees can join an organization with the expectation of staying there for their entire career, now life long careers are a thing of the past. Employees lacking worldly experience and understanding still believe that they are immune to the ongoing reductions because they are doing a good work and adding value to the organization. However rapid technological change, increasing completion, relentless restructuring and downsizing mean that high performance no longer protects the employees form the termination or dismissal. People increasingly will move from one opportunity to another opportunity without regard to the traditional job boundaries.
Realistic career planning forces employees to foresee problems and opportunity and to be proactive. Career planning and development involves two process of career planning and career management. Career management is integral to Human Resources planning. But Human Resources planning and career management do not exist or are not integrated in some organization.
Career planning and development should be seen as a process that aligns the skills and interets of the employees with the need of the organization. This means that career must be strategically managed so the skills that are demanded by the organization strategic business objectives are understood and a workforce with a matching profile of skills is developed. Career planning and development play an important role in ensuring that the organization has a knowledgeable workforce together with a competitive advantage.

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Human Resources planning and career planning and development
The important reasons why organisation and employees are paying more attention to career planning is because there are EEO legislation and AA pressures,employees educational level and aspirations are rising, employees are more concern about their quality of life, employees are transiting from vertical careers to lateral careers and a global talent war is created by the shortage of skilled workers.
Components of Career planning http://www.docstoc.com/docs/8714685/Career-Planning-1
The Goal: Matching individual and Organization needs
A career development program should be viewed as a dynamic process that matches the needs of the needs of the orgazation with needs of employees.
Employees responsibility
Each and every employee should be concerned about his her own career planning and development, but many employees ignore this , preferring it to leave it to the organisation.By adopting such a passive stance employees give up their future career by limiting their future employability.This reduces the employees chances of achieving their career goals.Therefore employees has to take initiate in finding such oppurtunities and ways for career planning and development.
Though some of the organisation provide in house traning and develop, this is often provided for the purpose of the organisation’s needs and not for the needs of the individual employees.Individula career planning menas that employee him/herself should find his/her own vocational interests,weakness present skills, ability levels and finally the career goal.
The Organizational role http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/shengvn-65920-session-8-career-development-education-ppt
Effective and proactive HR manger will recognize the importance of the career planning and development and will satisfy the organizational and employees needs.If the HR department is fully awrae of the organisation HR needs,career chances and traning and development oppurtunities than the HR department is well placed to promote career planning amoung employees
Strategic Operational

Current competencies Employee turnover
Future competencies Absenteeism
Market changes Talent pool
Mergers, etc Outsourcing
Joint ventures Productivity

Personal Professional

Career stage
Family concerns
Education and training
Spouse employment 
Promotion aspirations
Mobility Performance
Outside interest
Current career path

What is career development?
Career development is which an individual takes personal improvements which he/she undertakes to achieve a personal career plan.Career development is also important for the organisation to create and maintain a continuos learning environment.
Factors in career development
For a successful career development and growth include the following important factors.
Exposure: if the employee wants to succed, the employee has to become known to the top or the senior management.Employees can be known to the senior management through performing superior work performance, giving presentations, report writing, taking initiate in and involveing organizations special events in organisng and arranging them in addition individually involveling company training and development programmes and social events.
Performance: Employees who perform the job up to the management expectation will be well recognized by the department heads and the senior management, but employees who performa badly will also be rescognised but for the career development oppurtunities are less likely to be offred to them.
Qualification: Strong correlation exsists between graduate earnings and the experience and the konledge that they have.
Employer reputation: Some organisation have an strong reputation that is well known around the globe as breeding ground for high potential employees.Therefore employees getting a job in these companies will be an important factor for a successful career and for a long term employability.
Mentor: Successful managers will have a mentor or a sponsor who helps advance their career by offering advice, providing instructions and opening career oppurtunities.
Benefits of Menotoring
Mentoring provides the structure for the groeth and development of all employees within an organisation.
Mentoring plays an important role in motivating the employees and improves the employees job satisfaction.
Mentoring also helps to impress the corporate values of the organisation.
Mentoring also helps to avoid discrimination over women by helping them to overcome the gender related barriers to advancement.
Helps companies and organisation to encourage and capitalize on diversity by identifying talents.
Women sometimes find them excluded from mentoring, this is because mentoring is repetadly or frequently based on personal relationships that is built outside the working hours.
Development: Rapid expansion of skills and knowledge makes the employee more valuable, where the employee will be more attracted and appreciated by the management.
Language skills: The internationalization of business and the development of global business, business organisation’s seeks employees that not only speak English fluently but competency in a second language, and the more languge the employee know the more the better.
Networking: It is extremely important for the employee to maintain or build a network of contacts with the people who are likely to be useful for the his/her career devellopement.
Goal setting: A succeseeful career planners are extremely self motivated.The have pre identified what goels they need to achieve and what they have to do to reach and achieve it.
Computer skills: Computer literacy is an important skill, having that far better than other l is a competitive advantage amoung other employees.Intodays world high skilled employees must be “technology capable”.
Fainacial planning skills: To savvy employees understand that there is no life long employement gurantees.
Apperance: Apperaence plays an important role in compensation and career success.
Factors involved in career development system
In this step it defines the present system.It involves conducting a needs assessment as in a training programmes. It estabilhes roles and responsibilities of all employees and the organization.By identifying the needs it helps to establish, the target groups,mission or philosophy of the programe,cultural parameters, determine organisation receptivity and commitment and support for the career development.
The career system need to have a relation with the intervention. The vision creates a longterm philosophy.
Design intervention for the organization, its employees and managers.
Organize and make nessecary career information that is required to support the programme.
Establish the objectives of the programme.
Action plan
To achieve the vision an action plan must be developed.And also the top management support is nessecarily important.
Create a survey programme
Establish a consultancy or advisory group.
Asses’ resources and competencies.
Involving the advisory group in the programme design, implementation, and for the evaluation and monitoring.
Identifying Career Opportunities and Requirements
Begin with competency analysis
It is important for any organisation to learn its jobs carefully in order to identify and assign weights to the knowledge and skills each one requires.This can be achived with job analysis and evaluation systems such as those used in compensation programs.The system used at sears measures three basic competencies for each job, such as the know-how, problem solving and accountability.Know how is divided in to three respective categories of knowledge: technical, managerial and human relations.Problem solving and accountability also have different types of dimensions.The scores of each of the above competencies are assigned to each job and total value is accumulated for each job.
Identifying Job Progressions
Once the skill demands of jobs are identified and weighted according to their improvement , it than possible to to plan job progressions. Employees without any experience (new employees) will typicall assign a starting job. When the employee get experience from the current job, than the new employee can be promoted to a post that requires more knowledge and skill. most organization concentrate on developing job progression for managerial, professional and technical jobs.But these organizations also can develop job progression to types of jobs.When job progressions are develop it serve as a baisi for developing the career paths of the individual employees. Organisation can also make informative and attractive brouchers providing information in regarding the career paths that are available in the organisation for the employees.
Recognize lots of possibilities
Career development and planning systems were once primaly focused on promotions and advancement. However in todyas ever changing business ennviroment and the flatter o organizations and employees career development can occur in several different ways, which includes transfer to a from one place to another, demotion due to lack of competence and experience and job promotion to a better position or to a senior position within the organization. To provide the above possibilities HR policies have to be flexible enough to adapt and willing to help to support the career change.
Promotion is the change from the current position to a position that is high level within the organisation assigned with more responsibilities. The position that was promoted provides the employee lots of benefits based on the responsibilities; it increases the pay, R&R etc.The three principal criteria for determimg promotions are merit, seniority and potential.
A transfer is the placement of an employement of an employee in another job for which the duties,responsibilities, status and renumerations are approximately equal to those of the previous job.A transfer can provide an individual to prepre for an eventual promotion.Trasfers make the path way for the employees to aquire more knowledge by tranfering from one organisation to another, to a different group, transferring to aboard or work shift.A transfer can also be a demotion, which the employee moves to a low level postion from the current position that can provide development oppurtunities.
Relocation Services
Relocation services include a range of internal business process that the HR department engage to transfer the employee, employees famility or the entire department to new work location.Relocation also include help in moving, selling a home, learning a new culture etc.
Outplacement is type counseling that is given help the employees that are terminated to locate or find a new career.The consultation provided by the consultant vary but it includes, career evaluation, termination procedures , phycological appraisals, interview traning preparing resumes, certain techniques to search for jobs etc.
Dual Careers
As more women are entering the workforce HR managers has to develop specific policies and programmes for accomodationg the dual career aspirations of employees and their spouces.HR mangers has to particularly pay attention to the implications of an employed spouse when providing career counseling to an employee.Dual career couples need to be flexible , to be mutually committed to both careers to adopt coping mechanisums to develop the skills of career planning.Therefore inturn organisation can provide flexible work schedules, effective career management, counseling, child care support etc.
Career plateau
Career plateau menas that high points in ones career where the probability and the motivation is minimal.When this happens the employees finds it difficult or trapped which it unables to achieve further advancement.If an employee is avoide plateauing it is difficult for the employee to get adapated and develop in the face of change or transition.
Intodays’ business environment employees are now reaching pletaues earlier than before, it is extremely important for the organizations and individuals today to prepare to cope with the phenomenon successfully.and most importantly when there is sign of impending plateuea are observed. Significant decline in the competiveness is less if the organisation accept responsibility for employee development and if the employees are willing to invest time for their development.
Work family conflict
Work family conflict is commonly exsisting isn dual-income family and single parent family.People today are facing problem in identifying the deffrence or what is meant bu success and how to balance work and family.Specially for women it is difficult to balance the work and family responsibilities because the job demand competes with the traditional family demand being the mother, wife etc.Other than women, men also face the same problem if they place the family first, therefore they have to face lots of problem with their co-workers and with the company. http://www.scribd.com/doc/18002097/Career-Planning-and-Development
What is career management?
Career management is the process of designing and implementing goals, plans and strategies to enable the organization to fulfill the employee needs which this allows the individual employees to achieve their career goals. It is also the process whereby the employee indentify their own interest values and their own weakness and strengths And also the individuals establish action plans to achieve their career goals. .In today’s global world each and every organization felt the need of career planning and development. The reason why career management is important because if the organization fails to motivate their employees to plan their career, the organization will face the following issues, such as loss or shortage of employees to fill the vacant positions, commitment by the employees become lower and high training cost.
The career management process includes:
Self assesement: employees determine the values, interests,aptitudes and dehaviroual tendencies.The self assessment is uaully involves phsycological tests.
Reality check: Using the available information employees identify how the organisation or the company evaluate their skills and knowledge and where they fit in the companys plan.
Goal setting: in this process employees establish and develope longterm and short term onjectives.
Action plan: After the individual establish his/her goal, the individual developes an actional plan determimg how they will achieve their short and long term career goals.
Employee role in career mangement
The employees individually has to initiative to ask for feedback from managers and peers in regarding their skill in the work place and their strengths and weaknesses. This will help the individual employees to further improve their performance where improvements is needed.
The employees have to seek challenges by gaining exposure to a range of learning opportunities.
The employee has to Interact with employees from different work groups and organizations inside and outside the company environment.
The employees has to create visibility through good performance skills
HR managers role in career management
The HR manager to provide relevant information to the employees in regarding the training and development opportunities that are available in the organization.
The HR manager has to help the employees for to search for jobs.
The HR manger is responsible to provide counseling services to the employees who have career related problems.
Organization role in Career mangement
Oraganizations or companies are responsible to provide nessecary resources needed by the employees for their career planning.
Career planning workshops
Workshops offer similar experiences that are provided in the workbooks.Comparing to workbooks, workshop has several advantages to employees, such as the employees has the chance to dicuss their ideas, concerns, attitudes and plans with others in similar situations.Diffrent workshops has different focus. Some workshops focus on the employees current job performance and development plans.And some focus on broader life and career plans and values.Career workshops assit the employees to learn how to make decisions, find career planning information, set career goals and bbuild confidence and self esteem within the employees.
Career planning workbooks
These workbooks are prepared by the organization to guide their employees through systematic self estemm of values,abilities, personal development plans and interests.
Career couselling
Career counseling is usually done by HR department. Career counseling involves talking with employees with their personal interests and goals, about their current job activities, their personal skills and career development objectives.In some organization career conselling is done annually and partially.Career counseling is usually voluntary.

Planning and Implementation Change Within Business

Business is basically one sort of organization which is operated through applying effective and efficient managerial system. When we are not usually happy with the current system of any particular business system, then we want to make shift to the expected and desirable stage. It is said that, everyone does not resist change but they resist strictly to be changed. In this study, we are going to work on a selected organization about how to plan and implement the proposed any particular change by the change agents or actors. The selected organization is Tesco which is one of the biggest British multinational groceries and merchandise. It basically produces and sells food, clothes, operate bank etc. (Tesco.com, 2018). In this study, we are going to discuss about various aspects related to planning and implementing the change with business.

1.1  Describing the internal and external factors that contribute to the need for change in organizations

Internal factors contributing to change: Internal factors refers to the internal business environment which create sense of urgency to change. The factors are described in below in the organizational context of Tesco.

Organizational mission statement: Organizational intended mission statement of any particular organization like Tesco lead to make change within the organization. As the main business mission of Tesco is to create a better position through providing better service to the customers (Gragg & Cassell, 2009). So, this sort of mission led the organization to be strategic.

Organizational vision statement: The organizational vision of Tesco is to make this company super giant in terms of quality service delivery and product sale. So, this vision leads the organization to innovate new things in terms of operational management.

Resources: Internal business resources like human, technological and financial resources define what sorts of changes are needed and realistic (Haller, 2010).

External factors contributing to change: These sorts of factors are derived from the external environment of any organization like Tesco.

Economic: The economic factor or the current market situation persuade any particular organization to bring change (Venkataraman & Pinto, 2011). For example, if the current economy of any country is developed in terms of per capita, the Tesco have to develop world standard or costly food products.

Technological: Technological factors like social media usage, people technological sense urge to bring positive change in products like developing new feature in Tesco mobile.

These sorts of both internal and external organizational factors lead to the matter of bringing new change within the environment.

1.2  Analyzing different types of organizational change

Different types of changes in terms of Tesco are analyzed in below.

Different types of organizational changes:

Organizational structure: In terms of organizational management structures changes can be brought. For example, Tesco can be more convenient in terms of its flat management structure because it deals with the corporate activities.

Procedural change: In the form of organizational service delivery system or the product distribution system, Tesco can bring positive change. For example, taking online order and delivering products through courier.

Staffing change: Tesco can train and develop the staffs and employees to make them competent to the new brought change.

Rules and regulations: Organizational bureaucratic complexities and their procedural burdens should be minimized (Wilson, 2009). For example, enhancing new and smooth communication channel through social media.

These are different sorts of organizational changes these changes can be brought if we want to make Tesco as a very competitive and standard groceries around the world market.

1.3  Explaining the benefits of planning organizational change

Conducting plan before making any sort change can be beneficial during the period of implementation and evaluation. Some benefits are explained in below.

Benefits of planning organizational change:

Effective change management: A well-planned and effective change management can be easier to make its proper management. During implementation, change actors can work based on the planed management.

Reducing stress: Any sort of new change or develop is the matter of fear to the change actors (Moffat, 2017). If the changes are planned and well-coordinated and there is proper guideline, then their stresses can be reduced in a great extent.

Maximum utilization of existing resources: An effective change management plan guides to the proper utilization of the existing financial, human, technological resources properly. These sorts of resources can be utilized and expected results are generated.

Opportunities to develop news sills: New changes create new opportunity to learn something beneficial. If the change is made intentionally, the employees can learn new things which are already under their concern.

These are the illustration of the probable benefits of planning organizational change.

2.1 Explaining processes for managing change

Change management is the continuous procedure through which change is initiated, implemented and evaluated. Based on a theoretical framework, the processes of change management are explained in below.

Processes for managing change:

Kortter’s 8 steps theory: Following this theory, the processes are illustrated in below.

Creating sense of urgency:  It is the initial stage of change management process. In this stage, the change players identify current organizational crisis and the potential changes needed for the organization (Kotter, 2018).

Creating a guiding coalition: In this stage of change management processes, the change actor or change agent form a team with the actors so that the change management procedures can be proceeded forward. For example, HRM.

Developing the guiding coalition: Strategies are set through which the intended changes will be gone forward.

Communicating the change vision: Stakeholders especially, the change players are communicated the proposed change content and its mission and objectives so that they can implement change smoothly (Kotter, 2018).

Empowering broad based action: Leaders minimize the existing hassles in the way of bringing the new change.

Generating short win: The change leader generate a quick win so that stakeholders can be satisfied and they feel motivated in contributing to the change management.

Consolidating gains and produce more change: Hiring, promoting and recognizing of the new specialists are done so that more changes can be brought.

Anchoring new approach in the culture: The taken changes are applied and sustained in the existing organizational culture.

These are the processes through which change is taken place and it can be easily implemented based on the organizational context of Tesco.

3.1 Explaining the skills needed to manage people through organizational change

In order to implement and consolidate the proposed change successfully, it is badly need to manage the existing change players. In below, the needed skills are explained.

Skills needed to manage people through the organizational change:

Communication: leaders have to develop a barrier free communication mechanism through which he/ she can remain in touch of the fellow workers.

Feedback: By taking feedback from the employee performance from the employees, the leaders can manage people in term of how they are working and contributing to the change processes.

Performance management: Performance management basically creates and develop such a working culture in which employees are rewarded for their good performance and punished for their bad performance (McCullagh, 2010). By developing this system, people can be managed through organizational change.

Team working: Developing and establishing team working lead the employees to be entered into a working environment culture by which the can get cooperation and assistance from the other coworkers and their skills can be developed.

Thus, employees can be managed in terms of the brought change.

3.2 Describing reasons for individuals to resist change

It is said that, people doesn’t resist change but they resist being changed. There are some sorts of reasons behind change management suggested by the change specialists.

Reasons for individuals to resist change

Inertia: Employees usually want to remain and stay in their comfort position and as they want to maintain their traditional legacy, so they do not want to go through any sort of change.

Timing: Most often organizations bring change in inappropriate moment when the employees are not ready to embrace the changes. For example, sudden social trends due to having cinema or social media effect, changes can be needed in making new stylish clothes but the change actors may not be ready always to accept the change (Bradutanu, 2015).

Peer-pressure: Sometimes the group of people or the team members do not want to embrace change, at that the case the individuals do not want to take change although they have intention to embrace the change.

Surprise: If the employees are not consulted before applying any change, then the can resist the change.

These are the reasons behind resisting change by change actors.

3.3 Explaining how leaders and manager can overcome resistance to change

How leaders and manager can overcome resistance to change: Based on the leadership theory developed by Tannenbum and Schmidt, the way to overcome the resistance to change is explained in below.

Tells: Leaders should describe or narrate the intended goals and objectives and the benefits for minimizing the resistance, then the employees can be agreed to face change (tutor2u, 2018).

Sells: Leaders make decision but the make discussion and interact with the employees before making the ultimate decision.

Consult: Before making or bringing any sorts of changes, the leaders should make consultation and discussion with the employees so that they can realize the benefits of the change (tutor2u, 2018).

Joins: Leaders make clean the way to change and the employees go forward to embrace change.

By doing so, the employees’ participation can be enhanced as the change is made buy-in with the employees and as the employees are consulted so they make smooth participation to the change management process. Thus the, change management becomes successful.

2.2 explaining role of organization culture in the management of change

Organization culture refers to the behavior and system of work procedure which they follow during their business operation. Organization culture influences behavior of employees, their attitude and process of interaction with others within organization. As prominent and large business organization Tesco plc has some organization culture which impacts their employee’s behavior and working process. In this context Charles Handy an Irish philosopher provide a theory which consist of power, task culture, person culture and role which are followed by Tesco, describe in below-

Power: this indicates that when power contained by few employees and management of company take decision. For this reason those employees get some facilities in Tesco and have great role in change management of organization. In this context, low hierarchy employees less impact on decision making and other work process (Oestreich, 2007).

Role culture: Tesco has various specialists in different sector based on their skill, experience and quality so that company can get better outcome from employees where tasks are distributed to them according to their skilled sector. This type of employees is responsible for their work and able to take decision in change management of company where they have to play vital role; this is role culture.

Task culture: this is consist of some members who are work for solving problem within company and has great impact on solving various problems faced by company. In Tesco Company there also some common employees who have same interest and solve problem together.

Person culture: in the context of person culture employees think that they are very important for the company and play vital role in their company. In Tesco this type of employees give importance on their interest than Tesco Company’s decision. In general sense this has negative impact on company because decision of company is more important than personal decision (Handy, 2011).

Impact of specific role in change management:

There have some culture in Tesco which have great impact on change management of Tesco, such as-

Communication: communication is the way of interact with each other and best way to handle any difficult situation. Tesco is a large company so here need to good interaction with employees in order to operate business in better way. To bring good change in company combine work and decision has vital role where communication among employees have is must. Good communication system in Tesco helps to make them one of the profited companies in the world (Green, 2009).

Committed manager: manger plays vital role in a company where good decision making of manager leads company to achieve their goals in better way. In Tesco Company, manager holds vital role to bring good change in company and manage change in better way. Change is common and company has to face change during operating where manager has to be strongly committed to his duty and with employees (Smith and Smith, 2010.

Actions of employees: good culture is key component of good operation of company’s activities where employees have to various actions to make good culture in company. In Tesco Company there have good culture of working procedure which make them competitive in market. To initiate good culture in company they take various actions in related to improve company’s working procedure.

Recognition: recognition motivates employees to do their job in better way. For this reason Tesco recognize their employees work and contribution so that they can deal with change in better way.

Change in physical environment: to deal with change and manage change in better way Tesco initiate change in their physical environment such as soil, water supply and so on (Handy, 2011).

So these are some major factor which is needed to manage the change in better way and bring good change to improve company’s profit.

Speaker note:  Better technology and decision making is needed for the reducing cost. So by measuring cost Tesco can monitor their implementation of change.

To ensure better quality company implement various change in their Company where better quality indicates good implementation of change (Green, 2009).

Speaker note: Good adherence with change indicates good result of change so this is important tools for monitoring change of a company.

Good time management indicates progress of work where change in company takes time. If company can adjust their time with after initiate change refers good impact of change (Horton, 2003).

Speaker note: When Tesco Company evaluates their process in the context of effectiveness they can find out the improvement of program? On the other hand evaluating efficiently helps to identity best production point where company should produce.

Evolution of effectiveness helps them to measure success and efficiency helps to measure success in production.

So evaluating is very much important for the process which is initiated by Tesco in term of their effectiveness and efficiency (Brännmark & Benn, 2012).

Speaker note: maximize the output is one of the key objective of Tesco where they can measure success of change by measuring output.

Tesco Company can justify their change process through comparing new process result with baseline effectiveness which will helps them to find out result of new change process (Green, 2009).

By measuring cost and quality Tesco can justify their new process where better quality with lowest cost indicates betterment of change process.

Business is basically one sort of organization which is operated through applying effective and efficient managerial system. When we are not usually happy with the current system of any particular business system, then we want to make shift to the expected and desirable stage. It is said that, everyone does not resist change but they resist strictly to be changed. In the following discussion, we have described various sorts of factors to change, change planning, implementation and evaluation in the light of various sorts of change related theories and approaches which are applicable to the organizational setting of Tesco.

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Venkataraman, R. and Pinto, J. (2011). Cost and Value Management in Projects. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Wilson, D. (2009). The paradoxes of transparency. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Supply Chain Planning and Management at Rolls Royce


Supply Chain Planning and Management at Rolls Royce

Introduction of supply chain management and planning


Supply chain management is commonly described as: activities are designed, planned, operated, controlled and monitored in the supply chain to achieve creating values, building a competitive infrastructure, synchronizing supply with demand and so on. Planning, as part of SCM, indicates activities aimed at allocating, deploying or consuming resources to meet projected or actual demand over a long time period; for hierarchical operations planning, four parts starting from macro business planning and ending in micro order scheduling contribute to supply chain planning (DICTIONARY, 2018).

Introduction of Rolls Royce’s Trent 1000



Trent 1000 is a three-shaft high bypass ration turbofan engine with bladeless design manufactured by Rolls-Royce which first ran in 2006, mainly serving for Boeing 787 Dreamliner. It provides up to 3% better fuel burn than competitors and still keeps the record of the quietest engine ever in the world. A Trent 1000 engine consists of around 18,000 individual components (Rolls-royce.com, 2018). There are variants certified by the EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency) of all series Trent 1000 including Trent 1000-E, Trent 1000-H, Trent 1000- A, Trent 1000-G, and so on. (EASA, 2016). The latest Trent 1000 engine is Trent 1000 TEN which takes centre stage, completed the first flight in 2016 and continued powering for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner family of aircraft. Advanced technologies such as soluble core high-pressure turbine blades as well as smart design like the 3D aero design compressor ensure the engine be efficient and reliable (AGENCY, 2016).

Main engine modules


Compressor, Combustors and Turbine are three main sub-assemblies that contribute to Trent 1000. The compressor is made up with the fan, the alternating stages of rotating blades and static vanes; more specifically, Fan system is constituted by 20 blades and rotates at 2,700rpm, generating 85% engine’s thrust. Like the compressor, the turbine comprises of a rotating disc with blades and static vanes, called nozzle guide vanes. Both compressor and turbine have three types pressure level (low pressure, intermediate pressure and high pressure) (OJHA & RAGHAVA, 2013).

Inbound network


From purchasing raw materials to manufacturing components to assembling for getting a finished product, in order to run an efficient inbound network, Rolls-Royce selects its partners involved in each phase in strict accordance with global sourcing process which assesses the ability to deliver to Rolls-Royce standards. Its partners as logistics nodes in the whole process varying from suppliers to manufacturers, home and abroad collaborate each other smoothly.

In the joint international production program of Trent 1000, a large number of raw materials suppliers supply different materials to produce components, then deliver to assemble. For instance, Rolls-Royce purchases titanium materials from a Russian company VSMPO- AVISMA. The company provides the titanium mill products and semi-products including disk forgings and rings made of various titanium alloys (SALDA, 2015). Also, a Chinese company Baosteel Special Material Co. Ltd. supplies special steel to produce the disk and blade of the low-pressure rotor of the Trent 1000. Then, those raw materials and small parts will be sent to Japan and UK to manufacture more complex components. Kawasaki Heavy Industries takes responsibility to produce and assemble the intermediate pressure compressor module in the engine core. The IPC module consists of approximately 2,000 components (KAWASAKI, 2004).

Meanwhile, the UK company GKN Aerospace takes charge of providing the rear fan case and outer guide vane mount ring for Trent 1000. Manufacture those parts takes place at the company’s sites in Newington, Connecticut, El Cajon, California and Mexicali, Mexico and the initial development units have already been delivered there (GKN AEROSPACE, 2015). After all the components being delivered to Singapore where is the only place to manufacture hollow titanium wide-chord fan blade outside the UK, Rolls-Royce Singapore Pte Ltd will assemble Trent 1000 engine at Seletar, and the final test for Trent 1000 also takes place there (ROYCE, n.d.)


Roll-Royce use “Global Supplier Portal” to improve their communication channel. Besides it also adopts Strategic Scouring Toolset (ARIBA-Synthesis) to manage supplier during sourcing. Also, 3D print technology also is used for a higher production line. Meanwhile, source to pay digital platform was used for sourcing and management.

Future Procurement and Production



In order to make the procurement process more efficient and automatic, Rolls-Royce introduces technology system Coupa’s S2P. It gives the company opportunities to hook more closely into vendors. In the past, Rolls-Royce could only force suppliers to keep their systems updated in order to be compatible with the data sets and software that is used. With the flexibility of the cloud, Rolls-Royce can pull data from suppliers whose systems are not compatible directly with its platforms. This technology allows Rolls-Royce to be more collaborative with its suppliers around the world.

Fig. 1.4: – ASSEMBLY OF TRENT 1000



As Rolls-Royce aircraft engine products rank the leading international level with its outstanding product performance and competent service, the demand for its engine keeps increasing. With the digital revolution gradually eliminating the limits between the physical products and services, the engine product of Rolls-Royce in the future would be connected, contextually aware and comprehending and the design, test, and even customer service could all be done by digital technology. 3D printing technology is one of the best examples. This technology enables Rolls-Royce to break the boundaries of finding the certain shapes of tools to manufacture spares (ROYCE, 2018). The company decides to use 3D printing technology to manufacture the spares in the jet engine such as Trent 1000 to speed up the production rate and produce more light components.

Analysis of Supply Chain of Trent 1000(SWOT)




Inbound Network


Strength: After exploring the inbound network of Trent 1000, efficient supplier management is the key for developing an advanced supply chain of Trent 1000 in Rolls Royce. Some details about how Rolls Royce to make its supplier management efficiently are listed as below.

First, Rolls Royce uses an accessible web-based “Global Supplier Portal” to facilitate two-way interaction with their suppliers, enabling them to conduct business transactions and communicate information (ROYCE, 2018). Several suppliers provide different materials to support the production of Trent 1000, such as VSMPO-AVISMA provides titanium material to Rolls Royce to use it as the base material of Trent 1000. The supplier management is complicated in the inbound network of Trent 1000 because all of the supplies of Rolls Royce come from different companies and counties, and they need to communicate with Rolls Royce in different ways, languages and times without a professional system. Thanks for the GSP, as Rolls Royce can interact with its suppliers efficiently and effectively to cooperate in the business.

Also, Rolls Royce implements an online system called Strategic Scouring Toolset (ARIBA- Synthesis) to facilitate supplier strategies and the creation of merchandise, contract creation and negotiation, analysis of supply chain spend and management of supplier performance. For example, in the production period of Trent 1000, Rolls Royce use Strategic Sourcing Toolset to arrange bulk buys, which can save engineering resource and increase material availability, and to alternate suppliers, share material, and purchase excess material so that the company can reduce material costs and increase the material availability (O’CONNOR, 2018).

Weakness: One of the essential disadvantages of the supply chain of Trent 1000 in Rolls Royce is that it does not set up a unified quality inspection and control system to supervise its quality of the products.

From suppliers to its customers, the whole working process of Trent 1000 are involved in different countries, like its manufacturing and assembling processes generally done in some developing countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. In such a situation, it is important for setting up a unified quality inspection and control system to supervise its quality of the products that produced in different countries because different countries have different standards of production and quality. If all of the worldwide partners of Trent 1000 follow their standards of production and quality, it will be a problem of the quality of the final product of Trent 1000.

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The well-published problem with the Trent 1000 engine, which grounded the Boeing 787’s of operators, is a typical case of product quality problem of Trent 1000 (ROYCE, 2018). This issue cases Roll-Royce a significant loss in its revenue, with its cash hits from this problem at the peak of 340 million pounds in 2018 and it also costs Roll-Royce the extra inspections that covered by cutting discretionary spending elsewhere (MR. EAST, 2018). Therefore, in order to make sure the whole quality of the products, it is necessary for Roll-Royce to implement a unified quality inspection and control system to supervise its quality of the products that produced in different countries.



Lean process

Strength: Lean process made operations of RR turns to more explicit, direct and easy to control. By finding the bottleneck, the company produces what is needed, when it is needed and no more very precisely. Hence there is no redundant materials or product at stock because it will lead to high maintaining cost.

Weakness: low inventory lead to out of stocking of rare materials during the high demand season. And because of the cost of stock out is high and can generate poor relationship between customers and suppliers, much of the improvement need to be done in inventory control field.


Standardization and central lead strategy


Code of conduct mechanism makes suppliers management more effective and time-saving. Because Roll-Royce need not explain or guidance the transaction process during procurement, which will waste much time. As a result, RR can ensure pay suppliers on time. Furthermore, time of procurement cycle was deduced by the efficient information and economic chain. For instance, RR can monitor resources in accordance with the risk profile of suppliers. In addition to this, centrally led but locally deployed procurement strategy let procurement more flexible due to that all procurement sector are different, equipped with locally procurement deploy provide agility.

Weakness: may lose the opportunity with some suppliers who don’t want to follow the code of conduct.


Human resource management


Strength: After 30 years of procurement works the biggest challenge for Rolls Royce is not the technology or speed of delivery but the professionalism of the people is working. Professional procure teams are the core competitive advantages for a company. Specialized people lead to purchasing more efficient and accurate. Moreover, they also have a market sense to guide successful decision making. Also, a company with a good firm culture is more likely to run a harmonious and orderly way.

Weakness: the cycle of training talents is relatively long, and RR have to invest a lot to the cultivating program.

Technology strategy


Strength: The technology helps Rolls Royce achieve direct management of suppliers and the procurement process. In terms of information sharing, through these digital platform directors gain more complete messages from each part. Therefore, they can easily know about when and where the raw materials or the products are needed, which maximize eliminate waste of repeated production and procurement. And by aligning with all company’s accounts payable and procurement operations the consistence interface S2P allows better visibility into its data thus greatly avoid procurement repetition or information error and easier to establish benchmark.

Weakness: investment in this high-tech is huge, meanwhile it shares the same human and economic resources with core tech. so the competitive of core tech in engine may decrease due to the lack of resource.

Introduction to Production vs Outsourcing of Rolls Royce


A Trent 1000 engine is made up of approximately 18000 individual components (ROYCE, 2016). Some of its modules are produced by Rolls-Royce itself, while most is outsourced. For instance, around the world, less than 50 companies can produce high-temperature alloy for aerospace. Rolls-Royce is one of them and has developed its technology of producing directional solidification and single crystal alloy for years which enables Rolls-Royce to have access to self-produce high-pressure turbine blade domestically (OJHA & RAGHAVA, 2013). By contrast, rear fan case for Trent 1000 is outsourced to GKN Aerospace and manufactured in the United States of America and Mexico (GKN AEROSPACE, 2015). Both raw materials delivering to manufacture site and finished product delivering to assembling site would take much longer time than in-house manufacture. Also, outsource increases risk. For example, the probability of manufacturers delivering modules in poor quality will influence the whole manufacturing process and result in the final assemble delay. On the other hand, outsourcing enables Rolls-Royce to avoid large investment in equipment, technology, and other aspects, thus reducing the cost of labor, and avoiding waste in equipment parts procurement and production (KAWASAKI, 2004).

Rolls-Royce: Make vs Buy


Rolls-Royce being a company manufacturing a huge but a very critical product that is the airplane engine; of course, it is not possible to manufacture every part in-house, but the company faced many technological issues in outsourcing the product. Rolls-Royce initiated the outsourcing of its IT management system back in 1996. Only the core IT competencies were kept in-house. The decision was taken keeping into account at least 10% reduction in the cost, but there were some flaws in the decision due to which the IT outsourcing simply for procurement did not seem to capture the true strategic discussion in Rolls-Royce ( Gottschalk & Solli‐Sæther, 2005).


The company has shifted through from the make towards buy in the last two decades. It now designs only around 70% of the components. The purchase was made by means of competitive tender from the suppliers, but the company found that this was not working especially where the suppliers did the design of the components.


The major problems that were faced were of non-meeting the specifications and quality compliance required by Rolls-Royce. Later in 1991, the company developed a separate task force to manage the procurement of the engine parts that were designed internally but manufactured by the suppliers. The company has now narrowed down the supplier list for different parts worldwide and then collaborate with the suppliers for specific order only after the supplier meets the company compliance (ROY & STEPHEN, 1996).

Future order (opportunity)

With the increasing demand of the aircraft, the future order for Trent 1000 engines will continue to grow. Trent 1000 engine, as the main engine to power the Boeing 787 Dreamliner family of aircraft, pays an essential role in the development of worldwide airlines. In the past few months, there was a well-published problem with the Trent 1000 engine, which grounded the Boeing 787’s of operators, and it made Rolls Royce focusing on improve and redesign Trent 1000 engines (ROYCE, 2018). After the date of the issue, Rolls Royce took some measures to solve the problem and improve the quality of Trent 1000.

Now, the Trend 1000 is protected by Total Care®, a flagship engine service of Rolls-Royce that improves the reliability of the engine increases time on wing, and maximizes the engine contribution to business performance. Moreover, the good news is that the company won an order of $1.7 billion, which from Airlines of Singapore, for powering 19 Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft by the use of Trent 1000 engines (ROYCE, 2018). It is a good and new starting point for Trent 1000 and Rolls-Royce after the issue of the Boeing 787 of operators because it is based on a strong and long-term relationship between Rolls-Royce and Airlines of Singapore.

In the future, the performance bar of Trent 1000 will be set as higher as the engine’s Ten and improve the performance of the Trent 1000 so that it can maintain its deserved reputation for reliability and bringing even further advantages to customers regarding efficiency (Media, Rolls-royce.com, 2018). Also, in order to minimize the impact of unexpected wear issues on cash flow, Roll-Royce will offer airlines maintenance credits that limit direct compensation for grounding Boeing Co.787 planes (KARTZ, 2018).

Threats and Risks


Shortage of Resources: Exotic and advanced materials are needed for Rolls-Royce to create distinguished engine –Trent 1000. However, these kinds of materials (e.g., high-strength nickel-based alloys) are in short order. Therefore, if one has issues, it can disrupt the whole supply chain throughout the entire global network.

Suggestion 1:


To alleviate the disruption and make the supply chain more resilient, this company developed an extensive risk management mechanism from following steps: first forecasting customer’s demand; second identify the single or susceptible resources; third find a replaced resource chain. So, no matter which one of this resource chains broken or have some issues the procurement teams can still adopt the alternative resource chain immediately to complete the procurement.


Limits of Technical Capability risk:


As for some cutting-edge complex sub-systems, Rolls Royce may not have enough economic supports to develop such high-cost program. Therefore, the company is facing a risk of replacement by other competitors in the production of technical components field.


Suggestion 2:


To deal with this, Rolls Royce also purchases sub-system from suppliers. Through this process, Rolls Royce not only can save energy for developing but also built a long-term partnership with suppliers through risk and revenue sharing arrangements.




By taking into consideration all the collaborative measures taken by the company we can say that Rolls Royce is looking forward to having smooth and healthy relations with the suppliers. Over the years of development and all the problems faced company has now standardised the HRM, Procurement technology, Manufacturing process, and all the conducts to make a fully functional Trent 1000. Though the company faced many critics due to the problems occurred in the Trent 1000 the company did not stop the development process which gave confidence to the customers. The company’s strategy for manufacturing the airplane engine, it uses the direct procurement technique for different parts required in the engine. Majorly the company focuses on designing part of the engine and its parts and asks its supplier to manufacture and supply as per order.


AGENCY, E. A. S., 2016. TYPE-CERTIFICATE DATA SHEET. [Online] Available at: https://www.easa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/dfu/TCDS%20E.036_%20issue%2007_201611 07_1.0.pdf [Accessed 2016].


Gottschalk, P. & Solli‐Sæther, H., 2005. Critical success factors from IT outsourcing. heories: an empirical study”. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 105(6), pp. 685-702.

GKN AEROSPACE, 2015. GKN AEROSPACE. [Online] Available at: https://www.gknaerospace.com/en/newsroom/news-releases/2015/gkn- aerospace-signs-agreement-with-rolls-royce-for-trent-1000-components/

KAWASAKI, 2004. Kawasaki’s Participation in Development and Production of Trent 1000 Engine. s.l.:https://global.kawasaki.com/en/corp/newsroom/news/detail/ba041013.html.


O’CONNOR, T., 2018. SUPPLY CHAIN WORLD. [Online] Available at: http://www.scw-mag.com/sections/manufacturing-distribution

SALDA, V., 2015. Conclusion of long-term agreements with Rolls-Royce [Interview] (8 JULY 2015).

THIRUVANANTHAPURAM, INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, pp. https://www.slideshare.net/coolraghava143/turbo-17121766.

ROY, R. & STEPHEN, P., 1996. Managing engineering design in complex supply chains. International Journal of Technology Management,, pp. 403-420.

ROYCE, R., n.d. ROLLS ROYCE. [Online] Available at: https://www.rolls-royce.com/country-sites/sea ROYCE, R., 2018. ROLLS ROYCE.[Online]

Available at: https://www.rolls-royce.com/media/press-releases/2018/11-10-2018-3-d- printed-parts-and-new-materials-help-rolls-royce-to-engine-test-success.aspx ROYCE, R., 2016.

ROLLS ROYCE.[Online] Available at: https://www.rolls-royce.com/site-services/images/trent-1000- infographic.aspx?from=singlemessage

ROYCE, R., 2018. ROLLS ROYCE. [Online]Available at: https://suppliers.rolls- royce.com/GSPWeb/appmanager/gsp/guest?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=article_page&_nfls=fa lse&articleNode=%2FAbout+GSP

ROYCE, R., 2018. Rolls-Royce aircraft engine fix will take ‘some years’ [Interview] (7 MARCH 2018).

MR. EAST, C.-R. R., 2018. Rolls-Royce and airlines grapple with further Dreamliner engine issues [Interview] (14 APRIL 2018).



Strategic Human Resource Planning In Business

Strategic Human Resource Planning is the process of anticipating long term HR Supplies and demands relative to changing conditions inside and outside an organization and then crafting the HR programs and other initiatives in order to meet the organizations needs.
There is no single definition of Human Resource Planning (HRP), many definitions and models of HRP exist. Some authors focus on the technical side i.e. mathematical and behavioural side of HR forecasting, there a few others who focus on the managerial side of which includes the way decision makers tackle HR issues for the benefit of the organization.
Organizations that manage HR strategically tend to outperform the competitors who do not do so
Organization’s Strategy:
Organization’s Corporate Strategy describes organization’s sense of purpose, its plans and actions for its implementation.
A clear and precise strategy is essential for the business for the following 2 reasons.
There is need for people working with in an organization to co-operate in order to achieve maximum benefit.
There are effects of changing environment
Different level of reward practices may closely compliment different strategies and are significantly related to higher level of organizational performance .
(Allen & Helms, 2007)
Primark’s Organizational Strategy:
Primark Stores Ltd is a leading clothing retail brand in UK at the moment with over 160 Stores in UK and Ireland. The overall strategy of Primark like any other business is to reach to maximum no of people as a “value for money” clothing brand and maximize its profit. Primark linked up its stores with each other through a better use of people at their head office and stores, developed new stores and increased their product line. Through the use of proper organizational strategy, today Primark is one of the leading retailer in UK and it all happened because developed a Marketing / planning strategy keeping in view their HR and organizational planning.
Organizational Strategy & HR Strategy:
Like marketing /planning strategy, HR strategy is required for businesses to maximize their output and organizational efficiency in an effective manner.
HR strategy is a step by step plan of action which organizations deploy in order to recruit, develop and retain the human resources to meet the objectives of the organization.
HR strategy is concerned with developing a highly focused strategy and approach to manage and lead people. Schular & Jackson, (2007)
In developing such a strategy two critical questions must be addressed.
What kinds of people do you need to manage and run your business to meet your strategic business objectives?
What people programs and initiatives must be designed and implemented to attract, develop and retain staff to compete effectively. Schular & Jackson, (2007)
In order to achieve the above objective, Primark developed a strong organizational strategy which lead them to the success they are enjoying today as a major clothing retail company. P
Organizational Culture & Corporate Culture:
Organizational Culture can be defined as specific set of values that are shared among people and groups within an organization and this controls the way these people interact with each other within the organization or outside with the other stakeholder.
Corporate culture is unique set of values, customs and traditions that makes an organization distinct. Organizational culture and corporate culture are often used interchangeably but there is a huge difference between them as all corporation will also be organizations but all organizations can’t be corporations.
Corporate culture is an important part of big businesses. As a major Retailer in UK, Primark has always been unique in its values and traditions. Primark has always been an organization with a focus on providing unique customers services experience to its customers. Whether its personal banking or services for businesses, Primark’s assets are its people who provide best service to its customers.
Like many other unique things as part of its corporate culture, you will mostly find Barclays at the corner of the high streets.
Learning Organizations:
A central theme of learning organizations is that learning is an effective part of the organizational development (OD). Original idea of learning organizations has been around for many years but this concept became popular during 1960 – 1980 by major writers such as Argyris (Kaizen Institute Ltd -2000)
Another contribution in this regard was made by Senge, who suggests that organizations should develop a culture of learning and to instil people’s commitment and learning capacity at every level in the organization. Senge suggested five basic features of learning organizations.
System thinking – the recognition that things are interconnected and organizations are complex systems
Personal mastery
Mental Models
Shared Vision
Team Learning
Lane et al. emphasise that training in the organisation’s ICT (information communications technology) skills is essential for corporate survival and should be part of a continuous learning culture
Primark as a Learning Organization:
Primark Stores Ltd has always paid immense amount of attention towards the development & training of staff. Primark Stores Ltd is providing valuable information on ethical trading to its staff and workers related to its suppliers.
As a major buyer, Primark has over 600 suppliers based in 16 different countries and spreading across 3 continents, Primark has always focus on the training and learning issues of these more than 700,000 people.
Primark has been quite active in raising awareness on child labour issues in these countries and has always promoted the values of ethical trading. This ethical training staffs is the focus of problem solving issues with the suppliers.
The role of suppliers is equally important at the same time and Primark Ltd has got more training programmes for the suppliers and its own key staff members who can get involved more actively with supplier in solving these on daily basis.
Primark’s staff are given extensive awareness on issues relating to all areas of business and staff members are provided further specialized training from time to time, in order to help them do their work in an effective manner.
(Source: http://primark.co.uk)
Comments & Suggestion
In this section we defined the issues relating to HR Strategy, Organizational Culture, and Primark’s role in development of its staff as a learning organization.
As we know that an effective HR Strategy is helpful in achieving the overall goal of the organization, Primark stores made its people are real valuable asset and utilized this resource in an effective manner.
The success Primark is having today is because of its Business Strategy which was very well backed with Organizational and HR Strategy.
Recruitment & Selection Process of Primark Stores:
Primark Stores has a multi-dimensional recruitment and selection process a few years ago and job vacancies were advertised through multiple ways, including in store postings, Job Centre advertisement and advertisement of vacancies over the internet.
Although we know that Primark Stores has not been focused more on internet related issues in the past and there was no other way available for the people a part from going to job centres and Primark Stores itself asking about the vacancies.
With the current passage of success, Primark Stores has made the recruitment process more transparent and easier to access. Primark Stores have now got an Online- Recruitment System and vacancies are displayed onto the website immediately.
After initial registration, candidates are asked to answer a set of question related to customer services and other issues related to the retail industry. On the successful completion of these questions, candidates are issued an application reference number for further processing of their application, if they were successful during this phase of application.
Recruitment Process For Retail Operatives:
The current recruitment process of Primark Stores consists of the following key stages.
Candidate needs to fill an online application form to get register with the online recruitment system.
At next stage, candidate needs to answer a set of online questions regarding the customer services and retail business environment.
On Successful completion of this stage, candidates are invited for a personal interview
A job is offered after a successful completion of assessment centre and going through a rigorous activity of group tasks and presentation.
Recruitment for Management Positions:
Same methodology of online applications applies for management positions as well. Job vacancies are advertised through Primark’s Recruitment website.
Candidates are presented with a set of online questions regarding the management of business / real life issues.
On successful completion of questionnaires, candidates is issued an application reference number and is invited for a Panel Interview.
This interview session can be a panel interview or one – to – one interview and candidate is tested on the basis of his education, expertise and communication skills. Candidates ability to handle different difficult situations is also analyzed.
On successful completion of interview session, candidate is invited to attend an assessment centre and this is the stage where candidate has to go through group tasks, presentations and this gives HR Team a complete idea about the suitability of the candidate for a particular job role.
(source: www.Primark.co.UK / Recruitment)
Advertising Jobs:
As mentioned earlier that Primark Stores has totally transformed its recruitment procedure into a complete online recruitment solution. Every job vacancy is advertised on this recruitment website. This shows Primark’s commitment as an equal opportunity employer.
Providing first class training to every staff member is a top priority of Primark Stores Ltd. Staff members are providing opportunities for career growth through different in-house promotions and training activities.
http://www.primark.co.uk/page.aspx?pointerid=12d70092c3a14002a5814a0630d4b102 )
Support for New Starters:
As mentioned earlier that Primark considers training very important as part of future development of its staff. A thorough induction day is conducted for every new staff member giving him / her an opportunity to know about the business and working environment. At the same time Staff members are familiarised with health & safety issues, fire hazards, emergency evacuation procedures and basic customer services skills.
Personal Experience of Working at Primark I myself have the experience of working with Primark Stores and i was provided a good induction session on my first day. It was a thorough induction session covering all aspects of business and other issues related to the business.
I was provided a very good customer services training and that helped me a lot during my job with Primark Stores.
Diversity refers to variety of different individuals belonging to different societies available in one single environment.
Primark has got a very diverse kind of organizational culture. You will find staff belonging to almost every ethnic group working at Primark Stores.
Gender Diversity:
Primark is an equal opportunity employer and encourages females to be part of its team. Females are present in Primark workforce in a huge quantity. Females are given opportunities to be part of management and many female managers are working in Primark, making Primark a more successful organization with their matchless skillset.
General Discrimination:
Primark as an equal opportunity employer discourages any kind of discrimination at work. Primark workforce is quite diversified and focus remains on working as a “Team”.
If there is any issue regarding discrimination, HR team at Primark takes strict action against the ones who are involved in this issue and result can be a job penalty.
Comments & Suggestions:
In the above section, i tried to highlight the recruitment and selection procedure of Primark Stores. Their training procedure and their focus on staff development.
I described my personal experience of working at Primark Stores and how team work is considered important while working at Primark.
In my view change in the recruitment procedure has been quite positive but a delay in different recruitment activities is an issue of major concern and it should be sorted out.
Rewards & Benefits:
Primark Stores rewards its staff through different ways. In house promotions is a major source of motivation for staff, staff is also provided opportunities of training at various Stores of Primark.
A competitive Salary and 28 days paid holidays are given to permanent staff members.
(source:/ www.Primark.co.uk/recruitment)
Induction Process and CMI Induction Best Practices:
As mentioned earlier that induction at Primark is a very important process for new staff members. They are provided with an extensive training on all issues and areas of the business.
As being an organization with its focus on “Learnings”, Primark continuously provides in house on job training to its staff members. That not only contributes in the success of Primark, but at the same time, it is good for personal development of staff member.
(Staff Handbook 2008)
I am now going to highlight some of the induction practices adopted by Primark Stores.
Flexible Working:
As Primark is an employer with its focus on the development of its “team”, its people, Primark offers flexible working pattern to its employees. This approach not only provides opportunity to the workers to adjust their remaining activities according to the flexible environment of Primark work pattern. Thus it promotes health living and better life style.
Work Life Balance:
Primark Provides the opportunity to staff members to work either full time or part- time or they can work on weekends. This flexibility of work availability is very handy and it gives a chance to the staff members to balance their day to day life and work.
Primark’s Culture & Its Effects on Employees:
AS mentioned in the first part of this assignment, every organization has its own culture which makes it unique as it comprises of its values and tradition.
As with all major retail sector organization, Primark’s focus remains on “providing better customer services” and this can be attained only through a team work. This team work is a part of Primark’s organizational culture which not only makes it a better and bigger organization but at the same time it makes its staff a unique asset for the organization.
As Primark Stores consists of a diverse work force so people belonging to different ethnic background form a base of a culture at every Primark Store. This culture would be truly different from one store to another and it does affect the employees of the organization.
(Source: Staff Handbook 2008)
Disciplinary Procedures:
Disciplinary Procedures are very important and form the basis of well disciplined work force. Primark strictly follows its disciplinary procedures and staff members are introduced with these procedures on their induction day and during various other training sessions.
Staff is encouraged to follow the terms & conditions of their contract, which not only is beneficial for the staff members but at the same time it is beneficial for the organization as well.
Uniform is a part of Primark’s Quality Service Culture and staff members are strictly advised to follow the dress code of the organization. Discrimination at work and other issues related to harassment are dealt with strictness.
(Source: Staff Handbook 2008)
Legal Requirements & HR:
Legal requirements are very important as part o the HR Planning process and HR team ensures that they are fulfilling all legal requirement during the recruitment & selection process. Staff members are informed about different legal sides of the business and how legally Primark protects its employees in case of any incident or injury during work.
These all things are very important and should be reviewed on a regular basis as they not only ensure the safety of the employees but at the same time keeps the organization on a right track which maximizes its chances of business growth.
(Source: Staff Handbook, 2008)
Comments & Suggestions:
I have analysed the induction practices in this section and it was quite helpful in knowing the work and training pattern of Primark Stores.
As we know that people are the major assets of Primark stores and these induction practices ensure that people know about their responsibilities as part of the company and how to deal with situations arising during the course of work.
Legal side is very important and staff should be familiarized with the basics of HR and employment law and health & safety at work. These things not only protect employees during work but at the same time, it protects the employers from getting involved in lengthy legal proceedings in case of an incident.

Planning an Advertising Campaign

Paragraph One: Introduction
Definition of an advertising Campaign
According to BusinessDictionary.com, (2017) an advertising campaign is a coordinated series of advertisements that are linked by the same theme or concept. It may focus on a specific brand or service, or be directed by a specific target audience. It can last anywhere from a few weeks to even years.
Paragraph Two: Research findings
Target Audience-According to nibusinessinfo.co.uk (n.d.) when planning an advertising campaign business will need to know when to advertise to their target audience which is likely to buy their products and services.
Methods-According to managementstudyguide.com (2016) the methods used to plan an advertising campaign involves seven (7) steps: 1. Research 2. Know the target audience 3. Set a budget 4.Decidibg on the proper theme 5. Selecting the media 6. Scheduling the media 7. Executing the campaign.
According to advertising.nsw.gov.au (n.d.) establishing the campaign objective is essential for a successful advertising campaign. Campaign objectives should be: 1. Specific 2. Measurable 3. Achievable 4. Realistic and 5. Timing.
Khadir (2012) States adverting reach can be conveyed as percentage of the total number of household within the established area that has been visible to the advertising message.
According multifocus.com (n.d.) there are pre and post campaign evaluation, they are mainly aimed at identifying strengths, recalls and points for improvements in the pre and post phase.
Jagopal (2012) expressed advertising is impacting everyone from five month old babies to growing children and adults, instantaneously. In today’s society the media is making products and services more popular in short amount of time.
Discussion: Plan the advertising campaign for the Airport that you are advising.
Managementstudyguide.com. (n.d) states that advertising campaigns are the sets of advertising messages which are alike in nature.
The reason of an advertising campaign is to:

Tell individuals about your product/service.
Persuade people to buy the goods/service offered.
Make your service or product accessible to the customers

In advising Liverpool John Lennon Airport on how to plan a successful advertising campaign, there is a strategical format the advisor must follow. As an advisor, the first thing to consider is a market research. A market research is there to inform advisors and businesses about their target market, competitors, potential client, past clients etc. The next step is budget; you need to understand how much money it is going to cost and to be clear on how much is willing to spend (Bram, 2009). The next step is identifying the target customers that would be likely to buy the service or product that should launch. Another step is to find out which mediums would be best to advertise, whether newspaper, billboards, TV, magazines etc. As soon as the medium is selected then we can start designing and making the ad. The design must be creative and attractive, appealing to the audience. The next step is to place the ad, placing the ad happen Once you have a completed the ad, it is time to place it with the ideal advertising medium. Last but not least, is to execute the campaign when the campaign finally launches the campaign must be evaluated to see what can be improved (Managementstudyguide.com, n.d.).
Paragraph Four: Conclusion
The process in planning the advertising campaign
Advertising is regarded as the most important weapon in marketing. The advertising campaign process can be tedious, costly and time consuming depending on the method of advertisement that is used. However, the end result (buyer reception) is not always predictable or favorable. In planning the advertising campaign for Liverpool John Lennon Airport we had to consider the target audience in which the advertisement would be geared towards. In addition, a lot of research had to be done; we had to set a budget and decide on the advertising method that suits the budget. Next, we scheduled the media and execute the campaign. After the advertising campaign was completed, we did a post evaluation to identify any flaws, strength and also any future improvements in which we could implement. The campaign is deemed a success for the airport in assisting to accomplish their targeted goals.
Advertising.nsw.gov.au, (n.d.). Campaign objectives | Planning a campaign | NSW Strategic Communications. [online] Advertising.nsw.gov.au. Available at: http://www.advertising.nsw.gov.au/advertising/planning-campaign/campaign-objectives [Accessed 31 Dec. 2016].
BusinessDictionary.com. (2017). What is advertising campaign? definition and meaning. [online] Available at: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/advertising-campaign.html [Accessed 2 Jan. 2017].
Jagopal, S. (2012). Impact of advertisement. [online] Slideshare.net. Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/sindhujagopal/impact-of-advertisement [Accessed 31 Dec. 2016].
Khadir, L. (2012). Reach, frequency & impact. [online] Slideshare.net. Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/Laisekhadir/reach-frequency-impact [Accessed 31 Dec. 2016].
Managementstudyguide.com, (2016). Advertising Campaigns – Meaning and its Process. [online] Managementstudyguide.com. Available at: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/advertising-campaigns.htm [Accessed 30 Dec. 2016].
Multifocus.com.br, (n.d.). Pre and Post Campaign Evaluation – MultiFocus: a Market Intelligence company. [online] Multifocus.com.br. Available at: http://www.multifocus.com.br/en/prepost.php [Accessed 31 Dec. 2016].
nibusinessinfo.co.uk, (2016). Planning an advertising campaign | nibusinessinfo.co.uk. [online] nibusinessinfo.co.uk. Available at: advertising-campaign [Accessed 30 Dec. 2016].
https://www.nibusinessinfo.co.uk/content/planning-a Bram, T. (2009). The 8 Steps of an Advertising Campaign | SmallFuel Marketing. [online] Smallfuel.com. Available at: http://www.smallfuel.com/blog/entry/the-8-steps-of-an-advertising-campaign [Accessed 2 Jan. 2017].
Managementstudyguide.com. (n.d). Advertising Campaigns – Meaning and its Process. [online] Available at: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/advertising-campaigns.htm# [Accessed 2 Jan. 2017].
Managementstudyguide.com. (n.d.). Steps in Advertising Process. [online] Available at: http://www.managementstudyguide.com/advertising-process.htm [Accessed 2 Jan. 2017].