Theories of Leadership in Professional Practise

Leadership is one of the greatest challenges faced by the nursing profession. Powerful leadership skills are needed by all nurses. Now a days the U.K health care field is changing and it is always changing. Leaders in nursing has meet the opportunities and challenges that presently exist and to make work changes. Leaders are not merely a series of skills or tasks rather its an altitude that informs behaviour(Cook ,2001)
A nursing leader one who is involved in the direct patient care and who continuously improves care by influencing others.(Cook,2001) Leaders are not merely those who control others but they acts as visionaries who help employees to plan,control and organise their activities. Nurse leaders should be aware of changing the environment and make changes pro actively.(Jooste.2004)
Several important functions of a nurse leader are Acting as role model.Collaboration to provide optimum care.Provision of information and support.Providing care based on theory and research.An adequate for patients and health care organisation. Knowledge of management and communication skill..(http://www.neurosemantics.com/business-ns/leadership-reflections-1) Characteristics of leaders are appropriate knowledge,trust,recognition,experience,mobility,leading,virtuosity,effectiveness.
The nurses hard work in achieving these goals is responsability of an effecive leadership. Royal college of nursing (1993) in the U.K introduced three initiatives that is the RCN clinical leadership programe,leading an empowered organization and the last one is the regionally -led national programmes linked to national service frame work targets.
The theories of leadership are1. “Great Man” Theories:(1900-1940)
Great Man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is a basic – that great leaders are born with innate qualities, not made and intended to lead. These theories often give detailed description as great leaders are very brave and intended to rise to leadership when needed. The name “Great Man” was used because, at the time, leadership concepts was of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military and western
2. Trait Theories:
The Great Man theory and Trait theory were the first form of theories in leadership until the mid 1940s, Trait theory assume that people recieve certain qualities and a particular quality in your personality that make them better to do good leadership. Trait theories frequently identify individual personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. If particular traits are the most important qualities of leadership, then how do we explain people who have those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the quality of being hard in using trait theories to understand leadership.
3. Contingency Theories:(1950-1980)
This type of leadership mainly focusing on particular situation related to the environment that might explain which particular model of leadership is best suited for the situation and it was suggested almost 100 years ago by Mark Parker Follet. According to this theory, no effective leadership style is best in all particular circumsatances. Success depends upon a situation , including qualities of the followers, aspects of the situation and the leadership style
4. Situational Theories:
Situational theories says that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situations. It also propose that different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for different levels of decision-making.
5. Behavioral Theories:(1940-1980)
Behavioral theories of leadership are mainly concentrated on the belief that great leaders are made, not born and what leaders do rather than on thier qualities, this leadership theory mainly focuses on the actions of leaders not on their mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can able to become good leaders through teaching and observation.
6. Participative Theories:
Participative leadership theories states that the standard leadership style is one that takes the act of putting others into account. These leaders encourage the involvement and contributions from team members and help team members feel more connected and committed to the decision-making process. In this theories, however, the leader remembers the right to allow the information of others.
7. Transactional Theories:
Transactional theories is also called as managemental theories and it almost focus on the management taks,uses trade-offs to meet goals ,role of supervision, organization and group performance. These theories based on a system of achievements and a penality inflicted.
8.Transformational Theories:
Transformational theories is also known as Relationship theories. It focus upon the relationship formed between leaders and followers and it identifies the common values. It motivate and create a feeling in people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. These leaders are concentrate on the performance of group members, but also want each individual to achieve the latent qualities that may be developed and lead to future success. Leaders with this style often have high principles and moral standards.
I assure that leadership does not make sense without reflection. For now I would like to offer some reflections about leadership that I have been experiencing how it relates to behaviors and implications for all of us. Leadership is not a thing but a process therefore more accurately decribed using verbs than nouns.As a process its about what and how we are doing the things.there is only leadership when some one is leading and people who like that leading and so follow that lead.This makes the whole leadership thing an interpersonal process involving communicating ,relating ,acting collaborating,giving and receiving feedback(http://www.neurosemantics.com/business-ns/leadership-reflections-1)

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Reflections for leadership are heart of leadership about pioneering a new path:-That means Paths are pioneered by the presence of problems,difficulties ,conflicts,stresses distresses ,traumas and things not going right. Leader demands both likes and dislikes,followed and resisted. Set visions about the future. Leaders have to be able to take the heatleaders are only leaders to extent that they add value. Hall,M(1994)
After all, The need for the study of leadership is getting a clear idea about the leadership that I have and want to offer as well as empowering others to manage their own states to become good leaders.
Reflection is just thinking about what you have done and how you could do it better next time. Johns (2004)states that reflection is to face up and deal with a problem and resolve the contradiction between what the professional practitioner wants to be and do and what he actually does. Donald Schon (1985)suggests that there are two forms of reflection .One is during the event that is known as reflection in action and the other one is after the event that is reflection on action. Reflection is a great significance human activity in which they recreate their knowledge or skill gained, think about it, and evaluate it. There are several models of reflection like Bowskill”s shared thinking2008, Rolfe 2001,Johns 1995,Gibbs 1988, Kolb 1984,Argyris and Schon 1978.
The models of reflection which i would like to discuss is the Johns”model 1995 and Bowskills shared thinking 2008
Johns’ model is a quality of beilng well organized reflection which provides a practitioner with a help to gain greater understanding. It is in order to produce a clearly defined through the act of sharing with a team member or an experienced adviser, which make it easier the practical contacts to develop into a knowledge at a faster rate . Johns mainly tells the significance of gained knowledge and the skill of a nurse to access, supply and put into practice information that has been gain through experience rather than theory. Reflection occurs though ‘looking in’ and’ looking out’ at the situation that affects someway. Johns’ write out a note about the result of Carper’s (1978) to expand on the opinion of ‘looking out’ at an experience. Five patterns of knowing are there in the guided reflection, having a practitioner analyze the aesthetic, personal, ethical, empirical and the reflexive elements experienced through the situation. Johns’ model that touches on many important basic principle of a subject and allows for reflection.
Bowskill’s Shared Thinking 2008
Nicholas Bowskill and colleagues at the University of Glasgow (Steve Brindley, Vic Lally, Steve Draper and Quintin Cutts) have suggested and developed a process of group reflection. Bowskill gave this social and a debate about the label ‘Shared Thinking.’ This request completely change the impression of the practice and idea of reflection into a situation which an event happens. Shared Thinking uses for practical tasks to influence what people do the wide range of experiences from reflective informal talking in a class, and to make the people seeing the things clear. By making them public in this way, the Shared Thinking way produce a particular feeling or impression of a resource for cognitive and particular development. This interdependent approach allows each individual to use the group as a good at finding ways of solving difficulties. Each participant will get the ‘take’ of others for comparing with their own personal opinion and experiences.
In this model of reflection, Shared Thinking is a thorough and complete act of leaving from the ideas and to improve the reflection based around participants thinking individually or in small groups. Here in the place of a way in which organizing and can be transferred practice for a group of reflection and to achieve a particular aim of learning. Shared Thinking provides quantitative and qualitative measures of collective experience. Such practices and measures also helps a new group study of teaching methods and a new research model for examine the evidence of experience at the collective level.
The model which i prefer is the Johns model because it includes looking in, looking out, Aesthetics, Personal, Ethics, Empirics, and Reflexivity.
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EYFS 2017 as a Good Practise Guideline in the Early Years Settings

Introduction
The following report will discuss how the EYFS,2017 is used as a guideline for good practise in an early years setting.  It was also be discussing how the EYFS have certain regulations about assessments which to be undertaken for children in the setting by practitioners (Department for Education, 2017)
Roles of an early years practitioner will be discussed such as encouraging learning and development, through play and teaching, creating a safe environment, Daily observations and assessments (Department for Education, 2017).
Reflective practise will be discussed and how reflective practise allows practitioners to gain a clear understanding of their own practise and continuously develop their own skills and expertise (Department for children, schools and families, 2010).
This report will discuss how Anti- bias and Anti-Discriminatory is practised in an early years settings and how the Equality Act 2010 protects children from discrimination. Discrimination is the act of treating someone unfairly because they are a different race, religion, gender, have a disability or different skin colour. Anti-discriminatory is aimed at counteracting the negative effects of discrimination on children and parents and at combating discrimination in any form (RCN, 2017)
EYFS
Established under the Childcare Act 2006, the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS, DFE,2017) is a statutory framework for the learning, growth and care of children from birth to five. This explains what is meant by the provision of high quality Early Years in England attended by children from birth until age 5 + (Department for Education, 2017).
The (Department for Education, 2017) is a major influence on practise, the EYFS framework has received high levels of support from all practitioner groups and there is broad consensus that it impacts many areas of everyday practise and improves the quality of education for young children and their parents (Department for Education, 2017).
The Early Years Professional Practitioner plays a crucial part in the learning and development of the child while working alongside the EYFS. It is the duty of professionals to use their knowledge and expertise to improve the learning environment and create additional learning opportunities for children (Department for Education, 2017).
Good Practice is about guaranteeing that all children get the most out of their EYFS experience. This can be achieved when adults work together to get to know the children so they can help their play, development and learning (Department for Education, 2017).
Assessment plays an important role in helping parents, carers and practitioners recognise the progress of children, understand their needs, and plan activities and support. The EYFS,2017 regulations provide assessments you will need to undertake in your practice for every child.  There are two sets of assessments, age-specific assessments, and ongoing assessments.  Assessments are associated with the wider topic of learning and development. Assessments should be undertaken through observations on a child through seven areas of learning & development and lead into your future planning. (Department for Education, 2017).

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Observation is the practise of watching and listening to children in order to find out how they develop, what they like to do and what they learn through their play and the experiences they offer. It is important for parents and practitioners to share what they know about these things, so that they can assess whether the development of the child is at the expected level, whether the facilities such as toys and equipment are appropriate for the child and reflect on what to provide in the future to support the child in developing new interests, learning new skills and gaining new knowledge (Early Years Matter, 2016)
Role of the Practitioner
An early years practitioner is someone who works in any school nursery, or childcare setting for young children ages of 0-5 years old. As a practitioner in early years, your roles and responsibilities may include, encouraging learning and development, through play and teaching, creating a safe environment e.g Anti- bias and Anti-Discriminatory Practice, Working with parents to support their children ,ensure children build their literacy, language and numeracy skills, monitor progress and play educational games, put together activities which will keep children engaged throughout the day, help children get ready for the transition into a classroom environment, help children to become more independent when carrying out daily tasks (Department for children, schools and families, 2009).
Understanding the individual needs of a child is done using the EYFS,2017 principle assessment, evaluation and development process. Early Years Settings use this framework to ensure that children’s individual needs are met. Early Years Practitioners work in a setting which they use the EYFS,2017 to track, assess and prepare for the children’s learning (Kelly, 2016)
Daily observations and photographs of a child are taken which allow the practitioner to gain a better understanding of the individuality of the child. Some researchers have made reference to the significance of observing children. An Early Years Practitioner’s role is crucial in ensuring that all children achieve their personal development goals and attain the highest learning level possible. (Kelly, 2016)
In addition to observations and photographs, the learning journeys also include a sheet called “all about me.” This is done first by parents to help practitioners learn about the child and then completed by a key worker. Observations play an important role in the child’s development, and they can be used in many ways. Learning journeys are completed on a monthly basis which are held for each child and include the best achievements for that child, these are unique to the child and give an idea of the development of the child. Learning Journeys are connected to EYFS, and an EYFS quote is produced for each observation or photo (Kelly, 2016).
Reflective Practice
As a reflective practitioner, you will think about how you work, recognize your strengths, but also recognise your weaknesses, Consider the impact your actions have on children and their families, review your methods to improve the quality of your practise (Kelly, 2016).
Reflective practise enables early childhood practitioners to gain a clear understanding of their own practise and continuously develop the skills, expertise and strategies necessary to achieve the best results for children (Department for children, schools and families, 2010).
As an early years practitioner you should provide the best possible care for the children in your setting, Reflective practise is an excellent way of constantly maintaining and improving the consistency of your work (pacey, 2016).
Reflective practise is the process of thinking about and examining your practise, in order to challenge, alter, adjust, grow and strengthen it. It should be a process of constant evaluation and development (pacey, 2016).
You need to be able to take a balanced view of your practise to be a positive professional, identify and appreciate your strengths and what works well, but consider what can be strengthened. Reviewing your practise will help you identify your needs for professional development, and help you become more comfortable in your practise over time (pacey, 2016).
Keeping a diary is one way to reflect on your thoughts and feelings. This way you can identify the week’s events with your priorities and conclusions etc. The reflective process of Gibbs (1988) can be very useful to make you think through all the stages of an experience or activity. You could record a description of what happened, how you were feeling ,evaluate what was good and bad about the experience, analysis and  conclude what could be done different and do an action plan of what to do if a situation occurs again (Kelly, 2016).
Anti- bias and Anti-Discriminatory Practice
Anti-discriminatory practise in an early years setting can be described as an approach to working with young children that encourages diversity and acceptance of all differences, self-esteem and positive group identity, development of individual potential and full involvement of all groups in society (Dickins, 2002).
Anti-Bias and anti-discriminatory practice are important as each child is given their right to learning and development opportunities. It is all about ensuring that you refrain from judging or making assumptions for having an anti-discriminatory and anti-biased practise as this helps to promote and protect the welfare of children as well as setting a good example as a role model. When you establish an environment in which there is an anti-discriminatory practice engaging with the parents is easily seen to build relationships as well as in the best interests of the child (Unicef, 2006).
The Equality Act 2010 protects people from discrimination this includes children in any early years setting.The Equality Act,2010 places a legal responsibility on all practitioners to promote equality and eliminate discrimination in an early years setting. The protected characteristics covered by the equality act,2010 are gender, sexual orientation, age, disability, race and religion.The Equality Act 2010 ensures settings make reasonable adjustments to make sure that a child with a protected characteristic is not at a disadvantage. Settings can do this by considering policies and practises, considering physical features of the environment and considering if the need for auxiliary aids or other equipment.(Essex County Council, 2010)
The forms of discrimination the equality act highlights are direct, indirect, discrimination arising from disability, failing to make reasonable adjustments and multiple discrimination. To develop an anti discriminatory practise you must challenge someone if they make discriminatory comments or behave in a discriminatory way (Tower Hamlets Council, 2017)
Conclusion
To conclude this report, research has shown that the EYF,2017 is a major influence on early years practise.
References

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Kelly (2016a). Reflective Practice – Early Years Careers. [online] Early Years Careers. Available at: http://www.earlyyearscareers.com/eyc/latest-news/reflective-practice/ [Accessed 30 Jan. 2020].
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Essex County Council (2010). Role of the Equality Named Co-ordinator (ENCO). [online] Essex.gov.uk. Available at: https://eycp.essex.gov.uk/the-early-years-foundation-stage/how-can-i-promote-equality-and-inclusion-in-my-provision/role-of-the-equality-named-co-ordinator-enco/ [Accessed 3 Feb. 2020].
Tower Hamlets Council (2017). Equality Guidance for Early Years Settings Tower Hamlets Council Early Years Inclusion Team. [online] Available at: https://www.towerhamlets.gov.uk/Documents/Children-and-families-services/Early-Years/Equality_Guidance.pdf [Accessed 3 Feb. 2020].