Nutrition for Pregnant Women, Athletes and Children

Introduction to Nutrition
Genetically Modified Food
Foods developed from organisms whose DNA is changed by applying methods of genetic engineering is known as Genetically Modified foods. Such techniques allow control over food’s generic structure and introduce new crop traits.
Example
There is several genetic modified food, some of them are given below:

Pesticide resistant rape plants
Golden rice
Long-lasting tomatoes
Soybeans
Vaccination banana

GM foods are derived from organisms whose DNA has been modified artificially, these crops are to improve yield by providing resistance to plant diseases. In future, genetically modified foods will alter the nutrient content of foods by reducing it allergic portion or improving the efficiency of food production systems.
The main health concerns for new genetically engineered food revolve around being allergic or toxic through the engineered process. FDA reports that foods they have evaluated till now are not likely to cause an allergic or toxic reaction (McFadden, 2014).
Nonetheless stomach sections presented reasonable erosive/necrotic lesions in seven female rats but no one in the panels but no histology was done as these were deliberated to be of no prominence. Even though in senior humans who used aspirin to prevent thrombosis, this can cause life-endangering hemorrhage (Kok, 2014).
Benefits of GM food
Some opportunities to use GM foods for good are:

Better resistance against weeds, pest and other diseases; such as corn
Corn is widely grown and an essential grain in the United States.
Corn cannot be reproduced without human aid.

The below table shows that what % of food is modified in UAE:

Conclusion
In order to decide regarding the use and regulation of these genetically modified plants, one must be well informed and aware of this new technology.
Gestational and Maternal Nutrition
Key dietary guidelines for a pregnant woman
Eating a healthy diet during pregnancy is vital for both mother and baby. Nutritious diet can help you promote your baby’s growth and development.
Grains
Many whole-grain and enriched products contain carbohydrate, fiber and iron.
Meat, poultry, fish, eggs and beans
Protein is important for baby’s growth during second and third trimesters. Protein, B vitamins are present in foods of this group.
Dairy products
Dairy products are enriched with calcium. Calcium fortified soy milk helps to build baby bones.
Recommended supplements used during pregnancy
Supplement of folic acid is commonly recommended. Sources recommend 1200 mcg of folate (natural form) per day for maximum benefit.
To meet nutritional needs, pregnant women are encouraged to consume a rich, along a daily vitamin and mineral supplement.
Recommended food to eat
Avocados, Mangoes, Broccoli, Carrots & Spinach
DHA eggs & yogurt, Edamame beans
Lentils, Oatmeal
Nuts
Foods to avoid
In order to not get ill or harm baby’s health, there are some foods that should be avoided.

Some types of cheese

Pâté

Raw or partly cooked eggs & meat

Ice cream

Caffeine& herbal teas

Liver

Vitamin/fish oil supplements

Cold, cured meats

Peanuts

Fish & smoked fish

Milk & yogurt

Raw shellfish & sushi

Foods with soil on them

 

Nutritional needs of breast feeding mothers
Women are recommended to continue eating nutrition full diet similarly to how they were eating during their pregnancy. A breast-feeding woman requires 200 more calories than a pregnant woman provided that the calories come from nutritious foods.
While breast-feeding two to three servings of protein must be taken each day. Good sources of protein include:

Meat & Poultry
Seafood & Tofu
Dairy products
Dried beans

The foods that are avoided during pregnancy are also recommended to be avoided during breast feeding because it might cause an allergic reaction or harm to either mother or baby.
Nutritional requirements of Athletes
Key dietary guidelines for an athlete
For an athlete there is an excessive and well balanced diet, which is full of nutrition. As an athlete it is necessary to maintain the proper diet , there must be have proper balance of nutrients, minerals, vitamins and well as calories to improve the performance.
Supplements
The supplements used by athlete are, BS-Vitamins, protein, omega 3 fatty acids (fish oil), vitamin D, magnesium, Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)
Athletes requires more amount of nutrients they actually demand from their bodies than even almost equal fitness buffs in order to compensate with the help of nutrients, which can be obtained from foods or supplement, so that performance cab be remained for a long time.
In order to achieve them maximum level of performance, there are some recommended food to gain maximum carbohydrate storage, it is suggested by the experts that they need to get around70% of its calories from carbohydrates, along with pasta, fruits, cereals, vegetables etc.
Foods to avoid
There are some foods which are recommended to avoid for athletes, these foods are avoidable to meet with the maximum level of great performance. The avoidable foods are including energy and protein bars, sports drink and as well as it is also needful to avoid
Before running a long-drawn-out there are some recommended ways that must be done by an athlete? The foremost tips for them are:
Don’t carbo-overload
A body can store sufficient amount of carbohydrates in order to keep them going for around 90 minutes approx., which it has to help to sweltering fat reserves for liveliness
Make the use of plain and familiar foods
To avoid from unwanted gas, diarrhea, inflating, it is necessary to take care from junk foods, avoid unused foods and also keep away from spicy foods as well.
Supplements used by body builders
There are some supplements used by an athlete. It is appropriate for working amazingly, but if diet is not proper then these supplements will not be very much effective. Those supplements are usually included, multi vitamins, glutamine, creatine, thermogenics, ZMA as well (Perret, 2014).
Side effects of supplements
As it is known that there are several supplements used by an athlete to improve the efficiency However, not all supplements are effective. Although there disadvantages are more as compared to their advantages. As time passes it weakens the body, in some cases it make the body addicted to these supplements.
Nutrition for School-Age Children and Healthy Lunchboxes
Key dietary
The key dietary for school age children are usually including eat four to five times a day, as well as including snacks, which are healthy for children. Degree of development and frequently eat 4 to 5 times per day, as well as snacks which are full of nutrients. After coming back from schools it is good for them to take healthy snacks, because these snacks contribute more third of the total calorie for the day (Napier, 2014).
Supplements recommended during childhood
In case of required supplements for children, vitamins and minerals are significant elements of the total nutritional needs. The reason is that body is not able to produce more amount of vitamin, therefore some supplements are required to adequate the nutritional need in children. The included supplements are Vitamin A, B, C and D.
As body need multiple vitamins, that why vitamins and minerals should be increased in an adequate amount. In certain, a good and increased quantity of protein, iron, calcium and as well as vitamins A and D is necessary.
Recommended food
As calcium is most significant in school age children, therefore it is recommended to increase the amount of calcium in their daily routine. They need calcium around 500 mg per day, and the best basis of this nutrient is cow’s milk. As well as meat, eggs, wheat is also recommended for them.
Foods to avoid
These are the following food, which are avoidable at school age of children, for example processed meats, sports drink, canned tomatoes, sugary cereals (Weichselbaum, 2014)
Potential food allergens
Along with a food allergy, the human body comes into some reaction process as though that specific food product is risky and unsafe. Due to which the immune system of body produces antibodies in order to fight with the food allergen, the constituent in the food that activates the antipathy.
In the schools of UAE all types of processed food, as well as all categories of crisps, fries and chocolates are provided, although now it is going to be replaced by healthier selections such as vegetables and healthy fruits in the Northern Emirates state schools and in all Dubai.
Ways to Make Food More Fun for children
In order to attract children towards healthier foods, there are some interesting ways by which school age children can easily get interest, for example by changing the color of food into their favorite colors, because colorful foods naturally more attracting to children, like this we can maximize their interest, use fun names of their foods.
To encourage the use of healthy food in children. Do some additional efforts, a child can detecthungerand fullness better, Formerly offering a subsequent facilitating or serving, test your child by making them await for a few minutes to observe if they are really still hungry.
Healthy snacking vs. Junk food
Junk foods usually have high ranks of calories from sugar or fat along with littleprotein,minerals and vitamins. Foods generally measured junk foods contain saltedsnack foods,candy, sweetdesserts, gum, sugarycarbonated beverages and fried fast food. Plain snacks similar plain cereals, vegetables and pasta are correspondingly slightly general.
What effect does tobacco/sheesha have on our body and diet?
Tobacco is a sort of plant that is usually grown in the southeastern of USA. North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia, are the manufacturers of tobacco (Khan, 2014).
Tobacco smoke comprises a poisonous mixture of more than 7,000 toxic elements. In which 70 types of chemicals can cause cancer among the addicted users of smoking. Here are some of the chemicals.

Formaldehyde
Polonium 210
Vinyl chloride
Benzene

There are several side effects for long term smokers. Even though the risks regarding health are at high risks among heavy smokers, the usage of tobacco damages the lungs. Condensed lung function and a deteriorating of difficulties from asthma.
All smokers are at further risk for:

Coronary heart disease
Peripheral vascular disease
High cholesterol (LDL)
Lung cancer
Cancer of the mouth, throat and voice box
Cancer of the pancreas
Cancer of the kidney, and urinary bladder
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Influenza The common cold
Peptic ulcers

Although it is not well understood, that smoking can have direct effects on the daily dietary routine. Smoking is related with reduced nutrition intake and subordinate body weight. Nicotine accomplished whichever by means of smoking or by smokeless routes, is considered the main constituent of tobaccos.
There are many negative effects of smoking on human bodies. Nicotine and the poisonous ingredients in cigarettes not solitary trough the body of vitamins and minerals, nevertheless they also chunk absorption of these vigorous nutrients.
Of course tobacco is harmful for body.
Percentage of tobacco use in UAE.

Several efforts have been done by the government of UAE in order to control the excessive use of smoking in the Arab countries, different number of orders have been made to put health warning on the packets of tobacco and also decided to start some advertisement campaign with the help of TV and radio stations.
After several researches it has been observed that the usage of tobacco is not useful for human being, as it damages the lungs, increases the respiratory problems like asthma. Therefore there should have something in order to ban the usage of these types of toxic elements as it is harmful and spoil the precious life of human being. Smoking is self-sufficiently related with reduced bone density of the hip, in body of younger and as well as older persons.
What effect does caffeine have on our body and diet?

Caffeine is formed by means of numerous plants as a self-protective mechanism, and the caffeine which is added to soda derives from unused produces of tea and coffee handling.
Chemicals existent in caffeine arenitrogenousorganic compoundbelong to thealkaloidgroup, constituents that have noticeable physiological special effects.
Sometimes caffeine is safe for alders, but on the other hand it has numerous side effects like it can cause insomnia, vomiting, headache, anxiety and agitation as well, caffeine can also increase heart rate and can disturb the respiration.
Even amongst grown person, substantial caffeine usage can become the main reason of unkind side effects. And caffeine possibly will not be a respectable selection for people who are exceedingly delicate to its possessions.
As soon as the caffeine enters the body it is previously being metabolized by means of the liver and fragmented into theophylline, theobromine, and paraxanthine. The caffeine metabolites are at that point clarified through the kidneys and after that they exit from the body with the urine.
Caffeine also prevents the quantity of calcium that is engrossed over the gastric tract and exhausts the volume reserved by means of the bones. Caffeine constrains the receptors of vitamin D, which bound the quantity that will be fascinated (Bray, 2014). For the reason that vitamin D is significant in the absorption and as well as the usage of calcium in bone, further this can reduce bone inorganic density, consequential in an augmented danger for osteoporosis.

Benefits of Caffeine
Caffeine has several side effects like caffeine assorted along with carbsrefills muscle glycogen meditations sooner after isometrics. Therefore caffeine is healthier than sleep while you have to be alert during driving
We can conclude that caffeine expended by means of ordinary sources is doubtless the preeminent meanwhile numerous of the healthiness welfares of caffeine are perhaps fundamentally because of the extraordinary antioxidant intensities originate by consistent coffee and tea.
References
Bray, G. A., & Popkin, B. M. (2014). Dietary sugar and body weight: have we reached a crisis in the epidemic of obesity and diabetes? Health be damned! Pour on the sugar. Diabetes care, 37(4), 950-956.
http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/37/4/950.short
Kok, E., Pedersen, J., Onori, R., Sowa, S., Schauzu, M., De Schrijver, A., & Teeri, T. H. (2014). Plants with stacked genetically modified events: to assess or not to assess?.Trends in biotechnology.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167779913002527
Khan, A., & Laronde, D. M. (2014). Waterpipe smoking: A” healthy” alternative to cigarettes or a health hazard in disguise?. Canadian Journal of Dental Hygiene, 48(1).
http://web.a.ebscohost.com/abstract?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=1712171X&AN=95297677&h=AzEmhzHPPWlAbfHh5VIyex4T3aYkrBUhX7EKBVrG%2fjuVnCzgQBUsjvM9buJOhAmciOQm370ykgEXoHN%2fmdjNZQ%3d%3d&crl=c
McFadden, B., & Lusk, J. (2014). Cognitive Biases in the Assimilation of Scientific Information on Global Warming and Genetically Modified Food.
http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/162532/2/SAEA%202014.pdf
Napier, C., & Hlambelo, N. (2014). Contribution of school lunchboxes to the daily food intake of adolescent girls in Durban. South African Journal of Child Health, 8(2), 59-63.
http://www.sajch.org.za/index.php/SAJCH/article/view/658
Perret, C., & Shaw, G. (2014). 11 Use of Supplements in Athletes. Sports Nutrition for Paralympic Athletes, 167.
http://books.google.com.pk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=b3pcAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA167&dq=Nutritional+requirements+of+Athletes&ots=rpDP8-Vuiz&sig=IQutYU1r5tOt80PT9__Ld41L7CE#v=onepage&q=Nutritional%20requirements%20of%20Athletes&f=false
Weichselbaum, E., & Buttriss, J. L. (2014). Diet, nutrition and schoolchildren: An update. Nutrition Bulletin.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nbu.12071/full
 

Impact of 16 and Pregnant on Teen Pregnancy Rates

Teen pregnancy rates drop because of tv shows like MTV’s ’16 and Pregnant’
When tv shows such as MTV’s ’16 and Pregnant’ first began airing on tv most people believed that the show would encourage teenage pregnancy, but they were mistaken. The show actually made teen pregnancy rates drop instead. Shows such as this one has proven itself to actually proven to prevent teen pregnancy instead of encouraging it.
Studies have shown that teen pregnancy rates have began to drop since the show has first begun airing on tv ,as well as more searches on how to receive birth control, and have also encouraged teenagers to start practicing safer sex. The show just might be the reason why teen pregnancy rates had dropped so dramatically ,coincidentally it occurred after the show actually began airing. To find out for sure scientists began a study to figure out what had been going on and they found that, “the show and its spinoffs actually had an educational effect, cutting the teen birth rate by six per cent, or more than 20,000 births, in 2010” (“Remote (birth) control”). This proves ’16 and Pregnant’ actually made a difference in people’s lives and let alone their futures. The teenagers who watched the show lives were changed, “Neither the boys nor girls who watched the episodes wanted to imitate the teens in the episodes they watched. In fact, nearly all teens (93%) who watched the show agreed (53% strongly agreed) with the statement: “I learned that teen parenthood is harder than I imagined from these episodes”(Suellentrop et al) , also an interview was conducted from a few people on the show and they asked, ” are teens influenced by what they see on TV” , and one of the interviewes replied with,”what teenagers are watching can make a really big difference in what they think and, ultimately, how they behave and really important life decisions” (Is ’16 and Pregnant’ An Effective Form Of Birth Control?). The young women and men that watched the show and who were interviewed could have been just like the other teenagers on ’16 and Pregnant’ but the shows presented them a better outlook on life and a safer one at that.This show alone has changed some people’s future and even dropped the teen pregnancy percentages. They helped the troubled young community make a difference in society and for the next generation to come.

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The show has also been proven to teach teenagers that safer sex such as using contraception like birth control or condoms may be necessary to prevent themselves from becoming teen moms or fathers besides abstinence altogether. By using these helpful devices they are automatically less likely to get pregnant or get another person pregnant by high percentages. Researchers found that, “The show may actually encourage him or her to practice safer sex, according to a new study”(Jacque Wilson). Practicing safer sex not only helps to prevent teen pregnancies, but also protects against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that could lead to tissue scarring and permanent damage. The shows continue to teach the teenagers important lessons and help to, “create an opportunity to talk to teens about the risks of sex”(Suellentrop et al). This evidence is continuing to prove the effectiveness and the extra chances that this show provides for young boys and girls that could’ve possibly gone through a tougher time.This helps teens and their parents to also help in the prevention in the pregnancy problem. As parents usually wanted to be involved especially when it has to do with their kids futures as well as someone else’s.
’16 and Pregnant’ also started conversations about the show and teen pregnancy , and all over made teen pregnancy a less commonplace as well as made more teenagers change their point of views on the topic from a typical okay ordeal to one frowned upon and a less likely matter.They even began to talk themselves out of the idea of being a pregnant teenager was easy, the difficulty level changed their mind.Things continued to change because, “The more teens talked about the show, the less likely they were to think that teen pregnancy and teen parenthood are commonplace”(Suellentrop et al).The quote proves the changes that are happening and contributing to the dramatic pregnancy rates dropping.The scientists even showed that the teenagers perceptions were changing and they learned , ” more about how watching and discussing episodes of the popular MTV documentary-style reality show 16 and Pregnant influences teens’ perceptions of getting pregnant and becoming a parent at a young age”(Suellentrop et al). The scientists referred to how the teens changed their ideas about pregnancy because of the show .The show starts conversations that help to prevent and protect the mother of the teenagers getting pregnant at such a young age. Including maybe losing them altogether.
When teenagers decide to turn on tv shows like ’16 and Pregnant’ they decide to use safer sex, they also change their minds about teen pregnancy and its difficulty level, as well as contributing in other ways to help drop pregancy rates. The teenagers are now going to have a better life as well as lining up their futures kids to have better lives just by not getting pregnant as a teenager. Therefore concluding the research is proof that “16 and Pregnant’ does not glamorize pregnancy it shows real life situations that other teenagers can relate and connect to helping them protect themselves from mistakes, diseases, and other bad decisions that could have made along the way but now because of the show they are less likely to have to experience all those issues .
References
“Is ’16 and Pregnant’ An Effective Form Of Birth Control?” All Things Considered, 13 Jan. 2014. Student Resources in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A356696128/SUIC?u=j020902&xid=f7739508. Accessed 6 Feb. 2017.
“Remote (birth) control.” Maclean’s, 27 Jan. 2014, p. 8. Student Resources in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A356454110/SUIC?u=j020902&xid=ab051b7b. Accessed 6 Feb. 2017.
Suellentrop, Katherine, et al. “Reality Television Shows Reveal the Risks of Teen Pregnancy.” Teen Dating, edited by Louise I. Gerdes, Greenhaven Press, 2013. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010862223/OVIC?u=j020902&xid=ffc0af4b. Accessed 3 Feb. 2017. Originally published as “Evaluating the Impact of MTV’s 16 and Pregnant on Teen Viewers’ Attitudes About Teen Pregnancy,” Science Says, Oct. 2010.
Wilson, Jacque. “Study: MTV’s ’16 and Pregnant’ Led to Fewer Teen Births.” Health and Wellness Resource Center. CNN Newsource Sales, Inc., 13 Jan. 2014. Web. 9 Feb. 2017.

Depression among Pregnant Adolescents: Literature Review

Review of Related Literature and Studies
Depression among pregnant adolescents as well as the factors that contributes to the said condition is being discussed in this review of literature. The things that could help prevent or lessen depression and the use of The Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale is also introduced.
According to G. Tzilos et al,(2012). Depression during pregnancy is related to the increase number of mortality and morbidity among teenage mothers and infants. However, the cases of Adolescent pregnancy declined over the past years because of the strict implementation of contraceptive use in the United States still the number of occurring depression related to teenage pregnancy is alarming to the society nowadays. Early pregnancy does not only a threat to the mother but as well as the baby because when a teenager gets pregnant, it is expected that she will face many complications during and after her pregnancy and these complications could lead to death of her baby and herself. Adolescent Pregnancy is always perceived by the society as a major problem and a great threat that will add up to societal problems. These perceptions could make pregnant adolescents feel that they are being judged negatively by the society and could lead to depression. Majority of them felt that they are always seen as persons who don’t know how to take good care of the upcoming baby because they are not yet fully matured. Some even relate teenage mothers to Erik Erikson’s Theory to illustrate that they are struggling in fulfilling two roles that they should take part. Pregnant Adolescents are not seeking for medical attention because for them they are mistreated and they are scared for the criticisms that they will receive from the people around them. That is why most pregnant adolescents’ faces problems and complications during labor because of lack of prenatal check-ups. Also in the studies planned pregnancy is compared to the unplanned of course planned pregnancy commonly happens to persons who went under the sacrament of matrimony and they unlikely to face complications and depression during pregnancy because of the support of their family as well as the society and those unplanned pregnancies are most likely to feel the opposite. The highest number of depression during pregnancy in found in the ethnicity of Latinas and a history of alcohol consumption and abuse whether it may be physical or sexual is found to be a significant contributing factors that could lead to depression. Pregnancy at an early age was commonly associated to poverty and societal issues. According to A. Katz, (2011) Majority of them voiced out that life before pregnancy was difficult and early pregnancy in their family was common so there is a possibility that they will follow the things that they have grown upon. Social connectedness plays an important role most specially the pregnant adolescent’s family. Some of the articles pointed out that the mother of the pregnant adolescent should be giving her more attention and support since she had been on the same experience before. Also, nurses were said to play a very important role in helping pregnant adolescents to prevent developing depression since they are the ones who will interact longer with their patients. One of the article’s main topic suggests that childbearing or being pregnant was the main reason why pregnant teenagers are experiencing depression. They say that depression seems to be linked with pregnancy because previous studies focus only on small populations. So what they did was they conducted a study with a big population between pregnant teens and pregnant adults. The questionnaires are given out to measure the level of depression inside it are questions such as things that bother them, how they manage feelings of sadness and concentration problems. The results showed that teenage mothers have an increase in depression incidence than adult mothers. However, carrying a child inside her womb was not the cause. They found out that even before they got pregnant, their level of depression was greater than compared to their friends and remained high even after giving birth to the baby. The results pointed out poverty and an existing stressor can predict adolescent pregnancy because of the psychological thinking that if they become pregnant their life would be easier and the focus will be now given to the newborn baby. They observed that when they got pregnant, the chance is they become responsible for taking care of the baby inside her and the study suggested that research nowadays should focus on how the teenage mom going to pursue her ambitions in life after giving birth to the baby. Lastly, the study suggests that married teen pregnant mothers will likely develop a positive outcome in terms of behavior and decrease the likelihood of developing depression then unmarried teenage mothers. One study pointed out the factors that may increase the likelihood of teenage pregnancy. One factor that the researchers pointed to have a great impact on the incidence of teenage pregnancy was the age they started to engage in sexual intercourse they found out if a girl engages in sexual activity before 15 years old she is more prone in becoming pregnant. They also pointed out United States as the most developed country with the highest incidence of adolescent pregnancy and one of the factors that causes early pregnancy was the number of sexual partners that an individual has. They say that if a girl had 3 or more sexual partners’ chances of being pregnant are high and if their partner’s age is more than 3 years of their age. The level of anxiety of a teenage father was discussed. Although there were only few studies about teenage fathers they found out that teenage father who became father for the first time has a high anxiety level compared to those who have been to the same situation before.

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The Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale is a tool that is used by clinicians and researchers to identify adolescents who are at risk for developing depression. It is created by Dr. Stan Kutcher, various clinicians and researchers and it is acknowledged to be an effective tool in assessing depression among adolescents around the globe. There are three different scales of KADS a 6-item which is designed to be used in different institutions such as schools, other health care professionals and primary health care settings to screen patients who are at risk for developing depression as well as to evaluate young people who are always in distress and can be seen with symptoms of mental health problem. The 11-item KADS is usually used by health care providers and different clinical settings to treat adolescents who are experiencing depression. On the other hand, the 16-item KADS is exclusively designed for clinical research purposes only. KADS is a simple tool that understandable by an individual who has a grade 6 reading level and ages 12 to 22 years old. Aside from being less complicated, the tool has been translated into many different languages for better understanding and it is free of charge. It has been recommended by many experts such as National Institute for Clinical Evaluation. In using the KADS the person should be instructed carefully by the health care provider, educator or any responsible person and should be clarified that the tool is for better understanding of the difficulties that the individual is facing. The last item of the scale is very sensitive to suicidal risk. Any individual who answered 1 or a little bit higher should be undergoing a further assessment for possible suicide. The KADS is free to use however it should not be copied or distributed without a written consent to Dr. Stan Kutcher. The people who created KADS appreciate receiving feedback on the said evaluation to determine whether KADS is still suitable or needs to be developed for better assessment.
There are a lot of different studies regarding depressions among teenage pregnancy. Different methods were done to gather results and data. Participants are usually drawn to conduct different methods such as interviews and surveys. Different factors are studied to determine factors what depression can bring to pregnant adolescents. The most critical factor in health problems among adolescents are incidence and in labor and delivery. Complications that can be prevented by this studies. Young mothers should be educated in controlling depression because in can lead to different problems like diseases and suicidal tendencies. Different studies show that it occurs more in pre-developed countries. So comparative studies in the Philippines in specific rural and urban areas. Findings have shown that counseling and nursing interventions and services of preparing adolescents in motherhood. Teenage mothers shows higher rate of depression. One study shows that depression after likely to become depressed after their babies were born than lower- or higher-resource adult mothers. Finding the root cause of depression of adolescents could help in a big way. Guiding 12-22 year old adolescents can prevent unwanted pregnancies and give them a reason to think this situation can affect them and their newborns. As researchers, information and statistics would be key in doing this comparative study in rural and urban areas. In Nigeria, the most important problem in health in adolescents especially in developing countries is from preterm labor and delivery. A teenage girl who is pregnant has a 40 % chance of women in Nigeria are 17.9 and 20.1 years and the incidence of abortion is about 25%. Millions of girls aged 15-19 have babies yearly but 10% of pregnancy due to the effect of early motherhood. Probably the cause of poverty in Africa. So the researchers assessed and explored the occurrence of complications in adult pregnancies and adolescents.
The Philippines is a slightly developed country than Africa. Couples who have a lot of children is very common in both countries. Most of the started at the age 17-19 years. A study in Taiwan showed what risk factors and birth outcomes affect adolescent pregnancies. Fertility rates declined in Taiwan recently even thou birthrate in teenagers is highest in Asia. It remains a challenging issue for Taiwanese to control adolescent pregnancy. Ages 12-22 is critical year for an individual in exploring various curiosity that can affect negatively and positively. Smoking had significant higher rates of smoking during pregnancy for adolescent mothers but in drinking it was almost alike. These are causes that affect a mother dramatically and especially the baby upon birth. This could different deformities and even miscarriage. In tends to be worse especially in communities of the third world. Another study pointed out that in view of socio-cultural factors and good nutrition in early life for girls is essential. Programs that can guide them in different ways would be key to prevent early conception. In India, nearly one third of babies are low in birth weight. The main cause would be poverty which leads to under nutrition and diseases. Kumar et al. (2007) showed a high result of (26.1%) and stillbirths (4%) while Bhalerao et al. (1990) have reported a significantly higher proportion (8.6%) of spontaneous abortion in addition to premature labor (14%) in teenage pregnancy. It is said that better planning of appropriate measures to improve the situation. Studies show that individuals living in rural areas are undernourished throughout childhood and adolescence. About 36% women of reproductive age in India have low body mass index (BMI According to ( Echa Kai,2008) who conducted a research on teenage pregnancy in Rajavith Hospital in India. Pregnancies occurring in adolescent girls have a higher risk than in adult females. Women ages According to the study (A.Katz,2011 and K Mccormick,2012) teenage pregnancy decreased because of the strict implementation of contraceptives in the United States. The US being a first world country, its resources are expandable and can be able to focus on different problems that country encounter. The United States was able to control teenage pregnancy because of health education by the use of contraceptives. Sex education is thought during high school to show teenagers the risk of unwanted pregnancy physically and mentally. The proper use of contraceptives is shown in order for them to be aware how unwanted pregnancies and diseases unsafe intercourse can affect an individual. As early as this age students are sexually aware.
Pregnant adolescents are having difficulties in terms of playing 2 roles in life, being a mother and in the process being fully matured ( B.Tumage et al,2013 and J Magness
2012). Being a mother is big transitional change in a teenager. For her, able to care for the baby and herself would be a difficult task. At the adolescent age, an individual is starting to be mature enough in everyday responsibilities. Having a baby can affect an individual physically and mentally. At this young age, a drastic change can cause negative effects which can lead to depression. Guidance by family, counselors and health providers would be a key factor for them to be able adapt to this changes.
Nurses play a vital role in preventing the development of depression by being approachable and providing assistance to them without any negative judgment (J.Magness, 2012). As health care providers. Nurses are aware how depression affects an individual. A nurse will be able to do interventions that will benefit the patient. Giving assistance without any judgment, for a nurse being a professional it is strictly not a personal matter but the goal is to provide care. The Patient-Trust relationship would be a vital key .Depression can lead to negative effect physically and mentally so it is necessary to prevent this.
Unplanned pregnancy are most likely to develop depression (M. Phipps et al, 2012, K and Mccormick, 2012). An accidental pregnancy would be drastic change in lifestyle. Nowadays, people tend to hide if they are accidentally pregnant especially if they are young of age. For a person not be ready to bear child would be very difficult in the shift of living. It is common that both partners who did not planned for a baby tend to separate thus, the mother would suffer and she alone would give care and provide for the baby. This things could lead to depression that may lead various effects on the mother and the baby.
Poverty was the main cause of teenage pregnancy and depression (G,Tzilos et al (2012), M Phipps,(2012) & J Collingwood (2010). For an individual who is not educated, having a sexual relationship is some sort of pleasure without any consequences. Poverty, the most common problem of countries causes a negative effect in every aspect. Third world countries are usually the ones with the biggest population. Those not being able to afford contraceptive and the lack of health education causes unwanted pregnancy. An unwanted baby would cause depression. Gathering resources for the baby’s need would be a difficult task and would lead crimes and desperation. The baby would be most certainly affected by these by having inadequate care and nutrition.

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Nutritional Requirements for the Pregnant Woman

A woman’s health is crucial to the upright health of her baby. Women who eat healthy and exercise frequently along with consistent prenatal care are less likely to have difficulties during pregnancy. They are also more likely to give birth to a healthy baby. In the U.S., women find out they are pregnant at about 5.5 weeks of gestation, which is halfway through the first trimester (Branum & Ahrens, 2017). This is very relevant since the critical development of fetus starts to happen at that period. Nutrition during pregnancy is very diverse among women depending on their age, culture, lifestyle, socioeconomic, and dietary complication factors.

Nutritional Risk Factors

Eating a nourishing diet during pregnancy is related to good fetal brain development, a healthy birth weight, and it decreases the risk of birth defects (Hyde, 2017). A recommended weight gain during pregnancy is usually 25 to 35 lb. Women should gain 2.2 to 4.4 lb. during the first trimester and 1 lb. per week for the last two trimesters. Underweight women are advised to gain 28 to 40 lb.; overweight women, 15 to 25 lb. (Murray, 2019).

Age-Related Factors

Nutrition differs for a woman depending on her age. Women who are 35 years old or older are prone to more complications during pregnancy. The article “Advanced Maternal Age: Adverse Outcomes of Pregnancy, A Meta-Analysis” shows that older women, in general, have a higher BMI compared to women less than 35 years of age (Pinherio, 2019). A high BMI consequently places any women during pregnancy in risk for hypertension or preeclampsia, pregestational and gestational diabetes, stroke, and liver disorders. Then, the main concern for older women in nutrition during pregnancy is to control and decrease the risks, while the focus in nutrition for young women less than 35 years of age is more nutritional counseling including healthy weight gain, prenatal vitamins, and folic acid intake.

Culture and Lifestyle Related Factors

Culture also plays an important role in determining a pregnant woman’s nutrition. During pregnancy, women need to increase their intake of folic acid, calcium, vitamin D, iron, and protein. Being a vegan can make this task difficult. Cultures like in Buddhist, Jains, and Brahmins do not eat meat. Vegan food is largely plant-derived: no meat, milk, or eggs, with added mineral and vitamin supplements. The article “vegans, vegetarians and pregnancy” talks about five pregnancy cases. In these cases, pregnant women failed to accomplish the required intake needed to preserve the development of a healthy newborn, delivering a low-birth-weight baby (Winter, 2019). Also, the same article presented two cases in which two vegan families endangered the life of their infant causing them to suffer malnourishment and rickets. One of the infants died from rickets and the other one was saved.

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Lifestyle also plays a role during pregnancy. A lifestyle is a way of living, a choice a person makes for their life and adheres to it. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy cause a probability that children may be born with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, which is an umbrella term that covers all alcohol-related diagnoses, of which fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe and visibly identifiable form. Some signs and symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are atypical facial features, such as a smooth ridge between the nose and upper lip, shorter than average height, underweight, poor motor coordination, small head size, hyperactive behavior, attention deficit, and poor memory. The study in The Lancet Global Health estimated that one out of 67 women who consume alcohol during pregnancy will deliver a child with fetal alcohol syndrome (counting the costs of drinking alcohol during pregnancy, 2017). This article also gives information about children born globally every year, about 119,000 with fetal alcohol syndrome.

Socioeconomic Factor

Economic factors can provide a healthy pregnancy or risks in pregnancy. A study conducted in Spain showed the difference between high and low economic status during pregnancy. Some of the findings were that control and adherence to recommendations on weight gain during pregnancy were better among women with a higher socioeconomic status. The overall results of the study indicate that women with lower socioeconomic status live in a more obesogenic environment, favoring sedentarism, less balanced and higher energy diets, and excessive weight gain during pregnancy. It means that low socioeconomic status group are more vulnerable to adverse health effects both for themselves and their offspring (Larrañaga, 2013).

Dietary Complications

 Pregnant women can be at risk of developing complications during pregnancy if an appropriate diet is not followed. The amount of carbs during pregnancy should be 45 to 65 percent of daily calorie intake. The study “Maternal sugar consumption and risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous Norwegian women” suggests that women who developed preeclampsia had higher consumptions of the sugar-sweetened drinks. Also, the study revealed that women who developed preeclampsia had lower ingestions of fresh and dried fruits, honey as a spread, jam, and sugar or honey in tea or coffee. The findings sustenance the overall dietary guidance to contain fruits and lessen the intake of sugar-sweetened drinks during pregnancy. Preeclampsia is the main cause of morbidity and mortality among both pregnant women and their offspring.

 Another dietary complication is anemia. A study done in India reported anemia prevalence in pregnancy ranges 50-90% (Ramachandran, 2002). This is mainly due to low dietary intake and poor bioavailability of iron from the diet. Poor intake of folic acid and coexisting folate deficiency also contribute to the problem. Anemia before pregnancy is aggravated during pregnancy and is perpetuated by blood loss during labor. Anemia continues to be responsible for a substantial proportion of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality.

Conclusion

Appropriate nutrition during pregnancy helps to keep the mother healthy and develops a healthy baby. The need for certain nutrients, such as iron, iodine, and folate, is increased at this time. Many factors such as age, culture, lifestyle, socioeconomic status, and dietary complications, can alter the amount needed and received to carry on a healthy pregnancy. A varied diet that contains the right amount of healthy foods from the five food groups usually provides our bodies with enough of each vitamin and mineral each day. However, pregnant women need supplements of particular vitamins or minerals and an increase of right foods.

Breakfast: Oatmeal, a fruit (apple, banana, strawberry), 1 slice whole grain toast, 2 tsp honey, 1 cup skim milk

Snack: 1 cup of Greek yogurt, a fruit (grapes, apple, watermelon)

Lunch: Turkey or chicken and cheese or butter sandwich on whole grain bread, small bag of chips, a fruit (pear, pineapple), and 1 cup low fat or fat free milk

Snack: veggies and low-calorie sauce or dip

Dinner: 4 oz chicken, fish, or turkey, 1 cup wild rice or potatoes, 1 cup veggies, 1 cup fat free or low-fat milk

Snack: fresh fruit or Greek yogurt

Keep in mind that 8 to 10 glasses of fluid are recommended daily.

Grains: 7 ounces a day. An ounce of grains equals one slice of bread, one small corn or flour tortilla, 1 cup of ready-to-eat cereal, or 1/2 cup of cooked cereal, rice, or pasta.

Meat and beans: 6 ounces a day. This equals about two portions that are each about the size of a deck of cards.

References

Borgen, I., Aamodt, G., Harsem, N., Haugen, M., Meltzer, H. M., & Brantsæter, A. L. (2012). Maternal sugar consumption and risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous Norwegian women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66(8), 920-5. doi:http://dx.doi.org.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/10.1038/ejcn.2012.61

Branum, A. M., & Ahrens, K. A. (2017). Trends in timing of pregnancy awareness among US women. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 21(4), 715-726. doi:http://dx.doi.org.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s10995-016-2155-1

Counting the costs of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. (2017). World Health Organization.Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 95(5), 320-321. doi:http://dx.doi.org.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/10.2471/BLT.17.030517

Gourley, L. M., & Davidson, T. (2013). Prenatal nutrition. In Gale (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of nursing and allied health (3rd ed.). Farmington, MI: Gale. Retrieved from https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/galegnaah/prenatal_nutrition/0?institutionId=8802

Hyde, N. K., Brennan-Olsen, S. L., Bennett, K., Moloney, D. J., & Pasco, J. A. (2017). Maternal Nutrition During Pregnancy: Intake of Nutrients Important for Bone Health. Maternal And Child Health Journal, 21(4), 845–851. https://doi-org.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s10995-016-2178-7

Larrañaga, I., Santa-marina, L., Begiristain, H., Machón, M., Vrijheid, M., Casas, M., . . . Fernandez, M. F. (2013). Socio-economic inequalities in health, habits, and self-care during pregnancy in Spain. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 17(7), 1315-24. doi:http://dx.doi.org.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s10995-012-1134-4

Murray, S. S., McKinney, E. S., Holub, K.S, & Jones, R. (2019). Foundations of maternal-newborn and women’s health nursing (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Pinheiro, R. L., Areia, A. L., Mota Pinto, A., & Donato, H. (2019). Advanced Maternal Age: Adverse Outcomes of Pregnancy, A Meta-Analysis. Acta Medica Portuguesa, 32(3), 219–226. https://doi-org.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/10.20344/amp.11057

Ramachandran, P. (2002). Maternal nutrition–effect on fetal growth and outcome of pregnancy. Nutrition Reviews, 60(5), S26-34. Retrieved from https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/docview/212320327?accountid=147674

Winter, G. F. (2019). Vegans, vegetarians, and pregnancy. British Journal of Midwifery, 27(2), 75. https://doi-org.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/10.12968/bjom.2019.27.2.75