Anti Smoking Promotion Policies Difference Health And Social Care Essay

According to the Oxford Medical Companion (1994) cited in the WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic 2008, “tobacco is the only legally available consumer product which kills people when it is used entirely as intended”. Tobacco is the leading preventable cause of death in the World which causes one in ten deaths among adults worldwide and in 2005, tobacco caused about 5.4million deaths, an average of one death every six seconds. At the current rate, the death toll was projected to reach more than eight million annually by 2030 (over 175 million deaths by then as shown in figure 1) and a total of up to one billion deaths in the 21st century (WHO 2007).Certain behaviours have been labelled as risky behaviours associated with negative health outcomes among which smoking is and which has been the subject of UK national health strategies (Naidoo & Wills 2005). Smoking causes about one fifth of all deaths in the UK, most of which are premature and has hugely significant impacts on the wider environment and community through causing air pollution, fires, litter and environmental damage (Ewles 2005). This essay will look into why smoking is an important public health issue in England by defining it from various perspectives and will analyse why people smoke. Also, it will examine various demographical and epidemiological data related to smoking and in addition, it will examine how smoking is addressed in International, National and Local policy. It will also analyse various measures adopted at various geographical levels to address inequalities in health on promoting anti-smoking. In addition, it will look into various values, norms and ethical principles that influence anti-smoking policy development. From the gaps identified, recommendations and conclusions will be made.

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According to Ewles (2005), smoking in the UK can be defined from three different perspectives in terms of; the activity, the product and the market. In terms of the activity, it is the largely use of tobacco in manufactured and hand-rolled cigarettes which is the most common form of tobacco use since the early twentieth century. In terms of the product, the manufactured cigarette consists of
chopped tobacco that has been cured and mixed with a variety of additives to add flavour, increase nicotine availability from smoke and improve shelf life all rolled up in a paper tube with a filter at one end. In terms of the market, UK is home to several Worlds’ major tobacco companies such as the Imperial Tobacco, British American Tobacco, Gallagher and Rothmans UK who all together employ 9000 people in the UK and have more than 90% of UK cigarette market. The principal constituents of cigarette smoke are tar, carbon monoxide and nicotine and the paper used for manufacturing cigarettes is treated with chemicals to prevent self-extinguishing whenever the cigarette is lit. The filter usually consists of cellulose acetate which traps some solid particles in smoke and cools it (Ewles 2005). The principal constituents of cigarette smoke are carbon monoxide, tar and nicotine which is highly addictive (Cancer Research UK 2009).
FIGURE 1: Cumulative tobacco- related deaths, 2005- 2030.
Source: http://www.who.int/tobacco/mpower/mpower_report_tobacco_crisis_2008.pdf
The impact of tobacco smoking on public health extends beyond the direct effects on the individual smoker and personal health being to economic, environmental and social effects (Ewles 2005). Tobacco smoking is an important public health issue because the smoke is very toxic to every human tissue it touches on its way into, through and out of the smoker’s body (Ewles 2005). Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body thereby causing many diseases, reducing quality of life and life expectancy. Also it has been estimated that in England, 364,000 patients are admitted to NHS hospitals each year due to smoking related diseases which translates into about 7,000 hospital admission per week and 1,000 admissions per day (ASH 2006). In the UK, smoking causes about a fifth of all deaths, approximately 114,000 each year, most of which are premature with an average of 21 years early (Ewles 2005). According to Peto et. al. (2003) cited in Ewles (2005), most premature deaths caused by smoking are Lung and coronary cancer, chronic obstructive heart diseases and coronary heart diseases with 42800, 29100 and 30600 deaths respectively every year. In addition, smoking is known to also bring increased risk of many debilitating conditions like impotence, infertility, gum disease, asthma and psoriasis (Ewles 2005). Research has also shown that non-smokers are put at risk by exposure to other people’s smoke which is known as passive or involuntary smoking and is also referred to as second-hand smoke (SHS) or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) (Cancer Research 2009).
Tobacco was first introduced to Britain way back in the sixteenth century when it was commonly smoked in pipes by men. Later snuff and cigar smoking became popular among men but as a result of the invention of the cigarette making machines in the latter part of the nineteenth century, mass consumption of tobacco was made possible and in 1919, more tobacco was sold as cigarettes than in any other form (Wald & Nicolaides- Bouman 1991). According to Wald& Nicolaides- Bouman (1991) cited in Cancer Research UK (2009), smoking was firstly common among men and the consumption rose steadily until 1945 when it peaked at 12 manufactured cigarettes per adult male per day. After the Second World War, there was a slight dip in consumption but thereafter it remained at around 10 manufactured cigarettes per day until 1974 which marked the beginning of a steady and continuous decrease to about 4.6 manufactured cigarettes per adult male per day in 1992. On the other hand, women began to smoke cigarettes in the 1920s but not in large numbers until after the Second World War when they were smoking 2.4 cigarettes per adult female per day. Later, consumption among women continued to increase until it reached 7.0 cigarettes per day in 1974 after which it declined to 3.9 cigarettes per day in 1992 (Cancer Research UK 2009).
HISTORY
The link between smoking and life threatening diseases began in the early 1950’s when Dr Richard Doll and Prof Austin Bradford conducted the first ever large scale study between smoking and lung cancer which was later published in 1954. In 1957, the British Medical research Council announced that, there is a direct causal connection between smoking and lung cancer. Later in 1962, the Royal College of Physicians concluded that smoking causes lung cancer, bronchitis and coronary heart diseases and recommended tougher laws on cigarette sales, advertising including smoking in the public places. In 1965, the British Government banned cigarette advertising on television and in 1971, there was an agreement between the Government and the tobacco industry that, Government health warnings must be carried out on all cigarettes packet sold in the UK. In 1973, the first tar/nicotine tables was published in UK which was later upgraded and divided cigarettes into five categories of tar content in 1974. In 1975, the Imperial Tobacco agreed to drop brand names and logos from racing cars in UK races as control of tobacco advertising switched from the Industry to the Independent advertising Standards Authority. In 1976, Prof Sir Richard Doll and Richard Peto published the results of 20 years study of smokers and concluded that, one out of three people died from the habit. In 1983, the Latest Royal College of Physicians report featured passive smoking for the first time and asserted that more than 100,000 people died every year in the UK from smoking -related illness which later resulted in the banning of smoking on London Underground trains in 1984. In 1985, the smoking ban was extended to stations that were wholly or partly underground and in 1986, new advertising and promotion guidelines agreed on including banning tobacco advertising in cinemas. In 1987, the London Underground smoking ban was extended to entire network following the King’s Cross station fire outbreak in which 31 people died. The Independent Scientific Committee on Smoking and Health report in 1988 concluded that, non-smokers have a 10-30% higher risk of developing lung cancer if exposed to other people’s smoke and in June 1988, a UK court ruled that injury caused by passive smoking can be an industrial accident. The first nicotine skin patch became available for prescription in the UK in 1992 and in 1993, Sir Richard Doll’s study results suggested that smokers were three times more likely to die in middle-age than non-smokers and up to half of all smokers may eventually die from the habit. In May 1997, the New Labour Government pledges to ban tobacco advertising and in the same year, the Government called for Formula One to be exempted from proposed EU directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship but later backed down in the face of widespread criticism that was threatening the entire directive. In 1998, a White Paper named Smoking Kills was published after the Government -appointed Scientific Committee on Tobacco and Health announced that, passive smoking was responsible for causing lung cancer and heart disease in adults. In 2001, their was a new EU directive requiring larger and more prominent health warnings on tobacco packaging and in 2002, the British parliament passed legislation that began as a Private Member’s Bill, banning tobacco advertising named the Tobacco advertising and promotion Act. In December 2002, the British Medical Association called for the banning of smoking in the public places because of threat to non-smokers and young children. The Cancer Research UK launched an advertising campaign in 2003 and was funded by the Department of Health which target smokers of mild brand of cigarette, warning on the risk associated with the habit. In January 2004, the British Heart Foundation used graphic images to reinforce the Government -sponsored anti-smoking campaign. In March 2004, the Irish Republic introduced the toughest anti-smoking laws in Europe described as the landmark legislation with a complete ban on smoking at workplaces. In November 2004, a Public Health White Paper proposed to introduce smoking ban in workplaces in 2008 with the exemption of private members club and pubs that do not serve food. In, March 2005, the British Medical journal report produced data showing that smoking killed 11,000 a year in the UK and in April 2005, MSPs voted by 83 to 15 to introduce a ban on smoking in public places from April 2006 and any smoker who defy is liable to pay a £1,000 fine. In October 2005, the discussions over the England smoking ban broke down at the cabinet level causing severe delays. In December 2006, the Government announced the smoking ban in public spaces in England known as Smoke free England, which began on the 1st of July 2007 (BBC NEWS 2007). On the 1st of October 2007, the law for selling tobacco changed and became illegal to sell tobacco products to anyone under the age of 18 (an increase from 16) (Smoke free England 2007). In May 2008, the Health Bill then called the National Health Service Reform Bill was contained in the Draft Legislative Programme published and it was announced in the Queen’s speech during the state opening of Parliament on 3rd December 2008. The Bill was later introduced into the House of Lords on 15th January 2009 and was published on the 16th January 2009 which proposes measures to improve the quality of NHS care, the performance of NHS services and to improve public health (DOH 2009).
DEMOGRAPHY & EPIDEMIOLOGY
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK) is located in Northern and or Western Europe and it comprises the Island of Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) and the Island of Ireland (Northern Ireland) (Wikipedia 2009). According to the 2001 census, the population of the United Kingdom was 58,789,194 and has increased to 60,587,300 according to mid -2006 estimates by the Office for National Statistics.
EPIDEMIOLOGY
The prevalence of smoking varies widely around the World and has been observed to be on the increase in many developing countries thereby creating huge health problems for the future. Approximately 1.3 billion people smoke cigarettes or other tobacco products Worldwide (WHO 2003) and Figure 2 shows the worldwide tobacco epidemic model which describes the rise and decline of smoking prevalence followed by similar trends for smoking. The first stage is characterized by a low smoking prevalence of less than 20%, which is commonly observed among the males with no increase in lung cancer and other chronic diseases caused by smoking. Countries in this stage includes those in the Sub-Saharan Africa that have not yet been drawn into the global economy but are vulnerable to growth and changing strategic initiatives of transnational tobacco companies (WHO 2003). Stage two of the model is characterized by increase in smoking prevalence to above 50% in men with early increase in cigarettes smoking among women and a shift towards smoking initiation at younger age with an increasing burden of lung cancer and other tobacco-attributable diseases. These are characteristics of countries in the Asia, Latin America and North Africa continents. In these regions, tobacco control activities have been observed to be poorly developed and the health risks associated with tobacco smoking are not well understood. There are very low public and political supports for the effective implementation of tobacco control policies (WHO 2003). The third stage is characterized by a decline in smoking prevalence in men and gradual decline among women. Here, there is a convergence of male and female smoking prevalence at 45% and the burden of smoking attributable diseases is on the increase. Also, smoking-attributable deaths comprises of 10%to 30% of all deaths within the region which is about three quarters of men. Countries within this stage are those in the Eastern and Southern Europe where health education about the diseases caused by smoking decreases with the public acceptance of smoking, most especially among the educated ones (WHO 2003). The fourth stage is characterized by a decline in smoking prevalence among men and women with deaths attributable to smoking peaked at 30% to 35% of all deaths most of which are middle aged men. Among the women, smoking attributable deaths rose to about 20% to 25%. Examples of countries within this stage are the United States and United Kingdom where England falls.
FIGURE 2: Four stages of the Worldwide Tobacco Epidemic. (Source: WHO 2003).
According to the Cancer Research UK (2009), the survey of smoking in Britain began in 1948. Then, smoking was extremely prevalent among men and the survey showed that 82% smoked some form of tobacco while 65% smoked cigarette. Later on, smoking prevalence fell rapidly through the 1980s until the mid 1990s when the overall smoking rates stabilizes just below 30% among the population as shown in figure 3. The sharp fall in smoking prevalence during this period is as a result of several interventions put in place by the Government then such as banning of tobacco advertisement on TV in the 1960s and others. Since the mid 1990s, the rate of fall has been very slow and in 2007 it was observed that 22% of men aged 16years and over smoke cigarette. The percentage of female smokers on the other hand has remained constant between 1948 and 1970 as shown in Figure 2. Between 1970 and 2007, the % of women who smoked dropped from around 43% to 20 % still due to certain measures developed in the late 1960s.
FIGURE 3. % of person aged 16+ who smoke cigarettes in Great Britain from 1948 to 2007.
Source: General household survey, ONS.
Available from:
http://publications.cancerresearchuk.org/WebRoot/crukstoredb/CRUK_PDFs/lung/cs_lu_f6.1.xls
FIGURE 4: Prevalence of Cigarette smoking by sex, England and Govt. Office Regions 2005.
Source: Cancer Research UK.
Figure 4 shows the cigarette distribution of cigarette smoking prevalence in England and it can be observed that, the overall smoking prevalence in England is about 25% among men and around 22% among the women. Within the various regions in England, smoking prevalence is higher among men and women in the North East because the region is economically active and home to 588 overseas companies from 32 different countries employing over 27,000 people (UK Trade& Investment 2009). There has been a link between socio economic class and high prevalence of smoking as demonstrated in Figure 5 which buttresses the reason why the prevalence is high in Northeast England. Regions with high manual employee, occupation and high numbers of Industrial factories are characterised by high smoking prevalence.
FIGURE 5: Prevalence of cigarette smoking by sex and socio-economic groups in England in 1992, 1998 and 2002.
Source: Cancer Research UK.
As shown in figure 5, smoking prevalence is observed to be higher among manual workers than non-manual workers. From 1992 to 2002, smoking prevalence reduced as a result of some interventions introduced within these years especially the White Paper on Smoking Kills introduced in 1998 making the prevalence to reduce from 33% in 1998 among the manual workers to 28% in 2002.
FIGURE 6: Prevalence of cigarette smoking by age, persons aged 16+ in Great Britain, 1974-2005.
Source: Cancer Research UK.
FIGURE 7: Self reported cigarette smoking percentages by sex and minority ethnic group persons aged 16+ in England 2004.
Source: Cancer Research UK.
Smoking is more prevalent among the younger age groups of 16-19, 20-24 and 25-34 as shown in figure 6, where highest rate was observed among the 20-24 age group. Between 1974 and 2005, smoking prevalence among the 20-24 age groups fell from 48% to 32 %. On the other hand, among the 60+ age group, smoking prevalence halved between the same year intervals from 32% to 14%. Therefore, smoking prevalence has been observed to reduce with age as smokers tend to give up in middle age or die of smoking-related illnesses. (ONS 2002).
Smoking prevalence has been observed to vary among different ethnic minority groups in England as shown in figure 7. Smoking prevalence is higher among the Bangladeshi men of about 41% but rare among the women with about 3%. Although this rate is alarming but there has been a decrease as to what was observed in 2001, when cigarette smoking and tobacco use was around 44% among the men with a relatively small percentage among the women (ONS 2001).
FIGURE 8: Prevalence of cigarette smoking and use of tobacco products among ethnic minorities in England 2001.
Source: DOH 2001.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS
Smoking in the UK has been observed to be closely associated with social class and deprivation. The prevalence of smoking among the low paid groups has been observed to be twice those of the affluent groups because of the great difficulty people in the less affluent groups experience in stopping smoking (Ewles 2005). Tobacco smoking is also widely recognised as a cause of health inequality in the UK because it is common among the deprived groups and also compromises the already poorer health of deprived population such as those that fall within the marginalized groups. Examples are people with mental problems and prisoners, who are more likely to smoke and less likely to have access to mainstream smoking cessation services (Ewles 2005). The Index of multiple deprivation ranks areas from the most deprived to the least deprived and the odds of smoking increases as deprivation in the area increases (The NHS Information centre 2008).
Children smoke for all sorts of reasons. Some smoke to show their independence, others because their friends do while some smoke because adults tell them not to and others do smoke to follow the example of role models. There is no single cause. Parents, brothers and sisters who smoke are a powerful influence. Also is the way it is been advertised and the tobacco companies sponsor sport which makes children want to try it (DOH 1998). The problems of smoking during pregnancy are closely related to health inequalities between those in need and the most advantaged. Women with partners in manual groups are more likely to smoke during pregnancy than those with partners in non-manual groups: 26 per cent of women with partners in manual groups smoke during pregnancy, compared with 12 per cent with partners doing non-manual work (DOH 1998).
Education is also another social determinant of health for smoking. Education empowers individuals to make healthy choices and provides practical, social and emotional knowledge needed to achieve a full and healthy life (The Annual Report of the Director of Public Health for Newham 2007). The relationship between education and smoking has been extensively examined in developed countries and in the1989 US Surgeon General report analyzed by Bao-ping et al.(1996), it was stated after reviewing the literature of smoking that, education is the best socio demographic predictor for cigarette smoking pattern. The general agreement was that, the fewer the year of education one has, the more likely the person smokes and this again accounts for why there is high smoking prevalence among the ethnic minority groups in England.
Another factor is the social norms whereby, in environments where smoking is freely permitted, it becomes a normal thing and becomes more difficult for individuals to opt out from (Ewles 2005).Other factors that prompt people to start smoking includes, the price and availability of cigarette, colourful advertisement and accessibility to treatment facilities for those that want to stop, the more available the facilities, the more people will be willing to use the facilities and stop smoking (Ewles 2005).
In response to the global tobacco epidemic, May 31st of every year was declared as the World No Tobacco day, so as to globally address the danger associated with smoking tobacco. Also, the World Health Organization developed a WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in May 2003 (WHO 2003), which later came into force on the 27th o February 2005 (WHO 2009). This was the first global treaty for public health negotiated under the auspices of the WHO and requires participating countries to implement a range of legislative and other measures to control smoking by taking appropriate action on passive smoking, banning tobacco promotion, providing services to smokers , monitoring smoking prevalence and international cooperation to control smuggling (Ewles 2005).In order to expand the fight against tobacco epidemic, the WHO introduced the MPOWER package of six proven policies namely:
Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies,
Protect people from tobacco smoke,
Offer help to quit tobacco use,
Warn about the dangers of tobacco use,
Enforce bans on tobacco advertising promotion and sponsorship, and
Raise taxes on tobacco. (WHO 2008)
Smoking has been addressed at Government level in the UK since the publication of the White Paper Smoking Kills in 1998 which takes a comprehensive approach and prioritises people who want to give up, pregnant women, children and young people (DOH 1998). Between 1998 and 2009, various policies have been developed as stated earlier in this essay under the historical perspective of smoking in England which includes;
1998: Smoking Kills
↓
2002: Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act
↓
2006: Health Act
↓
2007: Smoke Free England.
↓
2008: National Health Service Reform Bill
↓
2009: Health Bill.
GOVERNMENT MEASURES TO TACKLE SMOKING
In line with the WHO directive to address tobacco epidemic, the UK signed into the International WHO framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2003 and has implemented a range of legislative measures to control smoking at different geographical levels and between various population groups. The overall measures were broadly classified into three sets of overlapping effects namely;
Changing social norms,
Influencing attitudes, and
Supporting individual behavioural change (Ewles 2005).
Measures classified under the changing social norms and influencing attitudes includes; educational programmes such as the Government-funded mass media education campaigns aimed to educate the public on the danger associated with smoking, bans on tobacco promotion with health warnings covering 30% of the front and 40% of the back of tobacco packaging while terms such as ‘low-tar’ and ‘light’ have been prohibited on cigarette packet (DOH 2003). Also education on the benefit of quitting smoking was also part of the measure and explaining why people get fat after quitting as a result of increased eating unbalanced by increase activity because smoking has slight appetite suppressant effect (Ewles 2005).
In addition, picture warnings started appearing on tobacco products in autumn 2008 and by October 1st 2009, all cigarette packs will have to carry picture warnings including other tobacco products by 1st October 2010 (DOH 2003). Also, another measure employed was prohibiting sales of tobacco products to people under the age of 18 by directing tobacco retailers to ask for form of identification from buyers who are teenagers. Taxation has also been used frequently to increase the price of smoking with rises in duty imposed in each year’s budget by the Government (Ewles 2005). On average, a price increase of 10% on a packet of cigarette reduced consumption by about 4% in developed countries, however, price control is undermined by tobacco smuggling which currently accounts for 16% of the UK market (Cancer Research 2009). Another measure is ensuring a smoke free environment which has been introduced in 2007 as smoke free England whereby smoking in enclosed public places is illegal.
Under the supporting individual behavioural change is the cessation treatment programme, examples of which includes; a national telephone help lines and NHS specialist services for smokers who want to stop (Ewles 2005). To help smokers quit, the NHS Stop Smoking Services was set up between 1999 and 2000 following the recommendations of the White Paper Smoking Kills in 1998(DOH 1998). It was later observed that between April and September 2006, approximately a quarter of a million people (246,254) in England set a quit date through this NHS Stop Smoking Services and majority of these people receiving Nicotine replacement therapy (The Information Centre 2007).
CHALENGES OF PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY FORMULATION AND PRACTISE
The formulation of anti-smoking policy in England has always been big issue in most developed countries. In the UK, the Government needs people to smoke because the economy largely depends on it. The Government obtains £8billion per year from excise duty on tobacco products which is approximately 2% of its annual revenue (Ewles 2005).
Both in the policy formulation and in the implementation phase conflicts of commercial and health interests have been strongest on three issues: the ban on advertisement and sales promotion, the setting of upper limits for harmful substances in tobacco products, and proposals for an efprice policy. In the political process Parliament has been much more sensitive to the public health interest and to public opinion than to the lobbying power of the tobacco industry and trade, which has been more clearly visible in many Government decisions
MEASURES TO REDUCE INEQUALITY IN SMOKING/ POLICY CRITIQUING
After thorough review of the various policies aimed towards reducing cigarette smoking at the International, National and Local level, various gaps have been identified. Firstly, banning of smoking in public places is not enough to reduce the effect of smoking on health because be it passive or active smoking, it still endangers the life of the smoker. Therefore, abstinence should be the only message since smoking is a major cause of litter. In the UK, 200million cigarette ends are discarded each day and each takes 18months or more to biodegrade (Ewles 2005). Also, smoking in bus stops tends to serve as passive smoking to others waiting to join buses and therefore smoking in areas like this also needs to be banned. Another lapse in the smoking in the public places law is that, when people are not allowed to smoke in public places, they tend to do so when they get into their private cars and homes and these could be dangerous to young children living in the same house.
Another area worth reviewing is the use of taxation to increase the price of tobacco products. High price has helped dissuade people especially young children from smoking and prompted many smokers to stop; however, smoking is concentrated among the lowest paid sector of the society and common among the addicted population who continue smoking despite prices, therefore such measures by the Government is not fair because the poor people pay disproportionately more as a consequences of their acquired addiction caused by the Government originally (Ewles 2005).
Another misconception of tackling smoking is the youth smoking prevention programme which has always assumed to be the best way to tackle smoking among children and youths. The Youth-oriented media campaigns has a poor record of credibility among the target group (youths) and is often difficult to differentiate between those created by the health organizations and those created by the tobacco manufacturing companies. Therefore, discrediting smoking among the adult population will lessen the attraction for the youths because they tend to smoke in aspiration to be more adult (Ewles 2005). In addition, the law prohibiting sales to under -18s tend to add to the allure of smoking as an adult activity and thus creating challenges to children on finding a way around it buy getting the cigarette through adult friends, older siblings or black market routes(Ewles 2005).
Also people who stop smoking through the nicotine replacement therapy gets addicted to the cessation programme and use the product beyond the recommended period. Since the nicotine delivery rate in the content is slow, it mostly prompts a relapse making people return to smoking (Ewles 2005).
Reducing inequality in smoking has always been an issue the UK Government have been addressing and in response to this, a specific inequality target on smoking was set up in The NHS Cancer plan and the Public Service Agreement (PSA) 2004 aimed to reduce smoking rates among manual groups from 32% in 1998 to 26% by 2010 in order to reduce the health gap between the two groups. (DOH 2000).
RECOMMENDATION/ CONCLUSION
Evaluation of smoking patterns indicates that there has been an historic reversal of trends in total consumption, but distributional data show a widening social gradient in smoking. Two developments are needed for further improvement: a price policy that would support health policy and not contradict it, and better understanding of the socio-cultural dynamics of smoking which would be required for new innovative approaches in health education.
REFRENCES
Action on Smoking and Health (2006). Smoking Statistics; Illness and death. [Online]. Available from:
http://old.ash.org.uk/html/factsheets/html/fact02.html (Accessed 25/04/2009).
Bao-ping, Z., Giovino, G., Mowery, P. & Eriksen, M. (1996). The Relationship between Cigarette Smoking and Education Revisited: Implications for Categorising persons educational status. American Journal of Public Health.1996. Vol.86, No 11.
British Broadcasting Corporation (2007). Timeline: Smoking and Disease. [Online] Available from
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/4377928.stm (Accessed 28/09/2009).
 

Regulations and Policies for Children with Disabilities

All children with disabilities have the right to be treated fairly and equally to children without disabilities. As of December 2002 schools are required not to treat disabled pupils less favourably for a reason relating to their disability and to take reasonable steps to make sure they are not placed at a disadvantage to those whom are not disabled. It is against the law for schools to treat a child different as it is discrimination. There are several forms of discrimination, one if which is direct discrimination: This is deliberate discrimination against an individual. This is refusing a child into their setting because of a disability. There is also indirect discrimination. This is where events are in place but are not suitable for everyone. For example; language barriers, also spelling barriers could discriminate against a child who is dyslexic.

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Discrimination due to a disability can occur through sports classes. A teacher may exclude someone with a disability as they may take longer to reach the end result than a person without a disability. This will result on the child missing out on opportunities that children without a disability won’t miss out on. An example of this could be exclusion by other children to be on their team as they are disadvantaged, this would cause the child with the disability to be excluded from other students within the group. This would be discrimination towards a child with a disability.
There are specific laws, legislations and regulations in place giving rights to children with disabilities. The equality act 2010 ensures children with disabilities receive the same access to public or private services and that the services make reasonable adjustments to their properties to ensure they are accessible for all. This could include ramps, disabled toilets, lifts to access higher floors if needed, or braille. This promotes equal opportunities.
Special educational needs codes of practice was developed to help to provide adequate support for an individual’s personal needs. It provides practical local advice to local education authorities, maintained schools and early education settings on carrying out their statutory duties to identify, assess and make provisions for childrens special educational needs. A child with disabilities should have their needs met. Children with special educational needs have a right to a balanced education and to work at the right curriculum for themselves.
When working inclusively with children with disabilities they should be given equal opportunities. They should be given the opportunity to be educated in a mainstream setting and have their individual needs met the same as other children without a disability do.
If a child is treated as they have a medical model of disability in a childcare setting, then this can cause the child to be seen as an illness and not as a normal person. This can result in not only the teacher not respecting the child but also the other class mates not respecting the child and treating the child differently, which will cause discrimination. When the child is being treated different and unfairly they are not able to show their full strengths and their full potential.
Inclusive practice is having respect for each individual as a person. By showing them respect they will gain trust for you and feel confident around you. Take time to get to know the person and listen to them. Be thoughtful towards another’s feelings. By letting the child have a say and being involved will empower the child which will help them to be confident.
The benefits of working and communicating with parents are all children are different and have different needs and nobody knows their child better than their parents. Parents look at their children and see them as a person and not a disability and know a childs strengths and weaknesses. It is important to understand and respect a parents feelings and emotions and understand that some parents may find the journey more demanding than others. It is important to make sure that a parent understands procedures in a childcare setting and be sure to involve them in everything concerning their child. A parents method of dealing with a situation may be different to somebody else’s so be sure to respect a parents opinion. Parents should always be respected as an individual. When making arrangements with parents allow them plenty of notice as they could have to arrange it through work or through childcare so allow plenty of flexibility. Sometimes extra support maybe needed from a professional. It is likely that when a child with a disability or additional needs enters a childcare setting professional support is already established. By working in partnership with other professionals it helps to acknowledge children with learning difficulties and help to provide the correct support.
A childcare setting can be adapted to a child’s needs. Things like a ramp for a wheelchair user or a lift if it is required if the building is set over more than one floor. If a lift is not accessible then an alternative would be to move floors so a wheelchair user isn’t discriminated against. Also easy access to a disabled toilet is required. Adapting for blind people by using braille where needed. Adapting certain materials so its age and stage appropriate. Making sure people around them show a positive attitude towards equality and diversity. A disabled child is just as able to take part in activities just as much as other children but adjustments may need to be made. Inclusive practice can only be effective if adults lead by example and reflect on their own attitudes an beliefs. Children with additional needs or disabilities may face barriers that prevent them from having the same opportunities as other children in a childcare setting.
Some children with disabilities may struggle with going to the toilet so may need additional help. They may need additional help with zips and buttons on clothing. If children are using fancy dress be aware of the fastenings on the clothes and consider Velcro or bigger buttons.
Some children may find it hard to express their thoughts and feelings. Visual aids are a useful method of helping them to pick their preference.
If a child has a physical impairment some environments may create barriers to prevent a child from moving around to their full potential. If a setting causes barriers then people need to consider moving furniture around a setting to prevent obstacles. For example not putting materials and activities on the floor so a wheelchair user is unable to participate. It can also cause a barrier to people with a visual impairment. Putting materials and activities on the floor can also be an obstacle and dangerous for someone trying to find their way around safely.
Children must not be regarded as having a learning difficulty soley because the language or form of language of their home is different from the language in which they will be taught. A child is disabled if they are blind, deaf or dumb or suffers from a mental disorder of any kind or is substantially and permanently handicapped by illness, injury or congenital deformity or such other disability as may be prescribed.
A person has a disability for the purposes of this act if they have a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long term adverse effect on their ability to carry out normal day to day activities.  

Regulations and Policies of Online and Social Media

Introduction

The sole goal of the media is to reach mass audiences with the transmitted message. Earlier the main sources of information would include the traditional media like Newspapers, Magazines, Radio, Television etc., Now people have started depending on the contemporary media for information .Subsequently, the online and the social media are gaining prominence.
What are the principles governing the Online and the Social Media? What would be the standards of Online and the Social Media? Does the Media law regulate the content to the stipulated extent? Is ethics followed in Online and Social Media? While practicing ethics in Online and social media what are the issues faced , the constraints confronted and the opportunities that we come across?
Considering the Online and the Social media that have become an inevitable part of life of any individual today, a thorough study will reveal the opportunities and the threats.

Online and Social media

Definition

The Online media and Social media refer to the digital media in which information is made available in the forms of music, photos, videos etc., which are distributed in the internet. These media entertain socialinteraction among people in which they create, share or exchange information, photos, video and ideas in virtual communities andnetworks.
(Wikipedia)
The mobile phone and the internet have transformed to an integral part of the human schedule or in other words, life itself. The usage of mobile phones is increasing vastly not only in the urban but also rural areas with innumerable mobile operators entering the market day in and day out. The slashing down of the internet charges and the internet services being made available in the mobile phones have drastically increased the prominence of the online and the social media.

Principles

The Online and Social Media can transmit the message instantaneously. This media is also a more personalized version of all the other media or in other words we have the complete authority to edit the content. Certain principles govern the social media and these principles decide the success of communication in the media.
The information that is shared in the social media ought to be authentic. This authenticity of information be it personal, or of the company helps in building trust.
The length of the post determines the number of views. Minimize on the length – Be crisp and clear.
Social media is being used as a marketing tool to earn likes for the specific products or for the company. Creating a community determines the success in SMM and it happens in a slower pace. Sharing some useful or interesting piece of information that would interest the group as well as sharing and showing interest in the information shared by the peers would help in nurturing a larger group.
The interaction plays an important role as well in the social media. As a company, a response is a must, be it for a compliment from the customer or for a complaint.
(Jon Reed, 2013, 7 principles of Social Media Marketing)
(Five Basic Principles of Social Media, 2014)

Standards

The Association of Fundraising Professionals ( AFP) has defined the standards for the Organization leaders and the staff, affiliates, consultants etc., to follow certain these set standards.

Industry laws and guidelines are also applicable in social media.
The information should be updated at all times and people should be open to criticisms/ appreciations
While opposing, maintain a polite language.
Take responsibility for all the content .
Respond to queries/ comments .
Be responsible for the content and think before you post.
Adhere to moral principles, honesty and be open .
Know to differentiate the personal and the professional boundaries.
Be authorized and official.
Avoid violations of standards .

The Association of Fundraising Professionals ( AFP) has defined the standards for the Organization leaders and the staff, affiliates, consultants etc., not to do certain activities .

Do not share or disclose material that the organization or affiliate organization considers is forbidding, harassing, illegal, obscene, defamatory, libelous, or hostile towards any individual or entity.
Do not share or disclose phone numbers or email addresses of yourself or any other individual or entity
Do not display material that violates on the rights of the organization or any individual or entity, including privacy, intellectual property or publication rights. This includes the unauthorized use of (but is not limited to) images, logos, videos, content, documents, white papers, etc.
Do not publish material that promotes or advertises a commercial product or solicits business / membership or financial or other support in any business, group or organization.
Do not post chain letters, post the same comment multiple times as this would be termed as spam.
Do not permit any other individual or entity to use your identity for posting in or viewing social medias.
Do not use multiple identities or the identity of others.

(AFP’s Social media guidelines,2013)

Ethics

Social Media is a form of media in which the information intended reaches instantaneously as well as globally and fetches response due to the inherent quality of interaction. Balancing ethics in social media is a difficult task as access to social media is available to all and there is no control over the content.
Like any other media, Accuracy and authenticity are two main points of ethical importance. The information shared in the social media is available to a community when shared and when it gets shared repeatedly there is no control over the content.
The professionals, journalists, public figures etc., are expected to possess the quality of Impartiality to be ethical. The social media networking with political parties, organizations would create notions of “biasing” which is unethical.
Avoid defaming statements against individuals/ organizations in the social media. Subsequently ,avoid commenting on the customs, culture, beliefs of different religions, countries etc., Recommending publicly in a social media is also considered unethical.
(NPR Ethics handbook, 2012)

Regulations

The protection of privacy of the customers is ensured using the regulatory laws. The employer’s level of inspecting the social media updates of the current and future employees is governed by the regulatory law. Marketing of products using social media, revealing financial reports of companies etc., are governed by a guidance law. Defining of procedures for the employees‘ business use of social media, the inspection and the control is also covered by a law. Guidelines that clearly explain on what situations the company can obtain and use it for legal investigations are also available.
(Five Common Legal & Regulatory Challenges With Social Media, 2013)

Ethical Practices on Online and Social Media

Issues

The employees of a company when communicating on behalf of a company have to be ethical in terms of complimenting their own company as well as avoid criticizing the competition in a social media. The access to social media in business hours for personal reasons is an unethical practice.
Professionals like lawyers, judges involved in the same case could be friends and their interactions in social media could cause negative references for the case.
Social networking with the political parties or with the important leaders of the political parties could create negative remarks in the professional profile.
(Ethical Challenges of Social Media, 2011)

Constraints

Updating business profiles by the professionals like the doctors, lawyers are legal advertisements even when they are not intended to and could cause ethical problems in their profession.
Sharing of confidential information both professional and personal have to be avoided to be ethical.
The security factors whilst using a social media are to be dealt with paramount importance. Neglecting or ignoring such factors could push us to unnecessary complications.
The recruiting companies demand social media personal account details for monitoring the emlpoyees’ activities. The borderline between the personal and the professional activities becomes indistinct.
(10 Tips for Avoiding Ethical Lapses When Using Social Media, 2014)

Opportunities

Being present in most of the social media with the same identity also helps in building brand image and trust. Social media does not stop with sharing information but it extends till the peer group responds either positively or negatively. The secret of success lies in the unique posts in social media to reach the maximum audience.
Knowledge Sharing : This is a very significant opportunity of the Social Media. People in the same professional line can share information on specific cases and the success stories which could be of great use to the others and sometimes the others in the cimmunity could come out with different ideas.
Life Sharing : Social media is a powerful tool to share photos, videos using Youtube, Flickr etc., to get the actual feel of events.
Social Networking : This networking helps in sharing the status, photos , video etc., with the friends, relatives living in different places. One post updates the whole set of friends/ relatives in the group.
Business Networking : Business networking using social media like Linkedin helps in procuring information on job opportunities and freelancing from the community.
Community Building : Social networking communities like Collaborate, Collect etc., is a common platform for messaging, document sharing etc., with a mobile apps used in an i-phone.
(Social Media Constraints and Opportunities Project,2011)

Conclusion

The online and the social media also has to be treated as important as the traditional media and one has to understand that the media laws govern these media as well. The access to online and the social media is available to all unlike the other media and so it is important for us to know the regulations and the restrictions failing which legal actions are also feasible. Sharnig persona or confidential information can also lead to cyber crimes.

References

Ethical Challenges of Social Media ,2011, http://www.ibe.org.uk/userassets/briefings/ibe_briefing_22_the_ethical_challenges_of_social_media.pdf

AFP’s Social media guidelines: Ethical, safe and effective practical standards, 2013, http://www.afpnet.org/files/ContentDocuments/SocialMediaGuidelines_OnePage.pdf

Christina Vassiliou Harvey, Mac R. McCoy, Brook Sneath, 2014, “10 Tips for Avoiding Ethical Lapses When Using Social Media”, http://www.americanbar.org/publications/blt/2014/01/03_harvey.html

Nick Hayes, 2013, “Five Common Legal & Regulatory Challenges With Social Media” http://blogs.forrester.com/nick_hayes/13-07-31-five_common_legal_regulatory_challenges_with_social_media

NPR Ethics handbook, 2012, http://ethics.npr.org/tag/social-media/

The Loudpixel Blog, “Five Basic Principles of Social Media” http://loudpixel.wpengine.com/blog/five-basic-principles-of-social-media/

Jon Reed, “7 principles of Social Media Marketing” http://www.getuptospeed.biz/2013/09/7-principles-of-social-media-marketing/

Michael Palenchar, University of Tennessee & Shari Veil, University of Kentucky, 2011, “Social Media Constraints and Opportunities Project”, available from http://www.ncfpd.umn.edu/Ncfpd/assets/File/Social_Media_Webinar.pdf

 

Relationship Between Labor Market Policies and Labor Productivity

[1]

 While it is commonly acknowledged that the United States has a significant lead among other developed countries in terms of labor productivity, or in other words, gross domestic product (GDP) per aggregate hour worked, little is known about the main drivers of this productivity gap. While Canada is considerably similar to the United States, the productivity differences between the two economies tell two different stories. Figure I, according to Data from the OECD, depicts the average productivity levels of developed countries on from 2000 to 2015 with a solid line. The United States, The United Kingdom, and Canada’s longitudinal data is also shown for the same period to illustrate the labor productivity gap between the United States and other developed countries. Labor productivity is a major component of a country’s economic performance and is a driver of national living standards. Labor productivity growth has slowed dramatically during the global financial crisis of 2008 according to OECD data, OECD countries have also seen lower productivity growth since the 2008 financial crisis on average. The weak post-crisis productivity growth performance is limiting the opportunity for long-term economic well-being. I predict that there are policies that can improve the allocation of scarce resources such as labor and capital which are crucial to maximizing productivity growth in the labor market. While a number of factors have been found to relate to the growth or slowdown of productivity in various countries, I will examine the relationship between labor market policies and labor productivity.

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 A nation’s labor market regulations and labor institutions have implications for macroeconomic outcomes, such as labor productivity. Regulations are rules enforced by the state that constrain the actions of economic agents, typically through the imposition of standards, such as, minimum wage regulations, which constrain the lowest possible wages paid for labor, or firing regulations, which constrain the ease at which economic agents can dismiss their employees. While regulation is essential to an effective working of a market economy and is a key function of the state, it does still, however, impose costs on the private sector and there is a risk of excessive regulation where the additional costs of compliance exceed additional benefits to the economy. As research by Crafts (2006) shows Endogenous growth theory predicts that total factor productivity growth will decrease if regulation stunts investment and innovation.  Data on world economic freedom index by the Fraser Institute Index takes into account many different labor market regulations in their indicators such as, hiring regulations and minimum wage, hiring and firing regulations, centralized collective bargaining, hours regulations, mandated cost of work dismissal, and conscription. I will examine the relationship between labor market regulations and labor productivity among a sample of 36 developed countries.

 I believe free labor markets will be conducive to higher levels of labor productivity in developed economies. I will determine empirically, the importance of labor market institutions on a developed country’s labor productivity levels.  Through a regression analysis I will be able to interpret labor market regulations relationship to a countries labor productivity from 1990 to 2015. I will then interpret the relationship between the differences in labor policies between the US and Canada to examine the determinants of the US-Canada labor productivity gap, whereas there is abundant literature on the European-American labor productivity gap but not as much on the difference present in North America. While there is existing literature regarding productivity performance, I will examine the linkage between a nation’s labor regulations with their labor productivity. Reforms that promote growth through reducing skill mismatch are essential to enabling innovative firms to attracting talent and the capital they need to grow. Inefficient labor market regulations and policies allow old unproductive firms to absorb valuable resources and talent from the economy that could be distributed or allocated in more productive ways. I predict that more lenient labor market regulations, or less employment protection legislation should result in higher productivity for developed economies.

II. Literature Review

It is clear that there is abundant research on the determinants of productivity growth among various countries. However, the role of labor market institutions and regulations in driving or stunting productivity performance has yielded conflicting results. Whereas the current literature is fragmented, with different determinants of productivity growth, different populations studied, and ambiguous results. This paper further analyzes the relationship of labor market regulations and labor productivity growth among OECD countries to deliver more concrete evidence of labor market regulation’s impact on labor productivity. Through disentangling different types of labor market regulations effects on labor productivity levels, I will contribute to existing research on productivity determinants and labor market regulations.

 One key difference between other studies and this study is the measure of productivity. I intend to analyze productivity with the labor productivity measure, which represents the volume of output produced in terms of GDP per unit of labor input in terms of aggregate hours worked. This ratio is largely impacted by the presence of capital inputs, tangible and intangible, and technical efficiency.[2] Whereas total factor productivity (TFP) measures both the labor and capital input that contributes to efficiency, labor productivity just measures output per labor input. There is empirical evidence that information and communication technology investment is a main driver of TFP growth (Cardona et all, 2013), and it is widely attributed to the gap of productivity between the U.S. and other developed countries. However what is interesting is that there is strong evidence from OECD countries that high product market regulations in Europe contributed to weak total factor productivity growth in the 1990s (Scarpetta & Nicoletti, 2003).  These studies all research different determinants of total factor productivity, which measures capital input as well as labor input in productivity. I will study labor productivity instead of total factor productivity, to separate labor input’s impact on productivity from physical capital inputs productivity impact.

Some literature regarding productivity performance only focuses on the performance of one country, rather than examining productivity growth differentials between countries. Studies on public regulations, such as Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States (Gray, 1987; Haveman & Christainsen, 1981) found that regulations contributed to sluggish productivity growth in the manufacturing sector and in the labor productivity growth in the 1970s in the United States. Another study by Carl Magnus Bjuggren, in 2015, found that more flexible employment protection legislation in the Swedish labor market resulted in higher labor productivity. One study found that minimum wage increases may be related to increased productivity of individual workers, with evidence from one large United States retailer (Coviello et al., 2019). Whereas these studies only consider a select country, this paper provides a more concise evidence of labor market regulations impact on labor productivity growth through looking at all developed OECD countries with their various labor market institutions and productivity performance. 

 When studying papers regarding labor productivity growth and labor market regulations the evidence has been contradictory. According to one study, labor market regulations measures through employment protection has a net zero effect on productivity growth (Autor et all, 2007). Another paper found that OECD countries with relatively regulated labor markets, such as Nordic European countries, experience higher labor productivity growth (Storm & Naastepad, 2009). Research by Acemoglu and Shimer in 2000 suggests that unemployment insurance has a positive relationship with productivity through allocating workers to more productive activities and incentivizing the creation of these positions by firms. In 1999, Nickell and Lanyard’s research showed stricter employment protection in OECD labor markets had no correspondence to negative productivity growth. Most recently, there has been empirical evidence that shows that mandatory dismissal regulations have a negative impact on productivity growth, according to data from 1982 to 2003 (Bassinini et al, 2014).

The contradictory evidence proves there is further analysis needed in the relationship between labor market regulations and productivity. Whereas many industrial countries have well developed legal frameworks, high levels of human capital, and are open to trade; it is clear that the role of labor market regulations play a role in explaining the divergence of labor productivity in the economies of OECD countries.

Research by Andrew Sharpe grapples with the determinants of the US-Canada labor productivity gap, illustrated in figure I. One paper by Sharpe examines sectoral contributions to the US-Canada productivity gap, and argues that the slowdown in manufacturing sector growth alone accounts for the weaker productivity performance of Canada relative to the States. (Sharpe, 2010a). However in a 2004 study, it was found that a decline in both the manufacturing and service sectors of the economy explain the poor productivity performance of Canada relative to the United States. (Tang & Wang, 2004). In another study in 2003, Sharpe argues that productivity growth is an essential component in the growth of living standards and GDP per capita. He provides explanations for the productivity gap between Canada and the United States, stating that lower capital intensity, research & development expenditures, and human capital are the main drivers of productivity divergence between the two nations. While human capital is similar between both countries, the United States has the advantage of the high quality of their research universities, proportionally the United States has more world class university researchers than Canada (Sharpe, 2003). In another study involving Sharpe, states that the role of information and communications technology (ICT) investment was a key driver of the US-Canadian manufacturing productivity gap in the second half of the 1990s. (Bernstein et al., 2002). While research by Andrew Sharpe and others has contributed great evidence about the determinants of the productivity gap between Canada and the United States, they do not account for differences in regulatory environments in the two countries, as it is believed that labor and product market regulation is more stringent in Canada, and environmental regulation is considered by many to be more stringent in the United States, Sharpe states that it is unlikely that regulatory differences accounts for significant differences in the productivity gap. (Sharpe, 2003). Another study in 2010 from Sharpe analyzes the market-oriented policy of Canada and its potential to spur productivity growth in the Canadian economy. He argues that the overall magnitude effect of liberalization of markets in countries with existing high levels of economic liberalization, such as Canada, is not particularly large, however it is non-negligible. (Sharpe,2010b). Therefore the small effects of higher economic liberalization may pose diminishing productivity returns to market liberalization.

Other research states that the dominant driver of positive multifactor productivity growth in Canada is investment in technology, whereas the dominant driver of productivity growth in the United States is actually technological innovation and “organizational restructuring”. (Baldwin & Wulong, 2007). Daniel Trefler found empirically that there were productivity gains for both the United States and Canada as result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (Trefler, 2004). Another study by Sharpe found that relatively more competitive or less regulated markets drive innovation and productivity growth as well as positively effecting income distribution, and poverty. (Sharpe & Currie, 2008). This study promotes policies focused on increasing competition in markets as a way of increasing long term productivity for a short-term reallocation cost, and a possible way to reduce absolute poverty through distribution of income, seen in the form of lower prices from increased competition.

I will contribute to existing literature regarding the Canadian-American labor productivity gap and its determinants by examining labor market regulation data from developed countries including the U.S. and Canada.  I intend to contribute more research empirically to understand the determinants of labor productivity by investigating the relationship between the labor market of developed countries and their productivity levels.

Data

My research utilizes panel data for thirty-six OECD member countries from 1990 to 2016 from three data sources, the OECD, The Fraser Institute, and the World Bank. The OECD member countries included in my study are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

I use longitudinal OECD data for labor productivity, investment, Employment Protection Legislation (EPL), expenditures on labor market programs (LMP), and net openness to trade for all included countries. Labor productivity is measured as the annual gross domestic product (GDP) per aggregate hours worked in a domestic economy. Investment is measured as the total percentage of GDP attributed to total investment in the economy by the OECD. The level of employment protection legislation is measured by the OECD for individual regular non-temporary contracts incorporating 8 data items measuring regulations for individual dismissals. EPL is measured from zero which represents least restrictions regarding individual dismissals, to six which represents most restrictions regarding dismissals of individuals. LMP is the measure of total expenditure as a percentage of GDP on labor market programs in a given country, provided by the OECD. In addition, I use OECD data to measure the net openness to trade of a country, which the OECD defines as the net exports of goods and services which is a change in ownership of resources and services between one economy and another, measured in million USD and percentage of GDP for net trade. This measure also includes barter transactions or goods exchanged as parts of gifts or grants between residents and non-residents.

World Bank Data is also included to compile control variables for human capital, which I measure through enrollment rate in tertiary and secondary education as a percentage of school-age population. I also measure innovation with data on gross domestic expenditures in research and development for each given country from the World Bank. This measure includes both capital and current expenditures in business enterprise, government, higher education, and the private non-profit sector. In addition I use data regarding the Agricultural, Services, and Industry sectors of the economy provided by the World bank, which are measured as percentage of total GDP attributed to that sectors economic activities. The agricultural sector corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing as well as the cultivation of crops and livestock production. The services sector corresponds to ISIC divisions 50-99 and includes value added in services, such as education, health care, and financial services.. The value-added in the service sector is the net output of the services sector after subtracting the value of intermediate inputs. The Industry sector corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes the manufacturing sector. This includes mining, manufacturing, construction, electricity, water, and gas industries. The value added in this sector is also the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. For my study of the three primary sectors, the value added in each sector and the division of sectors is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC).

My third source of data is the Fraser Institute, which measures the economic freedom index. The economic freedom of the world index by the Fraser institute is measured covering five main areas; Size of Government, Legal System and Security of Property Rights, Sound Money, Freedom to Trade Internationally and Regulation. One sub-indicator of the regulation component of the Economic Freedom Index is Labor Market Regulations. This indicator is composed of regulations regarding minimum wages, dismissal, centralized wage setting, collective bargaining coverage, and conscription. It measures the extent that these constraints upon economic freedom are present, therefore in order to earn higher ratings, a country must allow free markets to determine wages and establish hiring and firing conditions. Each component and sub-component are measured on a scale from 0 to 10, whereas a score of 10 would represent an unregulated or constrained labor market.

In addition, I disentangle the individual effects of the different Labor Market Regulations captured in this component by breaking down the LMR indicator into its sub-indicators of hiring regulations and minimum wage; centralized collective bargaining; hours regulations; conscription; Mandated cost of worker dismissal; and hiring and firing regulations.

Hiring regulations and minimum wage measures whether fixed term contracts are prohibited for permanent tasks; the maximum cumulative duration of fixed-term contracts; and the ratio of minimum wage for a first time employee to the average value added per worker. An economy is assigned a score of 1 if fixed-term contracts are prohibited for permanent tasks and a score of 0 if they can be used for any task.[3]

Centralized Collective Bargaining is based on the Global Competitiveness Report Question which asks if wages are set by a centralized collective bargaining process or up to each individual company. A score of 7 is given to countries who respond that wage-setting is flexible and to the discretion of firms whereas a score of one is assigned to countries who wages are set by collective bargaining. [4]

Hours regulation is measured using five components: whether there are restrictions on night work; whether there are restrictions on holiday work; whether the length of the work week can be 5.5 days or longer; whether there are restrictions regarding overtime work; and whether the average annual paid leave is 21 working days or more. The zero-to-ten rating is based on how many of these regulations are in place, whereas no regulations in place would result in a score of ten and each regulation in place would result in a score deduction of 2.

Conscription is the data regarding the use and duration of military conscription. Countries without military conscription receive a score of ten, while countries with longer conscription periods receive lower ratings. [5]

The mandated cost of worker dismissal sub-indicator is based on the cost of advanced notice requirements, severance payments, and penalties due when dismissing a redundant worker with ten year tenure. The formula used to calculate ratings for mandated cost of worker dismissal is (Vmax-Vi)/(Vmax-Vmin) multiplied by ten, where Vi represents the dismissal cost measured in weeks of wages. Vmax is set at 58 weeks and Vmin is set at zero weeks, respectively. Countries outside the 58 max receive ratings of ten and those that are equal to the zero week minimum receive a score of zero.

The hiring and firing regulations sub-component is based on the Global Competitiveness Report which questions whether or not hiring and firing is impeded by regulations(which results in a rating of 1) or flexibly determined by employers, which results in a rating of 7. [6]

Table I shows the summary statistics for my data.

Table I. Descriptive Statistics

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Labor Productivity

929

10.20

84.00

39.9658

15.86991

EPL-OECD

704

0.26

4.83

2.1464

0.79332

Labor Market Regulations – EFI

673

2.83

9.28

6.2262

1.44151

Labor Market Program Expenditure

736

0.01

7.19

1.7244

1.26993

Enrollment Rate, Secondary Education

830

4.79

121.86

54.3078

21.70354

Enrollment Rate, Tertiary Education

834

4.79

121.86

54.3346

21.55291

R&D Spending % of GDP

531

0.31

4.43

1.8471

0.98574

Trade Openness

958

8.97

224.84

43.2293

27.77827

Investment % of GDP

972

9.82

41.54

23.4020

4.09299

Agriculture % of GDP

868

0.23

17.48

2.9210

2.37385

service sector % of GDP

860

39.00

78.98

61.1590

6.60123

Industry Sector % of GDP

860

10.67

41.11

26.0217

5.27470

Leniency of Hiring regulations and minimum wage

638

1.83

10.00

6.5570

2.36682

Leniency of Hiring and firing regulations

676

1.33

8.51

4.4360

1.51704

Freedom to set wages without Centralized collective bargaining

673

1.83

8.85

6.0807

1.72056

Leniency of Hours Regulations

658

1.90

10.00

6.7736

2.15671

Leniency of Mandated cost of worker dismissal

605

1.01

10.00

7.4599

2.52293

Leniency of Conscription

682

0.00

10.00

6.3123

3.94538

 

Results

My regression model captures the effects of labor market regulations as a determinant of labor productivity in developed countries. The following model is estimated using OLS
LProdit=∝0+β1LMRit+β2LMPit+β3Invit+β4Industryit+β5Serviceit+β6Agrit+β7Tradeit+β8RDit+∈it

The equation shows the relationship between my dependent variable labor productivity, with my independent variable LMR, as well as my other control variables, labor market program expenditure, investment as a percentage of GDP, Sectoral composition (defined as industry, agricultural and service sectors share of GDP), net trade, and research and development expenditure as a percentage of GDP. The coefficients in my regression analysis, shown as Beta in the model, can be interpreted as the change in the labor productivity for a one unit change in the independent variable. Figure II is a linear model which depicts to the sixth regression or column in table II.

Table II

Dependent Variable: Labor Productivity

(I)

(II)

(III)

(IV)

(V)

(VI)

(VII)

(VIII)

(IX)

LMR-EFI

2.274***

2.568***

2.522***

1.798***

1.336***

1.823***

1.918***

2.046***

2.054***

 

(0.418)

(0.465)

(0.465)

(0.480)

(0.483)

(0.516)

(0.670)

(0.694)

(0.535)

LMP

2.268***

2.188***

1.448**

1.354**

0.375

0.151

0.195

0.347

(0.634)

(0.634)

(0.599)

(0.588)

(0.664)

(0.815)

(0.831)

(0.663)

Investment

 

-0.320*

0.448***

0.327*

0.585***

0.758***

0.769***

0.618***

(0.174)

(0.171)

(0.170)

(0.200)

(0.237)

(0.242)

(0.201)

Industry Sector % of GDP

-0.684***

-0.381*

-1.022***

-1.337***

-1.346***

-1.057***

(0.218)

(0.224)

(0.262)

(0.315)

(0.322)

(0.262)

Service Sector % of GDP

0.078

0.351*

-0.252

-0.581*

-0.616*

-0.274

(0.199)

(0.205)

(0.235)

(0.310)

(0.320)

(0.235)

Agriculture Sector % of GDP

 

-3.770***

-3.188***

-4.202***

-4.549***

-4.553***

-4.739***

(0.360)

(0.376)

(0.527)

(0.675)

(0.694)

(0.537)

Trade Openness

0.104***

0.092***

0.088***

0.073**

0.100**

(0.023)

(0.024)

(0.032)

(0.036)

(0.024)

R&D Spending % of GDP

1.984***

1.527*

1.495*

2.009***

(0.690)

(0.806)

(0.820)

(0.689)

Enrollment Rate, Tertiary Education

0.052

-0.045

(0.053)

(0.281)

Enrollment Rate, Secondary Education

0.103

Year (Linear Time Trend)

-0.227

(0.144)

N

670

532

532

513

513

424

354

345

424

Adjusted R Square

0.041

0.065

0.070

0.329

0.353

0.386

0.356

0.342

0.368

Table II shows linear regression results that utilize the Fraser Institute composite indicator of labor market regulations. We see a significant and positive relationship in the first column between productivity and labor market regulations. This shows a positive correlation of 2.274 between unregulated labor markets and labor productivity. This implies that each one unit increase in the labor market regulation index increases labor productivity by $2.27 USD per hour worked. On table II, the sixth column has the highest adjusted R-squared of 0.386, which signifies that this regression explains 38.6% of the variation in labor productivity for developed countries. The higher R-squared in column six, relative to the other columns, suggests that this regression model has the best fit to the data. In this regression, in the sixth column, we see that labor market regulations has a positive and significant coefficient of 2.046. This implies that for every one point increase in the LMR component rating, there would be an increase of $2.04 in GDP per aggregate labor hour worked in an economy, since LMR has higher values for less regulation. Comparing the LMR coefficient across all 8 columns, we see that labor market deregulation is consistently significant and positive in relationship with labor productivity. Labor markets relatively free from constraining labor market regulations have a significant and positive impact on productivity performance according to my data.

We control for the labor productivity determinants of human capital in the form of secondary and tertiary enrollment rate as a percentage of school age population, however we observe a decrease in the adjusted R-squared when we account for these covariates. The model in column five has the highest adjusted R-squared and therefore is the model with the best fit. I interpret my regression results from this model in column five because this model has the highest adjusted R- squared or has the best fit. The covariate expenditure on labor market programs(LMP), is insignificant in the fifth regression analysis or column of table II, however Investment as a percentage of GDP is significant and positive with the coefficient of 0.585. This indicates that a one percent increase in Investment as a percentage of GDP is corresponds to a 58 cent increase in labor productivity, or GDP per aggregate labor hour worked.

Additionally when we control for sectoral composition we find that the covariates for Industry and Agricultural sectoral activities as percentage of GDP is significantly and negatively related to labor productivity. However, the covariate for service sector activities as a percentage of GDP was positive and insignificant in the sixth regression analysis of Table II. The coefficient for Industry Sector activities is -1.022. This indicates that a one percent increase in the percent of GDP that is contributed to industrial activities would correspond to a loss of $1.02 USD in GDP per aggregate hours worked. The coefficient for the agricultural activities covariate is -4.202, which indicates that there is about $4.20 lost in GDP per aggregate hour worked in the economy, that corresponds to a one percent increase of agricultural sector activities per GDP in developed economies.

The Trade Openness or Net Trade covariate has a positive and significant coefficient of 0.092. This implies that increasing net trade (exports – imports), is significant to increasing labor productivity. The coefficient indicates that one dollar increase in net trade, corresponds to a 9 cent increase in GDP per aggregate hour worked in a developed economy. Including the covariate for trade openness does not change the interpretations of LMR, my main variable of interest. However, trade openness may exhibit reverse causality as net trade may be determined by productivity, instead of productivity being determined by net trade. Due to the possibility of reverse causality for this covariate, the interpretation of this coefficient may be biased.

Research and Development expenditure as a percentage of GDP is also positive and highly significantly related to labor productivity in developed economies. The coefficient for the R&D covariate is 1.984. This indicates that a one percent increase in R&D spending as a percent of GDP, corresponds to a $1.98 increase in labor productivity or GDP per aggregate labor hour worked in a developed economy.

This study also controls for the linear time trend of my data in the ninth column of my table. The results indicate that there is no major change to the coefficient of my main variable of interest, Labor Market Regulations. Additionally,  the coefficient for year or linear time trend is insignificant, which indicates there is not a significant relationship between labor productivity and the linear time trend of my empirical data. Therefore, I can conclude that my results are not attributed to the linear time trend, as there are no significant changes to my coefficient for my main variable of interest and the relationship of labor productivity and the linear time trend of my data is not significant.

Table III

Dependent Variable: Productivity

 

(I)

(II)

(III)

(IV)

(V)

(VI)

(VII)

Leniency of Hiring and firing regulations

-0.325

2.562***

2.598***

1.628***

2.624***

2.967***

2.576***

(0.441)

(0.432)

(0.458)

(0.443)

(0.471)

(0.483)

(0.270)

Firms Freedom to set wages (Centralized collective bargaining)

-5.260***

-5.260***

-4.150***

-4.661***

-4.739***

-1.483***

(0.403)

(0.404)

(0.401)

(0.401)

(0.398)

(0.274)

Leniency of Hours Regulations

-0.075

-0.297

-0.682**

-0.394

-0.047

(0.320)

(0.299)

(0.300)

(0.315)

(0.159)

Leniency of mandated cost of worker dismissal

1.618***

1.138***

1.209***

-0.524***

(0.199)

(0.214)

(0.214)

(0.125)

Freedom from Conscription

0.846***

0.796***

0.636***

(0.163)

(0.163)

(0.100)

Leniency of Hiring & Minimum Wage Regulations

-0.706***

 

 

(0.254)

Real Minimum Wage (In 2017 constant prices at 2017 USD PPPs)

 

3.416***

(0.190)

LMP

-0.094

-0.345

-0.358

-0.357

-0.079

-0.082

0.097

(0.671)

(0.566)

(0.571)

(0.532)

(0.519)

(0.515)

(0.263)

Investment

0.581***

0.969***

0.963***

0.778***

0.883***

0.892***

0.314***

(0.203)

(0.173)

(0.176)

(0.166)

(0.162)

(0.161)

(0.091)

Industry Sector % of GDP

-0.718***

0.381*

0.408

0.201

0.323

0.392*

0.928***

(0.251)

(0.228)

(0.256)

(0.241)

(0.235)

(0.234)

(0.134)

Service Sector % of GDP

0.180

1.244***

1.264***

0.886***

0.775***

0.859***

0.409***

(0.208)

(0.193)

(0.211)

(0.203)

(0.198)

(0.198)

(0.110)

Agriculture % of GDP

-3.588***

-1.942***

-1.920***

-1.968***

-2.094***

-2.081***

-0.578***

(0.529)

(0.463)

(0.476)

(0.447)

(0.434)

(0.431)

(0.212)

Trade Openness

0.113***

0.130***

0.130***

0.106***

0.088***

0.087***

0.118***

(0.024)

(0.020)

(0.020)

(0.019)

(0.019)

(0.019)

(0.009)

R&D Spending % of GDP

2.168***

-0.293

-0.280

0.674

0.922

1.021*

-1.786***

(0.724)

(0.638)

(0.642)

(0.611)

(0.595)

(0.591)

(0.344)

N

424

424

423

421

421

421

300

Adjusted R Square

.369

0.552

0.551

0.612

0.635

0.641

0.926

Table III shows the sub-indicators of the Labor Market Regulation component of the Economic Freedom index. Through introducing the sub-components one at a time, and holding the other control variables constant, I disentangle the effects of each individual type of labor market regulation. The sixth column shows the OLS regression with the highest adjusted R square using all six sub-components with an adjusted R squared being 0.641. When we substitute the leniency of hiring and minimum wage regulations sub-component for OECD data for Real minimum wage in 2017 U.S. Dollars Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), we get a higher adjusted R squared of 0.926.

Mandated cost of worker dismissal has a negative and significant coefficient of -0.524, indicating that an increase of one point on the ten point scale of cost of dismissal, signifies a 52 cent loss in GDP per aggregate labor hour worked in a developed countries economy. Conscription has a significant coefficient of 0.636 which indicates that for every one point increase, on the ten point scale of freedom from conscription, coincides with a roughly 64 cent increase to a developed nation’s GDP per aggregate labor hour worked in the economy. Additionally, a one point increase on the ten point scale of hiring and firing sub-component scale corresponds to a $2.58 loss to a developed economies GDP per aggregate labor hour worked in the economy, as shown by the positive and significant coefficient in the first row, last column, 2.576. It is also noted that hours regulations have an insignificant relationship with labor productivity.

Firms freedom to set wages, in absence of centralized collective bargaining, has a significant and negative relationship with labor productivity performance, reflected by the coefficient -1.483. This implies that centralized collective bargaining is conducive to increasing productivity performance, rather than decreasing it. In addition, minimum wage regulations has a significant and negative relationship with labor productivity.

The coefficient for leniency in minimum wage regulations in the sixth column is -0.706, which suggests a standard for minimum wages is also conducive for productivity performance in developed countries. However, the variables mandated cost of worker dismissal, conscription, and hiring and firing regulations have a significant and positive relationship with labor productivity, which shows they have a negative relationship with labor productivity performance. In the seventh column or regression analysis, we substitute the Fraser institute’s subcomponent indicator of hiring and minimum wage regulations with the real minimum wage data from the OECD in the units of 207 U.S. Dollars PPP. This regression is a better fit of the data when we substitute the subcomponent for real minimum wage data, reflected by the Adjusted r-squared increasing to 0.926 (from 0.641). The coefficient for real minimum wage in 2017 USD PPP is highly significant and positive at 3.416. This implies that for every one dollar increase, in 2017 US dollars PPP, in the minimum wage of a developed economy, is correlated to a $3.42 increase in labor productivity. Whereas the United States productivity level was 63.5 GDP in USD, a 1$ increase in minimum wage regulations in 2017 USD PPP, corresponds to a $3.42 increase in labor productivity or labor productivity growth of 5.4%.

Robustness Test

In order to test the robustness of my results above, I substitute the Fraser Institute’s measure of labor market regulation for the OECD’s measure of employment protection legislation (EPL) as my independent variable of interest. Table IV shows the OLS regression results analyzing the effects of employment protection legislation and other control variables with the dependent variable, labor productivity. It is clear initially that employment protection legislation has a negative correlation with labor productivity from the coefficient of -3.181. This corresponds to a GDP loss of 3 dollars and 18 cents per aggregate labor hour, from a one point increase on the six point scale measuring the strictness of employment protection legislation in the labor market. This confirms the robustness of my results in previous tables, as the results show a negative relationship between labor markets constrained with regulations when using measures from two different third party sources, the Fraser Institute and the OECD. Therefore results would be stable when substituting data from the Fraser institute for the OECD for labor market regulations.

I acknowledge that there may be reverse causality for my covariates, however I do not believe that my variable of interest LMR exhibits reverse causality as the degree of regulation in a labor market is not determined by productivity. It is safe to assume that government regulations are not usually created for sake of efficiency or productivity, but rather to enforce a degree of equity and safety in society. Therefore, the covariate interpretations should only be taken with a grain of salt, as they may exhibit reverse causality, but my interpretation of my main variable of interest for the purpose of this study (LMR) is still significant, and unlikely exhibits reverse causality.

Table IV

Dependent Variable Labor Productivity

 

(I)

(II)

(III)

(IV)

(V)

(VI)

(VII)

(VIII)

EPL-OECD

-3.181***

-3.083***

-3.470***

-6.13***

-6.079***

-5.095***

-5.162***

-5.203***

(0.679)

(0.816)

(0.806)

(0.868)

(0.848)

(1.092)

(1.444)

(1.469)

LMP

0.712

0.399

0.832*

0.874**

0.308

0.047

0.154

(0.532)

(0.527)

(0.448)

(0.438)

(0.703)

(0.915)

(0.941)

Investment (% of GDP)

-0.84***

0.125

0.026

0.622**

0.826***

0.833***

(0.184)

(0.173)

(0.170)

(0.250)

(0.299)

(0.304)

Industry Sector % of GDP

-1.394***

-1.166***

-1.617***

-1.859***

-1.875***

(0.204)

(0.205)

(0.285)

(0.334)

(0.341)

Service Sector % of GDP

-0.752***

-0.548***

-0.78***

-1.01***

-1.04***

(0.198)

(0.198)

(0.257)

(0.326)

(0.335)

Agriculture % of GDP

 

-4.063***

-3.585***

-5.195***

-5.869***

-5.909***

(0.275)

(0.286)

(0.583)

(0.724)

(0.744)

Trade Openness

0.121***

0.083***

0.063

0.061

(0.025)

(0.029)

(0.038)

(0.039)

R&D Spending % of GDP

1.199

0.729

0.81

(0.840)

(1.076)

(1.101)

Enrollment Rate, Tertiary Education

-0.004

0.446

(0.059)

(0.605)

Enrollment Rate, Secondary Education

-0.452

(0.605)

N

692

530

530

487

487

317

265

258

Adjusted R Square

0.029

0.027

0.063

0.447

0.472

0.445

0.412

0.410

In the fifth column of table IV, we see the robustness test regression result with the highest adjusted R square of 0.472, as we control for other variables. In this regression, we see that EPL has a significant coefficient of -5.203, which indicates that a one point increase in EPL would correspond to a loss of about $5.20 cents of GDP for every aggregate man hour worked in the economy. This suggests that EPL has a significant and negative relationship with labor productivity as we continue to control for more variables.

Figure II.

 I test for heteroscedasticity in the above heteroscedasticity scatterplot. As there is no evident pattern in the data plots, I can assume that there is no heteroscedasticity in my data, and therefore I can justify using homoscedastic error terms in my result.

Conclusion

My empirical evidence shows that labor markets that are relatively more free of labor market regulations and employment protection legislation in developed economies have a strong and significant relationship with positive labor productivity levels. Therefore, empirically it concludes that strict labor market regulations in the labor market are not favorable to positive labor productivity levels in developed economies.  In table II, I have shown that strict labor market regulations have a negative correlation alone with labor productivity performance of developed economies. When controlling for other relevant variables my OLS regressions show that the more lenient labor market regulations in a developed economy, the more conducive are the conditions for increasing labor productivity. Table III disentangles the separate effects of different labor market regulations which accounts for positive and negative relationships between certain regulations and productivity performance. While I found centralized collective bargaining coverage and minimum wage to have a positive relationship with labor market regulations in my data, Labor market regulations had an overall negative effect on productivity performance for developed economies in my study. This is due to the largely negative effects on productivity caused by mandated cost of worker dismissal, conscription, and hiring & firing regulations. It is therefore expected from my results that labor market regulations concerning wages of workers is conducive and correlated with increasing labor productivity levels, as seen in my regression results for the sub-component indicators of leniency of hiring and minimum wage regulations and freedom to set wages without centralized collective bargaining. However, the largely negative effects of leniency of mandated cost of worker dismissal and leniency of firing regulations offset the positive effect of wage regulations, therefore making the net effect of labor market regulations on labor productivity negative.

Labor market regulations concerning wages may be conducive to productivity as they may increase incentives and motivations for existing workers, and possibly attract a more skilled workforce through higher wages. It was found from evidence from a large United States retailer that a one dollar increase in minimum wage is correlated to a 4.5% increase in labor productivity (Coviello et al., 2019). This is similar to and supports my findings in my linear regression analysis that a one dollar increase in minimum wage corresponds to a 5.4% increase in labor productivity. According to the research from a large U.S. retailer, higher minimum wages may lessen the incentives for workers to exert more effort, but on the other hand, workers are made better off, and therefore may care more about the retention of their employment, and in consequence their job performance. (Coviello et al., 2019).

It is informative to consider the impact to which the effect labor market regulation, on labor productivity in developed countries, estimated above, can explain the Canada-US productivity gap. In 2016, Canada had a Labor Market Regulation component rating by the Fraser Institute of 8, compared to the United States’ rating of 8.83. Higher ratings reflect relatively unconstrained or unregulated free labor markets. In the same year, Canada experienced a labor productivity level of 42.84 according to OECD Data, in comparison to the labor productivity level of 53.39 in the United States. According to my significant and positive coefficient of 1.918 for Labor market regulations in the sixth regression analysis of Table II, increasing the rating of LMR in a country by one would correspond to a $1.92 increase in a nation’s productivity level. Given the difference in regulations between Canada and the US, the estimates in this study suggest that Labor market regulations can explain roughly 15.1% of the difference in labor productivity levels between the United States and Canada in 2016.

Supported by research contained in my literature review, the relationship of labor market regulations (LMR) is best interpreted as small, but nonnegligible determinant of the United States-Canada labor productivity gap. In future research, we could incorporate  measures of human resource management and geographic labor mobility as control variables. These may be determinants of productivity and could explain more of productivity differences between the United States and Canada, however for the purpose of the study I was not able to find reliable measures of these covariates. It is important to realize there are potentially diminishing productivity returns to the market liberalization of already relatively liberal, developed economies. However, in the argument of productivity-centered economic policy, it is also important to promote equitable distribution of productivity gains in order to capture public support. Increasing competition intensity through the removal of formal barriers in the form of market regulations has the potential to reduce absolute poverty through savings passed on to consumers by fostering a more competitive business environment. Productivity is a significant contributor to growth in GDP per capita, and therefore national living standards. However, labor productivity is also affected by various, small, and incremental changes, so it is crucial to not underestimate, as well as over-emphasize the effects of labor market deregulation on productivity performance of developed economies.

Appendix

Table A.I

 

 

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[1] OECD (2018), GDP per hour worked (indicator). doi: 10.1787/1439e590-en (Accessed on 07 November 2018)

[2] OECD. OECD Compendium of Productivity Indicators 2012. 1. Aufl. ed. FR: OECD Paris, 2013. Web.

[3] A score of 1 is assigned if the maximum cumulative duration of fixed-term contracts is less than 3 years; 0.5 if it is 3 years or more but less than 5 years; and 0 if fixed-term contracts can last 5 years or more. Finally, a score of 1 is assigned if the ratio of the minimum wage to the average value added per worker is 0.75 or more; 0.67 for a ratio of 0.50 or more but less than 0.75; 0.33 for a ratio of 0.25 or more but less than 0.50; and 0 for a ratio of less than 0.25.

[4] World Economic Forum, Global Competitiveness Report. 

[5] When length of conscription is six months or less, the country earns a rating of five for conscription. If conscription has a duration of 6 to 12 months they earn a rating of 3, and if it is between 12 and 18 months they earn a rating of 1 in conscription. Any conscription greater than 18 months results in a rating of zero. Special cases include when mandated national military service includes non-military options they receive a rating of five, and when it is clear conscription is never used, but still remains possible countries still receive a score of zero.

[6] World Economic Forum, Global Competitiveness Report. 
 

Neoliberal Policies on Media Regulation

Neoliberal policies vs Governmental regulations and policies
Cultural industries are involved in the production and dissemination of products that can influence our understanding and knowledge of the world (Hesmondhalgh, 2013). Because of its influential nature, the question of who should own and regulate the industries and commodities produced has been a highly contested topic. Proponents of Neoliberal policies argued that public ownership and regulation of cultural industries are inefficient and provide insufficient choice and perspectives for viewers. Thus, they postulate the best way to increase this choice was to provide more commercial (private) channels coupled with the end or lessening of governmental regulation. On the other hand, the ideological imperatives of a commercially driven media system drive huge concerns on the quality of cultural commodities that will be produced, resulting in support for cultural industries to remain public with strong governmental regulations so that public interests will be protected. Through analysing Murdoch’s global media empire, this paper takes the public interest stance and argues that Neoliberal policies, while seemingly progressive and adopted to liberate production, distribution and consumption of cultural commodities, ironically legitimises the decreasing media diversity and low quality news content. There must, therefore, be appropriate amount of government intervention when it comes to controlling the cultural industries.

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From the 1970s onwards, neoliberal supporters argued the economic downturn of that period was a consequence of public ownership and governmental regulations. The basis of the neoliberal approach to culture is the idea that free, unregulated competition will produce efficient markets and producing such markets should be the main goal of public policy (Hesmondhalgh, 2013). As a result, the 80s onwards witnessed major historical changes in the policy landscape. Hesmondhalgh terms these policy changes as marketization, which refers to ‘the permeation of market exchange as a social principle’. These changes include having broadcasting institutions privatised or unrestricted to terrestrial, commercial broadcaster, cable and satellite providers. Controls on content such as amount of advertising, laws and regulations on media ownership were also eradicated or greatly lightened. On the global scale, the impetus for neoliberal marketization peaked in the 1997 WTO agreement (Jin, 2005). Under the agreement, many states made market access commitments which decreased or removed restrictions on foreign ownership and licensing in communications. It has been argued that marketization would allow companies to compete with one another and by doing so, will produce quality products more efficiently in order to get the most audience. This would also mean that audience could get different and better types of information at a cheaper and more accessible way. No doubt, the marketization of cultural industries has allowed global audience to access news from different channels apart than the ones offered locally.
However, if we were to take a closer look, most of these channels are actually produced by a few large conglomerates, namely Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp, Viacom, Bertelsmann, Warners, Sony, AT & T, and Disney. Rather than increasing diversity globally, marketization of cultural industries have ignited a surge of mergers & acquisitions because giant communication firms consistently moves aggressively into deregulated domestic communications markets around the world. This means that marketization resulting from neoliberal policies has allowed for the concentration of ownership among a few mega-media giants and the world actually gets exposed to news produced from these same media giants, weakening the neoliberal stance that competition produces diverse choices. Once of these media giants include News Corp.
The growth of Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp commenced in Australia when he started buying newspaper companies in which he now owns two-thirds of the nation’s newspaper production. With the relaxing of regulations, News Corp further expanded into Britain to include both newspapers and television stations, thus further dominating much of the content in that area. By the 1990s, News Corp became the biggest press publisher in Britain. News Corp also partly gained controlled over a pioneer satellite television system BSKYB, which is the television source for most British homes. Next, Murdoch expanded the reach of his News Corporation in the United States by buying over 20th Century Fox which include Fox News, Fox Sports, and FX. He then purchased the New York Post and Fox 5 in New York. Then in 2003, the News Corporation was allowed to buy Direct TV, the largest television satellite service in the United States. Murdoch also bought satellite television networks in Asia and Latin America. Globally, Murdoch satellite systems are estimated to reach more than three hundred million homes. With Fox Television and 20th Century Fox providing content, this satellite system, which is consistently moving toward conquering the global market, signals an expanding global vertical integration (Broe, 2004). This desire for total control prompts more concentration by the other media conglomerates to contest News Corp’s control, as seen by Comcast’s attempts to take over entertainment provider Disney in 2004 and Time Warner in 2014.
This conglomeration of companies like Murdoch’s News Corporation is worrying as it has the power to influence the diversity of global news content. Simply take a look at how News Corporation’s company in India, Star News, is run. Star News has no permanent foreign correspondents of its own, even in neighbouring countries, as there seem to be no economic or corporate sense to invest in running foreign bureaux or lease time on costly satellite networks for live transmission of news stories. Therefore, Star News uses footage provided by News Corporation’s other international news networks such as Fox Channel from News York and Sky News from London. It is not alarming, then, that Fox opinions and take to news is apparent in India, as evidenced during the Iraq invasion in 2003, when Star News simply repeated, often word-for-word in Hindi, the Pentagon line on ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’ (Thussu, 2007). Here, we can see that by relegating cultural industries such as news companies to the rigours of the market has allowed conglomerates such as News Corp to control news production all over the world and disseminate their ideology (in this case Pentagon support for Operation Iraqi Freedom) easily, affecting the diversity of global news content.
Quality of news is also affected with the marketization of cultural industries. Privatising and commercialising news companies means that these companies are now responsible to shareholders. In order to make sure that news generated would provide profits to the channel, Murdoch’s News Corp has been regularly sensationalising its news as they vie for attention. Murdoch’s early statement that “newspapers were meant to entertain not educate” has served as a template for much of News Corp contents. This style of “exaggerated story filled with invented quotes; the rewriting… of laconic news-service copy into lavish sensationalized; the eye-shattering, usually ungrammatical, irrelevant and gratuitously blood-curdling headline yarns (‘Leper Rapes Virgin, Gives Birth To Monster Baby’)” has been used in many of its news coverage (Broe, 2004). Murdoch’s News Corporation has established what is labelled as the ‘four S’ model of journalism – ‘scare headlines, sex, scandal, and sensation’ in order to secure commercial success in almost all of its major acquisitioned properties (Arsenault & Castells, 2008).
Such strategies in incorporating aspects of new sensationalism have replaced the original value of “objective” news reporting. Critics have also emphasized that the gimmickry, opinion and comments such as the ones on Fox News is detrimental to long-established journalistic principles to ‘objectively’ inform citizens about the world (Cushin & Lewis, 2009). In this case, the commercial and ideological aims of News Corp, that is to gain greater audience share and present a partial view of the world does not promote a public service ethos focusing on audience understanding and democratic participation. Evidently, market forces do not guarantee that the media companies will serve their non-economic roles as ethical institutions of the democratic public sphere and this has taken a toll on the quality and diversity of democratic media due to the dangerous concentrations of media power.
Hence, it is important that there continues to be news industries that are publicly owned in order to balance the commercial imperatives of private industries. There also needs to be stronger regulations that can control the size of these media conglomerates so as to ensure that they do not abuse their power in influencing the diversity of news contents as well as the quality of news produced. For example, in 2005, News Corporation’s subsidiary company, News of the World was caught for phone hacking of several high profile celebrities and Britain’s royal family members, causing a huge political and public fury. The government had to intervene for the protection of individuals’ privacy and ethical reporting of news. Due to this hacking scandal, News Corp. was forced withdraw its bid for full take-over of the British satellite broadcaster BSkyB, as Prime Minister Cameron announced a wide-ranging public inquiry into the British media (Wintour, Sabbagh & Watt, 2011). Here, we can see the importance in governmental intervention in ensuring that this media company does not abuse its power. We also see the extent to which the market forces of competition can push companies to go beyond the boundaries to beat their competitors to get the juiciest information. As quoted by Raboy on media and communications regulation, “as media are paramount social institutions, public intervention with respect to their orientation is both legitimate and necessary” (Lunt & Livingstone, 2012).
Those who object government regulations would rather choose neoliberal policies in the name of democratic freedom. What they fail to see is that freedom should also come in the form of public interest and government regulations can protect these freedom that democracy so seriously advocate. There is also nothing democratic and free when it comes to having big conglomerates who can control easily global production and dissemination of news content. McChesney (2000) was adamant about the fundamental incompatibility of democracy with patterns of consolidated media ownership. In response to Murdoch’s power in the media industry, McChesney (2000) said, ‘‘there is no human, no single firm, no single entity that should have this sort of power. That’s just a core democratic value and principle.”
Certainly, having full governmental regulation on media companies would also be unnecessary and dangerous. I am not proposing that there should be full governmental control with no privatisation of media companies. What I am proposing is that private and public media companies need to be present in any country so that both these entities can act as watchdogs. However, the government needs to be strong enough to be able to develop social and cultural policies that can encourage fair deliberation and engagement through intergovernmental, regional and global cooperation (Lunt & Livingstone, 2012). These policies should focus on positive as well as negative freedoms, whereby the role of governments is not only to protect citizens but also to ensure conditions for a civic culture together with diverse and quality engagement. Without a much robust attitude towards media concentration and the chase for meaningful diversity and quality, current public interest considerations are unlikely to be protected against aggressive marketization. Protecting the public interest requires both a more determined stance on media concentration and a more imaginative approach to securing media diversity, one that is based not simply on economic benefits but on the advantages of stimulating mindful debate and critical perspectives.
References

Cushion, S., & Lewis, J. (2009). Towards a ‘Foxification’ of 24-hour news channels in Britain?Journalism,10(2), 131-153. Retrieved March 31, 2015, from http://jou.sagepub.com/content/10/2/131.abstract
Wintour, P., Sabbagh, D., & Wat, N. (2011, July 14). Rupert Murdoch gives up BSkyB takeover bid.The Guardian. Retrieved March 30, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com/media/2011/jul/13/rupert-murdoch-gives-up-bskyb-bid
McChesney, R. (2000). The political economy of communication and the future of the field.Media, Culture & Society,22(1), 109-116. Retrieved March 29, 2015, from http://mcs.sagepub.com.libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/content/22/1/109.refs
Broe, D. (2004). Fox and Its Friends: Global Commodification and the New Cold War.Society for Cinema & Media Studies,43(4), 97-102. Retrieved March 20, 2015, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3661159
Lunt, P., & Livingstone, S. (2012). Media regulation: Governance and the interests of citizens and consumers. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. doi: http://dx.doi.org.libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/10.4135/9781446250884
Jin, D. (2008). Neoliberal restructuring of the global communication system: Mergers and acquisitions.Media, Culture & Society,30(3), 357-373. Retrieved March 20, 2015, from http://mcs.sagepub.com.libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/content/30/3/357
Arsenault, A., & Castells, M. (2008). Politics: A Sociological Analysis Switching Power: Rupert Murdoch and the Global Business of Media.International Sociology,23, 488-513. Retrieved May 20, 2015, from http://annenberg.usc.edu/Faculty/Communication and Journalism/~/media/InternationalSociology.ashx
Thussu, D. (2007). The ‘Murdochization’ of news? The case of Star TV in India.Media, Culture & Society,29(4), 593-611.

 

New Zealand’s Disability and Aging Policies and Practices

Task four: Comparing international developments to New Zealand’s policies and practices in relation to disability and aging.
4.1. Policies on disability and aging
4.1.1. International policies on disability
Canada

Council for Canadians with disability has provide support for disabled and assist them as they find difficulties when living in society or finding the job or any educational. As follow several committee :

Transportation committee
International development committee
Human rights committee
Social policy committee

The sociopolitical model concerned with human rights in the 1970s as they focus to reduce the barrier of environment, any other negative thought toward people with disability from social community.
The Canadian government promote the policies and support independent living for people with disability such as services, transportation and housing and make more flexible for these people.
According to the International model of Human Rights , people with disability also have all the normal rights as a citizen and it is existing under the law for the disabled people.

Australia
In Australia, the two Commonwealth policies and important that related to disability are Disability Services Act 1986 and the Disability Discrimination Act 1992, they all provide the rights for the disability.

The Disability Services Act(DSA) 1986: The act based on the handicapped program review that the commonwealth initiated 1983. There are some action of the legislation provide the services for people with disability into the society( Baume & Kay 1995):

Providing more flexible and more responsive to the needs for disabled people.
Assist disabled people gets services and they can work in the community with full participation.
Provide service to people with disability that they can achieve the positive outcomes such as become more independent, more opportunity for employment in the community.
Considering the outcome achieved of the disabled people as they are taken into account of financial for these services.
Innovation in the provision of service for people with disability should be encouraged.

The disability discrimination act 1992: the act related to social justice for disabled in Australia. The act is aim to protect the interest of people with disability who has experience of discrimination in public and private service. There are some action of the act:

The disabled people has the same rights when they are in the community
Within the community principle that people with disability have the same fundamental rights.
Providing the law by commonwealth program as the discrimination against the person on the ground of the disability in the education , work, accommodation.

New Zealand
The New Zealand strategy for people with disability introduced to the New Zealand government to promote a more inclusive society for people with disability as they can get respect in social community. In addition, guideline the government implement about provide support service for people with disability and some others attitude and behaviour from society toward them. The government department and others government agencies need to consider to people with disability before making decision.
The strategy and policies

Non-disabling society should be encouraged and educate as they need to respect and highly values the lives to disable people.
People in society should perceived the rights for people with disability as they can implement their rights fully.
Considering education for disable people, as they can develop their skills and educational centre which can help them participate in society.
Giving and providing opportunities economic and employment for disable people in accordance with human rights and maintain adequate income.
In the case, disable Maori and pacific people should be considered as promote participation.
Providing support the lifestyle choice and culture for people with disability. Also support for quality living in the community for disable people as they can feel comfortable while living in that community.
Foster leadership by disable people as encourage them to making decision, acknowledge and strengthen of the leadership for them on this issue.
Long-term support system centred need to create on individual: making sure the quality assessment and service deliver is centred for disable people .
Foster an aware and responsive public service: make sure that government agencies, public service are aware the responsive for people with disability.

Comparison
Similarities : In all three countries, the policies focus on how to delivery good support toward to the disabled people in any angle such as environment, educational, employment and social community.
Differences

Canada: Policy concern about system support for the disabled people as encourage them participate in social’s life.
Australia : The government involved the aspect and concentrated to the educational discrimination for people with disability.
New Zealand: The government í not only focus on the European in New Zealand, they also concern toward to Maori and Pacific people who are living with disability

4.1.2. International policies on aging
Canada
There are several programmes focus on provide the financial of healthcare for the elderly as well as concentrate to support service policies for the older people.

Canada pension plan provide the security –income program such as old age security, guaranteed income supplement(1967) to support for elderly about the financial and low-income for seniors by federal government general revenue.
Providing advices and support of ageing under the population health fund and also the national health research and development program.
Canada government also create and understand the knowledge to support the elderly on the way effectively.
The national framework on aging are providing the policies effective to seniors as well as consulting this issue for older people in Canada.
Making sure the manual safety for the elderly as their health or traveling or health insurance plan.
Increasing government income security programmes

Australia

The Australia government created the policies to support older people who are living in retirement become more active and financially secure.
The older people can continue to work if they wish in the communities
Provide the program such as lifelong learning and active ageing so the older people in Australia can be more active and can increase number of wellbeing in the elderly. Also good health can reduce the isolation and maintain the independence on the older people.

New Zealand
. The New Zealand positive aging strategy provides a framework for understanding and improving policies for older people. The positive aging takes account of health, financial security, personal safety and environment living for older people in New Zealand.

Health: Promote and support the development of the health centre community for older people. Considering the multi-disciplinary availability need assessment throughout new Zealand.
Income: the policies has introduced to ensure that the elderly gets adequate income and appropriate standard of living. Following legislation that the security of publicly should be increased provide retirement income into the future.
Housing: providing support from government as the elderly gets appropriate housing option. In addition, organize the survey option to enable low-income families to purchase home.
Transport: public transport should be reviewed as they are friendly in terms of route, timetables and safe for all ages. Ensuring that lack of transport is not the barrier for health services.
Ageing in place: developing the policy and the range of service that can support ageing in place. implement and promote service programmes of safety awareness for older people.
Culture diversity: number of quality services for maori and pacific people should be increased and improved. Also , older people from ethnic community should be identified the issue in specific and develop those option according to the cultural.
Rural: developing and providing policies and support service delivery for older people who is living in the rural community.
Attitudes: all the people has the different positive attitudes to the older people as making sure that government agency and publicity campaign portray positive images for the elderly. Developing intergenerational progammes in school and communities.
Employment : support employment of older people worker according to the government policies sector. Promote the mentoring programmes of the skills and experiences for older people.
Opportunities: improving the opportunity and increasing the educational and retraining for adult people

Comparison
Similarities: Supporting policies are providing properly toward to the older people in all three countries as they can live in the community with good health and comfortable with retirement.
Differences :

Canada and Australia: They all two countries are still focus on the financial support for older people. Also, these two countries has increased the number of the elderly and giving solutions how to deal with it and protect a good life for them.
New Zealand: In the case, New Zealand separate in different type on these policies which is very clearly to support for older people.

 
4.2.1. International delivery policies on disability
Canada

According to accessible transportation in Canada , the program were establish to provide the transport system and safety environment to help people with disability as they can found it easier when they are traveling.
Health Canada
Community living
Support funding for disable people in the labour market also help for employment as they are having disability.

Australia

Disability services Australia 1986 provided the quality of services delivered to disabled people as the quality for health care for the disability .
In addition, the younger people with disability in residential aged care was set by the Australia government for five year which helping reduce the number of younger people having disability and support those people as they are living in the residential aged care.
The disability standard provide achieving equal access for people with disability.
Home and community care provide support the care and increasing the independent for people with disability in the residential care.

New Zealand

In the community, health care services from practice nurse may be related to primary health care centre. According to the Public Health and Disability act, the Primary Heath Organization were founded and that provide the health education and also others services of health were delivered.
Public Health service also support service disabled people under the New Zealand Health and Disability Act 2000.

Comparison
Similarities : All three countries are focus on providing the support for disable people with higher quality and progammes in different terms such as health care provide.
Differences:

Canada : These policy concentrate on planning safety for people with disability on the angle as transportation or employment, also meet on development educational for them to get more experiences and skills that can help them living in society.
Australia : Organizing the services and delivery carer in effectively to the younger with disability on the both side financially and mentally illness help these people more confident with their ability while they are living in the residential community.
New Zealand : Provide on the basic need on health care under the New Zealand Health and Disability Act 2000 for the people with disability.

4.2.2. International delivery policies on aging
Canada

Proving the financial support for older people when they retire at the age of 60
The policies providing the services and also development the program liaising with different levels for the senior in the community.
Focusing on long-term system support care for the elderly as the social support or any other physically or mentally support for them.

Australia

Australia government concern to provide services and community of care effectively for older people according to their religious, culture and charities.
Under the aged care assessment program, the government budget to support the elderly and contribute funds to support these program.
Caring the elderly also get the support services from the government. Delivering the support needs in individual for elderly under the National continence management.

New Zealand
There are several support service organizations were founded to develop and help the elderly with higher quality and effectively to them.

Age concern
Diabetes new Zealand
National health foundation
Career force
Public health association

As these organizations can provide a good qualification to help the older people in the retirement and get benefit in term of the needs that the elderly want.
Comparison
Similarities: These countries are delivering the good quality and effectively support for the older people as well as they consider to develop to make sure the elderly can live in their community comfortable and happy.
Differences

Canada: Government in Canada may need to provide the higher support of finance and services to care the elderly.
Australia: The health care system in Australia is quite effectively toward the older people.
New Zealand : Under each organization, they are giving the best support and access for the elderly as older people can live in the best way in the retirement home or facility.

Referencing
Government of Saskatchewan
Retrieved from: http://www.socialservices.gov.sk.ca/office-disability
Disability policy in Canada
Retrieved from: http://video.med.ubc.ca/videos/osot/faculty/lj/Disability_Policy_in_Canada.pdf
Office for disability issue
Retrieved from: http://www.odi.govt.nz/resources/publications/new-zealand-disability-strategy.html
Ministry of social development
Retrieved from: http://www.msd.govt.nz/what-we-can-do/seniorcitizens/positive-ageing/goals/index.html
Disability policies and program in Australia
Retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/1079853/Disability_Policies_and_Programs_in_Australia
Government of south Australia
Retrieved from: http://www.sa.gov.au/upload/entity/1856/dac-documents/policy-guideline/
Parliament of Canada
Retrieved from: http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/lop/researchpublications/cei-07-e.htm
Women with disability in Australia
Retrieved from: http://wwda.org.au/govtdis/govtdisoverview/
Australia government- department of health
Retrieved from: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/ageing-aged-care
 

Policies for the Prevention of Fraud and Mismanagement

PURPOSE
The Prevention of Fraud and Mismanagement Policy outlines measures taken by the Institute to prevent fraud and mismanagement.
SCOPE
This policy applies to all members of staff.
STATEMENT
Rosary Tertiary Institute is committed to dealing with fraud prevention. The Professional Conduct of Staff is the principle guide for dealing with fraud prevention. It states that staff members are required to inform themselves about fraud controls, to inform the institute if they suspect acts of fraud and that if a staff member commits an act of fraud it will be investigated.
This Policy is supported by the Theft, Fraud and Corrupt Conduct Procedure, which summarises the procedures to be used once an allegation of fraud is made to a senior staff member.
PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT OF STAFF

Rosary Tertiary Institute seeks to create a safe and rewarding learning and working environment based on the principles of the Catholic faith, justice, equity, harmony, tolerance and pursuit of excellence while protecting the resources of the Institute and respect for individuals, the law and the governance of the Institute.
In circumstances where staff conduct does not meet the standards set out in this policy and related procedures, senior members of staff may speak with the individual concerned in an attempt to remedy the situation. In cases where the misconduct exceeds the scope of authority, the matter may be referred to the proper civil authority.

Personal and Professional Behaviour

Staff must uphold the values of the Institute outlined in the Prospectus.
Staff must maintain a high standard of conduct and level of performance while demonstrating courtesy, equity and fairness in dealing with staff, students, contractors, visitors and members of the public. The rights, duties and aspirations of others will be respected at all times.
Staff must perform their duties in a professional manner with skill, care and diligence and with a proper utilisation of their authority.
Staff must treat others fairly and with respect and must not engage in any harassing, bullying or discriminatory behaviour.
Staff in administrative positions will maintain, as far as possible, a safe and orderly working environment.
Staff must endeavour to ensure that their actions or decisions do not harm the health, safety and well-being of themselves or others, nor affect their work performance or that of others and must comply with the STAC Occupational Health and Safety Standards.
Staff in management positions must ensure that all staff have the necessary qualifications to fulfil the responsibilities of the positions they occupy.
Staff must ensure that relationships with students are professional, respectful and trusting.
Staff must acknowledge that they have a responsibility to protect the interests of students and to acknowledge and resolve any conflicts of interest that may arise; to respect staff-student relationships and to accept the obligations involved in their responsibilities.

Staff will maintain the highest standards of integrity in financial matters and, particularly, will comply with the requirements relevant to financial management legislation and the Institute’s financial procedures which have been taken from the rule and constitution of the Dominican Sisters of Wanganui.

Protection of Institute Resources

Staff must utilise and maintain Institute equipment and resources in an economical and efficient manner and exclusively for Institute purposes;
Staff must secure Institute equipment and resources against misuse or theft;
Staff must follow all procedures governing the use of the Institute’s electronic communications systems, and avoid excessive personal use of the Institute’s electronic communications systems which incurs additional cost to the Institute.
Staff must ensure the protection of the privacy of others and the maintenance of appropriate confidentiality with regard to personal matters and information acquired in the course of their employment and will use information only for purposes related to work
Staff must maintain the confidentiality of official and personal information for which they are responsible and take all precautions to prevent all unauthorised access to or misuse of the Institute’s records and information
Staff must comply with all relevant copyright and records management policies and procedures.

Respect for the Law and Tertiary Institute governance

Staff must comply with all laws, regulations, codes, policies and procedures.
Staff may report to management any behaviour that is in violation of any law, rule or regulation or that represents improper conduct, mismanagement of resources, or is a danger to public health and safety.
The Institute does not tolerate improper conduct by Institute Staff or Board members, nor the acceptance of reprisals against those who offer to disclose such conduct.
The Institute recognises the value of clarity and accountability in its administrative and management activities and supports the making of disclosures that reveal corrupt and improper conduct.
The Institute will take the necessary and practical steps to protect individuals who make disclosures as described above in article 5.4 from any detrimental action in response for making the disclosure. The Institute will protect the confidentiality of the disclosure and the identity of the person who made the disclosure and allow procedural fairness to all parties concerned, including the one who is subject to the disclosure.
Staff will not harass or take rash action in response to actual or suspected disclosures or participation in an investigation into such a disclosure.

6. Conflict of Interest
6.1 Staff will act with best interests of the Institute in mind when carrying out the duties of their position and must not allow their private interests or the interests of others inhibit them in this obligation.
7. Gifts

7.1 All gifts to staff will be managed according to the Constitutions of the Dominican Sisters of Wanganui.

8. Academic Integrity

8.1 Staff will maintain a high ethical and academic standard according to the Constitutions of the Dominican Sisters of Wanganui.

9. Misconduct
9.1 The Institute will carry out any necessary disciplinary action for misconduct and unsatisfactory performance according to the Rule and Constitutions of the Dominican Sisters of Wanganui.
9.2 Disciplinary action will be at the discretion of the local Prioress and/ or Mother Prioress General, as per the Rule and Constitutions of the Dominican Sisters of Wanganui.
9.3 Requests for review of a disciplinary action will be managed according to the Rule and Constitutions of the Dominican Sisters of Wanganui.
10. Theft, fraud and corrupt conduct
10.1 The Institute does not tolerate fraud or corrupt activity.
10.2 All staff are required to familiarise themselves with the Rule and Constitutions of the Dominican Sisters of Wanganui and fulfil their duties in accordance with them.
10.3 All Staff are expected to report any suspected fraudulent or corrupt activity to the Director.
B.  Theft, Fraud and Corrupt Conduct Procedure
1. Approach to theft, fraud and corrupt conduct
1.1 The Institute is committed to preventing occurrence of theft, fraud and corrupt conduct. This will be achieved through:

Risk management strategies
Prevention strategies
Detection strategies
Response strategies

2. Risk Management
2.1 Risk management will be carried out in accordance with RTI’s Risk Management Policy.
3. Preventative controls
3.1 To prevent theft, fraud and corrupt conduct, the Institute will have internal controls to avoid this. These will include: financial delegations, lines of authority and accountabilities, segregation of duties, approval processes, etc.
3.3 The Director will inform staff of how to prevent and report suspected fraud and corrupt conduct.
3.4 Supervisors will ensure that the following staff are familiar with and comply with the Rule and Constitutions of the Dominican Sister of Wanganui:

Staff delegated to make financial decisions
Staff delegated to make staff appointment decisions
Staff delegated to manage contracts

3.5 Staff delegated to engage external contractors or suppliers will ensure that the contractors or suppliers are financially sustainable individuals or businesses before engaging their services.
3.6 The Risk Management Team will provide staff with a risk management tool to enable staff responsible for engaging contractors and suppliers to identify the level of risk and the level of critical examination required for each procurement activity.
4. Fraud detection controls
4.1 The Director will analyse the accuracy of all transactions.
4.2 The Director will ensure that those staff with delegated financial duties will analyse transactions for approval of the following:

Validity
Accuracy
Invoice coding
Invoices addressed to Rosary Tertiary Institute
Goods and services tax (GST) calculations

4.3 The Director will give a monthly account of her receipts and expenditure to the local Prioress and conduct an annual internal financial audit, as per the Constitutions of the Dominican Sisters of Wanganui.
5. Reporting of theft, fraud and corrupt conduct
5.1 A staff member who suspects that an act of theft, fraud or corrupt conduct may be about to occur, is occurring or has occurred must report such suspicions to their head of department, the Director, the local Prioress or the Mother Prioress General.
5.2 On receiving a report of suspected theft, fraud or corrupt conduct, the head of department or Director will:

Record the time, date and details of the report made
Refer the report (including anonymous reports where there is adequate supporting information) to the local Prioress or Prioress General immediately and before any investigation of such allegations is undertaken.

5.3 Where a report of suspected theft, fraud or corrupt conduct made involves a senior officer of the Institute, the Director will refer the report to the local Prioress or, in case of her unavailability, the Prioress General.
5.4 The Institute’s public information will inform individuals who are not staff or students of the Institute how to file a complaint regarding improper conduct, detrimental action or other corrupt conduct or misconduct by the Institute, its staff and its officers.
5.5 Where the local Prioress or Prioress General determine that an allegation as a deliberate false allegation of fraud, theft, or corrupt conduct, the staff member who made the allegation will be dealt with according to the Rule and Constitutions of the Dominican Sisters of Wanganui.
6. Investigation
6.1 The Director will assess whether a report of suspected fraud, theft or corrupt conduct warrants further investigation.
6.2 Where a preliminary investigation of allegations of theft, fraud or corrupt conduct by a staff member is required, the Director will appoint investigation officers and provide them with reference terms. The investigation officers will conduct all investigations according to the Rule and Constitutions of the Dominican Sisters of Wanganui.
6.3 Where an external contractor to the Institute is involved in suspected theft, fraud or corrupt conduct, the Director will notify all departments who have engaged the external contractor and all other relevant areas of the Institute. At the conclusion of the preliminary investigation, the Director may:

Take no further action
Refer the matter to Legal Services
Conduct a full investigation
On the advice of the Mother Prioress General, report the theft, fraud or corrupt conduct to the police for further action where evidence of theft or fraud is found to be of a serious nature and a prima facie case has been established.

7. Insurance cover
7.1 The Director is responsible for ensuring that the Institute’s management liability insurance coverage is current and will cover the Institute for the risk of loss incurred from theft, fraud or corrupt activity and externally instigated fraud.
8. Statutory reporting requirements
8.1 Where alleged theft, fraud or corrupt conduct have been found to involve the embezzlement of money, stores or property, the Director will report the matter to the Victorian Minister of Tertiary Education and Auditor-General of Victoria as required under the Financial Management Act 1994 (Vic).
9. Review of procedures and controls
9.1 The Director will review internal controls relating to theft, fraud and corrupt conduct.
9.2 The Director will follow up with management responsible for the area affected by theft, fraud or corrupt conduct to ensure that recommendations have been carried out within appropriate timeline.
9.3 In all instances where there is a report of theft, fraud or corrupt conduct, the Director will review the procedures and controls in operation within the department and advise the Director of this review, including any action taken to address any inadequacies discovered.
10. Records
10.1 The Administrator will retain the records of all theft, fraud and corrupt conduct investigations.
11. Confidentiality
11.1 A staff member who is involved in or becomes aware of theft, fraud or corrupt conduct investigation will retain the details and investigation results confidential, subject to the needs of the Institute, the Director and the police during their investigation.
11.2 Staff will not discuss or report any suspected or proven occurrence of theft, fraud or corrupt conduct to the media.

PRIVACY POLICY

Policy Number

Version Number

Policy Developer

#34

#1

Administrator

Approving Body

Date of Approval

Last Amendment Date

RTI Board of Governors

4th March, 2017

4th March, 2017

Last Review Date

Next Review Date

Status

4th March, 2017

4th March, 2020

Filed

This policy has been benchmarked with the Privacy Policy of Eastern College Australia

Policies for Child Protection

Introduction and Overview
The concept of children having specific rights is of comparatively recent origin.
Traditional perceptions of society towards children have for centuries held them to be emotionally, physically and intellectually immature, incapable of looking after their own selves and inadequately equipped to make their own decisions (Bronfrenbrenner, 1979). With children furthermore being regarded as little more than possessions of parents, (with no personal rights of their own), the law has historically also granted unquestionable rights for chastisement and corporal punishment to parents (Bronfrenbrenner, 1979).

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The subservient status of children in British society even a hundred years ago can be gauged from the fact that whilst the prevalence of child cruelty was common knowledge in the 18th and 19th centuries, the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals came into being, in 1840, practically half a century earlier than the creation of the National Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children (Bronfrenbrenner, 1979). Such was the widespread social and political agreement on the rights of parents to do as they willed with their children. Even in the days of the industrial revolution the penalty for seriously harming an animal was far more severe than for causing grievous injury to a defenceless child (Bronfrenbrenner, 1979).
Although preliminary work on enhancement of children’s rights started haltingly in 19th century Victorian England, the perceived need to take better care of children grew and received concrete legislative backing only in the first half of the 20th century (Maier, 1979). Initial work in the area however focussed primarily on health, safety and education of children, and stopped well short of intruding upon the foundational rights of parents, or the patriarchal rights of fathers with regard to ownership and control (Maier, 1979). Legislative inroads into the all encompassing rights of parents, vis-à-vis their children, grew rapidly only after the Second World War, and resulted in (a) the rising legal authority of social workers to protect children, and (b) the establishment of rights of children for primary and secondary education, as well as for comprehensive health facilities (Prout, 2000).
Whilst the interventionist policy of the British welfare state reached its apex during the late 1970s, (and was based upon the idea that the state had every right to step in for the protection of children, if those caring for them failed to do so), this approach was toned down significantly in the wake of the dismantling of the welfare infrastructure in the mid 1980s (Prout, 2000). The enactment of the Children’s Act 1989, in the wake of the 1987 Cleveland Report, (Therapy with Children) brought about a sea change in the practice of service delivery, and the state and agency relationship for social work practice was subsequently recast by New Labour into today’s working partnership approach (Prout, 2000).
Partnership working, a process that is at the heart of current initiatives of service delivery in community and social work, involves, as per the Audit Commission of 1998, a “joint working arrangements where parties, (which) are otherwise independent bodies, … agree to co-operate to achieve common goals, create a new organisational structure on process to achieve these goals, plan and implement a joint programme and share relevant information, tasks and rewards” (Aldgate & Statham, 2001, p 36). Whilst partnership working in social work is not a brand new concept and was in fact taken up during the years of the welfare state, (in various urban and community development partnerships in the 1970s, as also in the regeneration partnerships in the 1980s), its use in service delivery became widespread only after New Labour, which had previously announced its intention of shifting from a culture of contracting to one of partnership, came to power in 1997 (Aldgate & Statham, 2001). The working partnership model for service delivery can be considered to be significantly different, both from the bureaucratic functioning of Old Labour and the market orientation of conservatives; it is based on trust and communication, rather than on command or on price mechanisms (Aldgate & Statham, 2001).
Debate over the growing authority of social workers with regard to the protection of children, especially in the context of their staying with their parents or being entrusted to care, reached significant proportions for the first time in 1975, in the case of seven year old Maria Caldwell, where the social worker misrepresented the actual position of the case to the court and forced the child to return to her natural parents, despite the child having formed close bonds with her foster parents (Bullock & Others, 1993). With little heed having been paid to the wishes of the child, (who used to repeatedly run back to her foster home), the decision of the court, on the recommendation of the social worker, led to the tragic death of Maria. The conviction of her father for manslaughter was followed by public outrage and debate that resulted in the enactment of the Children Act 1975, which in turn called (a) for taking the feelings of children into account in care decisions and (b) for their right for representation by a court appointed social worker, rather than by the social services department of the local authority (Bullock & Others, 1993).
Whilst media and public debate continued to focus on the need for interdisciplinary working between health, education, social services, and the police, in issues relating to child protection, the next watershed occurred only in 1987 when 121 children in Cleveland were taken into care by social service authorities on concerns of physical and sexual abuse at their natural homes. With opinion on the issue being sharply divided with the social workers and the medical fraternity on one side and the media and the police on the other, the Cleveland Report, (prepared by a committee set up to specifically investigate the matter), commented adversely on the breakdown of communication between agencies and the dominant tendencies of agencies to act without considering the feelings of children; it also discussed the possibility that parents might well act against the interests of their children and recommended the need to involve children in the decision making process (Prout, 2003). The Children Act 1989, which was influenced by the findings of the Cleveland Report, caused a major shift in child care policy; away from state intervention in family life; towards partnership with families and caregivers; and with an emphasis on child intervention in decision making (Prout, 2003).
Despite the introduction of such legal and policy safeguards, the tragic affair of young Victoria Climbie, who was abused, tortured, and ultimately killed, in April 2000, by her aunt and the man with whom she lived, under the eye of social service agencies, revealed that true partnership in working, and consideration of the wishes of the child, was yet to take place (Prout, 2003).
Commentary
The report that followed the death of Victoria Climbie was accompanied with the publication of a green paper called Every Child Matters, which focussed on four key themes, (a) increasing the focus on supporting families and carers, the most critical influence on children’s lives (b) ensuring necessary intervention takes place before children reach crisis point and protecting children from falling through the net, (c) addressing the underlying problems identified in the report into the death of Victoria Climbie, namely weak accountability and poor integration, and (d) ensuring that the people working with children are valued, rewarded and trained (Background to …, 2008).
The green paper was followed by intense debate and consultation with people working in children’s services, parents, children, young people and other members of society, and led to the publication of Every Child Matters: the Next Steps, and the enactment of the Children Act 2004 (Background to …, 2008), steps that provided legislative support for developing more effective and accessible services directed around the needs of children, young people and families, and the use of partnership working in child protection, the focus of this essay.
The rights of children in present day Britain are legally protected by laws that deal especially with the protection and well being of children, as well as by laws on health care, education, and social security (Prout, 2003). Children’s rights are protected by family law, education law and employment law. The United Nations Convention on Human Rights, ratified by the UK in 1991, not only gives children over 40 specific social, economic, cultural/civil and political rights, but also provides guidance on how governments should enumerate and protect these rights (Prout, 2003).
Whilst the British legal framework provides a robust support system for safeguarding children’s rights, New Labour has, over the last decade also worked at establishing the concept of working in partnership by all bodies, schools, local authorities, medical relief agencies, carers, and parents, for protecting children; it is a concept that calls for active involvement of parents and consultation with children as well as for their participation in the decision making process (Milligan & Stevens, 2006). With participation with children also being a key tenet of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, the practice of service delivery is shifting to include the views, opinions and experiences of children and young people in care, as well as in their natural homes (Milligan & Stevens, 2006).
This principle, that of enabling children to participate in the decision making process, however continues to be a topic of intense debate, with many individuals still remaining unconvinced of the ability of children to rise above their emotional predilections and take logical decisions. As the recent case of Baby P, the 17 year old infant who was tortured and murdered by her mother and her boyfriend in Haringey Council of North London shows, it clearly does not apply to children who are too young to express their feelings or to develop opinions.
Whilst the benefits of allowing children to participate actively in decisions that concern their emotional and physical well being have been underlined time and again and indeed are integral to the modern partnership working model, it is difficult to apply the same yardstick, as is normal with adults, to all children (Milligan & Stevens, 2006). The maturity and learning of children, child psychiatrists confirm, are strongly influenced by their life experiences, which include their natural home or care environments and their access to health services, as well as by care and learning programmes (Emond, 2003). A number of research studies reveal that the quality of early childhood life and programmes can significantly improve the ability of children to do well in education, work and in life; this being especially true of children who are experiencing disadvantage (Emond, 2003). Whilst such studies do point towards the existence of sharp differences in the abilities of children from different backgrounds to participate in decision making, such issues are accentuated for children in care or in disturbed domestic situations, because of the absence of the democratic process in their everyday lives (Emond, 2003).
Extant research also points to the fact that notwithstanding governmental initiatives and instructions to social workers to involve children in decision making, the views of children or youth are seldom considered, not just by administrators but also by researchers. Two recent research exercises one by Berridge and Brodie, in 1998, and Thomas, in 2005, on children’s homes, whilst delving in depth on views of managers and social workers, give scant attention to the views of children (Stevens, 2006). Such attitudes, which are too ingrained to be removed by recent legislation, dampen cognitive evolution and the ability and confidence of children to participate in decision making.
“Residential child care units may be seen as sites where these micro-political processes can be seen at work. Children in residential child care tend to be among the most powerless in social terms and reports of their opinions rarely contain their actual views” (Stevens, 2006).
The extent to which children can participate, experts argue, can also be linked to the way they are perceived in society. Children in care are by and large perceived with ambivalence, either as possible victims who require to be taken care of, or as potential threats who need controlling; “one of the consequences of this ambivalence is that they are seen as passive recipients of services, and not as “active and creative actors, as a subject and citizen with potentials” (Stevens, 2006). Osborne and Bromfield (2007) concluded on the basis of an extensive study on children in care that the decision making facilities of such children can be affected in small and large ways by a multitude of developments.
“Even small oversights can have a lasting and negative impact on the child or young person; for example, not being told why workers had moved on, or not being able to bring a pet to a new placement. Such occurrences can compound feelings of loss, grief, sadness and the feeling of being ‘different’ from other children and young people” (Osborne and Bromfield, 2007)
A “CREATE” Foundation report (2004) found that children were also affected by negative care experiences that arose from systemic defects like the ones elaborated below:
“(a) slow systemic procedures that prevented timely and adequate response, (b) court processes that did not adequately consult with children and young people, (c) lack of resources, support and training for carers and caseworkers, (d) inadequate early intervention strategies to support families to stay together and prevent entry into care (e) inadequate entry into care support, (f) inadequate support and preparation for young people preparing to leave car, and (g) inadequate post-care support.” (CREATE Foundation, 2004)
Similar issues come up when children live in disturbed natural homes and feelings of insecurity and attachment could well make them cling on to oppressive natural parents or opt to remain in distressful conditions. Issues of culture and overall family environment also play a large part in shaping the response of children in disturbed homes, and partnership agencies and parents need to understand this phenomenon and respond accordingly. Children from ethnic backgrounds often face specific challenges on account of the different cultural environment of their homes, their inadequate English language skills, and the exclusion of their families from mainstream society.
“There is apparent under-reporting of child sexual abuse in Britain’s Asian communities and a varied capacity amongst professionals to respond with cultural competence. Professional approaches originate in cultural contexts, which are often different from those of most British Asians. If the proportion of children and non-abusing carers from Asian communities who access relevant services is to increase, professionals need to develop better understandings of cultural imperatives which determine behaviour in those communities. Consultations with Asian women in Bradford reinforce the view that culturally competent practice and respectful dialogue are essential to the protection of children. They also highlight a number of recurring themes. Members of Asian communities are aware of child sexual abuse, they recognize that the issue needs to be addressed by all communities and they report that many of those affected within their own communities have found it difficult to access relevant services” (Gilligan, & Akhtar, 2005).
Decisions regarding removal of children from natural homes also need to take account of the influence of grandparents and fathers upon children and not be swayed totally by considerations of maternal ability and circumstance. With the role of grandparents in the lives of children reducing steadily, the role of fathers in child development, welfare and protection has never been more important. Fathers play critical roles in child development that often go much beyond that of providers of economic security, and incorporate nurturing, caring and supporting activities. Fathers play strong roles in (a) healthy child development in the home and school context, (b) creation of gender identity for both male and female children, (c) responsible sexuality and reduction of teen pregnancy, (d) emotional and social commitment, and (e) financial security.
Whilst current service methodologies are women focussed, with social workers feeling more comfortable working with mothers, partnership working calls for much greater involvement of fathers, where possible, as well as consideration of the feelings of children about being separated from their fathers.
“Mothers are the gate keepers to the father’s participation. Mothers have to believe that the family will benefit from the father’s participation. Furthermore, this discussion implies a systemic bias for excluding fathers. It is easier to manage the ongoing interactions over the course of a case by working only with one parent, the mother. In frontline practice, the potential for a compliant relationship with the mother takes precedence over a comprehensive working relationship with all the family.” (Father Involvement …, 2005)
Mothers and social workers need to involve fathers as much as possible for partnership working to be more responsive towards child needs. Involvement of fathers by agencies could however lead to complications where relationships between parents are strained or in case of divorced and single mothers. Maternal grandparents can play significant roles in such conditions in creating conducive environments for protection and welfare of children and their involvement in partnership working could prove to be immensely beneficial.
Conclusion
The building of effective partnerships for protecting children is dependent upon involving all relevant agencies, namely the local authorities, social work agencies, schools, medical providers, police, community organisations, parents, and children.
The recent episode, involving the horrific murder of the 17 month old child, known as Baby P, at the hands of her young mother and her boyfriend, despite the active engagement of social workers and medical practitioners, (Hyland, 2008) should not be seen as an aberration but as an indicator of the potential dangers faced by children in extremely different conditions and the individual and collective responsibilities that need to be exercised by all partnership members. The incident also reveals the vulnerability and limitations of methodologies that depend upon taking the opinion of children in cases where they are too young to express themselves.
The extent of cooperation between social workers and parents also plays a critical role in the success of working partnerships. Whilst the barriers that come about because of cultural differences between social workers and members of Britain’s ethnic communities, especially from concepts of shame and honour, have already been elaborated earlier, barriers of class, income and education can also lead to lack of communication between social workers and parents and affect the appropriateness of decisions that concern child protection.
In such cases, where unintended and invisible power differences work against the establishment of an equal working partnership, it is the paramount responsibility of social work agencies and social workers to build the foundation of a stable, democratic and equal working partnerships, take special pains to find out the wishes of affected children, and involve them as far as possible in the decision making process. The problems associated with knowing the wishes of children are complex; they differ from individual to individual, can be applied only to children over a certain age, and can even otherwise be solved only with patience, open mindedness, respect for children, and understanding.
Working in partnership with parents for the protection of children, whilst a desirable objective, has numerous limitations and needs to be approached with care and caution. The adoption of a one shoe fits all approach in such cases is inherently fallible and can lead to horrific tragedy, as was evidenced by the Baby P tragedy, where the social workers kept the child with the mother despite numerous indicators of the dangers of doing so.
Policy makers and social workers need to realise that all methodologies have their advantages and limitations. Social workers need to work with empathy; they need to scrutinise the working of all involved agencies, as well as parents, and refrain from being blinkered or authoritative in their approach, if they are to protect today’s beleaguered children from the fate that befell Maria Caldwell, Victoria Climbie, and Baby P.
Words: 3290
References
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Aldgate, J, & Statham, J, (2001), The Children Act Now: Messages for Research. London: The Stationery Office.
Background to Every Child Matters, (2008), Every Child Matters: Change for Children, Retrieved December 18, 2008 from www.everychildmatters.gov.uk/aims/background
Badham, B, & Wade, H, (2005), Hear by Right: Standards for the Active Involvement of Children and Young People. Swindon: NYA/LGA.
Barber, J. G., Delfabbro, P. H., & Cooper, L. (2001). The predictors of unsuccessful transition to foster care, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 42(6), 785–790.
Bowes, J. M. and Hayes, A. (2004), Contexts and Consequences: Impacts on Children, Families and Communities, in J. M. Bowes (ed) Children, Families and Communities: Contexts and Consequences, Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Bowlby, J. 1951 Maternal Care and Mental Health, London: World Health Organization.
Bronfrenbrenner, U, (1979) The Ecology of Human Development, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bullock, R, Little, M, & Millham, S, (1993), Going Home, Aldershot: Dartmouth.
Berridge, D, & Brodie, I, (1998), Children’s Homes Revisited, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Cashmore, J, (2004), Child Protection and Substitute Care: The Responsibility of Families, Community and State’, in J. M. Bowes (ed) Children, Families and Communities: Contexts and Consequences, Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Colton, M., Sanders, R. and Williams, M, (2001) An Introduction to Working with Children: a Guide for Social Workers, Houndmills: Palgrave.
CREATE Foundation, (2004). In their own words: Experience of ACT children and young people in care. Canberra: Office of the Community Advocate,
Delfabbro, P. H., Barber, J. G., & Bentham, Y, (2002), Children’s satisfaction with out-of-home care in South Australia, Journal of Adolescence, 25, 523–533
DeLeon, P, (1997), Democracy and the Policy Sciences, New York: State University of New York Press.
Dryzek, J. S, (1990), Discursive Democracy: Politics, Policy and Political Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Emond, R, (2003), Putting the Care into Residential Care: The Role of Young People, Journal of Social Work 3(3): 321-337.
Father Involvement in Child Welfare, (2005), Jordan Institute for Families, 11, 1
Fulcher, L. C, (1985), Group Care Practice with Children, London: Tavistock.
Gardner, H. (2004a). Perceptions of family: Complexities introduced by foster care. Part 1: Childhood perspectives. Journal of Family Studies, 10, 170–187.
Gibbs, I, & Sinclair, I, (1999), Treatment and Treatment Outcomes in Children’s Homes, Child and Family Social Work, 4: 1-8
Gilbertson, R., & Barber, J. G, (2002), Obstacles to involving children and young people in foster care research, Child and Family Social Work, 7, 253–258.
Gilligan, P & Akhtar, S, (2005), Cultural Barriers to the Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse in Asian Communities: Listening to What Women Say, British Journal of Social Work, 36(8):1361-1377
Hyland, J, (2008), The tragic death of Baby P, WsWs, Retrieved December 18, 2008 from http://www.wsws.org/articles/2008/dec2008/baby-d04.shtml
Maier, H, (1979), The Core of Care: Essential Ingredients for the Development of Children at Home or away from Home, Child Care Quarterly 8(4): 161-173.
Milligan, I, & Stevens, I, (2006) Residential Child Care: Collaborative Practice, London: Sage.
Milner, J. (2001), Women and Social Work, Basingstoke: Palgrave.
O’Neill, C, (2004), I remember the first time I went into Foster care—It’s a long story… Children, permanent parents, and other supportive adults talk about the experience of moving from one family to another. Journal of Family Studies, 10, 205–219.
Osborne, A & Bromfield, L, (2007), Participation of children and young people in care in decisions affecting their lives, Australian Institute of Studies, 6
Prout, A, (2000), Children’s Participation: Control and Self-Realisation in British Late Modernity, Children and Society, 14(4): 304-315.
Sinclair, R, (1998), Involving Children in the Planning of their Care, Child and Family Social Work 3: 137-142.
Stevens, I, (2006), Consulting Youth about Residential Care Environments in Scotland, Children, Youth and Environments 16(2): 51-74. Retrieved December 18, 2008 from http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye
Thomas, N, (2005), Has Anything Really Changed? Managers’ Views of Looked after Children’s Participation from 1997-2004, Adoption and Fostering, 29(1): 67-77.
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Causes of Childcare Policies, Initiatives and Laws

1. Introduction
Childhood, the ten memorable years that fall between infancy and the onset of adolescence probably constitutes the most exciting period of a normal human life. Most men and women have the fondest memories of their childhood years, replete with a million discoveries, of new smells, sights, sounds, touches, and other delightful experiences, of times of safety, comfort, and security. While this is possibly true of most children, in rich and poor societies alike, for many others the world is different; it is unfriendly, hostile, unwelcoming and extremely difficult. The worst affected are those who grow up in poverty and deprivation, or in environments of parental conflict, substance abuse, homelessness, and domestic violence. Very distressingly, childhood problems exist not only in underdeveloped and chronically poor societies, but also in ample measure in richer and advanced countries, like the UK, the USA, and other West European nations.

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Childhood is a time of phenomenal growth, in all areas of human development, physical, social, emotional, and intellectual. Growth and development of children involves the meeting of many diverse needs, in areas like nutrition, accommodation, regulated activity, health and medical care, cleanliness, hygiene, and sanitation, as well as in areas that involve emotional, social and intellectual growth. Thousands of children in the UK grow up in environments and surroundings that are inadequate, in greater or lesser degree, for proper development; inadequacies that are caused by factors like broken homes, divorced parents, single parenting, poverty, deprivation, domestic violence, substance abuse and child abuse.
British society has always been concerned about the proper upbringing of its children and its role in the building of national character. The centuries old saying about the battle of Waterloo being won on the playing fields of Eton is a reminder of the preoccupation of the British with proper upbringing of their young. Recent years have seen increasing concern about improving conditions for the development of children, and have led to a number of governmental initiatives that aim to change the scope and ambit of public services committed to helping and improving this area. This essay aims to examine the origin and status of these initiatives, as well as their likely impact, both positive and negative in meeting the developmental needs of children.
2. Commentary
Recent times have been ones of intense social change. The period that commenced after the closing of the Second World War has seen widespread social restructuring, caused by a multitude of factors like the splintering of families, the practice of children moving out of parental homes at relatively early ages, increasing divorce rates, sharp boosts in the numbers of working women, the greater incidence of single parenting, and the absence of grandparents in normal family life. These various reasons have quite often led to parents being inadequately informed, or even otherwise, being unable to satisfy the developmental needs of children. While inadequacies like these are common in normal families, they become far more complicated and result in great inequities upon children in environments involving poverty, deprivation, homelessness, substance abuse, domestic violence and child abuse. Increased immigration and the quiet and gradual formation of a multicultural, multiethnic, and multireligious society have also led to the development of a number of social segments with different levels of affluence, education and ability. All these factors contribute to the challenges faced by society and government in providing all children with a level playing field and in satisfying their developmental needs.
The British social structure has possessed, for many years, public infrastructure responsible for providing financial, physical, medical and scholastic support to children, more so for children from disturbed and difficult backgrounds, living in their natural domestic backgrounds, as well as in places like foster homes and institutions. Various governmental agencies like the department of health, the NHS, and local authorities, work with the help of paid and voluntary social workers to ensure assessment of needs and appropriate action. While the level and efficacy of the support provided to children had always been a source of concern in the past for most citizens, disturbed by occasional media reports of the unsatisfactory state of affairs, matters came to a head with the occurrence of two deaths, 13 year old Aliyah Ismail, in 1989, and 8 year old Victoria Climbie in 2000. Both Aliyah and Victoria, children of immigrants met horrific deaths, despite the full knowledge and involvement of social workers in their cases. Aliyah, in and out of several foster homes and institutions, died of a methadone overdose in a decrepit building in Camden Town, whereas Victoria Climbie died after receiving severe physical injuries from her aunt, who was then her carer, and her male companion. At the time of death, her body bore marks of more than 120 separate injuries.
The resultant media uproar and several inquiries, commissioned by local bodies and the government, and conducted by eminent and qualified experts, laid the blame for the episodes upon the inadequate working of the social care infrastructure. Aliyah moved more than 60 times, between relatives, homes, and institutions, in the few years she was in care. (Brindle, 1999) The Blackburn report, commissioned by the Harrow local council, focussed on her distressing life, under the country’s programme for children in care, and largely indicted the functioning of the social care system. Victoria Climbie’s death caused even greater anguish and led to a number of investigations by Lord Laming at the specific instance of the government. The investigations and the ensuing report, which laid bare the functioning of the agencies involved in Victoria’s care, revealed that social workers were fully aware of Victoria’s condition and ignored twelve separate occasions to give her protection and relief, led to widespread anguish, a national resolve to take better care of the country’s young, and finally to a number of initiatives aimed to ensure better care and development of children living in the UK.
The key message running through the report is that individual failings, poor standards and ineffective systems are the consequence of a failure in leadership. Senior managers in all agencies, and elected members, are responsible, and thus accountable for this failure. Lord Laming refers to the principle failure to protect Victoria was as a result of widespread organisational malaise. (The Victoria Climbie Enquiry, 2003)
While Lord Laming’s report catalysed governmental and public action in the last three years, the issue of addressing children’s needs adequately had first engaged lawmakers nearly twenty years back, when deliberations on the issue led to the enactment of The Children Act, 1989. The legislation, which came into effect in 1993 aimed to radically change the existing approach to meet the needs of children by (a) making children’s welfare a priority, (b) recognising that children grow up best in their families, whenever possible, (c) ensuring the duty of local authorities to provide services for children and families in need, (d) promoting partnership between children, parents, and local authorities, improving the way courts deal with children, and (e) protecting the rights of children. (Children Act 1989)
Various child support initiatives owe their origins to the 1989 legislation. A further flurry of activity occurred after the publication of the Kennedy Report in 1989, and the Laming Report in 2003, on the deficiencies that existed in areas of health, education, and social support for all children, especially for those who live in difficult circumstances, either in their domestic environments, or with others. The publication of these reports, discussions in the media and various public forums, and governmental initiatives led to the preparation and publication of the Green Paper “Every Child Matters” in 2003, which outlined a new approach to the well being of children from birth to 19 and aimed to achieve 5 desired outcomes, namely (a) be healthy, (b) stay safe, (c) enjoy and achieve, (d) make a positive contribution and (e) achieve economic well being. (Every child matters: change for children, 2007)
The enactment of The Children Act 2004 and initiatives in various areas aim to transform children’s services by increasing opportunities and reducing risk, as far as possible. The department of health, the department of education, the NHS, and local authorities will work in tandem to achieve this objective. All local authorities now need to work with partners, especially schools, and the NHS, to locate the needs of children and take appropriate action. A number of successive documents detail the approach required by these authorities. Three important initiatives expected to play important roles in the furtherance of child welfare objectives are the Children and Young People’s Plan (CYP), the Common Assessment Framework (CAF) and the National Services Framework (NSF)
The NSF for children, published in September 2004, the first such effort in he world, determines standards for children’s health and social services for children, young people and pregnant women, as well as the coordination of these services with education. It is a key delivery mechanism of the “be healthy” outcome of the “Every Child Matters” programme and aims to bring about a fundamental change in these services by attempting ensure that their design and delivery focus on the ascertained needs of children and their families. The programme, scheduled to run for ten years, expects to achieve targeted standards for ensuring fair, high quality and integrated health and social care from pregnancy, right through to adulthood. (National Service Framework Documents, 2006) The standards are divided into three parts, part one focussing on services for children and young people, part two dealing with particular groups of children, and part three with maternity services. While full implementation could take upto ten years for implementation, the framework plans to increasingly assess the NHS and local authorities on the quality of their services and the progress achieved in meeting the standards. (National Service Framework Documents, 2006) Criticism of the National Service Framework has ranged from the use of exhaustive recording for surveillance purposes, to issues like over insitutionalisation and consequent dilution of medical care, and the impracticality of cooperative working on such large scales.
The conceptualisation and implementation of the Common Assessment Framework (CAF is one of the distinguishing elements of the overarching “Every Child Matters” initiative. Truly ambitious in its scope, the CAF aims to enable all people working with children, young people and their families, to evaluate distinct needs of different children and families. Once the CAF is fully in use, children’s centres or schools will arrange for most assessments, and will thereby help in identifying children with additional needs before they become serious concerns. Situations that could possibly need the use of CAF include poor nutrition or ill health, substance misuse, anxiety or depression, problematic housing, poor attendance or exclusion from school, overt parental conflict, lack of parental support, disruptive or anti social behaviour, and involvement, or the risk of involvement, in offences. The CAF will obviously not be suitable for the majority of children who make normal progress through the universally available services. However, it could really help in identifying the needs of many troubled children at stages where corrective action and appropriate support could change future outcomes very positively. (Common Assessment Framework, 2007)
The Children and Young People programme aims to reduce underachievement and improve life chances of children through a set of measures that include taking measures for extended schools, extended early years, looked after children and vulnerable young adults, youth, child protection and children with special needs and disabilities. The programme plans to further educational development and improve health, well being and social inclusion through integrated delivery of support and services. The extended schools concept forms the core of the CYP package by providing activities that essentially look after children for greater hours and effectively reduce the load on parents.
Extended Schools will provide activities based on their particular circumstances and needs, but taken from a ‘menu’ which will include breakfast clubs, after-school study support and after-school youth, sport and leisure activities; programmes for parents and community use of schools. The focus will be on supporting learning, creativity and healthy lifestyles, including tackling obesity in children. (Children and Young People Funding Package, 2006)
The chief criticisms of the CYP programme focus on the excessive local planning and decision-making, as well as political initiatives that revolve around doing things to young people rather than giving them, and when they are too young, their parents “the freedom, responsibility and tools to do things for themselves.” (Warpole, 2004) The importance of engaging young people more effectively to participate in all activities is thought to be important by many researchers.
3. Conclusion
The UK is going through an epochal change in the development of its young. The planned changes, if successfully implemented, could well result in the creation of a much more competent, tolerant and well adjusted society. The enactment of the Children Bill of 2004, and the slew of initiatives, which apart from the discussed issues, also include the formation of Children’s Trusts, and the Sure Start programme, aim to take the benefits of health, housing, education, social and emotional support, to every child in the nation. Delivered through cooperative inter agency working and focussed on the needs of children and their families, the initiatives include precautionary measures to locate children with problematic needs that need to be addressed early enough in life. While the advantages of the initiatives are enormous, and painstakingly designed to help millions of children, the aim of delivering all these services, through state and local agencies, raises concerns that could well turn out to be important. State agencies are notorious for evolving into bureaucratic, system driven, and uncaring, irrespective institutions, of country, society or work ethic of the people.
The UK has had its own unhappy experiences with state controlled corporations, as well as with the NHS. The idea of the state, albeit with a certain extent of private participation, taking over a major portion of the responsibility of bringing up children could be fraught with dangers that may arise out of improper and inadequate implementation. It needs remembering that the Aliyah Ismail and Victoria Climbie incidents happened not because of the absence of state support, but despite it. Excessive state control also leads to unnecessary documentation, possibilities of surveillance, and the need for a control and audit mechanism, all of which work against the main objectives of programmes under implementation. Now that the programmes are under way, the challenge will come in their implementation, and in ensuring that they meet their objectives.
Bibliography
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Children in Care: now and then, 2000, BBC News, Retrieved April 30, 2007 from news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/642288.stm
Child Development Chart book, 2004, The Commonwealth Fund, retrieved April 30, 2007 from www.cmwf.org/publications/publications_show.htm?doc_id=237483
Children are unbeatable: alliance, 2007, Retrieved April 30, 2007 from www.childrenareunbeatable.org.uk/pdfs/actionsheetedm606jan07.pdf –
Children and young people funding package, 2006, Department of education, Retrieved April 30, 2007 from www.deni.gov.uk/index/21-pupils_parents-pg/children-and-young-people-funding-package.htm
Common assessment Framework, 2007, Every child matters, Retrieved April 30, 2007 from www.everychildmatters.gov.uk/deliveringservices/caf/
Christensen, P. & O’Brien, M. (Eds.)., 2002, Children in the City: Home, Neighborhood, and Community. London: Routledge.
Every child matters: Change for children, 2007, National literacy trust, retrieved April 30, 2007 from www.literacytrust.org.uk/socialinclusion/youngpeople/greenpaper.html
Hallett, C. & Prout, A. (Eds.). (2003). Hearing the Voices of Children: Social Policy for a New Century. New York: Routledge.
Hocutt, A. M., Mckinney, J. D., & Montague, M., 2002, The Impact of Managed Care on Efforts to Prevent Development of Serious Emotional Disburbance in Young Children. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 13(1), 51+.
Jacobs, J. E. & Klaczynski, P. A. (Eds.)., 2005, The Development of Judgment and Decision Making in Children and Adolescents. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
National Service Framework for children, young people and maternity services, 2007, Department for health, Retrieved April 30, 2007 from www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/idcplg?IdcService=SS_GET_PAGE&siteId=en&ssTargetNodeId=566&ssDoc…
Reeves, R., 2003, The Battle for Childhood: We All Love Children; Even Politicians Do. Yet We Are in Danger of Taking from Them Everything That Is Most Precious Freedom, Health and Happiness. New Statesman, 132, 18+.
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Warpole, K, 2005, play, participation and potential, groundwork, Retrieved April 30, 2007 from www.groundwork.org.uk/upload/publications/publication11.pdf  

Policies to Support Care Needs of Children

Introduction:
Children are the future social vigor of any nation of the rondure as they will footing the leadership of the country. On perspective of the fact, they must be well qualified for captivating the nation to a better one place around the globe. But at present their safety provided by the surroundings environments is a question in mark. Children is not provided with due care by the parents, healthy, safe and secure environments in many countries especially in INDIA, CANADA, and BANGLADESH. The assignment is that children have to face risk and challenges in life but for enabling them to face the risk and challenges, we should provide them with healthy, safe and secure enironments. In this context, and there are many legislations and policies. They sates about the care needs of children, ways of meeting the care needs, working practices which contributes the healthy and safe environments, intitatives and philosophies that influence the environment as well as the ways of encouraging children to take care for themselves. They also inserted about how to safeguard children and promote their welfare. Above all, they should be supported with by different sources to maintain their security and privacy their wishes.
Task 1:
1.1
Explain how to use legislation and policies to support work in establishing and maintaining healthy, safe and source environments
There are many existing legislation and polices about the environmet.the useful of these laws, legislations and policies cannot be ignored any way in establishing and maintaing healthy, safe and secure environments for the children.
The Children Act 1989 states about the safe, secure and healthy environment for children.it states about the safeguarding for the children as well as the promoting their welfare. As far that children from all backgrounds that are vulnerable to harm should be protected. It is also stated about children general way of life should be postponed or changed from the people who harm or threaten or impair it in anyway. For the protection of the children from such people or events, such as abduction, social workers have been employed. These act are sometimes known as child protection officers. Their primary goal is to focus on the safeguarding of children and for many years these workers have also provided additional support to families and family members that feel they are vulnerable. CAFCAS is a social agency which associated in the welfare of children along with deals with courts for finding out the solutions to families’ differences when parents separate. Their goal is reuniting parents with their children and also for providing the children with a better way of life.

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Another feature within this Act where a ‘special guardianship’ law was put enacted that allows children to stay in contact with their birth parents, this feature of the legislation allows for monitoring of relationships between parents and children, the consequence would draw up in a report and regular imposts would carry to check appropriateness of re-introducing the child back with their birth parents on a eternal basis. The shrewdness carry on both the parents who may have had a antiquity of drug or alcohol mistreatment and child who may have become bothersome because of this situation in which they were living in is essential to ensure that a suitable and caring environment can be sustained allowing the child to grow with the love and care in which every child should be accustomed to. The social worker provides the adoptive parents with the support they need to confirm the child’s welfare and education.
Appropriateness of a child to viewpoint adoptive parents has a great issue as children, especially those enforced to move, incline to dissident against the authorities’ decision to re-house them. To some new foster parents some of these circumstances can be intolerable and require that the child is disconnected and re-housed elsewhere this. Uncertainty this was to be the incident then i social worker plans to action to resolve the concern, This ‘more information’ policy within the legislation attempts to put an end to events from happening and this legislations states suitable pairing of both adoptive parents and child can only best serve and help the child in the future.
1.2 describe working practices which contributes these environments
In this context, we have to prompt that we partake to uphold the healthy, safe and healthy environments for the children.so working practices and strategies should be those that contributes these environments, and minimizes abuse within the health and social care contexts.
Following practices and strategies safeguard the environment and helps the children to achieve the creativity and the quality from their childhood.
First one, child should go to school. From the school they learn all the basic needs of them. They learn how to behave with others, how to respect, in fact all the manner which is good or bad. Second one, everyone should have a look on the increasing the indoor activities of the children. Parents as well as the other person of the family must be looked what they are doing. They learn through the elders following.so everyone especially the parents should give importance on the physical exercise. This will help the children to keep body fit, fresh and extends the power of the body. Children also learn through playing indoor games such as cricket, football badminton etc. Outdoor activities also must be focused on. They should must be teaches honesty, punctuality from his or her boyhood. Everyone should encouraged them to participate in debating among themselves and in indoor and outdoor games. They must be followed the daily routine with the exercise with the elders. Effective communication system should be developed across the surroundings. Care plans about the children should be taken by the family. Take the children any suitable spot where the child get himself enjoyed. Such as historical places. Entertainment sources provided with them by the parents. Protection of Vulnerable children Policy Training. Care plans – Person Centered Care Reflective practice. Children safeguarding policy & procedures .each resident is weighed with a care plan for that resident. Their family have the right to be involved in developing a expressive and effective care plan. The nursing sector must work w to develop an individualized, written care plan and must update it at least quarterly and any time one condition changes.
Task 2:
2.1 apply knowledge of ways to establish safe environment to the procedures which are necessary for a range of accident.
Establishment of safe environment for the children in case of accident is mandatory to any nation of the whole world. Many ways, knowledge and procedures can be applied in this assignment. A safety assessment to determine if the child’s instant safety is an apprehension. If it is, CPS improves a safety plan with interferences to make sure the child’s protection while keeping the child within the family or with family members (kinship care or subsidized guardianship).
A risk assessment to determine if there is a risk of future maltreatment and the level of that risk.
A service or case plan, if continuing agency services, is needed to address any effects of child maltreatment and to reduce the risk of future maltreatment. Considers the relationship between the strengths and the risks; identifies what must change in order to:
Keep children safe;
Reduce the risk of (future) neglect
Increase permanency; Enhance child and family well-being.
For establishing and maintaining a safe, healthy and secure environment we should provide an environment that is positive, nurturing, and encourages children to develop their own safe and healthy habits.
As for preventing and reducing injuries there should have a proper system for reporting all incidents and accidents.
As far preventing serious health conditions like obesity and diabetes related to indoor sedentary lifestyles and connects children and families there should introduce the system of nurturing to promote their good health, enjoyment, and environmental stewardship.
Should introduce more Unstructured outdoor activities improves the physical and mental health by increasing physical activity. There are the environment or the strategies for reducing stress and serving as a support mechanism for attention disorders. They will learn how to protect their health and the environment. A system of Minimization of abuse within health and social care context.
Task 3:
3.1 Evaluate some of the initiatives and philosophies which influence the provision of environments for children.
There are many initiatives and philosophies that influences the provision of environments for children. In this context, there are many working force where child labor is not forbidden. There the children are employed and then the education need which included in the five basic needs of a human a lack of. Then they are remain ignoreness.as we know many parents are poor, they think that children spending to education institute is a mirror waste of time.so they should help them in earning income that will help them in maintain the family expense. That the philosophy also have badly effect on the healthy, safe environment for the chidren.In many families the girls are not welcomed. There is a presence of gender disparity. As they are thought by the elders that they should not be higher education, they should be got married earlier. They should keep the best food for their husbands or elders. They should not speak out.
In modern society, the food menu they are given is not wellprepared.there is a lack of balanced diet. They are no exersied.they are given the food with sugar. This causes child of obesity.in many family child are not properly care of. That why it preferences in infancy.
The industrial policy have a great influence on the healthy and safe environment of the chidren.many industry are incorporated with polluting the enviroment.eventully it causes many fatal diseases to the society specially it bad to the children.
3.2 Issues that relate to effective planning of enabling physical environment
As we know physical environment of the children speaks out about the contribution that safe, clean and healthy surroundings make a positive environment where children can learn the life and enjoy their lives as well as formed personality. It includes all indoor and outdoor activities around the children. The more we arrange the indoor and outdoor games for the child, the more the effective planning the physical environment for them. The environment must be one which makes the child on the smiling face. There should be always stay with the child. Not keep them alone for that they don’t feel bore any more that will affect more on their thinking.in the effective planning of the enablement of physical environment there must be existence of participation activities of the children where they will pleased and always have a pleasant and happy movement for them. Education institute –the place they not only study but also participate many outdoor games that improve the physical environment of the children.in which environment their mood will in good or where it will bad this is also the great issue that is mindful for effective planning. Their mental factor is also keep in mind where they mentally good or not.
3.3 Explain how to meet the care needs of children in ways that maintain their security and privacy their wishes’
In this part of meeting the care needs of children and maintaining their security and privacy their wishes, parents and other member of the family contribute a lot. This is dare need of the family whether their children are getting grow up in a healthy environment. They should follow up the fact that their children are developing their own safe and healthy habits. They also take after that they are eating properly or not. Parents should ensure their participation in indoor and outdoor activities. Playing different indoor and outdoor games, playing video games on mobile helps in developing their good habit, good quality, mentally healthy. Entertainment facilities should be provided them with more and more. For making them extrovert should be given emphasis that will help them to develop their their carrier in future.
Besides this the practitioner contributes a lot for meeting their dare need by taking care in time of hospital shifting. They also help the family by giving the information how to keep the child safe from dirty and unhealthy environment Also. Inform the family members about the way to preventing childhood diseases that is more harmful for the health. They also provide training courses on the respect of the child.
We all including (government, society) should ensure about their education. They must be provided with the education facilities. Education institute is the place which contribute a lot of importance in meeting their care need. Because there they know about their basic need. And how to meet their need. Also learn about their probable problem that will come to their later life and learns how to face them and overcome them.
The government along with the educated society should come forward with their helping hand to meet the children care needs that is dare needed to take the country in a better position in future. If they are remain in darkness the nation as a whole the world remains in darkness. There are many welfare organizations and fund who is working for the children. They are giving long term free services to ensure their food need, education need as well as ensuring their healthy, safe and secure environments. Their financial support mainly given for the poor children.
On after all the Children Act 1989 should be more exercised and more effective to ensure their needs. Besides various policies should be enacted across the globe in this context.
Task 4:
4.1 Importance of encouraging children to care for themselves
Encouraging children to care themselves is important for the following respect:

for the establishment and maintaining of a safe, healthy and secure environment
for providing the children an environment that is positive, nurturing, and encourages them where they can develop their own safe and healthy habits.
for preventing and reducing injuries
To report all incidents and accidents that occurred
To prevent serious health conditions like obesity and diabetes related to indoor sedentary lifestyles and connects children and families to natures to promote their good health, enjoyment, and environmental stewardship.

Unstructured outdoor activities improves the physical and mental health by increasing physical activity
Reducing stress and serving as a support mechanism for attention disorders.
They will learn how to protect their health and the environment.
Minimization of abuse within health and social care context.

4.2 Reflect on the impact of meeting the care needs of children on practioners and identify possible sources of support
Practioners play a vital role in meeting the care needs of the children. Their task is very important. First of all, they inform the parents about the health of the children. They inform how to take care, parents are informed by them about the childhood diseases, and how to prevent these diseases .at present children take born at hospitals. They are kept some days. Then they take after the child.in that fact that time the practioners keep the children safe and gives tips and advice about the environment where the child should brought up. They play the role of a guide. Preventing childhood accidents and diseases is vital in ensuring all children grow up in a safe and stimulates environment. The practioners play an important part in making that happen.one of the most important things the practioners can do is discuss childhood safety with the parents and careers that he or she work together. Speaking out on a particular issue or educating parents about risk, and that make a real difference to child safety and even saves lives to child. Practitioners must consider the developmental needs of the children, the caregivers, and the family as a system in their assessments and intervention strategies. Children whose physical and emotional needs have been neglected often will suffer significant developmental delays. If the caregivers are adolescents, they may have difficulty assuming parental roles and responsibilities. The family system also may be stressed when the family includes caregivers across generations
There are many possible sources of support across the globe. Among them, UNICEF plays a vital role in meeting the basic care needs of the children.it runs many several welfare programs across the world for children and for maternity mothers. Many youth council also support in meeting their care needs for children. Child accident prevention trust also helps in this context. They also gives many trust many the children for ensuring good health and safe environment for the child and youth. They basically work about the child and youth. Many children welfare fund and organization also have a major contribution in meeting children dare needs and health seurity of them.

Children workforce Development council
Department for education
National council for voluntary youth services
National family and parenting institute
National youth agency
Princess trust
Ministry of the human rights of the country

Conclusion:
From the study we learn about the children basic needs, meeting the care needs of them, ways of encouraging them to take care for themselves, importance of the fact and keeping child in healthy, safe and secure environment. And for providing healthy and secure environment, the role of family is most important. It is parent’s responsibility to maintain their health and provide an environment where they learn about the behavior, honesty, punctuality which is needed for make the life to a better one. Besides it is the indoor and outdoor activities which creates the personality .according to the role of the practioners, they are the vital part in meeting the children care needs and ensuring their healthy and safe environment. They inform the parents about taking care of their children. The surroundings’ or the society where they are brought up is important for enabling and forming their good and healthy habits. Education institute is important to them because the child learns how to respect others, about punctuality, honesty, about the fact or behavior which is good or bad to them. They know about the real life of a human beings. That is the discussion about the taking challenges and facing difficulties and risks in life for making the life in upper and better position. But in many countries or places or regions where the children are engaged in different workplace which is dangerous to their life.in many families as whole they are not getting or meeting their basic needs of their life.The Children Act 1989 states that the safeguards of the children and the promoting of the welfare of the child. Various policies and procedures are enacted to ensure the care needs of their children.