Impact of Population Dynamics in Canada

Impact of the current population dynamics in Canada and the best strategy/ strategies to adapt to the current situation

The population of Canada is aging, and fronting population decay in spite of near record high migration levels. This demographic tendency has substantial consequences from a public policy perspective, in relations of economic evolution, public expenses and social organization. Canada, through a total fertility rate (TFR) of about 1.5, is not unaccompanied in facing this encounter; other developed nations are previously addressing the problems related by an age structure categorized by intensely growing numbers of elder people and dwindling numbers of kids and employed age citizens. Most developed nations identify this demographic encounter and numerous have applied a variety of policies to decrease its scope as well as alleviate its potential influences. Within North America the condition is slightly unique. The United States has a comparatively great fertility rate, soaring just below the replacement level of 2.1; frequently imitating a very great fertility rate aimed at Hispanic Americans, in addition stable settlement. Mexico’s fertility degree is well above replacement as well as has a newer population generally. Canada has had a fertility percentage beneath replacement level ever since 1972 however has an impartially high settlement rate. Maximum Canadians, if they are conscious of the matters at play, undertake immigration will take overhaul of the challenges related by an aging populace such as a lessening work force and rising dependence ratio. Rendering to Figures Canada, Canada’s population is getting old rapidly and senior citizens will outstrip kids in about an era. Population forecasts for Canada’s main metropolitan areas moreover highlight how present fertility and immigration tendencies will mark cities very contrarily. It has been predictable that through 2051, 10 out of the 26 main cities in Canada will have increasing populations, whereas 12 will perceive population decay. Of the metropolises predicted to be minor, it could be as little as half their present size. And developing cities will be newer and more varied. Since in Canada labor represents nearly two-third of the revenue share, the anticipated slowing in labor force growth increases important labor market as well as economic growth challenges (Annabi, Nabil et. al. 2009).

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Demographics are accurately at this interval of individual as well as collective interests (Demeny. 1986). The sum of children to have, in addition where to exist, is enormously personal queries; however the society likewise has an interest as these behaviors impact collective happiness. The number as well as structure of its affiliation is of pure interest to the entire society, and there is a genuine source for inter-personal impacts in favor to the related behaviors which are far away from virtuously private. What might we propose as a populace policy for Canada, in the logic of an idea of the favored demographic future as well as a debate of the means to transfer in that direction. In my opinion, this might instigate by two elements: (1) the compensations of some population development or at least evading decline, as well as (2) sluggish rather than speedier aging. Considerable demographic development can be frugally useful, or at minimum it has been in the historical, but evading decline is perhaps more significant from a financial point of vision (United Nations. 2000). Decay would mean numerous extra investments and problematic adjustments of numerous kinds, and it would comprise mainly noteworthy aging. On the further hand, environmental influences point to the difficulties of high growth. Though population growth could inspire more ecologically friendly consumption as well as technology, there is no evading the straight multiplier of population extent on ecological impact, specified our principles of living based on great use of energy and additional forms of harmful consumption (Daly. 1999). In the background of doubts associated with ecological questions, the sensible course of act would be to pursue to diminish the impact (LeGrand. 1998).
In relations of specific constituents, fertility is the vital for both growth as well as aging. There is evidently limited impending for influence in respect to fertility, certain would say there is nothing. Still, reflections on nations that have principally low fertility, for example in Southern as well as Eastern Europe, propose that these very little levels arise when women have prospects in education as well as the labor force, however the family remains customary. If women have to engross the family work, particularly once there are kids, they are mainly focused on to highlighting their parts in the paid work range, where prospects are more equivalent. Fertility in a contemporary society might be made constant by strategies that would support families, irrespective of family type, decrease gender dependences in families, and apt a better allocation of earning and caring actions among males and females (Beaujot. 2000). This would not probably bring fertility beyond replacement; however it may permit more individuals to have the children that they initially envisioned. That is, we should pursue to remove the obstacles to childbearing over better partaking in the costs of kids by fathers and the wider society.
Mortality is informal since lengthier and restored lives are a extensively shared value. As designated earlier, in a period of deferred degenerative as well as hybristic mortality, main are the threat factors and management. It points to the significance of constant public education on risk factors, laterally with developments in treatment. It likewise points to the numerous other bases for drawback that discourage persons from enchanting control of their lives. Other threat factors are ecological, where more exploration is required, but there is substantial evidence on the influence of environmental excellence on population wellbeing. In effect, there is additional information on the effect of atmosphere on populace than the effect of populace on atmosphere. However here again, the more danger is the deficiency of political drive to accomplish from the exploration in a policy path.
Whereas immigration objectives work quite well, there is requisite for more debate on the basis for fixing these objectives in terms of together number as well as composition. Yet the Immigration Legislative Review (1997) perceived that, for numerous, sums of immigration were not an “interesting topic” as well as that the significant problems were not just figures. The costs as well as remunerations of migration towards the receiving society requisite fuller exploration, particularly in terms of the discrepancy costs and profits to diverse interests and fragments of the society. For example, it is determined in Sweden that by evading the inexpensive solution of guest labors, the society was encouraged to mark more space for females in the labor force, counting policies that would permit labors to have children. Whereas immigration is esteemed in terms of getting diversity, abundance, pluralism as well as contact with a wider world, population regeneration that is markedly based on immigration rather than fertility resources much change as well as possibly less probable for socializing novel members into a shared society. If one contemplates immigration in relations of pressures from exterior of Canada, one mode to grip these pressures is over higher immigration, laterally with fair trade as well as international support. Evidently, higher immigration is of attention to persons who are pursuing to transfer to Canada, and it is frequently of attention to sending societies. I would approve by the Economic Council of Canada (1991) that the situation for migration should not be completed in demographic or else economic relations, however in socio-cultural relations. Whereas immigration somewhat decreases aging, it is an overstatement to say that migration will correct the age arrangement. Likewise, immigration perhaps conveys net macro-economic remunerations, counting a source of labor market regeneration, however internal contemplations are more significant to macro-economic development. As an alternative, the case for migration requests to be made in relations of pluralism, ethnic dynamism, humanitarian apprehensions, and candidness to a wider world. Therefore the level as well as composition of migration essentials to be centered on a political judgment concerning the kind of society that we dearth to shape. We need to develop a civilization that will have virtuous adaptive capability, by being together diverse as well as cohesive. Hence the judgment is neither demographic nor financial, however in terms of the type of immigration that will exploit the occasionally contradictory components of diversity in addition to cohesiveness.
That leaves worldwide migration, where the strategy basis is best recognized. Whereas the instant demographics of immigration are rationally well proven, the part that these should show in defining immigration levels is far fewer vibrant. There are the small term remunerations to the labor market, laterally with the short term expenses of incorporation, but the long term profits of a bigger population rests on the comparative weight given to financial and ecological considerations.
In Europe, Asia as well as Australia the reactions to their condition have been diverse. Every nation has engrossed on specific policy responses to multifaceted issues. Most have selected to focus on increasing or upholding a fertility proportion adjacent replacement levels though also paying thoughtful attention to labor market problems such as growing the labor force addition of women as well as other under-represented assemblies, and later superannuation ages for workforces. Some, maximum notably Australia, have likewise looked towards immigration to decrease the probability of reductions in population extent or uncontrollable ageing tendencies. The lessons from additional industrialized states comprise the significance of having a mix of strategies in place to ensure a maintainable population base. Associated to these reactions in other nations, the Canadian approach is different. In Canada, comparatively little consideration has been paid to matters of sustainable population and nothing has been remunerated to problems of fertility rates exterior the region of Québec. The Canadian strategy response has been mainly engrossed on immigration as a basis of development for the labor market and as an extenuating feature for ageing inclinations (McDaniel, Susan, A., Julia Rozanova. 2011). More lately some consideration has been engrossed on other labor market strategies, mainly exploring ingenuities around later superannuation for Canadian workers. The region of Québec has applied more clearly pro-natalist strategies including cash incentives as well as, more lately, general childcare.
We might agree or disagree on these particulars; however the broader difficulty is the absence of an established basis for strategy that would pursue to endogenize population. Observing at the Australian case, McNicoll (1995) discovers that there are numerous impairments to population strategy in liberal democracies. In addition to the absence of a political source for long-term forecasting, the stress on individual well-being, and the lack of consideration to scale, there is likewise a propensity for “government to perceive its electorate only in terms of systematized groups as well as its role that of judging competing statements” (p. 18). In the Canadian situation, Pal (1993) has analyzed in what way numerous “civil society” assemblies, frequently set up by the state, are likewise pursuing rents through the political structure and might control plans based on explicit interests. It would seem that these benefits narrate less to the population as an entire, than to precise apprehensions similar to those of family, feminism, atmosphere, wellbeing, multiculturalism or immigrants. That is, the possible components to discussion of population plan are engrossed in distinctive political dominions and they are accordingly reactive to separate relatively than common benefits. Some of the components would even be in contradiction of any discussion of population plan. There is abundant room for further investigation. We requisite to improve our considerate of the trends in the constituents of population change in directive to have additional secure bases for the forecasts assumptions. Canada essentials further analyses of the inferences of both the actual as well as the potential demographic modification. We likewise need further discerning on the policy side of the developing demographics. In heartening demographers to contemplate of policy, I am encouraged by Canadian basic democratic alignment to count everybody equally in the entire population. Whereas there is scope for those who think of the benefits of specific assemblies, like the elderly, kids, women, visible subgroups, families, or else immigrants, there are likewise compensations to looking at the entire population, and its well-being, counting everybody equally.
Bibliography
Annabi, Nabil, Maxime Fougère, and Simon Harvey. 2009. “Inter-temporal and Inter-industry Effects of Population Ageing: A General Equilibrium Assessment for Canada.”LABOUR: Review Of Labour Economics & Industrial Relations23, no. 4: 609-651.Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost(accessed March 12, 2015).
Beaujot, Roderic and Judy-Lynn Richards, 1996. “International Equity in Reforming the Canada Pension Plan,” Policy Options 17(9).
Daly, Herman, 1999. “From empty world economics to full world economics,” in P. Demeny and G. McNicoll, The Earthscan Reader in Population and Development. London: Earthscan Publications, pp. 270-78.
Demeny, Paul, 1986. “Population and the invisible hand,” Demography, 23 (4): 473-488.
Economic Council of Canada, 1991. Economic and Social Impacts of Immigration. Ottawa: Economic Council of Canada.
Immigration Legislative Review, 1997. Not Just Numbers: A Canadian Framework for Future Immigration. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works.
LeGrand, Thomas, 1998. “Croissance de la population mondiale et environnement: les enjeux,” Cahiers Québecois de Démographie 27 (2): 221-252.
McNicoll, Geoffrey, 1995, “Institutional impediments to population policy in Australia.” Australian National University, Working Papers in Demography No. 53.
Pal, Leslie, 1993. Interests of State: The Politics of Language, Multiculturalism, and Feminism in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen`s University Press.
United Nations, 2000. Replacement Migration: Is it a Solution to Declining and Aging Populations? United Nations: Population Division.
McDaniel, Susan, A., and Julia Rozanova. 2011. “Canada’s Aging Population (1986) Redux.”Canadian Journal On Aging30, no. 3: 511-521.CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost(accessed March 12, 2015).
 

Should We Impose Population Control?

 As of right now, our Earth holds over 7 billion people and that number is steadily increasing by 75 million per year. That means every minute, 150 people are added to our population. Now that is a lot of people! Going back, there were about 300 million people living in the year AD 1. By the time Europeans were settling in the United States 1600 years later, the world population had increased gradually to a little over 500 million. It began rising exponentially, zooming to 1 billion by about 1800. Then more than doubling by 1930, and then doubling again in just 40 years. Looking into where the population grows the most, the increases take place in less developed regions. Why would less developed countries be increasing our population more? Well, women have less control over their lives in less developed areas. They also have strict access to birth control, if any. Abortion is also not readily available. Religious or cultural views can also play a major role in reproduction. Which also brings the point that less developed countries rely on farming and other rigorous work and children are able to be put to work at a young age. Some countries also value boys over girls which will lead to families repeatedly trying to have a boy if they have girls first. Overall, it is a combination of high child mortality rates and a lack of social provisions of every type that leads to high fertility rates in the developing world. Now to focus on the developed regions. In 1950, the more developed regions accounted for 32% of the world’s population. However, their share dropped to 20% in 2000 and is expected to further decline to 13% in 2050. Changes are also predicted for the world’s age distribution. The proportion of people aged 60 and over will increase from 10% in 2000 to 22% in 2050, and by 2050 there will be more older people in the world than children. This may seem shocking, but taking a step back, it is easy to see why. The amount of time it takes for a baby to form in the womb and be born is significantly shorter to the long life that baby is anticipated to live. One crazy conversation being passed around the internet is about the Facebook Graveyard. It is estimated that more than 8,000 Facebook users die each day. By the year of 2012, just 8 years after this social media platform had launched, approximately 30 million Facebook account holders had died. Back to the ideas on developing and developed countries. Both have experiences pretty significant reductions in fertility as contraceptive use has increased worldwide. However, this isn’t to say that it has reduced enough to stop a steady growth. Developing countries still have fertility levels that ensure substantial population growth. In fact, in a small number of countries, most of which are classified as the least developed show fertility levels that continue to be very high. Touching on death, statistics show that death rates remain relatively high. Just in the United States, over 7,000 people die every day making for an estimate that at least one person dies every 12 seconds in this country alone. Cancer and heart disease are also the countries lead killers. However, even with health complications being the main cause of death, death rates have decreased in recent years because of public health measures and improved medical care.

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 Now that we are aware of just how many people inhabit the 15.77 billion acres of habitable land, we can begin to understand how much resources the human race consumes and how much is too much. Also, we can approximate when certain resources will run out if we continue to utilize them in the fashion that we do. The United States has about 5% of the world’s population but uses 25% of the world’s energy. A 2011 report from the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity states that the population’s demand for resources already exceeds the earth’s capacity by 20%. Currently most of the world’s energy comes from nonrenewable sources. This includes oil, coal, natural gas, and nuclear power. As these sources are depleted, the world will have to shift to renewable energy sources, such as hydropower and solar, geothermal, wind, biomass, and ocean power. It is argued that at current rates of production, oil will run out in 53 years, natural gas in 54, and coal in 110. We have managed to deplete these fossil fuels, which have their origins somewhere between 541 and 66 million years ago, in less than 200 years since we started using them. With coal, about half of the United States energy is produced. It gives power to our lights, refrigerators, dishwashers, and most other things we plug in. Petroleum, or oil, is transformed into gasoline which fuels the vehicles we use for transportation. Natural gas is used for heating and cooking but can also be used to generate energy just as coal does. As said before, Americans are the biggest energy consumers in the world. We use energy to create electricity, transport us, power our industries, and run our homes. About 83% of the energy we use comes from the fossil fuels described above. The remainder comes from nuclear power and even less comes from renewable energy sources.

  Understanding all of the earth’s resources as well as how much the population is actually growing can also help us conclude how rapid growth affects our earth. It isn’t necessarily the population growth itself that is harming our earth, but in fact, how we utilize our resources and how we treat our earth. Of course if our population was smaller, our earth would be able to endure the abuse for a longer period of time and the resources it has to offer would stay abundant. However, when our population is exponentially multiplying, demand skyrockets. It is said that this rapid expansion of population, particularly in the past 50 years, is generally believed to be responsible for most of the stress humans have put on the environment. A large and rapidly growing population makes it more difficult to provide the basic components of environmental health, including clean and disease-free food and water. With food, we are able to see how cruel and unsanitary big corporations are. They are money hungry with the goal to push out as much as they can in as little time as possible. Also seen in Flint, Michigan with their water crisis, when efforts to save money were made, shortcuts were taken to which water became unsafe to drink. Population growth is also a driving force behind many of the relatively more recent environmental health concerns, including chemical pollution, global climate change, and the thinning of the atmosphere’s ozone layer. As the worldwide demand for energy rises and supplies of easily accessible oil dwindle, some energy companies have turned to what are often called extreme energy sources. This term describes fossil fuels that are relatively difficult to access and extract from the environment. Examples include deepwater oil rigs, tar sand oil extractions, and hydrofracking of natural gas. Accessing these energy sources requires new technologies and practices. Critics worry that these technologies have been insufficiently studied and regulated and may pose significant new environmental risks. The critics worries were definitely not ones to ignore as oil spills harm wildlife, threaten water supplies, and can damage local economies. For example, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig which exploded in April 2011 in the Gulf of Mexico was a deepwater rig. It took BP three months to plug the leak, after nearly 5 million barrels of oil were released into the Gulf. Chemical dispersants used to breakup the oil had possible toxic effects and may have caused much of the oil to remain beneath the surface in large plumes or to settle on the ocean floor, where it cannot be reached for cleanup. This specific disaster killed thousands of birds, hundreds of endangered sea turtles, and many dolphins and other marine mammals. The Gulf’s ecosystems may need generations to recover fully, and some parts of it may never recover due to the damage. Researchers have also discovered trace amounts of oil in some fish and shellfish from the area of the oil spill. This raises concern as this oil could reach the human food chain. The Deepwater Horizon oil rig is a perfect example of how our population growth causes demand, which then causes companies to do things that can result in absolute chaos and more harm to our earth. This isn’t the only thing affected by population growth however. With a rapidly increasing population, more energy is used. Energy consumption is in fact at the root of many environmental problems, especially those relating to air pollution. Automobile exhaust and the burning of oil and coal by industry and electric power plants are primary causes or smog, acid precipitation, and the greenhouse effect. Briefly going on about the greenhouse effect, it is essentially how all of the heat produced within our ozone layer is becoming trapped. Temperatures all over the world are rising and will continue to rise as we pollute our precious air. To prevent air pollution you can cut back on driving as well as keep your car tuned up and well maintained. Try and buy energy efficient appliances and use them only when necessary and also replace incandescent bulbs with LED and compact fluorescent bulbs. Be sure your home is well insulated with ozone safe agents and plant and care for trees in your yard and neighborhood! Water shortages are a growing concern in many regions of the world. Some parts of the United States, such as the desert west, are experiencing rapid population growth that outstrips the ability of local systems to provide adequate water to all. Matter of fact, less than 1% of the world’s freshwater is readily available for human use. And very few parts of the world have enough safe, clean drinking water. According to the World Health Organization, 1.1 billion people do not have safe drinking water, and 2.4 billion do not have access to basic sanitation. With a constantly growing population also comes a lot more trash the is produced. The average American generates 4.5 pounds of trash per day. However, only about 1.5 pounds of that trash is recycled. In 2010 alone, Americans generated about 250 million tons of trash and recycled 85 million tons of materials. As the statistics show, a lot of trash is being produced by humans and so little of it is actually being recycled. Which bring the question of where all the trash we produce goes. If we continue to produce trash at the rate that we do, landfills would cover our earth. Being mindful of how much trash we produce and how much of that we choose to recycle could help contribute to a healthier planet.

 As of our world’s current state, if we keep going in the direction that we are, the future is not looking so bright. Population wise, the United Nations projects that world population will reach 9.3 billion by 2050 and will continue to increase until it levels off above 10.1 billion in 2100. The percentage of population in developed regions is expected to decline to 13% by the year 2050 with many changes in age distribution as well. By 2050 it is anticipated that the world will hold more older people than children. That is just some anticipations regarding population. The environment however, will suffer and struggle much more than it already is. When the environment struggles, so will humans and all living things that inhabit our planet. By 2050, the number of deaths caused by air pollution, which includes tiny particles found in smoke and haze, ground-level ozone typically emitted by cars, and toxic components in household products and building materials, will soar, killing more than 6 million people every year, according to a recent report from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. With water, more than half of the world’s population could end up without an adequate source of water. As of right now in today’s world, there is already a sarcity with water for many people. Even in developed countries, water supplies can be contaminated or not suitable for human consumption. However, by 2050, nearly 2 billion people will live in countries, mostly in the Middle East and North Africa, with absolute water scarcity, according to the International Water Management Institute. Also by 2050, MIT researchers say that 5 billion of the world’s projected 9.3 billion people could live in water-stressed areas. Water-stressed doesn’t necessarily mean people won’t have any water, but it does mean that it can be very hard to access and can come from an unreliable source. Water scarcity isn’t the only thing us humans should be worried about however. Food scarcity is a very likely thing, and some of our favorite foods can be depleted in the coming years. Fish, for example, is already doing poorly in our current state. 87% of the world’s fish are classified as over-exploited or fully exploited. If we continue to fish at the same rate we currently are, fish stocks could be completely extinct by the year 2050. Not only will many miss having dishes with their favorite fish in them, but it could severely damage our ecosystem as well as business for many. Just a few more ideas of what could happen to our earth by the year 2050 would be that millions could be without food, rainforests could face complete annihilation, diseases and infections could kill millions of people every year and with that, the diseases will spread faster, and rising water levels could flood major cities and also hurricanes will become more frequent and severe.

 So what can we do to impose some control over our population? Well one approach was taken by the country of China. Given that they are the most populated country in the world, they face many social and economic issues which derive from their constantly growing population. In the year of 1979, China imposed the one child per family policy. This policy stated that citizens must obtain a birth certificate before the birth of their children. The citizens would be offered special benefits if they agreed to have only one child. Citizens however, who chose to have more than one child would either be taxed an amount up to fifty percent of their income, or punished by loss of employment or other benefit. Upon those regulations, unplanned pregnancies or pregnancies without the proper authorization would need to be terminated. In 1980, the birth-quota system was established to further tighten the control on population. With this system in place, the government set goals for each region and local officials were held responsible for keeping track of the numbers and making sure the population in their region did not exceed the target goals placed. If target goals were not met, local officials would suffer punishment by the law. Another method introduced in the early 80’s was sterilization. It was made mandatory for people who had two children and at its peak in 1983, tubal ligations, vasectomies, and abortions amounted to 35% of the total birth control methods in the country. Propaganda was used by the government as well. As the economy shifted from agricultural to a more industrious type, the government informed citizens that a growing population would hinder economic growth and success. With these regulations came a lot of issues however. These programs were very difficult to implement and showed to have very low success. With punishment being a big factor on the line, local officials who were in charge of keeping track of growth in their areas were shown to have submitted false reports to avoid being punished. The number of births were significantly underreported by as much as 27% in 1992. Of the almost 15,000 births between 1980-1988, only about half received a legal birth permit. And of those that had a legal permit, 88% were the first born children in the families. Of the second children born in families, typically only 11% of them were authorized. Many people who resided in rural areas also found ways to bend around the birth-quota system as they live farther from a dense society and also need help with their agricultural lifestyle. Compliance with the birth-quota system was overall extremely low. With a strong defiance against the birth-quota system, China suffered social and political consequences as well since testing new waters with their population control. The Chinese government was frowned upon and received much disapproval due to their strict policies. The United States, as well as many other countries, made it very known of their objection to their sterilization policies. Chinese citizens were also very upset about the policies and were found to have acted out and retaliate with violence. There is also a cultural preference for sons in the country. With the one child per family structure in place, it sadly led to a large number of incidences of female infanticide. With the very clear opposition to infanticide, the government was then forced into posing another rule which was if a families first born was a daughter, they would be allowed to try again for a son. As much as China suffered horrible consequences of these population control efforts, there were still some social and economic benefits that came from imposing these regulations. Over the last 50 years, China has raised their standard of living by keeping population growth rates down. Access to natural resources have also increased since the 1980’s. According to the State Family Planning Commission, coverage in tap water had increased from 84% to 94%! Coverage of natural gas also took a leap, going from 16% to 73%. Medical coverage also reached out more and included birth insurance as well as workers compensation for mothers who follow the implemented birth policies. The average life expectancy was also a result of this population control, and there was a very significant drop in infant mortality rates.

 Now that we have over viewed the good and the bad that coincide with population control, we begin to question how ethical imposing such a thing would be. As seen in China, enforcing laws and regulations to control the population brought horrifying results, but also showed that it can be quite beneficial to the people, the economy, and the earth. So is it ethical to tell a family how many children they can have? How about to tell men and women to get sterilized? But if the population keeps growing at the rate that it is, the earth begins to die. Would it be ethical for us humans to keep reproducing at rates that would only hurt our planet? Either way, some type of value or principle is being broken. Compromise has to be allowed in this situation. China, for example, noticed a significant outbreak of female infanticide with their regulations, so they compromised and allowed families to try for a boy if their first born was a girl and they were unhappy. As restrictive as it sounds to force a regulation, such as the ones placed in China, onto a family, we also have to become less selfish as humans. If we want to continue reproducing at the rate we are, we should consider being more mindful of the resources we use, what we throw away, how we transport ourselves, and a multitude of other things. It is not necessarily the growth itself that directly harms our earth. It is the selfishness of the human race. We have to understand that we are a species within millions of others that are living on this planet. Our resources are absolutely not unlimited, and once they run out, they’re gone forever. As unethical as population control sounds, I also believe that disregarding our home planet and destroying it with our daily actions is just as unethical. Small actions from everyone on our earth can lead to massive change.

Work Cited

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Cook, Jamie. “Population Control and Consequences in China.” Population Control and Consequences in China, 5 Dec. 1999, maps.unomaha.edu/peterson/funda/sidebar/chinapop.html.

“Countries in the World by Population (2019).” Worldometers, Dadax, 2019, www.worldometers.info/world-population/population-by-country/.

Insel, Paul M, and Walton T Roth. Connect Core Concepts in Health . 13th ed., McGraw-Hill, 2013.

Nace, Trevor. “Humanity Has Officially Consumed More Than Earth Can Produce This Year.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 4 Aug. 2017, www.forbes.com/sites/trevornace/2017/08/03/humanity-officially-consumed-more-earth-produce-year/#41cebb959a4d.

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Sterbenz, Christina. “15 Ways the World Will Be Terrifying in 2050.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 31 Mar. 2015, www.businessinsider.com/ways-the-world-will-be-terrifying-in-2050-2015-3#the-number-of-people-living-with-dementia-will-likely-triple-9.

“Study Finds China’s Population Control Policy before the One Child.” FSI, Stanford University, 21 Mar. 2019, fsi.stanford.edu/news/study-finds-china’s-population-control-policies-one-child-policy-was-responsible-200000-missing.

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An ageing population problem

An ageing population problem is when a country has a high percentage of old generation people. There is no doubt that the ageing population is becoming serious problem in human lives, and the population of the world is becoming older and this is one of the most significant demographic events in the world today. This is caused because of more common medical facilities, which can supply for sick or injured people quicker, and, because of advances in modern technology and scientific research, treatments for illnesses have been discovered. This means that people are more possible to live longer than they would have done in the past.

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The United Nations found that the ranks of 60 year olds and older are growing 1.9% a year, which is 60% faster than the overall world population. They predicted that by the year 2050, there may be four people age 15-65 worldwide. Currently the ratio in year 2000 is nine to one. These indicate that the elderly will outnumber the children (BusinessWeek 2005).
Also, knowledge about good produces people healthier. No more than twenty to thirty years ago, the most valuable thing was just to eat. They did not care about food. But now, a majority of people desire healthy food.As a result, knowledge about food and health make people live longer. This essay will discuss about how can the government solve these problems, and what problems might governments face with an ageing population.
The ageing of population occurs because the numbers of birth rates have refused, or are declining in almost everywhere and also because older generation people are surviving to enjoy longer lives. Nowadays, current people’s educational level is very high. So, most people are more educated about the foods they eat and about health in common. Most of the current people think “Health is the most important.”, and I agree with them. So, physical fitness has developed into big business all over the world.
In the morning, many people exercise. For example, jogging, dancing and so on. Some people go to the fitness, health and Yoga club to control their health. A period exercise can avoid light or dangerous diseases. In richer countries, their birth and death rates started to decline in the 19th century or past. It leads to effects and problems which will show in below.
There is main effect of population ageing. The main effect is slower economic growth. When a large part of the population starts to move from pre-retirement to the post-retirement age group, the effect is that it slowed down the growth of the working age population. This means that there will be lower growth in per capita incomes and lower growth in the total economy. It is believed that the results of working will be lower than before when young generation are working.
On the other hand, according to the OECD, ‘older workers are more costly than younger workers, because of higher payment, fringe benefits and social payments.’ But some companies do not see this situation.  As the training payments for the younger workers will be far more expensive, companies are better of just keeping the younger worker.
The following equation, provide by (Gemma, T, 2005) shows in the simplest terms the relationship that must hold between the numbers of pensioners and workers and their incomes:
twL≡bR
L is the number of workers and R is the number of retired people. w is the income of each worker and b is the income of each retired person, while t is the proportion of workers’ incomes transferred to pensioners.
As the population ages, the ratio of non-workers to workers (R/L) increases (assuming that retirement ages do not change sufficiently to offset the rise in life expectancy). In 2004, there were approximately 4 working age individuals (aged 20-64) for every 1 person aged 65 and over. By 2056 this ratio is predicted to fall to about 2:1.
The result of this is that one (or a combination) of the following must occur:
1. The incomes of retired people will have to fall relative to those of working age people (b/w falls),
2. The proportion of workers incomes transferred to pensioners (t) will have to rise,
3. People will have to retire later. This increases the number of workers and decreases the number of retired people (Gemma, T, 2005).
As can be seen in this article, if the age of retirement is upping, the numbers of workers are increasing and numbers of retired people are decreasing. Another solution is that employ people who foreign workers. Nowadays, it is difficult to immigrate to rich country for them who live in poverty countries. If the government makes it easier than before, it will not be happen. According to David in this article, there are three of solutions.
Make people work more. European countries will have to rise the retirement age and draw more people, especially women, into the labour force. This will require much more flexible labour markets. Let in more immigrants. But this is only part of the answer. If Germany were to rely on immigrants to keep its ratio of workers to pensioners constant, its population would consist of 80 per cent foreigners by 2050. Have more babies. This does not mean traditional roles for women. Italy, where few women work, has on of the lowest birth rates in the world. Feminism is the new natalism. (David, M,2003)
It can be seen that it leads to many problems, there are three main problems. The one of problem is health care. It is widely believed that the elderly people is increasing nowadays, however, there is no enough place to support them to keep their good condition of health. Good health is about more than just physical wellbeing. It’s about people’s happiness and mental wellbeing too.
However, for example, in Korea, a lot of elderly people have to care for themselves even they can get a money from the government, because that money is not enough to live. In addition, they do not have opportunities to work to earn money. In my opinion, older people should have satisfactory financial security to continue their quality of life and wellbeing.
People are living longer, and gradually more demand nursing care, medication and management as their health get worse. Nurses working with older people need to empathise that the older patient has had a lifetime of dealing with stressors and in doing so have developed a range of coping mechanisms which include cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses and methods (Morris, V, 2007).
Thus, the government should consider that improved financial planning for older age, increasing older people’s incomes and reducing costs for older people. Many of the actions necessary to deal with these priorities are central government responsibilities. However, the importance of these issues is recognised within the county.  Ageing may be accompanied by deteriorating health, a declining quality of life and increased demands on the health services (Department of Health, 2005).
Some people argue that spending money on the elderly is a waste of money; it is better to spend on the young who can still contribute to society, however, we must first look at the fact that the elderly were once the young and were contributing to our society. Without their effort our developed society, which we succeed in, may not have been achieved.
The spending, on the elderly, could therefore be seen as the least we could do for all the profits they worked for to give to us. However, there is the other side of the coin. If we were to spend money on the young, it would possibly have benefits for our society in the future.
For example, if we were to spend money on education we could try and make sure that the young would develop into highly skilled workers, able to compete in the global economy. The elderly, as we already recognize, cannot contribute to society and we could say that further spending is a waste of money, when there are so many more benefits when spending it on the young. We could therefore say that the time has passed for the elderly.
Elderly people can abuse or neglect themselves by not caring about their own personal health and well-being. Elder self-neglect can lead to illness, injury or even death. Common needs that the elderly person might deny themselves or ignore are the following:
Sustenance (food or water)
Cleanliness (bathing and personal hygiene)
Adequate clothing for climate protection
Proper shelter
Adequate safety
Clean and healthy surroundings
Medical attention for serious illness
Essential medications
(The Economist, 2004).
Many countries already have occupied steps toward developing their old-age social insurance programs which can help them who elderly people. In my opinion, every country should have those programmes; it brings about elderly people feel more comfortable. 
Another problem that the organizations face is the loss of knowledge resulting from older workers leaving the organization without passing on their knowledge to others. As greater numbers of “knowledge workers” retire, they take with them insight about managing key customer relationships, handling exceptions to critical processes and a host of other experiences that can cost organizations significant amounts of time, energy and resources to recreate or replace. This will cause the organization to repeat their past mistakes and expose itself to additional financial and operational risk. General Kofi Adnan, United Nation secretary, said that “in Africa, it is said that when an old man dies, a library disappears” (BusinessWeek 2005).
Finally, the government might be face with ageing population problems, thus, there are some solutions which the government should do. As this essay mentioned that age of retirement is upping, more babies and let in more immigrants. In addition, the government should try to find out more solutions.
For example, the Australian government has three decision which are raise taxes for the young, It can use funds, which were to be used for other pressing long-term concerns e.g. environmental degradation and It can try to get the money to fund the bulge in the population by getting money out of them whilst they are still at working age.
Also, campaigners for the elderly have suggested a number of solutions for the supposed problems. For instance the government could pay for long-term health care costs and the residential costs paid for by the individual.
The government must also stress the need to younger generations to plan for their future by investing in private pensions as it has been estimated that around 8 million people in work are not members of occupational or personal pension schemes (Lg-employers,2004).
In conclusion, an ageing population means that better and more general services will need to be created to supply for the elderly. If society is willing to change its attitudes on the elderly then in the future they will be treated with respect rather than a trouble.
 

Relationship between Population Decline and Disposble Income Rates

The word “poor” is defined as “having few possessions” by many dictionaries. Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (n.d.) explains it as “1a: lacking material possessions” and “2a: less than adequate”. Cambridge Dictionary (n.d.) defines it as “A1: having little money and/or few possessions”. I related these definitions to a larger scale and assumed that a poorer society is where people possess less, which then leads to less consumption or investment. In other words, a richer society is where people gain an increasing after-tax income which provides them with richer material well-being. Therefore, in this paper, I focused on the relationship between people’s disposable income and population decline to see if population decline causes the reduction of their money with one possible reason. 

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I searched the relationship between the population decline and the average monthly disposable working household income in Japan. Japan’s fertility rate has fallen to 1.43 in 2017 since 1975 when the number first fell under 2.0 according to The World Bank Group (2019). Also, its “population is in rapid decline” (Ingber, 2018). So, Japan was appropriate for this research. I used data established from Statistics Bureau of Japan (2019-a, 2019-b & 2019-c), a part of Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, which annually conducts national censuses.

I measured the relationship by comparing the absolute population and the absolute average of monthly workers’ household disposable income from 2003 to 2017. The income shows the amount which is already deducted by the non-consumption expenditure such as taxes. The population data of 2005, 2010, and 2015 were unavailable so they are remained blank. I found that both figures have fallen gradually, both showing negative trendlines (Figure 1). The use of absolute disposable income for comparison is acceptable in this case since Japanese Consumer Price Index is in increase over the years (Trading Economics, 2019). From this result, I can see that the income level and population decline are correlated; in other words, the society gets poorer as the number of people decreases.

One of the possible reasons for the relationship between the population decline and people’s income is because decreased working people have to assist increased number of the elderly. To justify this assumption, I compared the absolute amount of several taxes and social insurances that working people need to pay monthly. Those taxes and insurances are such as earned income tax, residence tax, health insurance, nursing care insurance, and the public pension insurance. This was done to see what kind of non-consumption expenditure suppresses people’s after-tax income the most. As a result, I found that social insurances, especially the public pension insurance, have an increasing impact on people’s income (Figure 2). This result implies that the burden on working households is increasing due to the aging and decreasing number of working people.

In fact, according to a report from Cabinet Office of the government of Japan (2017), although 12.1 working people had supported one elderly person in 1950, the number has dropped to 2.3 in 2015 and it is expected to further decrease to 1.3 working people per one elderly person by 2065. Also, it has been one of the challenges for the government of Japan to make a reasonable adjustment for social insurance and support for increasing number of elderly people (Yatsui, 2019).

Lastly, I compared working people’s consumption expenditure and their disposable income to see if the amount of consumption, or material well-being, will decline as they get less income. I did this to support my basic assumption that people’s material well-being would decrease to create a poorer society because of the less amount of disposable income. The result is that people consume less as they get less income, reflecting the income effect. Although people spend 63% of their after-tax income in consumption in 2003, it decreased to 58% in 2017, showing -5.89% change. 

The finding above altogether shows that the population decline due to decline of fertility rate creates a society where less working people have to support more retired people, which then causes less amount of disposable working household income. Also, less income means less consumption, creating a poorer society. This is not only the case for Japan. South Korea, one of the population-declining countries, also faces the pension problem. Now one retired person is supported by 5 working persons, but it is estimated to decrease to 1 per the elderly in 50 years. Such burden on Korean workers is expected to impact on workers’ income a lot that they would have to pay 30 percent of income for pension contribution (Kang, 2019). Therefore, my findings are not limited to one country only.

My finding could be more precise if my data could cover household’s net worth which composes of financial and non-financial assets less liabilities. This is because income is not only the factor to influence people’s consumption and investment for the production of material well-being (Ministry of Social Development, 2017, p.4).

This paper focused on the relationship between population decline and working household’s disposable income, regarding that richness of society is determined by people’s purchasing power. As a result, I found that people’s disposable income decreases as the population declines due to the increased burden of pension insurance on working people.

References

Cabinet Office of the government of Japan. (2017). Current status of the aging society in Japan. Retrieved from https://www8.cao.go.jp/kourei/whitepaper/w-2018/html/zenbun/s1_1_1.html

Ingber, S. (2018). Japan’s population is in rapid decline. NPR. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2018/12/21/679103541/japans-population-is-in-rapid-decline

Kang, T. (2019). South Korea needs to get serious about its pension fund. The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2019/04/south-korea-needs-to-get-serious-about-its-pension-fund/

Ministry of Social Development. (2017). Household incomes in New Zealand: Trends in indicators of inequality and hardship 1982 to 2016. Retrieved from https://www.msd.govt.nz/documents/about-msd-and-our-work/publications-resources/monitoring/household-income-report/2017/2017-incomes-report-wed-19-july-2017.pdf

Poor. (n.d.). In Cambridge Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/poor

Poor. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary. Retrieved from https://community.endnote.com/t5/EndNote-Styles-Filters-and/Correctly-cite-Merriam-Webster-online-in-Endnote-X4-APA-6/td-p/25107

Statistics Bureau of Japan. (2019-a). Results of the population estimates [Data file]. Retrieved from https://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/jinsui/2.html

Statistics Bureau of Japan. (2019-b). Results of total households [Data file]. Retrieved from https://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/sousetai/1.html

The World Bank Group. (2019). Fertility rate, total (births per woman) [Data file]. Retrieved from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.TFRT.IN?locations=JP

Trading Economics. (2019). Japan Consumer Price Index [Data file]. Retrieved from https://tradingeconomics.com/japan/consumer-price-index-cpi

Yatsui, K. (2019). The shock of pension rate that soared by 35% in 13 years. President. Retrieved from https://president.jp/articles/-/28769?page=2

 

Causes and Impacts of the Declining Bee Population

 Imagine walking into the grocery store, but instead of seeing aisles full of fresh, colorful fruits and vegetables, only fifty percent of the usual produce is available. Not only is produce less available, but the quality also has severely declined. This will be the norm if bees keep declining at the rate they are now. Since the end of World War ll, there has been over 50% decrease in the bee population, dropping from four million colonies to now only around one and a half million. If this continues, the human population will lose a majority of the foods that we are used to. In the article “What Would Happen if all the Bees Went Extinct” by AC Shilton, he states that “one analysis of the global crop market found that pollinators are essential or highly, moderately, or slightly necessary for all crops consumed by humans.” Some of those crops include apples,plums, almonds, peaches, and cherries. The main causes of this major population decline are changes in farming, industrial agriculture, and pesticide use. Simple steps such as planting flowers organically and locally, the human population can help stop the rapid decline of the bee population.

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 In America, over one million bee colonies are taken all around the country as different crops need to be pollinated at different times of the year. For example, bees that are raised in Florida are transported to California in the spring, in order to pollinate almond trees. Once the bees are transported across the country and pollinate the almond trees, they have to be transported back because once pollinated, almond trees are flowerless, which leaves the bees without food. The first study that was conducted to find out the effects of transportation on bees showed that bees that had been transported had issues with the development of their food glands. Bees use their food glands to feed other bees substances rich in protein. Researchers attributed the underdevelopment of the food glands to the stress of mass transportation. The ability for bees to fight fungal infections is also compromised by the stress of mass transportation. Putting all of those factors together, if a large colony of unhealthy bees are put together, infections spread rapidly, and since their ability to fight disease is already compromised, bees die at an alarmingly rapid rate. The reason that bees must be transported so commonly is because of industrial farming. Instead of farms having a variety of crops for bees to live off of, a significant amount of farms in the United States grow a mass amount of one or two crops, such as wheat and soy. The lack of diverse crops eliminates the possibility for bees to be able to thrive, or even to survive.

 Along with the spike of industrial farming, pesticide use has become an extremely common practice for American farmers, which is an obstacle for bees. A recently new introduced pesticide that is now widespread in agricultural America is, neonicotinoids. It is getting attention because of how harmful the effects are on bees. The effects it has on bees has been compared to the effects that nicotine has on humans. When the pesticide is applied directly to the soil, the effects are strong and most commonly are fatal to any insect that comes in contact with it. Another way neonicotinoids are distributed is by coating the exterior of the crops seed in the pesticide. When it is distributed in this way, it either does not affect the bee, or it “intoxicates” the bee, so it gets confused and is not able to find its way back to the colony. As Marla Spivak states in her TED talk, “Why Bees are Disappearing”, “Recently, researchers from Penn State University have started looking at the pesticide residue in the loads of pollen that bees carry home as food, and they’ve found that every batch of pollen that a honeybee collects has at least six detectable pesticides in it, and this includes every class of insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and even inert and unlabeled ingredients that are part of the pesticide formulation that can be more toxic than the active ingredient.” Based off of this research, there are potentially more risks to pesticides that have not been thoroughly researched yet.

 Some of the most beneficial ways to help stop the decline of the bee population are remarkably easy to do. By planting native flowering plants in your own backyard, it can increase the ability for bees to thrive and pollinate. The best way for this to be effective is organic gardening, which is gardening without the use of chemicals, especially pesticides. As a result of organic gardening, bees have more diversity for what they need to thrive. According to the University of Rhode Island’s native plant guide, some of the most beneficial flowers to grow for bees in Rhode Island are honeysuckle, roses, raspberries, and elderberry. By doing something as simple as planting native flowers in our backyards, we could help stop the alarming decline of the bee population, and ensure the quality and quantity of the foods we consume daily.

Works Cited

“Causes.” The Bees in Decline, sos-bees.org/causes/.

Leendertz, Lia. “Increase Your Garden’s Bee Population.” Fix.com, www.fix.com/blog/bring-back-the-bees/.

“Protecting Pollinators from Pesticides.” Honey Bee Program – Bees, Beekeeping & Pollination – Protecting Pollinators from Pesticides, University of Georgia , bees.caes.uga.edu/bees-beekeeping-pollination/pollination/pollination-protecting-pollinators-from-pesticides.html.

“RI Native Plant Guide .” Cancer Prevention Research Center, University of Rhode Island, web.uri.edu/rinativeplants/.

Shilton, AC. “What Would Happen If All the Bees Died Tomorrow?” Tonic, Tonic, 1 Mar. 2017, tonic.vice.com/en_us/article/d7ezaq/what-would-happen-if-all-the-bees-died-tomorrow.

Spivak, Marla. “Transcript of ‘Why Bees Are Disappearing.’” Ted, Ted, 2013, www.ted.com/talks/marla_spivak_why_bees_are_disappearing/transcript?language=en#t-529673.

“What Is a Neonicotinoid?” Insects in the City, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension, citybugs.tamu.edu/factsheets/ipm/what-is-a-neonicotinoid/.

 

Population, Land Use and Health

Urban Areas

 

Discuss land use, population, health and sanitation in urban areas.

Introduction
According to Ramsawak and Umraw (2001), “all the people residing within a specific geographic area, for example, within a nation, a geographic region, a state, or a city is called its population”. The population density of an area can be defined as the number of people living in a particular area of land at a particular time. Population density can be influenced by a variety of factors which include physical factors such as relief or height of land, climatic and natural vegetation, influence of agriculture, industrial influence and also urban influence (Ramsawak and Umraw, 2001).
An urban area is an area that has a dense population of people and has a density of structures such as roads, railways, housing and commercial buildings. The area usual functions as a marketing town, commercial hub, administration, manufacturing and industrial sites and also tourism. Examples of urban areas include cities, towns and suburbs.
Urbanization is the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas. This results in negative impacts for both areas. The rural area often suffers from brain-drain while a lot of physical pressure is placed on the receiving urban area. The urban area usually becomes overcrowded and there is a shortage of housing and other facilities. There is also usually a rise in pollution level and low level of sanitation (Ramsawak and Umraw, 2001).
Sanitation is simply the provision of facilities and services to get rid of waste products such as sewage and garbage. This is very important because it promotes a healthy environment and also protects the population from any health threats which may be connected to exposure to these wastes.
Land use in urban areas
Land use can be defined as the use of land by human. This involves the management of land and also the modification of land into built environment so as to meet the need of the present population or the population which will utilize the land (Dickinson and Shaw, 1977). The effects of land use may include deforestation, soil erosion, soil degradation, salinization and urban sprawl. Urban sprawl can be defined as the expansion of the urban area population into area that was once classified as rural area. There are six major types of land uses in urban areas. These include:-

Residential land use- The use of land for people to live. This usually makes up about 40% of an urban area. The type of housing in an area is based on the residential density which is the number of houses per hectare. Residential density may be low density (thirty units per hectare), medium density (thirty to a hundred units per hectare) or high density (exceeds a hundred units per hectare).
Transportation land use- Land which is used for transporting people and goods from one place to another. This is influenced by the amount of people residing in the urban settlement, the more people the more vehicles the road infrastructure has to support and the more parking spaces will be needed. Transportation land usually makes up about 32% of the urban area. Transportation land includes land spaces which are utilized for roads, subways, railroad tracks and airports.
Commercial land use- Commercial areas in an urban settlement can take up about 5% of the land. These commercial areas are used business activities such as restaurants, shopping malls and service stations which are very important in maintaining a healthy economy in the community.
Industrial land use- Industrial land spaces within urban areas usually take up about 6% of the urban land and are usually found along railways or water ways. Industrial land use is the use of land for the establishment of industries factories such as power plants.
Institutional land use- Land which is used for schools, hospitals, government offices, churches and other places of religious offering. Institutional land uses usually take up about 10% of an urban area land.
Recreational land use- Land which is used for leisure activities example playgrounds and parks.

Population
Urban areas are usually very densely populated. This is so because of a variety of reasons which may include rural migration and over-population, industrialization, natural increase, lack of public and social services in rural areas and commercial sector.
Rural migration is the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas. This is resulted from persons chasing after an improvement of their standard of living through employment and a better life, which may be available in urban areas. Over-population causes pressure on the land and this encourages persons to migrate to urban areas. A continuing movement of persons will eventually lead to rural depopulation and a gradual increase in urban population.

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There are a few industries and employment opportunities in rural area so people from here usually go seek jobs in urban areas where they could earn a livelihood. Increasing industrialization in urban areas attracts new rural migrants. Industrialization creates job opportunities. The transfer of such large numbers of people is partly as a result of the concentration of economic activities is in the urban areas.
Natural increase occurs when the crude birth rate is more than the crude death rate. This simply means when there are a greater number of births over deaths in a given population
The lack of basic public and social services in rural areas result in migration to urban areas where facilities such as adequate schools, transportation facilities, health facilities and telephone services are made available to the population. Even the roads in the rural areas are in poor conditions and farming areas are often inaccessible, hence the quality services in the urban areas attract the rural population.
An urban area can be classified as the commercial sector in that large amount of whole sale and retail activities are undertaken here. The central business district (C.B.D) provides varied commercialized services and rural migrants are attracted to the urban areas because of these services. There is a greater opportunity for them to gain employment and also some may become involved in street vending or even self-employed since there will be market available for their services which they can provide.
Urban areas face problems as a result of dense population. These include unemployment problem, traffic congestion, shortage of housing facilities and public services.
A high rate of unemployment still exists within urban areas even though there are industrial and commercial activities present. This is so because rural migrants keep moving to urban areas and also there is a natural growth of the urban population, hence there is a greater demand for jobs. The unavailability of jobs for the younger population especially can result in an increase crime rate. This heavy increase of population over time leads to a shortage of housing facilities since there is a greater demand of housing. Many persons cannot afford the high cost of living and facilities since they may not be gainfully employed or they are unemployed. This leads to the development of slums/ghettoes or shanty towns and also squatting becomes a large social problem (WHO, 2014). Squatting can be defined as occupying a piece of that that is abandoned or unoccupied. Squatters do not own or rent the land nor do they have any legal rights to use the land. A shanty town consists of houses which are poorly built from scavenged materials such as cardboard boxes, plywood, metal sheets and plastic sheets.
Traffic congestion is a major issue within urban areas. This is so because as the population grows the road infrastructures have to support more day-to-day traveling of people, goods and materials within the urban area and also in and out. Therefore, inadequate road networks and parking spaces for the dense population of urban areas result in daily traffic congestions.
There is a lack of public services and inadequate facilities such as educational and recreational facilities with an increased population. With an increased population, educational facilities are stretched to their limits and this result in a demand for more educational facilities and also educational improvements. The recreational facilities would have been established to be used by the past population but with a gradually increase of population these facilities may become inadequate.
There is also a lack of sanitary facilities due to urban population growth and pressure is placed on the existing facilities.
Health and Sanitation
With a rapid increase of urban population there is a lack of sanitation, a shortage of water supplies and also a lack of facilities for the disposal of the large amounts of garbage produced. This all leads to the pollution o the environment (Water supply and Collaborative Council, 2010). Pollution can be defined as the accumulation of any unwanted substance within the environment. Some causes of poor sanitation of urban areas include:-

Since urban areas are usually densely populated, there are a large amount of solid waste being produced and also waste water being produced. These solid waste materials are usually not collected regularly or there maybe restrictions on the amount of solid refuse which will be collected by authorities per household. This may lead to persons finding alternative ways to dispose refuse or a gradual buildup of refuse which results in an unaesthetic sight and an unhealthy environment. Waste water being produced is not usually being treated right or not being treated at all. When this water mixes with fresh water it contaminates it and makes it unhealthy to drink and even use for domestic purposes such as washing clothes or bathing (Water supply and Collaborative Council, 2010).
The leakage of sewers, waste and latrine contents result in the pollution of underground water. Underground water as the name suggests, is water that flows below the surface. It is also referred to as subsurface groundwater. Underground water is often used by dwellers of the slum population as a drinking source or for domestic uses such as bathing and washing. This could result in health threats (Water supply and Collaborative Council, 2010).
There is also a lack of Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) systems. This allows the buildup of sludge in poorly built pits which causes the sludge to mix with the underground water and illegal dumping of waste from private pit emptier in the sea/river. This causes health risks to the environment and all the components of it (Water supply and Collaborative Council, 2010).
Urban areas usually contain industries and factories which may result in pollution of the environment. This pollution can occur in the form of smoke into the atmosphere, waste water being drained out into the water ways and also solid waste materials maybe disposed poorly.

As seen above, there is a relationship and interconnection with sanitation and the health of the environment and all biotic life within it. In order to obtain or maintain a good sanitation level the waste and sanitation management has to keep up to pace with the growing population since the more people the more waste and physical pressure on the environment, services and facilities from them.
In urban areas there is a greater demand for social services such as health programs since a greater population has to be catered for. A densely populated region results in a low ratio of doctors and nurses to patients with in the health system. Therefore, there is an increase requirement of finance to to establish adequate health facilities with treatment and medication for all and also more money will be needed to employ new staffs and personnel to attend to these patients (Gabriel, 1989).
References
Ramsawak, R. and Umraw, R. (2001) Modules in Social Studies with SBA Guide & CXC Questions, Caribbean Educational Publishers.
Dickson, G.C. & Shaw. M.G (1977) What is ‘land use’?, http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/20001161?uid=3738168&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21104345935161, 12th Aug 2014.
Dr. Sadik, N. (1996) State of the world population 1996: Changing Places: Population, Development and Urban Future, https://www.unfpa.org/swp/1996/index.htm, 12th Aug 2014.
Water supply and Collaborative Council. (2010) Sanitation/Urban Sanitation, http://www.wsscc.org/topics/sanitation/urban-sanitation, 12th Aug 2014.
Unite For Sight (n.d.) Urban Versus Rural Health, http://www.uniteforsight.org/global-health-university/urban-rural-health, 12th Aug 2014.
Gabriel, B. (1989) Access to Health Care in Urban Areas of Developing Societies, http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2136988?uid=3738168&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21104912929123, 13th Aug 2014.
Smart Development Stories. (n.d.) Urban Faecal Sludge Management Program, http://www.snvworld.org/en/countries/bangladesh/our-work/urban-faecal-sludge-management-programme, 12th Aug 2014.
Internet Geography. (n.d.) Population, http://www.geography.learnontheinternet.co.uk/topics/popn1.html, 15th Aug 2014.
World Health Organization. (2014) Global Health Observatory, http://www.who.int/gho/urban_health/en/, 15th Aug 2014.
Farooq, U. (2012) Characteristics of Rural and Urban Community, http://www.studylecturenotes.com/social-sciences/sociology/360-characteristics-of-rural-and-urban-community, 14th Aug 2014.
 

Impact of Population Growth on the Planet

 Abstract

This paper’s purpose is to describe and address the problem of the growing population on Earth. I will begin by explaining the issue, why and how it is occurring. Additionally, I will examine how this currently impacts and how it will impact the planet from an environmental standpoint. Anyone can see that the ecosystems are hurting as a result of human activities. If we have significantly more humans on the planet, the Earth’s ecosystem may not fare very well. It may even be disastrous for the planet in the long term. The environmental toll of the huge presence of humanity is already substantial. Some studies project the population to rise over the course of this century before plateauing. It may even almost double by the close of the century. If the population grows by the billions, the environment will undoubtedly suffer far more than we’ve already seen. In this paper, I look into several studies that project the population growth and the effects that this may have. The end goal of my paper is to bring to light the details of what may happen to the planet as a result of humanity and our population crisis.

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Research Paper

The problem of population growth is taking the planet by storm in the present day. In recent decades, the human population has skyrocketed to levels unprecedented. This large number of humans and their activities has brought about a slew of environmental issues. These problems range from atmospheric pollution, erosion, water shortages, and endangering plant and animal species. The wave of growth doesn’t appear to be coming to a stop either. Many areas of the planet are experiencing exponential growth. If we are already experiencing issues, the planet’s status a hundred years down the line with possibly double the population may not be stable. The evidence shows that at the current rate, we might just run Earth’s ecosystem into the ground in the future.

Global human population has grown at an uneven and fairly slow rate throughout most of humanity’s existence. Modern humans first appeared about 200,000 years ago, it wasn’t until the year 1850 that the human population reached 1 billion. After rising steadily to 2.5 billion in 1950, the population more than doubled by 2005 to reach 6.5 billion. It has been growing exponentially to reach its current 7.7 billion, not even two centuries later. We reached an unsustainable level a long time ago and the most disturbing fact is that the growth doesn’t seem to be stopping anytime soon.

According to some studies, this growth is expected to continue until peaking around 10 billion, while others project it far surpassing this. Much of this population spike will take place in third world countries or developing nations. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa are anticipated to double, triple, and in Niger even quadruple in population size. This demographic change is unprecedented in human history. These developing nations feel they need to have more children since they cannot guarantee their children will live into adulthood due to very poor living conditions. The birth rate, however, is declining in more developed nations such as the United States which provides a shred of hope, but most areas of the planet have a long way to go before reaching that point.

The extreme growth in developing nations seems to be having serious consequences on our planet’s ecosystem. As with anything else there must be limits to the planet’s ability to provide for our needs. The increasing production and resource usage will eventually be unable to continue. The troubling fact about this is, when limits do present themselves, it will likely be very sudden. This research paper attempts to examine the problems that Earth’s ecosystem is already experiencing due to overpopulation and how these problems will become exasperated in the near future from continued growth, potentially leading to eventual catastrophic consequences.

 The Environmental Protection Agency states, “The momentum of population growth is like that of a giant oil tanker, slow to develop, hard to turn, and very hard to stop”. This truly puts into words how difficult it is to prevent the overpopulation that is upon us. 96% of population growth is occurring in developing countries. A country’s state of wellbeing seems to be linked inversely with population growth. To slow this process even a little bit, immense assistance is required from economically stable nations. There have been successes with lowering the birth rates in developing African nations but only with vigorous development programs and assistance. The portion of the world’s people who are in the most extreme poverty are turning to very harsh harvesting of the planet’s resources.

 Ecological impact by humans is not a new phenomenon, in fact, it has been occurring long before industrialization. Even early humans caused disturbance in the natural processes of the planet. Earth’s ecosystems are filled with intricate processes dependent on contributions from many different plant and animal species. Early hunters even disturbed these natural processes by severely reducing the population of large animals. Today we disrupt animal species to a much more severe degree. Growing infrastructure in almost every human inhabited area is shrinking down the natural habitats of these species. This is causing all sorts of endangerment for animal populations. Marine life is not immune to human impact either. Oil spills are filling the aquatic environment with a soluble chemical called DDT which could cause potential harm to marine life. The dawn of agricultural practices took an environmental toll as well. Improper harvesting and overgrazing have been damaging ecosystems for thousands of years. These processes have turned once thriving areas into desert lands. Large forested areas in Europe and Asia were also deforested in the middle ages. The consequences of this overharvesting of resources is already seen there in the form of recurrent flooding. Undoubtedly, humans have had negative impacts on the planet for a long time now, but with the current growth of our species, the ecological impact is now more realized. With our technological advancements and the rapidly rising population, human impact has significantly increased and statistically speaking, will continue to increase as time goes on.

 The practice of agriculture could potentially be much less harmful to the environment. However, the focus of agricultural innovation has not been focusing much on this. The rapidly rising population has made it a priority to maximize the crop yields before anything else, diverting our focus away from sustainable agriculture. The growing demand for food is unfortunately preventing sustainability in this field from getting the attention it requires, and this is bound to have consequences.

The rain forests are a prime example of large populations taking a toll on the ecosystem. Cattle Ranching and livestock activities are the reason for the majority of Amazon rainforest deforestation. High rates of meat consumption are forcing farmers to clear more and more land to meet the demands. The Amazonian rainforest is considered to be the most important ecosystem on the planet. With this in mind, it is troubling to learn that over 50% of this grand ecosystem is in danger.

The environmental impacts of destroying an ecosystem of this magnitude are immense. The rainforest contains 10% of the entire planet’s biomass. Clearing out this amount of biomass is releasing large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere, contributing to the already high levels of carbon in our atmosphere. Forests such as this also impact rainfall up to hundreds of miles away. Without this rainforest, this huge area’s rainfall will be decreased, potentially leading to droughts. With an increasing population cutting away the rainforest, 65% of it is at risk of turning into savannah in the next 50 years. The expansion of infrastructure in this area also points towards the amazon’s destruction. If all of the approved construction projects are completed, 50% of the forest will be destroyed. We truly are beginning to drain areas like this dry of their resources as the population continues to grow and continues to take full advantage of their environment. If the rainforest, the most important ecosystem, is anything to foreshadow the planet’s state in the future, then Earth’s future is looking bleak.

 As previously stated, it is often predicted that population will stabilize before the century closes after growing to over 10 billion. However, certain studies are now finding that stabilization may not be on the horizon. In the article “The Heritability of Fertility Makes World Population Stabilization Unlikely in the Foreseeable Future”, Jason Collins claims that there is not much of a chance of the population growth plateauing anytime soon. When looking at population growth from an evolutionary standpoint, fertility is a favorable evolutionary trait. This means that by natural selection, the population is theoretically becoming more fertile since it is an inheritable trait. On average, people will have 0.21% more children than their mother. This statistic has grown fairly steadily throughout history. Any simulations presented in this peer reviewed article to graph the population trend, shows the fertility rate staying above the replacement rate. In struggling nations where population growth is currently extreme, projections do not show it decreasing much any time soon. According to these studies there is less than a 5% chance of global population stabilization in this century. This is just one alternative research standpoint, but it shows that we cannot bank on stabilization saving humanity from growing into disaster.

 Population growth’s toll on the planet is becoming more evident as the years tick by. Humans have consumed more of Earth’s resources in the past 50 years than the entirety of the human population that existed before that. Scientists have yet to determine the human carrying capacity of the planet, but with statistics like these, it seems we’re quickly approaching it. While our massive growing population is consuming all of these resources, we are producing an extreme amount of waste. Population growth’s two major impacts on the planet are resource consumption and waste production. This resource consumption consists of land, food, water, air, fossil fuels and minerals. This consumption produces air and water pollutants, toxic materials and greenhouse gases. All of this cannot be healthy for our planet, and with the rapidly increasing number of humans, comes even more consumption and waste. For this reason, many people think population growth will eventually result in an environmental catastrophe. Based on the evidence at hand, they may not be too far off.

 Planet Earth’s geological epochs, historically speaking, are defined by natural geological and climate processes. Researchers propose that we have entered a new epoch called the Anthropocene. This new geologic era has been brought about by the influence humans and their activities are having on the environment. If humans really are having so much environmental impact that it has caused this significant geologic change, then it is clear we are causing problems.

 Developing nations are on track to cause serious negative impacts on the planet. Increasing populations create more need for employment, and people are gravitating towards urban areas to find work. It is argued that urbanization allows for better resource allocation, but this could have other consequences. The developing infrastructure cannot keep up with the movement of people to cities, leading to a lot of impoverished citizens. This also puts a ton of pressure on the country’s resources. The overconsumption of water, food, and energy will eventually strip the land’s natural resources.This leads to stress on the environment in the area, which could lead to dying ecosystems in the future.

 Government conflicts in areas such as the middle east have caused poor conditions and often mass migration to other countries. Surrounding countries let these refugees into their country out of concern for their safety because it is the humane thing to do. While this does seem like the proper move, it causes some extreme pressure on the local environment. Huge refugee camps are swiftly set up without established infrastructures, water systems, and waste management. This has an effect on water resources, land resources, and creates pollution. With a lack of sewage systems, waste from these refugee camps is not properly contained and heavily pollutes the environment. With a growing population, there will inevitably be more conflict and more refugees that need to be housed. The ecosystem is taking a toll already from this and will likely be pushed closer to its limits in the future.

 The most developed countries are finding ways to reduce their environmental impact. The poorest nations aren’t having much environmental impact due to low industrial activity. The developing nations who have achieved industrial activity but not technology to regulate emissions are the ones causing the most environmental strife. The most feasible plan to control environmental problems caused by humans is innovation in sustainability. People are developing technology that allow us to reduce our environmental footprint. We have the potential to decrease emissions significantly, but we have a long way to go. Switching to more renewable forms of energy that don’t damage the atmosphere is a great way we can go about addressing our growing human population’s damage to the planet. If there is a significant shift away from fossil fuels and towards things like solar, wind, and water energy, it would definitely make a big difference. The trouble is that these forms of energy are not yet economically competitive with fossil fuels. These forms of energy also require significant infrastructural changes before the switch can be made.

 Another way that humans can slow the environmental degradation is reducing modern consumption habits. The consumption rates in some developed nations such as our own are extravagant and more so as time goes on. We live in a culture based around consumption, buying and consuming. This lifestyle is heavily promoted by governments who want to improve their economy. It is a culturally regular thing in our society to strive for more income and be able to purchase large homes and expensive cars to show off success. The practice of this buying and consuming in excess creates a lot of waste and uses way more resources than necessary. Overconsumption takes a hefty toll on the environment. The energy required for each living person increased by over 50% from 1950 to 1970. As time goes on, people are desiring and having access to more luxurious lifestyles. If people in thriving nations only consumed what they needed, the world would have more resources to work with and less emissions from production. The heavy use of fossil fuels to account for the extreme production in these nations is not just a localized issue, it affects the environment on a global scale.

 It is clear that there are some great methods we can utilize to significantly decrease our environmental footprint and extend the life of Earth’s resources and ecosystem. However, this becomes increasingly difficult as a growing amount of people demand products and resources. To address the problem entirely, the planet would need to both decrease and stabilize the human population, as well as produce goods and services in a sustainable manner. Since neither of these tasks are easy and they aren’t often very economical, not many governments are willing to focus their efforts into them. This seems to be the main problem here, that the world’s leadership will not act on these issues, and possibly won’t until it is too late. Hopefully sustainable energy sources become more affordable in the near future, but full sustainability will require much more innovation than that.

The chances of reaching Earth’s carrying capacity are being increased as we continue to increase consumption and population. Nobody can say for sure when we will reach this capacity or the exact consequences of it, but from current evidence we can guess that it could be on the horizon and the results will be severe. It is speculated that reaching this point will at least cause heavy agricultural failures, decreases in the yields of fisheries, and disease epidemics. I believe that we may be able to prevent the world from this ecological catastrophe, but only if the dire situation is realized and the world leaders unite to save our planet and our species from ourselves.

References

Collins, Jason. “The Heritability of Fertility Makes World Population Stabilization Unlikely in the Foreseeable Future.” ScienceDirect. N.p., 5 Sept. 2018. Web. 14 Dec. 2018.

Mischa. “Population and Environment: A Global Challenge.” Australian Academy of Science, 07 Nov. 2017. Web. 14 Dec. 2018.

Silveira, Wolter. “The Amazon Rainforest: The World’s Most Important Ecosystem.” Rainforest Foundation Norway. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2018.

“Unit 5: Human Population Dynamics // Section 4: World Population Growth Through History.” Annenberg Learner. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2018.

Agarwal, Manju, and Preeti. “A Mathematical Study for the Existence and Survival of Human

Population in a Polluted Environment.” Applications & Applied Mathematics, vol. 13, no. 1, June 2018, pp. 217–234. EBSCOhost

Bongaarts, John. “Human population growth and the demographic transition.” 364. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.

 

Impact of Latest Little Ice Age on Human Population

Nowadays, the presence of Ice Ages which refer to the periodic long-term reduction in temperature of Earth’s surface and atmosphere, is well-known among people. However, most of them never heard of how another kind of geographical phenomenon, Little Ice Age (LIA), occurring from the fourteenth to the nineteenth centuries, influenced our culture, technology and our world today. Can you imagine how our lifestyle would be influenced? Can you imagine how the world would be totally different if it had never suffered from the LIA? This essay will discuss about what the LIA brought to our ancient ancestors and how it affected the world today.
Let’s see what is meant by LIA. Distinct from the ice age, which refers to the long-term alternations between glacial periods and interglacial periods lasting for millions of years, the little ice age is another geographical terminology used to describe a pre-modern time period starting roughly from the 14th century, lasting until 19th century. During the LIA, the Earth was chilled by a sudden cooling and the average temperature of the Earth’s surface and atmosphere decreased by 2 degree centigrade than before.
This enormous change was usually considered as the effect of solar activity variation (Lesley M. Smith,1997) and the relative position of Earth while rotating around the sun (John A. Eddy,1976). Some new researches also suggest other causes for the LIA, such as increased volcanic activity (Jonathan Cowie, 2007), or altered ocean current flows (Broecker WS, 2000).
Due to the relatively higher latitude of land in the north hemisphere, the LIA had a predominant influence on the Eurasia continent rather than others. Meanwhile, most of human civilizations were gathering on the Old Continent. Reasonably the unexpected visit of this drastic change on climate affected human activities in such a complex way that is not easy to tell. However, we do can find some clues and records remained in the history, which can help us figure out the complicated process of change gradually.
In order to analysis the impact of the LIA easily, we can try to make a clear image of human cultures by summarizing the status of every civilizations including empires, realms, kingdoms and independent regions existing during this period.
At the beginning of 14th century, the Mongol Horde just invaded European countries and at the same time, China in the eastern world had been, for the first time, under foreign rule of Mongolian for already several decades. The Hundred Year’s War was just about to start and Italy was leading Europe to step into the period of Renaissance. A new dynasty called Ming arose after Chinese people stood up to fight against the cruel foreign rulers and in the next three hundred years, the prolonged war fire on the land of China finally came into a short time of peace. In fact, a storm was approaching silently, like the volcano hidden under the sea, it would erupt at any moment…Black Death killed a third of population in Europe. Russian and Norse begun to explore new lands…

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In the fifteenth century, as Constantinople, the pivot on the way to the East, fell to the emerging Ottoman Turks, Western Europeans had to find a new trade route. The forthcoming Age of Sail allows Spanish and Portuguese explorers led to the first European sightings of the New Land (America and other virgin islands) and the sea passage along Cape of Good Hope to India.
Then in the sixteenth century, thanks to the Queen Victoria, Britain became a super power on which” the sun never set”, and began to expand its territory all over the world. The Era of Colonization came with spread of culture, disease, thoughts, technology…
A peak of chilling little ice age came in the beginning of seventeenth century. The production of crops kept in a low level due to the persistent low temperature. Ming Dynasty collapsed under a series of peasants uprisings.
Revolutions for independence or freedom of thought dominated the eighteenth century. And then Industrial Revolution accelerated the world into thrive.
Now we have already got a rough image about the corresponding history. But still, how is these historical events linked with the LIA?
Here is an example illustrating the LIA’s impact on agricultures.
Since the beginning of fourteenth century, the cold weather and heavy storms swept Europe. Crops and livestock were enormously destroyed. Crises arose as political struggles and class warfare weakened those previously prosperous countries. Millions of people starved to death. Cannibalism was even recorded during the Great Famine, which lasted for at least a decade. According to Lamb (1966)’s report, the growing season varied by 15% to 20% between the warmest and coldest times of the millennium. This is fairly enough to adversely influence any type of food production. Without modern technology, such as protection of warm house, seeds especially those highly adapted to warm conditions, could hardly survive this change. In order to adapt increasingly unpredictable climates, farmers begun to experiment with new agricultural techniques and equipment (J. Cohen, 2012). This led to the Agriculture Revolution in Europe.
In addition, the LIA also caused significant effect on economy, especially in Europe. Because of the Great Famine, heavy storms and growing glaciers, a large area of farmland was destroyed, which led to decreased tax revenue collected (Lamb,1995). Maritime activities were also limited by expanding glaciers, which caused a huge impact to the fishery and oversea trading (Lamb,1995).Miners lost their jobs due to the advancing glaciers as well. (Bryson, 1977.)
However, not all of those influences were bad. One of the four greatest fisheries in the world, the fishery along the Newfoundland coast, was founded by fishermen who were looking for new fish stocks in result of the movement of colder water (Lamb, 1995).
The LIA also brought great politic change to both western and oriental world.
In China, the LIA made most of the participation shift towards south. This caused frequent droughts all over the provinces of China. The most severe one of them lasted for at least seventy years. Along with several massive earthquakes happening at the same time, this huge but declining agricultural country was finally defeated by corrupted bureaucracy and the Manchurian invaders from the northeast, who took advantage of the power vacuum and crossed the Great Wall, later on established the Qing Dynasty (Kezhen Zhu, 1972)
In west Europe, “as the 18th century drew to a close, two decades of poor cereal harvests, drought, cattle disease and skyrocketing bread prices had kindled unrest among peasants and the urban poor in France.” (J. Cohen, 2012) Many people who managed to express their disaffection yet failed eventually decided to rise up and fight the government which imposed heavy taxes. Therefore, the brewing storm broke in 1789, while the French Revolution incurred. Many historians believe that that was somehow connected to the LIA.
Although a large amount of evidences indicate that the LIA actually influenced ancient civilizations in various ways, there are still arguments disapproving this opinion.
The theory which explains human history as an outcome of effects from geographical factors, or “human habits and characteristics of a particular culture are shaped by geographical conditions” as the dictionary explains, is called geographical determinism. Criticisms point out that the theory exaggerates the effect of natural environment on the development of human society. It is obviously incorrect to substitute natural law for social law. The geographical environment is one of necessary external conditions for human society to develop, admittedly, it affects considerably society as well. Nevertheless, it is absolutely not the determinant of development of human society. In fact, its effect may decrease as the human society goes forward.
Other criticisms focus on the explanation that historical events are considered as inevitable trend or irresistible outcome of some natural factors. For example, they think that it’s unreasonable to impute the collapse of Ming Dynasty of China to the little ice age alone. The corrosion of government and bureaucracy along with the policy of seclusion which caused the stagnation of technology development, are also critical reasons for the declination of China (Calebjael, 2014).
In conclusion, history is a long and complicated story written by every person, every movement, everything which has ever existed in the past time. Geographical factors, such as the presence of little ice age, will inevitably play an essential role in the history, especially in the ancient time. Today, our developments on technology allow us to do whatever we want to do, in spite of the nature. However, it takes price. Our achievement today mostly depends on what the nature gave to our ancestors. We should learn with respect what our ancestors encountered and how they dealt with them, what lesson they did take and what we should do in the future. The little ice age influenced human beings’ society from aspects including agriculture, economics, politics and cultures, etc. and therefore determined the life today to some extent. Our thoughts should be never limited in the little ice age. There are so many other geographical factors and historical events awaiting for us to explore. The attempt of discovering our history never ends.
Reference List:
Albion C. 2014. Impact of The Little Ice Age in Europe. Accessed on 28 June, 2015. Available from http://www.theapricity.com/forum/showthread.php?36426-Impact-of-The-Little-Ice-Age-in-Europe
Brian M. Fagan 2000. The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History, 1300-1850. Publisher: Basic Books
Imbrie J.; Imbrie K.P (1979). Ice ages: solving the mystery. Short Hills NJ: Enslow Publishers. ISBN 978-0-89490-015-0. Accessed on 20 April 2015.
Jennie Cohen 2012. Little Ice Age, Big Consequences. Accessed on 15 March, 2015. Available from http://www.history.com/news/little-ice-age-big-consequences
Jonathan Cowie 2007.Climate change: biological and human aspects. Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Kelly Morgan, 2010 The economic impact of the little ice age. Accessed on 20 April 2015. Available from http://researchrepository.ucd.ie/handle/10197/2649
K. Kris Hirst,2010 The Little Ice Age and Polynyas. Accessed on 20 April 2015. Available from http://archaeology.about.com/od/arctic/fl/The-Little-Ice-Age-How-Human-Cultures-Respond-to-Climate-Change_2.htm
Peter J. Robinson 2005. The Little Ice Age, Ca. 1300 – 1870. Accessed on 16 March, 2015. Available from http://www.eh-resources.org/timeline/timeline_lia.html
Scott A. Mandia, 2010 The Little Ice Age in Europe. Accessed on 20 April, 2015. Available from http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/mandias/lia/little_ice_age.html
 

Population Analysis of Yemen

Geography
Yemen is basically situated on the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, between Oman to the northeast (288 km of borderlines) and Saudi Arabia to the north (1,458 km of borderlines). Yemen has border with the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Aden to the south, and the Red Sea to the west. The length of coastline constitutes 1,906 kilometres and the width of coastal strip is between 30 and 60km.

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Yemen is world’s 49th largest country covering the area of 527,968 square kilometres or nearly twice the size of the US state of Wyoming or about the size of France. Topographically, Yemen is divided into five main geographical areas: mountains, plateaus, coast, Empty Quarter (AR-Rub-Alkhali) and islands. Yemen has 112 islands (mostly volcanic origin) of which the biggest and most inhabited is Kamaran. Kamaran is known for exceptional wild animals and plant species. Mayonoon Island (Breem) has strategic importance due to its location which lets to control the strait of Bab Al-Mandab.
The specific feature of this country is that it is situated at the entrance to the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait, which links the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean (via the Gulf of Aden) and this circumstance permits it to call one of the most active and strategic shipping lanes in the world.
Temperatures are generally very high in Yemen, especially in the coastal regions. This part of country is hot and humid throughout the year. The central highlands at 10,000 feet (3,048 meters), experience an average annual high temperature of 21°C: average daily temperature in January stands at 14°C and in July reaches 22°C. The climate of western coastal plain is tropical, therefore temperatures occasionally exceed 54° C, and the humidity ranges from 50 to 70 per cent. Rainfall usually comes in irregular heavy torrents with averages of 130 millimetres annually. The climate in Yemen is mostly desert, very hot and humid along the coastal sections. In addition to this, Yemen‘s western mountains are affected by seasonal monsoons, which rains may occur from April to August and from November to January.
Chart 1 Location of Yemen

Source: Euromonitor International
Regions
Yemen administratively is divided into 21 governorates, including the three newly created governorates Amran and Al-Daleh and Reymah. The governorates are further subdivided into a total of 333 districts and around 2,000 sub-districts.
Yemen is a relatively rural country, at an urbanization rate of just less than 33% at the end of the period. Most governorates boast low urbanization rates with the exception of Aden and Sana’a City that were 100% and 98% urbanized in 2013, respectively. According to the World Bank report 2012, governorates with the greatest poverty rate were Amran, Al-Bayda, Hajjah, and Shabwah and moat wealthy are Sana’a City and Al-Maharah.
Yemen is suffering from a strong north-south divide, with violence, armed clashes and protests hindering not just regional development and agricultural activities, but also detracting investors and much needed tourists away from the region. Up to late 2013, the UN-backed national dialogue between northern and southern representatives was mostly unsuccessful, causing UN to warn participators about “procrastination” and “obstruction” and urge breakthrough in the talks. The northern regions are expected to remain in a relatively better position than the south, due to greater political power and control of most natural resources.
The future of Yemen and its administrative division will depend on the performance of the National Dialogue Conference and the president’s decision. A new federal system in Yemen is to be expected in the near future. In early 2014, the National Dialogue Conference’s committee presented a final report on resolving the North-South tension issue. The Southern region would get 50% representation in executive, legislative and judicial bodies, as well as the army and security services. The final step is for the president to form a committee to decide on the number of regions in Yemen.
Chart 2 Regional Map of Yemen

Source: Euromonitor International
Table 4 Regional Statistics: Population, Urbanization Rate and Share of Population in Poverty
Population ‘000 (2013) Urbanization rate (2013)% of population in poverty (2006)
Taiz2,9542238
Al-Hodeidah2,6843532
Ibb2,6221830
Sana’a City2,2059815
Hajjah1,825948
Dhamar1,6411426
Hadramout1,2854636
Sana’a1,1362.828
Amran1,0871764
Laheg896947
Sa’adah8591517
Aden74810017
Al-Baida7121952
Al-Mahweet611731
Al-Daleh5831344
Shabwah5821654
Al-Jawf5451350
Abyan5402646
Reymah4861.034
Mareb2951346
Al-Maharah111429
Total24,4073335
Source: Euromonitor International from National Statistics
Cities
As of 2012, there were 225 cities in Yemen. The most significant and the largest urban centres in terms of population were the capital Sana’a (2.2 million people in 2013), a seaport city of Aden (748,000 ) and Ta’izz (around 600,000). Although an overwhelming majority of Yemenis live in rural areas (close to 70% in 2013), urbanisation is increasing.
Sana’a
Sana’a – Yemen’s capital city – has played a key political and economic role in Yemen for centuries. Sana’a is one of the major transport hubs in Yemen. A road link from the capital leads to Ta’izz and further to the old port of Mocha. Sana’a’s function as one of the most important transport nodes in Yemen, however, was underscored by the country’s biggest international airport located in the nearby town of Al Rahabah. Through this airport, Yemen’s capital is connected to key metropolises on the Arabian Peninsula, nearby African countries and India. In 2013, United Arab Emirates national airline Etihad Airways launched its new Abu Dhabi-Sana’a route by conducting an inaugural flight with high level officials from both countries.
Excellent education is one of the most notable characteristics of the Sana’a city – the University of Sana’a, founded in 1970, is one of the biggest higher education institutions in the Arab countries. In terms of manufacturing, a once flagship plant in the city – a cotton textile mill – after years of neglect and mismanagement, stands vacant awaiting for more funding.
Nevertheless, Yemen’s capital is witnessing a major real estate boom, as urbanisation processes in the country are moving forward. Some of the on-going projects include Sana’a City Mall and Sana’a East & Sana’a Terraces. Sana’a City Mall was estimated to cost US$200 million and was scheduled to be completed in 2013. The mall is expected to become the biggest shopping centre in Yemen, hosting shops, 10 cinema halls, an amusement area, a food court, a supermarket, and a parking space for 2,000 cars. Sana’a East & Sana’a Terraces is a project worth US$400 million and expected to be completed in 2016. It will be a mixed use development encompassing residences, hotel facilities, recreation, shopping and office zones.
Sana’a’s main strengths in attracting business opportunities are the proximity of government agencies and relatively extensive infrastructure. As of 2013, Sana’a international airport was undergoing a major renovation initiative amid the governmental ambition to boost tourism revenues: the construction of 12 air bridges and four halls to enable simultaneous handling of 18 aircrafts. Yet the future development of the city is likely to be significantly constrained by an on-going severe water crisis and lack of security. If the city’s water resources do not get replenished, Sana’a is expected to become a “ghost town” by 2030, according to an insight by the Reuters investigation.
Aden
Aden, located 400 km south of the capital Sana’a, is a vital seaport of Yemen, handling more than 60% of the country’s total incoming ships in 2012 and nearly 70% of net registered tonnage. Throughout its history, commercial activities in the port dominated in Aden’s economy. It used to be a major refuelling stop for vessels under the British colonial rule in 1950-1960 and later an economic engine of South Yemen. However, recently, the port has been witnessing a major blow to its operations, resulting from political protests in the country following the Arab Spring and disagreements between the national government and the port operator Dubai Ports (DP) World that abandoned its obligations in 2012. With the port operations having been so essential to Aden, as of early 2013, Yemeni authorities were negotiating a master plan for the city’s future development with the World Bank.
Aden has strengths that may be utilized to realise its commercial and tourism potential. It is strategically positioned in close proximity to major trade routes. Given its location on the Gulf of Aden, the city can potentially avoid widespread water shortages in Yemen if resources are mobilised to implement sea water desalination projects.
Yet a major weakness in the city’s development has been the poor execution of laid out plans. For example, Aden Free Zone, created in 1991, is still only an empty parch of land, while in nearby Djibouti, the Free Zone, established in 2004, is already up and running.
Aden’s port has seen a precipitous decline of transhipment volumes of 37% per year in 2007-2009, whereas Djibouti port’s figures have been on the rise (15% growth per annum in the same period). Future development of Aden will greatly depend on whether city’s officials can follow through with commitments and plans.
Tai’zz
Ta’izz is one of the most populous cities in Yemen. Ta’izz is Yemen’s most developed industrial city. Adequate rainfall and arable soil in the surrounding areas boost agro-industrial activities in Ta’izz, particularly coffee, cotton and vegetable cultivation. The city is also known for its leather and jewellery industries. Another important factor contributing to the development of Ta’izz’s industrial sector is the proximity of Aden, Al Hodeidah and Mocha ports which provide for an easy shipment of produced goods.
Ta’izz is the capital of the most populous governorate of the same name, with a relatively large consumer market providing further benefits for local companies. In fact, numerous biggest businesses in Yemen are located in Ta’izz, some of which belong to the HSA Group – Yemen’s major conglomerate engaged in manufacturing, commercial and services sectors. Ta’izz has good prospects for continued growth; yet as in all of Yemen, progress is primarily stalled by political upheavals and lack of security.
 

Effects of Population Growth

Nerujan Sivanesan
Issues of human geography have had irreversible impacts on the Earth as we know today. Over the centuries, the growing human population has led to high population densities, and has greatly affected the fate of one particular country. The environmental, economic and social impacts have been both positive and negative in the case of this nation. Although many nations are affected, no other place bears the weight of this issue more than the country of India.

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Currently, India has a population of 1,220,800,359 people and it ranks second according to the central intelligence agency website when compared to all the other countries around the world. In addition, population density is the number of people living per unit of an area1 and India currently retains a population density of 388 people/km2 in 2013 according to the population reference bureau website. As a result of their high population, it leads to the emergence of many socio-medical issues and survivalhood complications9 such as a lack of water supply as well as having a greater working population despite suffering from shortages of land and resources. In addition, it will lead to the reduction of population growth which in turn will assist in the reduction of its population in the future.
The environmental repercussions that will arise in India due to having a high population will massively affect this nation. Environmental issues such as a lack of water supply and polluted water will occur as a result of India’s continually growing population. In addition, the water supply that is obtained will most likely be polluted because daily garbage generation ranges more than 3-20 tons.3 All this generated garbage is found on streets, infront of homes and other properties which will end up in rivers and lakes, eventually contaminating the water. Also, the unregulated disposal of pollution occurs through drains joining into rivers, streams, and reservoirs.3 This is because companies do not have waste water treatments systems, thus, all the water in this environment will be contaminated by these chemicals.
Moreover, having a human population with a high population density will lead India to have a lot of gas powered vehicles on its streets which will result in air pollution. As a result of air pollution, it will contribute to global warming which will hamper the required weather conditions needed to maintain India’s agriculture, which is a critical part of their economic life. Unfortunately, the poor people will be most likely affected by this since most of them live in rural areas. This is bad news forIndia as a whole because agriculture is one of their most important ways for raising economic income. Even though there are mainly negative effects regarding the environmental implications for this issue, there are still some positive effects too. One positive effect would be that the increase in population in agricultural areas of India will result in a higher production of agriculture. Hence, this will help sustain the country both environmentally and economically because it will prevent shortages in food supply as well as provide an income for the poor agricultural workers.
Economic benefits and complications arise due to India having such a high population. In fact, Indians living in this highly populated country will be more willing to accept lower wages due to having a high unemployment rates. As a result this will attract more companies because they would not have to pay high wages and would allow India to grow economically. Even though India will economically grow because of the attraction of companies, their economy will still suffer due to the fact that a high number of people in this country are in poverty and that the gap between the poor and rich is growing. This is because the rich people are exploiting more resources than poor people.9 Also, the number of middle class people found in this nation will continue to grow so the purchasing power will become higher power. Therefore, the more people there are in a country, the greater their economic potential will.
In addition, having such a high population will result in the development of technology. For that reason, rising population promotes the need for some sort of technological change in order to meet the rising demands for certain goods and services, as a result more jobs will become available.13Moreover, a mass influx in population is considered harmful to economic growth since the resources found in India are found to be limited due to the increasing rate in population growth. Even though this is true, it can also lead them to have a very high working population. Since, the amount of resources will become limited due to the increase in population; their prices will greatly increase. Nonetheless, the increase in prices of resources would often lead people, especially poor people to suffer from starvation.
Consequences will arise for the reason that India will want to solve/reduce their current issue, overpopulation, however, its citizens financial status will determine whether the methods suggested is agreeable or not. It is a known fact that women play a decisive role in influencing the birth rates during their child bearing years. Therefore, family planning efforts are promoted such as encouraging later marriages as well as increasing the length of birth intervals so that the population rate will be reduced in the future. When successful, family planning efforts tend to help reduce the population rate because families will limit themselves to two children most of the time. In addition, women play a crucial role in high population rates because some women especially the women in poverty are illiterate which would mean there is an encouragement of early marriages. This is because families in poverty usually marry their daughters off in exchange for dowry once they enter their child bearing years. As a result this will assist both the daughter as well as her family economically. Since they are illiterate, they will be encouraged to have children in short birth intervals because they reside in rural areas and once their children become older they will begin to assist in the agricultural work given, as it is their only source of income. Evidence shows that women’s education has a positive association with a wider range of contraceptive product usage in India, whereby women possessing high levels of education use both modern and traditional non-terminal methods of birth control.4 In addition, women who are educated tend to marry later in their lives. Furthermore, this would mean that they have shorter child bearing years when compared to women who are illiterate.
India’s growing human population is still a concerning issue and it has affected the fate of this country environmentally, economically, and socially. Through environmental implications, water supplies will sometimes be contaminated because of a lack of waste water treatment systems in industrial companies and an increase in agricultural production will occur due escalation in population growth. In addition, the increase in agricultural production will help India’s economy to become much stronger. However, there are many people in this country that are in poverty which would cause its economy to decline. Later marriages will help reduce population growth because women will now have shorter child bearing years and this method is mostly used by educated women. Uneducated women marry during the initial stages of their child bearing year for economical or social reasons and this would mean they have longer child bearing years. Many consequences will result due to population growth and it can be interpreted in different ways on how it would affect India.
Reference
1.http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/population+density?s=t
2.http://www.sfu.ca/geography/undergraduate-program/human-geography-sfu
3.http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=J6sZo47jJNsC&oi=fnd&pg=PA50&dq=how+overpopulation+affects+India%27s+environment&ots=FZay88LUiG&sig=mS2rwX8b9T4W6A8-43hk7x7YoL0#v=onepage&q&f=false
4. http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/docview/200907237
5.http://web.b.ebscohost.com/abstract?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=09725784&AN=86021326&h=zu59X88190lyNltFvjZpfzTtHQ5aKCt8BM87felpzhBaD7AK10%2fd2ePpsRh3LSDL5tE5GRrFKnzAALuXIi2cng%3d%3d&crl=c
6. http://www.prb.org/DataFinder/Topic/Rankings.aspx?ind=30&fmt=31&tf=54&loc=249,250,251,252,253,254,34227,255,257,258,259,260,261,262,263,264,265,266,267,268,269,270,271,272,274,275,276,277,278,279,280,281,282,283,284,285,286,287,288,289,290,291,292,294,295,296,297,298,299,300,301,302,304,305,306,307,308,311,312,315,316,317,318,319,320,321,322,324,325,326,327,328,34234,329,330,331,332,333,334,336,337,338,339,340,342,343,344,345,346,347,348,349,350,351,352,353,354,358,359,360,361,362,363,364,365,366,367,368,369,370,371,372,373,374,375,377,378,379,380,381,382,383,384,385,386,387,388,389,390,392,393,394,395,396,397,398,399,400,401,402,404,405,406,407,408,409,410,411,415,416,417,418,419,420,421,422,423,424,425,427,428,429,430,431,432,433,434,435,437,438,439,440,441,442,443,444,445,446,448,449,450,451,452,453,454,455,456,457,458,459,460,461,462,464,465,466,467,468,469,470,471,472,473,474,475,476,477,478,479,480&sort=Ascending&sortBy=value
7.http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.POP.DNST?order=wbapi_data_value_2010+wbapi_data_value+wbapi_data_value-last&sort=asc
8. http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/docview/1346647850
9.http://rierc.org/social/paper174.pdf
10.https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html
11. http://asbbs.org/files/2011/JBBS_24.1_Spring_2012.pdf#page=108
12.http://www.indiawaterportal.org/sites/indiawaterportal.org/files/Climate change in India_Forgotten threats, forgotten opportunities_EPW_2010.pdf