Professional Development Plan (PDP) for Online Faculty


Academic faculty benefit from professional development training as it provides opportunities to periodically self-assess one’s current professional skills to ensure alignment with personal and institutional goals. The process of engaging in digital age professional development training also creates an escape from day-to-day instructional tasks and duties and facilitates fresh ideas useful in classroom instruction. This training plan offers an approach to professional development training for faculty at Adiatu University faculty and emphasizes the importance of instructional technologies.


Supporting faculty includes providing them relevant professional development training. Faculty should not be expected to learn on their own time or attend unpaid training seminars; they should have access to professional development that allows them to explore the functions of the LMS and education technologies so that they will learn to effectively use them in instruction. A 2015 Samsung survey found that 90% of teachers believed that technology infused lessons are important for student success, yet 60% responded that they were unprepared to use technology in the classroom setting.  According to Bates (2015), “Moving to blended, hybrid and online learning requires a much higher standard of training for faculty and instructors. It is not just a question of learning how to use a learning management system or an iPad. The use of technology needs to be combined with an understanding of how students learn” (p. 420).

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This Professional Development Plan (PDP) addresses the professional development needs of online faculty. Purchasing various education technologies, upgrading infrastructure, and modifying the curriculum are important, but instructional technology is only as strong as the competency of the instructor integrating it. University leaders should ensure that faculty is committed to learning innovative technologies that expand learning opportunities for online students. According to ISTE, “Educators need ongoing training to keep up to date with rapid changes in educational technology”, and “Educators also need to carve out time in their busy schedules to assimilate their new knowledge, practice new skills, learn from each other and work together” ( In the PDP, faculty will participate in a professional development workshop on how to effectively integrate technology their instruction. The following beliefs have been used to set goals for this plan: 

Proper use of technology can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of an academic institution.

Faculty should routinely integrate technology into their instruction.

Technology can improve students’ ability and capacity to access, create and communicate information and ideas.

To successfully use technology, University leaders should ensure that faculty has access to the following:  technical support, access to adequate hardware, and access to appropriate software.

Based on the technology beliefs listed above, the University should foster an environment where faculty has optimal access to relevant digital-age training. 

Technology Integration Workshop Overview

The workshop will pilot with a five-day online workshop focused on specific technology integration strategies; modifications to include additional strategies will be made when appropriate. The workshop focuses on how faculty should and can shift their pedagogical knowledge to enhance student achievement, and how to make technology integration common instructional practice. A learning management system (LMS), namely Canvas, will be used to deliver the professional development training. There will be discussion sections that allow for asynchronous collaboration and communication between the professional development trainer and faculty.

To get a clearer view of the type of training support needed for effective technology integration, faculty will be required to complete a questionnaire prior to registering for the workshop. The questions are designed to assess their current use and perceptions of instructional technologies, and their current needs and future aspirations.

How frequently do you use technology for the following:





Communication with parents (e.g., newsletters, e-mail, class Web page)

Teacher-student communications (e.g., response to written work, posting schedules and activities)

Record keeping (e.g., grades, attendance)

Preparation for instruction (e.g., lesson and unit planning, downloading materials such as pictures)

Student inquiry (e.g., student research using search engines and databases)

Curriculum development (e.g. Cool Math, Starfall)

What percent of your technology professional training during this school year involved the following:






You sat and listened to lectures

Instructors responded directly to your needs and requests

You worked with other participants during the training to achieve common goals

You experimented with technology during the professional development

Training Strategy

According to Knowles et al. (1984), adult learners are independent and self-directed, have more life experiences to draw from and incorporate into their learning, gravitate to learning subjects that are relevant to their careers and personal lives, acquire knowledge for immediate use, are motivated by internal incentives such as improved self-esteem, feelings of accomplishment, etc., and are better at setting learning goals and managing their own learning. Creating a learning environment that supports the characteristics of adult learners requires trust, so the workshop will start with an icebreaker so that participants will learn more about one another and feel more relaxed with each other. On Day 1 of the workshop, faculty will be asked the following seven questions and share their responses in the discussion section:

What is your name?

What content-area do you teach?

What do you hope to get out of the course?

What is the most amazing thing that could happen if course expectations are met?

What’s the ideal dream job for you?

Are you a morning or night person?

If someone made a movie of your life would it be a drama, a comedy, a romantic-comedy, action film, or science fiction?

The workshop will be conducted for five consecutive days, and training on days two through four involve self-paced activities. Additionally, to encourage active participation from each faculty member and extract a variety of relevant experiences, the course will consist of both group and individual activities. Information gained from group work will be used to complete individual tasks. Faculty will be instructed to journal their reflection throughout the workshop and note how they intend to use training lessons in their online classroom.

Project based learning (PBL) will play a huge role in the workshop. The goal is for faculty to create authentic products that can immediately be deployed in the classroom.  Further, Tiwari et al. (2017) determined that project-based learning is motivational for students learning methodology skills because it is engaging and gives them ownership over their own learning. In their study of 99 students and faculty, they found “90.91% students agreed that there should be continuation of PBL in subsequent batches. 73.74% felt satisfied and motivated with PBL, whereas 76.77% felt that they would be able to use research methodology in the near future.”

Once a faculty member has completed training in the workshops, he/she will be rewarded a digital badge that will be attached to their profile. A badge is considered effective in motivating adult learners because it ”helps students set goals and envision success” ( The online tool “Credly” will be used to create digital badges, which will be encoded with meta-data that communicate details of the professional development accomplishments to anyone wishing to verify it, or learn more about the context of the achievement it signifies.


Advantages of Online Professional Development. National Research Council. 2007. Enhancing Professional Development for Teachers: Potential Uses of Information Technology: Report of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from

Bates, A.W. (2015). Chapter 12: Supporting teachers and instructors in a digital age. In Teaching in a digital age (pp. 420-444). [eReadings]

Davis, S.  (2002).  The effect of one-on-one follow-up sessions after technology staff development classes on transfer of knowledge to the classroom.  Action Research Exchange, 1(2). Retrieved from

Framework for 21st Century Learning. (2013). Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Retrieved from 

Smith, M. (2019, June 18). Survey Finds Majority of Teachers Do Not Feel Prepared to Use Technology in Classrooms. Retrieved from

Strickland, D.S., Ganske, K., & Monroe, J.K. (2002). Supporting struggling readers and writers: Strategies for classroom intervention 3–6. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.

Tiwari, R., Arya, R. K., & Bansal, M. (2017). Motivating Students for Project-based Learning for Application of Research Methodology Skills. International journal of applied & basic medical research, 7(Suppl 1), S4-S7.

Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.



5-Day Workshop Rubric

Modified. Original retrieved from:





Content and Curricular Connections

The project has no connection to class content or curricular goals and does not support school or department goals for learning and technology.

The project has a tenuous connection to the course curriculum. The technology use addresses some but not all of the school and departmental goals.

The project’s technology use effectively supports content and curriculum. It also addresses school and department goals.

The project’s technology use effectively supports and links with curriculum. It affords new possibilities. The project’s uses of technology directly support school and departmental goals or technology use and for student learning.

Student Learning Goals

There are no clearly stated learning goals

Educational goals are present but may not be appropriate or measurable.

There are clear, age appropriate and measurable learning objectives. These goals accommodate different learning styles and abilities.

Educational objectives are clear, age appropriate, and measurable. These goals accommodate different learning styles and abilities. Students are able to set their own learning goals and achieve them within the context of the project.

Role of Technology

The project’s use of technology treats students as passive recipients of information, is not well defined, does not support student learning, or is a trivial or inappropriate use of the medium.

The project’s use of technology is focused but does not take full advantage of the medium. Students use technology but do not learn to manipulate the technology to express ideas or concepts.

The project’s use of technology is appropriate for the medium while helping students reach identified learning objectives. The choice of technology is age appropriate and supports different learning styles and abilities.

The project’s use of technology helps students achieve learning objectives and is both an appropriate and creative use of the medium. The choice and integration of

technology is age appropriate and supports different learning styles and abilities. Students are engaged and demonstrate a deeper conceptual understanding of

key concepts. Student learning, thinking and communication skills show improvement as a result of this use of technology.

Project Design

The project seems incomplete or poorly conceived. The project’s scope is too large or too small. The teacher has not considered student learning needs.

The project may be complete, but lacks depth. It does not offer strategies or adaptations for students with special needs or learning style preferences. The class time invested in the project may be too great given its education value.

The project is complete, goes into depth as appropriate and provides some adaptations for students with special needs or learning style preferences. The teacher has considered scaffolding learning for both beginning and advanced students and fades away when appropriate. Students explore concepts by designing and creating a product.

The project is complete, deep, well-scaffolded and adaptable. It offers extensions for more motivated or experienced learners and/or adaptations for students with special needs or learning style preferences. Students have opportunities to actively engage with the concepts and with technology by creating or designing a product themselves.

Role of the Teacher

The teacher models helpless terror in the face of new technologies and gives up with faced with a problem.

The teacher has planned a lesson with clear goals but has not anticipated how technology use will influence class dynamics, timing, learning and activities.

The teacher has designed and prepared an appropriate lesson and models good problem solving techniques by trying multiple solutions and incorporating others’ ideas. The teacher’s role is more of a facilitator than a directive leader.

The teacher is well prepared and has planned an engaging, effective and meaningful lesson. The teacher demonstrates effective problem solving, exploration, creativity, and multiple solutions and effectively facilitates student learning and experiences.


Mentoring for Professional Learning

Mentoring for Professional Learning

“Mentoring is a highly valuable development activity implemented in many organisations. At the core of the activity is the relationship between the mentor and the mentee, where the development of the mentee is the key focus” (Chamberlain, 2015). Most schools in the Pacific have little to no existing mentoring programs in place. Therefore, this, as in many other countries, according to Boreen, Johnson, Niday and Potts accounts to “nearly 30% of beginning teachers, leaving the profession within the first 5 years of their career (as cited in Vierstraete, 2005, pg. 1), and according to Gonzales and Sosa (1993, as cited in Vierstraete, 2005, p. 381), it is often the most creative and talented new educators who exit the profession.

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Here we can see that mentoring is essential in the retention of new quality educators however, it is not common in most educational institutions. Therefore, in this essay we will consider some of the underpinnings of having an active and effective mentoring program in a school environment. We will discuss some of the characteristics essential for being a good and effective mentor, the importance of mentor training, matching mentor and mentee, the causes of high attrition rate of teachers, a few conflict areas and finally explore the importance of critical reflection in any mentoring program.

The characteristics of a good, quality mentor include being trustworthy, friendly, honest, understanding, empathetic, caring and willing to share ideas (Podsen & Denmark, 2000). “A great mentor is above all a good role model. Reveal the tricks of your trade – how to be a teacher, a researcher, or whatever it is you are great at through modelling (” The best mentors also show interest in the mentee’s personal development, help mentees grow academically through constructive feedback, and also assist with goal setting and celebrate achievements with mentees. They must possess sound knowledge of the curriculum content, teaching strategies as well as other issues in education.

Most mentoring programmes focus solely on the development of the mentee and neglect the fact that mentors too need to be trained in order to effectively serve their purpose. This aspect is often undervalued, however, plays an important role in the success of a mentoring program. “Such mentor trainings help selected mentors become good mentors” (Guggenheim, 2019). Usually, effective experienced teachers are chosen as mentors. However, effective teachers do not necessarily make effective mentors (Genser, 2002). “Mentors need guidance and training as they develop the skills necessary to become effective mentors” (Upson, Koballa, & Gerber, 2002, p. 4). “. In Australia, the Mentoring for Effective Teaching (MET) program is one of the dual components of Teacher Education Done Differently (TEDD) project funded by the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Work Relations (DEEWR) which esteemed to facilitate such initiative (Murray, 2011 November, p. 3). MET is a professional development initiative designed to enhance teacher education through positive and purposeful mentoring experiences. It allows mentor teachers to gain insights into successful mentor practices and enhances their knowledge and skills.

Matching mentors and mentees is the core activity when managing a mentoring program. Without starting with a sturdy match as your foundation, the structure of the mentor relationship could prove futile. “The mentee could pick their own mentor, or they can be assigned a mentor from the program administrator. Statistics however show that mentees that pick their own mentor tend to have more successful outcomes” (Corner, 2016). This may be the case since the mentee may be more likely to commit to the mentoring relationship if it is a mentor to their choice. Mentors can also either be matched with mentees by subject area or by specifically trained mentors (Waterman, 2011). As well as deciding on the matching mechanism, other considerations when matching mentees and mentors might include management chains where it is often best to avoid matching mentees with their immediate line manager or close colleague and the experience gap where it is essential to consider and make sure that the experience gap is not too large as it might have an effect such that the mentor might seem un-relatable or intimidating for the mentee (James, 2017). According to Thomas (2016; p. 35), mentor teachers must be selected according to specific criteria, rather than merely by the years of teaching experience such as valid teaching credentials, achieved regular employment status, at least 10 years of direct classroom teaching experience, demonstration of effective classroom management and discipline strategies, have a positive working relation with peers, demonstrate effective communication skills, receive good ratings on past three teacher evaluations and have a positive attitude about other teachers observing him or her teach.

Teacher attrition rate is the percentage of teachers at a given level of education leaving the profession in a given school year. The shortage of teachers is a significant contributing factor that had widened equity gaps education access and learning. Assessing and monitoring teacher attrition is essential to a sufficient supply of qualified and well-trained teachers as well as their deployment, support and management. A review of literature on attrition by the Queensland College of Teachers reported a wide range of estimates described in the Australian literature: from 8% to 50% (Queensland College of Teachers, 2013). Some of the contributing factors to the rise in attrition rate are the lack of appreciation from students, parents and colleagues (Gavish & Friedman, 2010), low salary, unsatisfying workplace conditions, inadequate teacher preparation (Darling-Harmond, 2010) and/or considering themselves unsuited for the professional (Cooper & Steward, 2009). It is estimated (Darling-Hammond, 2010) that the high attrition rate for early-career teachers cost approximately US$2.1 billion per year.

In countering such high attrition rates in our schools, an Australian survey study of 133 teachers and former teachers found that retention strategies should be linked to improving relationships in the school, addressing workload, greater job security and providing opportunities for professional development (Howes & Goodman-Delahunty, 2015).

In any good mentoring relationship, both the mentor and the mentee will benefit. However, this is not always the case. There are a few conflict areas that may exist in a mentoring relationship that can hinder progress and effectiveness of the programme. A few of these issues may include ineffective mentoring pairs, meeting schedules and unfair manipulation on the part of the mentor.

Whatever the method used for pairing mentors and mentees, ineffective pairing can still happen. A pair may not work out for a variety of reasons such as lack of commitment from one of the parties, learning styles not matching, a change in job assignments, and even at times, the pair just do not work well together (7 Common Challenges in Mentoring Relationships, 2018). If faced with this situation, one or both parties should speak to the mentoring program manager as soon as possible.

Both the mentor and mentee usually face the challenge of meeting as scheduled. It is usually the case where they continuously postpone scheduled meetings because of other commitments. Failing to meet as scheduled over time may have a negative effect on the foundation of the relationship and can in the end forfeit the whole purpose of the mentoring program.

The final conflict area is the unfair manipulation on the part of the mentor. This usually occurs in a situation where the mentor may ask the mentee to complete his or her work under the guise that the mentee will learn better if he or she actually does the task. Although practice in ‘real life’ situations is best for learning, there’s a huge difference between practicing a skill and doing someone else’s work (7 Common Challenges in Mentoring Relationships, 2018).

Avoiding harm or discouragement is the most fundamental ethical obligation mentors have to their mentees. Certainly, a mentee can be harmed emotionally or physically. When a mentee is neglected and ignored, tasked with challenges for which he or she is ill-prepared, the mentee is harmed (Johnson & Ridely, 2008).

In any mentoring programme, it is always important to allow time for critical reflections. Some teachers that leave the profession, do not leave because of their lack of knowledge or skills, but simply because they feel that they cannot cope with the demand of the work and lack the motivation to excel in it. Steffy and Wolfe (1998, as cited in Vierstraete, 2005, p. 385) suggested that, with proper encouragement and mentoring, teachers at this stage maintain the euphoria of a beginning teacher in education. Vierstraete (2005), further stated that “if new teachers avoid withdrawal and continue to reflect on experiences, renewal and growth can soon lead the novice teachers to the next level, that of being considered professional teachers.” Here, mentees are encouraged not to wait for the mentor but to use self-reflection as a means of helping themselves out as well. “Through reflection, they acquire craft knowledge and internalize meaning about their skills and knowledge” (Vierstraete, 2005, p. 387). Administrators, especially principals, are key players in creating mentorship programs that can help assist new teachers find success.

In conclusion, it is essential that mentors to possess characteristics critical for effective mentoring. Every school should have a culture of co-mentoring others, especially novice educators. These assumed mentors should be strengthened through professional bodies and programmes like the MET. Such programmes can equip mentor teachers and qualify them for proper matching with the right mentee. There is ample research evidence in literatures that mentoring can lead to reducing attrition rate of novice teachers. However, when mentors are not facilitated with the correct tools and approaches, their efforts may be in vain. It is also important to take note of the conflicting areas that may exist within a mentoring programme and to prepare well with strategies which can be used to counter them, having in mind that critical reflection on past experiences is equally important in ensuring a positive effective relationship within the mentoring program.


7 Common Challenges in Mentoring Relationships, (2018). Retrieved from

Chamberlain, J. (2015, August). Warwick. What is Mentoring? Retrieved from

Cooper, M., & Steward, J. (2009). Learning together, shaping tomorrow: New teachers try new ways. Research in Comparative and International Education, 4(1), p. 111-123.

Corner, J. (2016). 7 Best Practices for Matching Mentors and Mentees. Retrieved April 30, 2019, from

Darling-Harmmond, L. (2010). Learning together, shaping tomorrow: New teachers try new ways. Research in Comparative and International Education, 4(1), p. 111-123.

Ganser, T. (2002). How teachers compare the roles of cooperating teacher and mentor. The Education Forum, 66(4), p. 380-385

Gavish, B., & Friedman, I. A. (2010). Novice teachers’ experience of teaching: a dynamic aspect if burnout. Social Psychology of Education, 13(2), p. 141-167.

Guggenheim. (2019, April 8). Teaching Teachers[Video file]. Retrieved from []

Howes, L., & Goodman-Delahunty, J. (2015). Teachers’ career decisions: Perspectives on choosing teaching careers and on staying or leaving. Issues in Educational Research. 25(1), p. 18-35.

James, N. (2017). Recruiting, Selecting and Matching Mentors and Mentees. Retrieved from

Johnson, W. B., & Ridley, C. R. (2008). The Elements of Mentoring (2nd ed.): Palgrave Macmillan.

Murray, M.J., Hudson, P., & Hudson, S. (2011, November). How can professional development serve experienced and inexperienced mentors of preservice teachers? Paper presented at the Australian Association of Research in Education (AARE) Conference, Hobart, Tasmania, p. 1-9

Podsen, I. J., & Denmark, V. M. (2000). Coaching and mentoring first-year and student teachers. New York: Eye on Education.

Queensland College of Teachers, (2013). Attrition of recent Queensland graduate teachers, Brisbane: Queensland College of Teachers

Thomas, T. (2006). Mentoring the Beginning Teacher. Journal of Adventist Education, 69(2), 32-37.

Vierstraete, S. (2005). Mentorship: Toward Success in Teacher Induction and Retention. Catholic Education: A Journal of Inquiry and Practice, 8(3), 381-392.

Waterman, S., & He, Y. (2011). Effects of Mentoring Programs on New Teacher Retention: A Literature Review. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 19(2), 139-156.


Personal Development Plan for Health Professional

Personal and Professional Development Plan
The purpose of this paper is to identify key personal learning goals that are important for the overall growth as a public health professional. We will create an action plan to achieve these goals and integrate goals reflecting ethical professional behaviour while we analyze the relationship between the goals, action plan and the requirements of becoming a public health leader.
As a future leader in the field of public health, my responsibilities would be to:

Prevent epidemics
Protect the environment and the workplaces
Monitor health status of population
Mobilize community action
Respond to disasters
Assure quality and accessible healthcare
Reach out to link high-risk and hard-to-reach people to needed service
Research to develop new insight and innovative solutions
Lead the development of sound health policy and planning (Novick & Morrow, 2000).

Therefore my key personal and professional learning goals need to correlate with my duties as a public health leader.
First, I desire to add knowledge on surveillance and assessment of the population’s health. This will help me to understand the difference between individual and population health. The aim is to create awareness that health and wellbeing inequalities exist. It would also help to understand: what surveillance is and what it is used for, factors that affect health and wellbeing, and how everyone can contribute in their personal and work capacity (Mala, 2009).

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Secondly, I wish to improve my knowledge on how to assess the effectiveness of intervention programmes and services. Every epidemiologist requires this to understand how accurate data and information contribute to an understanding of the population’s health. The knowledge would also provide opportunity to learn about the basic data collection methods that is required for accurate data recording and would enhance leveraging and partnership (Mala, 2009).
Also, I want to learn about policy and strategy development and implementation for population health and wellbeing. This is useful to provide awareness on health and wellbeing and its various aspects. It would help to understand how morbidity and mortality are measured in a population (Mala, 2009). This is the reason why public health leaders are expected to be able to make the right decision, shape culture, be able to handle conflicts, possess ability to influence large scale change and be a good communicator.
Besides, I desire to learn about how to be an effective and collaborative public health leader. Day et al believe that public health leadership is about networking and coordination so leaders should be able to combine administrative excellence with a strong sense of professional welfare and actively develop the profession, articulate its shared values, and build for the future (2012). Mala believes that this would also help to provide knowledge on how to obtain and use routine data to describe the health and wellbeing of a defined population (2009).
In addition, effective leadership needs to: respond to cultural clues (Deal & Kennedy, 1999), mobilize people to tackle tough problems (Heifetz, 1994), help people come to terms with bad news (Gray, 2009) manage crisis, catalyze commitment and stimulate higher performance standards (Collins, 2006). I aspire to all these attributes because public health leaders with desire for success and greatness must possess these qualities to make the right decisions happen.
Lastly, I wish to learn about the public health leaders approaches to health improvement and protection. Through this I can understand how to: collect and collate routine data on health, use a range of tools and techniques, analyze routine data on health, communicate and disseminate findings on the health of a population to others, assess the implications of surveillance, recommend appropriate response(s), facilitate and support others to collate, analyze, and communicate health data (Mala, 2009).
The action plans to achieve all the mentioned personal learning goals are highlighted below:

Participation in mentoring or fellowship programme to develop and enhance my characteristics and capacity as a “superhero”
Formal training programme or targeted training to develop capability across the range of public health competencies
Participation in short course to increase awareness of public health role and to develop basic public health skills to improve public health function (Collins, 2006).

In addition, I plan to pursue post graduate studies in public health through which I can develop both academic and professional competency. Also, I will be involved in different capacity building workshops, researches and proposal writing so that my writing skill can improve.
Lastly, I will continue to engage and learn from the public health leaders whom Collins referred to as “superheroes” who have capacity to influence and train the next generation (2006).
However, there are goals that reflect ethical professional behavior. James identified these as “Foundational and Public Health Practice Ethical Skills” (2004).
Essentially all of the principles of the Code of Ethics assume or rely upon these skills. These foundational ethical skills were described by James (2004) as follows:

The ability to identify an ethical issue
Ethical decision-making. This is a skill both for individuals and agencies (where it would be a group process). One component of the decision-making process is identification and weighing of harms and benefits of the potential actions. In economics this is a cost-benefit analysis, but in ethics harms that defy financial quantification must also be included among the costs.
Understanding the full spectrum of the determinants of health. This understanding is necessary to identify the best means of prevention. Thus a biologist needs to understand social factors affecting health and a sociologist needs to have a basic understanding of biological processes.
Understanding basic ethical concepts such as justice, virtue, and human rights.
Building and maintaining public trust. Public health agencies cannot function well in the absence of public trust. Many of the individual ethical skills function to maintain that trust. Yet, in some instances, one may be ethically justified to take a particular course of action that won’t build public trust. Thus, what a person or agency ethically can do may be different from what it should do to cultivate trust.

James (2004) also thinks that public health practice should address twelve ethical issues:

Fundamental causes of disease and requirements for health, aiming to prevent adverse health outcomes
Community health in a way that respects the rights of individuals in the community
Develop and evaluate policies, programs that ensure an opportunity for input from community members
Advocate and work for the empowerment of disenfranchised community members, aiming to ensure that the basic resources and conditions necessary for health are accessible to all
Seek the information needed to implement effective policies and programs that protect and promote health
Provide communities with the information they have that is needed for decisions on policies or programs and should obtain the community’s consent for their implementation
Should act in a timely manner on the information they have within the resources and the mandate given to them by the public
Programs and policies should incorporate a variety of approaches that anticipate and respect diverse values, beliefs and cultures in the community
Programs and policies should be implemented in a manner that most enhances the physical and social environment
Should protect the confidentiality of information that can bring harm to an individual or community if made public. Exceptions must be justified based on the high likelihood of significant harm to the individual or others
Institutions should ensure the professional competence of their employees
Institutions and their employees should engage in collaborations and affiliations in ways that build the public’s trust and the institution’s effectiveness.

Meanwhile, it is clear, but must be kept in mind, that leaders are never developed only in the academic arena. People become leaders through their efforts, by taking correct steps in the real world. In fact Kouses and Posner believe that leaders are life-long learners.
In Hideo and Kenneth (2010) view, public health professionals usually obtain knowledge and skills through their daily activities, that is, through on the job training regardless of their professional backgrounds. They believe that post-secondary educations, for example Master of Public Health (MPH) programs, are one of the popular options, offering opportunities to learn the public health discipline throughout the world.
However, Koh and Jacobson (2009) advised that aspiring public health leaders should not be left alone to find guidance. He thinks that those with convening power can create new learning and teaching for the field by bringing together multiple parties, disseminating lessons learned from successful interventions and supporting those willing to take on the leadership challenge. Those who have successfully navigated these waters can share their insights as experienced change agents and coach those otherwise working in isolation. Although Howard believes that academia is a natural place for such convening activity, Kouses and Posner believe that new medical school graduates, public health physicians often find themselves in difficult situations because of insufficient experience.
In conclusion, the core competencies required by public health professionals are: analytic/assessment skills, policy development/program planning skills, communication skills, cultural competency skills, community dimensions of practice skills, public health sciences skills, financial planning and management skills, and leadership skills. Public health leaders obtain these knowledge and skills through their daily activities, that is, on the job training regardless of their professional backgrounds. Therefore continuous learning on the job and academics are essential ways to mentor and develop future leaders in public health. According to Koh & Jacobson (2009) commitment to this may well move us closer to realizing the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health.
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Mala, R., (2009) Public Health Skills and Career Framework Multidisciplinary/multi-agency/multi-professional, Available at, (Accessed 19/03/2015)
Novick, L., & Morrow, C., (2000) Defining Public Health: Historical and Contemporary Developments, pp. 1-34
Public Health Agency of Canada (2007) Core competencies for public health in Canada, Ottawa, ON: Public Health Agency of Canada. Available at, (accessed 21/03/2015)
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Professional values and ethics

Professional Values and Ethics
Values and ethics are the cornerstone for both personal and professional success. The way an individual or group interacts with others exposes their genuine character because actions speak louder than words. Those with a strong values system and ethical standards of the highest degree are easily recognizable by their deeds and are intrinsically motivated to do the right thing, even when no one is watching. Values and ethics generally originate and grow from the same sources, family, spiritual beliefs, and school; professional values and ethics are mere extensions of what one learns prior to joining the work force. Therefore, the things one learns early in life follow into the professional world and have a positive, or negative, impact on career success.

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Values and Ethics Defined
Before delving into the world of professional, or personal for that matter, values, one must first know exactly what a value is or values are. A value is, according to Ozmete(2007),“an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence” (p. 1). Furthermore, a value system is all these beliefs placed and utilized in order of precedence, serving as a guide for everything from decision making to conflict resolution. What one values provides answers to questions like, if one was stranded on a deserted island, what three things would he or she want to have?
Professional values are basically the same as described above but in the context of a corporation, organization, or group and what they would like their desired end-state to be. The professional value system of group entities is revealed in their business practices; from their interaction with other companies to how well taken care of the employees are. Whether or not a business plays by the rules, win or lose, speaks volumes about the company and, more importantly, the people who work there.
Ethics are usually described in relation to values, as they are the moral philosophy and implementation of one’s values. Personal or professional ethical codes give the ability to recognize what is right, fair, honorable and righteous. Corporations and businesses have published codes of ethics by which they conduct business. The code of ethics sets forth the standards to which employees are expected to abide and will be held accountable. Far too many companies have failed not because they did not have ethical standards, but because they did not enforce them. It is incumbent upon every employee to ensure they familiarize themselves with their employer’s ethical code of conduct for the benefit of the employee and employer alike.
Sources of Values and Ethics
One source of professional values and ethics are parents or guardians. Ever since one can remember, one of the first places where values are taught is at home. Parents teach their children right from wrong, not to lie or steal, and may introduce them to a particular religion where values are reinforced. These are the values that stay with someone forever; not only does the individual use these values as guidelines in their lives, but they also teach their children the same values.  Besides moral values, families teach their children work ethic. They give children small chores to do, such as cleaning their room, taking out the trash, and general helping around the house.  If they complete the tasks in a timely fashion, they receive money for helping. These small jobs not only show children the value of earning money, but also show them that hard work is rewarded.
Another source of values and ethics is school. Children learn they must be on time, complete their homework, and study hard to earn good grades. Just as with chores and allowances at home, schoolwork teaches that by studying and working hard, one can achieve good grades and get into good high schools and universities. Being on time for school each day is the beginning of one’s time management skills. Not only do they learn the importance of punctuality, but budgeting their after school activities, family time, and homework time teaches one to prioritize what he or she values. Conversely, one learns that there are consequences for not implementing his or her values, like detention or bad grades. The repercussions could be detrimental, with long-lasting effects such as limited college choices and in turn, limited professional choices.
Professional Environment
No matter the career one chooses, the values and ethical standards instilled as a youth will guide one’s professional decisions, good or bad. Most corporations, companies or associations have a written set of values or ethical guidelines by which all are held accountable. The American Psychological Association focuses on five principles of ethical behavior. The first principle is Beneficence and Nonmaleficence, which states, “In their professional actions, psychologists seek to safeguard the welfare and rights of those with whom they interact professionally and other affected persons, and the welfare of animal subjects of research” (American Psychological Association, 2002, p. 3). The next principle is Fidelity and Responsibility, which reads, “Psychologists uphold professional standards of conduct, clarify their professional roles and obligations, accept appropriate responsibility for their behavior, and seek to manage conflicts of interest that could lead to exploitation or harm” (American Psychological Association, 2002, p. 3). Integrity is the third principle stating, “Psychologists seek to promote accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness in the science, teaching, and practice of psychology. In these activities psychologists do not steal, cheat, or engage in fraud, subterfuge, or intentional misrepresentation of fact” (American Psychological Association, 2002, p. 3). The fourth principle deals with Justice and reads, “Psychologists recognize that fairness and justice entitle all persons to access to and benefit from the contributions of psychology and to equal quality in the processes, procedures, and services being conducted by psychologists” (American Psychological Association, 2002, p. 3). The final principle is based on Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity, and states, “Psychologists respect the dignity and worth of all people, and the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality, and self-determination” (American Psychological Association, 2002, p. 4).
The preceding guidelines are what many were taught as children; do not harm others, take responsibility for your actions, be honest and trustworthy, impart fairness, equality, and respect to all. Each is applicable, and most useful, throughout life and all are qualities of a civil society.
Applying Professional Values and Ethics
Not everyone, however, was raised with the same values and ethical standards. While some were taught to value the “Golden Rule”, others learned to value money, possessions and status over all else. Bernie Madoff is an excellent example. He swindled investors out of an estimated fifty billion dollars in a Ponzi scheme that lasted for years. Unscrupulously, he promised clients massive returns on their investments, which for some was their entire life savings. A judge recently sentenced him to over 100 years in prison and deservedly so; but the money, and consequently, many retirement funds and livelihoods are gone (Henriques, 2009).
The Ponzi scheme mentioned above is named after its originator, Charles Ponzi. He was an Italian immigrant who, in the 1920s, deceived people to invest in mail coupons and promised returns eight times what banks were offering and in far less time. Even then, Ponzi received millions from investors looking to make quick, and large, sums of money. To establish legitimacy, Ponzi paid some of the earliest investors what he promised. Millions of dollars later, it turned out he was a conman and had only purchased less than fifty dollars worth of the investment he sold. He also went to prison (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission,2001).
Clearly, what these men valued was personal gain and money. Neither had any ethical standards and both preyed on other people’s value of getting rich quickly. Although these are extraordinary examples, the relative impact on one’s career success from not applying good moral values and ethics could be just as damaging.
Professional values and ethics are mere extensions of the values and ethics learned from family, spiritual leaders and teachers. What one is taught to value growing up will carry over in the professional world. Professionals with upstanding values and ethical standards are easy to identify, as is the company that employs them. Values based business decisions and ethical guidelines adhered to by all are the benchmark for success. Those who accept less can have a detrimental impact on their company and maybe, the rest of society.

Professional Philosophy And Occupational Therapy

The definition of occupational therapy as gradually metamorphosis from its genesis till date, yet it has gradually evolved from its first definition in 1914 by George Barton who stated that ‘if there is an occupational disease, why not an occupational therapy’. While in 1919, he further postulated that ‘occupational therapy is the science of instructing and encouraging the sick in such labours as will involve those energies and activities producing a beneficial therapeutic effect. Over the years, the definition of occupational therapy had transited and in 1923, Herbert J. Hall define occupational therapy as that which provide light work under medical; supervision for the benefit of patients convalescing in hospital and homes, using handicraft not with the aim of making craftsmen of the patients but for the purpose of developing physics and mental effectiveness. American occupational therapy Association (AOTA) proposed the definition that occupational therapy is the ‘art and science of directing man’s involvement in selected task to reinstate, reinforce and enhance performance, to facilitate learning of the skills and functions essential for adaptation and productivity, diminish or correct pathology and to promote and maintain health. In 1994 AOTA mmrevised the definition and stated that occupational therapy is the use of purposeful activity or interventions to promote health and achieve functional out come to develop, improve or restore the highest possible level of independence with person who is limited by a physical injury or illness.
The goal of occupational therapy is to assist the individual in achieving an independent, productive and satisfying life style. Occupational therapist use adaptive activities to increase the individual’s functioning and productivity in view of achieving independence and satisfaction.
Occupational therapy is a health discipline concerned with enabling function and well-being (Baum, 1997)
Occupation in Occupational Therapy
(Polatakjo 2007, Wilcock 2000), states that the ultimate impact of occupational therapy in multidisciplinary health care service must be a profound understanding of enabling occupation (Pollock and McColl 2003) also stresses that the knowledge of occupation is employed as a means to enhance the development of health in people. Occupational therapists also aspire to the goal of facilitating occupational engagement and performance as the end or outcome of therapy. Occupation is “the purposeful or meaningful activities in which human beings engage as part of their normal daily lives…… all aspects of daily living that contribute to health and fulfilment for an individual”(McColl 2003 p1)
Schwammle (1996) encourage occupational therapists to focus on enabling clients achieve a sense of well being via occupation.
In contrast, (Wilcock 2006) de-emphasises occupation in favour of established concepts that are more consistent with a medical model. He also stressed that medical focus, rather than an occupational focused may have resulted in therapists looking at remedying performance components rather than addressing occupation itself, but (Molineux, 2004) said it will be highly problematic as it will lead to issues of role blurring, role overlap and role ambiguity.
A different dimension to core philosophy of occupational therapy is functional independence or activity of daily living as the ultimate goal of occupational therapy (Thornton and Rennie 1998). Chavalier (1997) concurred that occupational therapists experience difficulty agreeing on what occupational therapy is, and also that the diverse opinion is a strength to the occupational therapy profession.
There seems to be an overall conclusion by occupational therapy experts that occupational therapy as a profession should mainly focus and emphasis on occupation as the core centre of the profession.
(Baum and Baptiste 2007, Law et al 2002, Wilcock 2000, Asmundsottir and Kaplan 2001) all stress that occupation should be central in occupational practices. Various authors also gave reasons why occupation should be the epicentre of occupational therapy:
It will provide an exclusive perspective that will ensure the professional survival of OT in health service (Pierce 2001)
It will unite OT and ensure its continued survival (Nelson 1996).
It will enable OT to achieve its full potential (Crabtree 2000)
Occupation-focused practice may result in more satisfying practice for individual occupational therapists (Molineux 2004, Wilding 2008)
Occupation focused may assist therapists’ intervention s to be more meaningful when dealing with complex issues (Persson et al 2001)
It makes OT to be a true, self-defining profession.
Metamorphosis Of Occupational Therapy
Right from the inception of occupational therapy. the concepts of occupation is the foundation upon which the profession is built. The founders of occupational therapy the likes of George Barton, Fleanor Clarke Slage, Adolph Meyer etc based the new profession on their own personal experiences of the health enhancing effects of engagement in purposeful and meaningful activities (Peloquin, 1991a), Kielhofner (1992) noted for the early part of twentieth century how occupation is seen to play an essential role in human life and lack of it could result in poor health and dysfunction, occupation is also seen as the link between the mind and soul. Occupational therapy
There was a shift of focus to mechanistic paradigm in the (1960s). These emphases the ability to perform depend on the integrity of body systems, and functional performance can be restored by improving or compensating for system limitations.
KIELHOFNER (1992) saw a growing dissatisfaction among occupational therapist with the mechanistic approach whiled Reilly (1992) called for therapist in the early 1960s to focus on occupational nature of humans and also the ability of the profession to emphasize on the occupation needs of people contemporary paradigm (1980- present day).(Molineux 2009)
Relationship between professional philosophy and occupational therapy
A professional philosophy helps set values, beliefs truths and focuses the therapist on the principles that governs his actions. It gives credence to the profession existence and substantiates reasons for practitioner’s therapeutics processes.
In studying the philosophical basis of a profession, it is essential to look at it from its three components as it relates to occupational therapy
Metaphysical component. This bothers on what the nature of humankind is. -active being, occupation performance, Reductive approach and Holistic approach.
Epistemology component. This relates to the development of a professional philosophy. It analyse the nature, origin and limits of human knowledge.(Adaptation, Thinking, feeling and doing)
Axiology component. It concerns with the values of the profession. Quality of life, client catered approach, code of ethics
Man is an active being whose development is influenced by the use of purposeful activities, using their capacity for intrinsic motivation; human beings are able to influence the physical and mental health and their physical environments through purposeful activity. Adaptation is a change in function that promotes survival and self-actualisation, it is also described as the satisfactory adjustment of individual s within their environment over time. . Dysfunction may occur when adaptation is impaired, while purposeful activity enhances the adaptive process.

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Health care system has been developed from a reductionistic approach where man is viewed as separate body function and each part treated separately and focuses on specific problem for greater efficiency. However, medicine has metamorphosis into addressing all the bodily functions of the client, this is a holistic approach by occupational therapy traced to Adolf Meyer. He sees the human body as a live organism acting. The holistic approach emphasises organic and fundamental relationship between the parts and the whole being, an interaction of biological, psychological, socio-cultural and spiritual elements. Occupational therapy trend is shifting away from holistic practice to specialised (reductionistic) approach again. For example, occupational therapy practitioners working in hand rehabilitation refers to themselves as hand therapists or those in psychiatry call themselves psychiatric therapists.
Critical analysis of model and frame of reference
In advancing the theoretical foundation of occupational therapy, a model is defined as a theoretical simplification of a complex reality (Frolitch, 1993) and consists of several explicitly defined concepts. Conceptual models are schematic or graphic representation of concepts and assumptions that act as a guide for theory development.
The frame of reference is based on philosophy or a paradigm and attempts to describe or explain what we believe or value. Models are developed within a frame of reference. Hence, FOR are viewpoints, beliefs or values. FOR are connected sets of ideas that form the basis for action. (Duncan, 2006)
Reed and Sanderson (1999) states that no perfect or ideal model for health, functioning and disability exists for occupational therapists. Rather, they suggest that occupational therapists should select the aspects from those health models that most closely fit the belief and values of occupational therapy.
According to Townsend (2002), Occupational performance is defined as the result of the dynamic relationship between the person, the environment and the occupation. It refers to the ability to choose and satisfactorily perform meaningful occupations that are culturally defined and appropriate for looking after one’s self, enjoying life and contributing to the social and economic fabric in the community. Occupations are groups of activities and tasks of everyday life.
Activities of Daily Living (ADL)

The initial process of occupational therapy assessment involves interviews with the patient and the carer to establish previously held life roles and the tasks and activities that were completed within these roles. Observational assessment is undertaken of personal self-care tasks, including showering, dressing, toileting, grooming, and eating, and domestic or instrumental tasks, including meal preparation, shopping, cleaning, laundry, and management of finances and medications. Standardized measures may include the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), [6
Model of human occupation (MOHO)
The model emphasis that occupational behaviour is a result of the human system, the
subsystem, the habitation subsystem and the environment.
MOHO is a behavioural model. He defines occupational performance from a behavioural perspective. The model sees occupational performance as a result of mind-brain-body performance subsystem.
Haglund and Kjellberg (1999) argue that the MOHO lacks the influence of the environment on human behaviour. Though it includes the environmental factor, he does not explain the interaction and relationship between the person and the environment.
Canadian Model of Occupational Performance (CMOP).
See in occupational performance terms of dynamic relation between occupation, environment and a person, the key elements of environment are cultural, institutional, physical and social. While the purpose of occupation can be leisure, productivity or self-care. The CMOP presents the person as an integrated whole, incorporates spiritual, affective, cognitive and physical need (Townsend, 2002) The CMOP defines occupational performance as the result of dynamic relationship between the person, the environment and the occupation.
In contrast to the ICF where ‘rest’ is a body function, ‘rest’ has an activity perspective in the OPM.
The first extensive presentation of occupational therapy core competencies was produced by Mosey (1986) she based her domains of concern of the profession as performance components, occupational performances, the life cycle and the environment. While (Neistadt and Crepeau 1998) give a list at entry level to be development of skills, socialization in the expectation related to organisation, peers and the profession, acceptance of responsibility and accountability in relevant active-ties. In 1994,the college of occupational therapist published a position on ‘core skills and conceptual framework for practice’. Core skill is defined as the ‘expert knowledge at the hearth of the Professional’.
The unique core skills of occupational therapy are
Engage in purposeful activity and meaningful occupation as therapeutic tools to enhance health and wellbeing.
Enable people to explore, achieve and maintain balance in their daily living tasks.
Evaluate the effects of manipulate, physical and psycho-social environments, maximise function and social integration.
Ability to analyse, select and apply occupation to focused therapeutic media to enable dysfunction in daily living tasks and occupational roles.
For a therapist to be able to display core professionalism via the above listed core skills. The therapist needs to use four core processes.
Therapeutic Use of Self
In the heart of therapeutic intervention is the ability of the therapist to communicate with the client and establish a therapeutic relationship or alliance. Mosey (1986) described ‘conscience use of self’ as one of the legitimate tools of practice.
For an effective therapeutic intervention, there must be a clear and accurate evaluation of the potential and abilities of the clients in view of the client’s needs and goals. This is achieved through the array of tests, checklists and other assessment tools. Assessment may require detailed observation, measurement and repeated testing in relation to ADL which the individual engages.
OT is concerned with the whole spectrum of human skills through all ages: past, present and future. Possibilities and probabilities need careful evaluation which requires experience and indepth clinical reasoning.
A fundamental assumption of occupational therapy is that engagement in occupation promotes health and well being. Hence, occupational analysis seeks to break down the tasks into smallest units of which performance is composed. The client skill components can be identified and the therapist can map how this can be built into competence. To achieve this, the therapist must observe, record and analyse elements of performance via work, leisure and self care activities. The therapist also employs analytical methods to determine client interaction between occupational role and social life relationships.
Therapists acknowledge that the environment has an effect on behaviour. It facilitates interaction, reduce stress and promote engagement. Hence, adapting to the environment can enhance occupational performance or impede engagement in task. The analysis of the environment should be at an holistic level and not limited to the physical aspects alone, but also socio-cultural aspects, emotional and financier environment.
On a daily basis, occupational therapists are confronted with situations that requires decisions. Moral and ethics have the potential to affect the clinician’s decision making practice. Ethics are philosophical stands on the rightness or appropriateness of various voluntary actions. The adoption of ethical principles is one characteristic often used to distinguish professions from other occupations (Vollmer & Mills, 1966).
The code of ethics and professional conduct produced by the college of occupational therapists (COT) and NPC are formulated to guide O. T in their professional conduct in terms of competent combination of knowledge, skills and behavior’s.
The code of ethics and professional conduct are sub – divided into major sections:
Service user welfare and autonomy, this includes: Duty of care, welfare, mental capacity and informed consent and confidentiality.
Service provision: Equality, Resourses, the occupational process, risk management and record keeping.
Personal professional integrity: Personal integrity relationships with service users, professional integrity, fitness to practice, substance misuse, personal profit or gain, and information representation.
Professional competence and lifelong learning: professional competence, delegation, collaborative working, combining professional development, and occupational therapy practice education.
Developing and using the profession’s evidence base.
The code of ethics and professional conduct enacted various laws upon which an occupational therapist base his/her practice, these include:
Health Act 1999 ‘Occupational therapist’ is protected by law and can only be used by persons who are registered with the health professions council (HPC)
O.T personnel must respect the right of all people under the Human Right Act 1998.
Mental Capacity Act 2005 code of practice states that: A person must be assumed to have capacity unless it is established otherwise.
Data protection Act 1998: gives individual the right to know what information is held about them and that personal information is handled properly.
Roles of COT and HPC (Code of ethics and professional conduct.COT,2010)

Ethical Dilemmas in NZ Professional Bodies of Computing



This essay provides a brief analysis of the understanding of the professional bodies that helps to solve any ethical dilemma in the computing industry. It gives a clear picture of the functioning of the codes of practice by the various IT professionals in different industries. It is eminent from the essay that socially responsible behaviour is necessary for understanding common problems in the computing industry (Bodó et al., 2017). The guidelines followed by the professionals involved in the computing industry helps to organise a suitable framework in the computing industry. There is an overall balance maintained between the importance of individual values and ethical dilemmas in the community. The essay would discuss a brief understanding which highlights the analysis of the functioning of the professional bodies involved in the computing industry. It is essential for providing long term profit and maintaining an ethical balance in the community. There is a positive effect on maintaining ethical code values in the computing industry.

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The purpose of the codes of practice of the Institute of IT professionals in New Zealand is to maintain a sense of trust and faith in the community of people. It focuses on providing a sense of professional development and evolving good practice in the IT industry.  The institute focuses on working as a part of the community by giving good advice to the government of the country. It is considered to be the main backbone by providing precise solutions in solving any type of ethical problems in society (Byron et al., 2016). The codes of practice followed in the IT industry brings about a change in the total framework of the IT professionals in society. It provides a long term development of the members and explains any type of ethical dilemmas.  The codes of practice are needed for providing right solutions in any problems related to the computing industry.  The members involved in the Institute of IT professionals always look for continuous learning and developing the members. There is a strong mode of communication among the members and maintains an ethical balance in the institute. The codes of practice are regarded as strong support for maintaining the exact form of a code of conduct and work balance among the professionals involved in the IT industry. It is regarded as a long term improvement in the growth of social behaviour among the members and maintaining a sense of co-operation in the future. It is essential for providing the technical and personal development of the members involved in the IT industry (Caron et al., 2016). This helps to provide a positive consequence on the overall working of the Institute of IT professionals in the community. It works as a positive framework for maintaining an ethical balance in the computer industry.

The IITP code of ethics is a professional body which focuses on providing the right employed balance among the clients and the people involved in the community. According to da Silva et al., (2016), it provides a strong sense of working conduct by providing a lot of importance to the various interests of the community. The organization is working in an ethical way of safeguarding various interests of the public. It is focused on providing long term personal development among the members of the Institute of IT professionals. There are lots of positive effects which occur after strict maintenance of the guidelines involved in the code of ethics. According to Caron et al., (2016), also there is a negative effect which occurs after not following guidelines of the codes of ethics in a proper way. It provides a lot of ethical dilemma and there is no work balance maintained among the people involved in the community (Tarhini et al., 2017). The IT professional does not have a proper constructive framework or guidelines for solving any type of ethical issues. The IITP code of ethics is considered a positive framework for understanding and making a correct analysis of the outcome of the behaviours of the people in the Computer industry. The two guidelines of the IITP code of Ethics are as follows:

a. Good faith among members

The members have to treat people with accurate dignity, equality and provide a sense of faith among the people. There has to be proper maintenance of work among the members without having any discrimination on each other. It helps to provide a sense of equality among the members involved in the IT industry. The main focus is to provide a strong sense of consideration for maintaining the culture and a strong sense of hard work among the various people.

The members involved in the IT industry have to inform employees for solving any type of conflict issues within the society. It maintains a sense of cooperation and togetherness among the people in society. This provides solutions for any kind of impartial judgment made by the members and promotes a correct judgment for maintaining a long term development in the computer industry.

There is a lot of importance in maintaining a socially responsible behaviour in the IT industry. It provides a huge opportunity for the members involved in the IT industry and is focused on the long term development of the members involved in the computer industry (Metcalf & Crawford, 2016). The best way of analysing socially responsible behaviour in the IT industry is to study the environment in a strict way. It helps to provide a strong understanding about the nature of the job and help to properly analyse the role of the members.  There is a resilient sense of trust and working spirit among the members involved in the IT industry. The identification of correct opportunities by the members in the computer industry creates a lot of consumer awareness among the people in society. It analyses positives as well as negatives about working of the professional bodies within the industry and rectifies any weakness of the body (Diakopoulos & Koliska, 2017). It is essential for the development of an independent commute for aligning the social responsibility projects with the objective of the company. It helps to maintain a correct balance within the maintenance of socially responsibility objectives of the company in a detailed way. The promotion of socially responsible behaviour in the IT industry provides a strong positive framework in understanding social problems in society (Fenwick, 2016). It is essential for long term development of the IT companies and promotes a sense of togetherness among the members in the society (Savery, 2015). The maintenance of strong social behaviour in the Computer industry creates a correct working balance among the members and the employees.

Resolving Ethical dilemma:

The ethical dilemma can be resolved in any organization by maintaining correct legal principles within an organization. It can be solved by bringing members of the organization together in a collective way and maintain correct code of ethics in the workplace. It is essential for the growth of the organization and maintains a correct working place in the workplace for future growth in the society (Caron et al., 2016).  There should be considerations taken from various employees working in the organisation about the legal principles of the organization. It is the most effective way for solving any type of ethical dilemma in a workplace and in a society.

Code of ethics has positive effects for giving more importance to resolve the ethical dilemmas in the society rather than focusing on the individual values. It promotes a sense of togetherness and involves strong co-operation among the members (Reamer, 2015). The individual values are focused on solving any kind of problems related to the people in the society. Ethical behaviour is considered to be a combination of moral, personal, social and legal standards for maintaining the right objectives of the people.  The consistent ethical behaviour leads to solving of strong and structural ethical problems in society. It is essential for analysing the right methods for supporting various problems involved in the community. It is regarded as one of the key aspects of maintaining communal harmony among the people in society (Giorgini et al., 2015).  This approach brings about a change in the moral credibility and maintaining a suitable mode of leadership approach for the development of the people. It focuses on providing more importance for overall improvement in society and creating a sense of togetherness among the members (Friesdorf et al., 2015). This is effective for long term approach of the organization and creates a strong communication among the members involved in the society.  The solving of ethical dilemma in society solves a type of legal or other related issues in society. It is effective in building a strong sense of working culture among the employees and identifying any type of ethical issues in the future.

The above study provides an in-depth analysis of the importance of maintaining ethical problems in the computing industry. It is important for measuring long term growth of the computer industry and provides a suitable framework in the future. The study provides a strict analysis of the purpose of the codes of practice of the Institute of IT professionals. It is essential for encouraging further encouragement and providing a sense of trust within the clients involved in the computing industry. The socially responsible behaviour is essential for co-operating with the clients and providing a correct working balance among the employees working in the IT industry. The code of ethics involved in the IT industry provides a sense of integrity and good faith among the people involved in the society. The study provides a strict analysis of correct functioning and behaviour of the IT professionals involved in the computing industry. A brief introduction is given at the beginning of the study

The treaty of Waitangi was a treaty that was signed on 6 Februarybetween the representatives of British crown and Maori chiefs living in the North island of New Zealand. This treaty has a central importance in terms of both historical and political constitution of NZ thereby intending to frame the political relations that lie between NZ government and the Maori population(Orange, 2015).

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As per the rights of the Maori Council for rights relating to the 4G spectrum, further focus is laid on the value it has added to the electromagnetic spectrum of the real estates. New Zealand’s television viewers further have been found to be forced to be thrown away from their good analogue sets and have been pushed towards going digital. This has further added to the frequencies, which have further been used to broadcast the analogue signals following the 4G band. This has furtherdiversified its availability and usage thereby emphasizing on the need to effectively utilize the internet and add value to the people having the right to use them. This spectrum has further been declared to be a Taonga by the Waitangi Tribunal thereby implying to the ownership and control of the Waitangi tribunal. This has helped the service providers to make an effective use of this spectrum and their existence of a multi band antenna.

The NZ foreshore and seabed controversy is the controversy relating to the development of the potential owners of the off shores and sea beds. The provide w has further been a major debate in the country’s politics. This focuses on the ownership that relates to the country’sforeshore and seabed thereby emphasizing on the Maori groups who claim to have a full right to the title(Wilson., 2017). These claims are further based on the historical possessions and the treaty of Waitangi that lies within them.

The Tandata refers to the group of people having a common identity. They further follow the Maori rituals that involve burying the afterbirth of a newborn within their ancestral land. This illustrates the term Whenua that refers to both the land and the placenta of the mother. The use of this term acts as an important piece of legislation that is incorporated within the reo Maori Kupu and develops a discussion based on the term of TangataWhenua.

3. Discussion of areas of government legislation

The governmental legislations solelyfocus on the country’s economic and social status thereby emphasizing on certain social regulations that intend to protect the common interests of the public. The government of the country further is based on the activities that relate to the businesses thereby emphasizing on the five major core areas including advertisement, labor, environment impacts, privacy and maintenance of health and safety. The important areas that the government of the country has levied their social responsibility within computer professionals focuses on the privacy, employment, management of resources, their official information, copyrights, consumer tights and such. Considering these, focus is further laid down on the health and safety policies that they follow thereby emphasizing on any kind of unsolicited message, film, video or other form of publications. This in turn intends to improve the customer engagement and develop a strongrelationship with the customersthat would help the company in their growth.

4. Description of what you think the government intentions are regarding this act?

The country comes up with focuses on developing a wider parameter that would help to maintain the citizen behavior. This in turn seeks to protect them from outside interferences thereby intending to maintain their well-being and happiness intact.  The concept of a social responsibility within the business further intends to incorporate certain environmental sustainabilityinitiatives that directs towards a philanthropic giving. This furtherfocuses on the importance of following the ethical business practices that would help to maintain an economic responsibility. This solely intends to maintain the business ethics thereby helping to carry out with effective decisions. This further helps to maintain a corporate social responsibility thereby stressing on the social services and importance of private sector growth.

The health and safety laws further are developed and adopted by the company to maintain safety of the individuals thereby intending to avoid workplace harm and employment. This acts as a major part of the work duties of the mobileenvironment thereby allowing them to improve the customer engagement.

5. Description of how the legislation chosen could affect computer professionals?

With the growing emphasis of the CSR policies, the government of the country has laid a thorough focus on the growth of a social responsibility within their IT businesses (Schwartz, 2017). With the sole idea of maintaining a social welfare, focus is further laid on the promotion of the use of computer technology. This further follows maintaining a discussion that is developed by the policymakers seeking to meet a wide range of issues within the businesses. This is effective for the computer professionals to follow the CPSR and adjust to laws and regulations thereby mitigating the issues (Lins, Servaes & Tamayo, 2017). Further focus is followed on maintaining certain business laws that would help to maintain profession and the company policies thereby emphasizing on the growth of a social and moral code of conduct to meet their goals thoroughly. The health and safety laws further act as a suitable framework for protecting the health and safety of the workers thereby emphasizing on the development of employee engagement and protection for better execution of work.

The study infers by stating the NZ professional bodies of computing and the ethical dilemmas they face. Further, the study has made a discussion base on the importance of the treaty of Waitangi and the areas of government legislations in this field.Further focus is laid on the importance of the laws and how the legislation has affected upon the IT professionals in particular in the process.

Congress, E. P. (2017). What social workers should know about ethics: Understanding and resolving practice dilemmas. Social Work Ethics, 1909.

Greene, R. R. (2017). Human Behavior Theory and Professional Social Work Practice. In Human Behavior Theory and Social Work Practice (pp. 31-62). Routledge.

Lins, K. V., Servaes, H., & Tamayo, A. (2017). Social capital, trust, and firm performance: The value of corporate social responsibility during the financial crisis. The Journal of Finance, 72(4), 1785-1824.

Orange, C. (2015). The treaty of Waitangi. Bridget Williams Books.

Schwartz, M. S. (2017). Corporate social responsibility. Routledge.

Tribe, R., & Morrissey, J. (Eds.). (2015). Handbook of professional and ethical practice for psychologists, counsellors and psychotherapists. Routledge.

Wilson, K. (2017). The Treaty of Waitangi: Preparing beginning teachers to meet the expectations of the new professional standards. Waikato Journal of Education, 8(1).

Communication and Professional Relationships with Children

The educational environment is a place that gives us opportunity to make a deep and a vital link with children and young people. This also enables us to communicate and build positive relationships with them. Support staff should bear in mind that there are specific principles, skills, and regulations that are compulsory to provide a productive learning environment for children and young people. So, what are the main principles that the supporting assistant should be knowledgeable of when working in a school setting?
The principles of relationship building:
Effective communication with its both sides verbal and non-verbal is very important to develop positive relationships with everyone, from inside the school setting and from outside it like parents and careers. It has a good impact on children emotionally, intellectually, and socially as it provides them a harmonious and a happy learning environment. It is hard to build relationships with everyone in the school setting especially when we come across different people with different ideas, morals, and working practices. Therefore using good communication principles helps us easily to build positive relationships.

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We value children and young people when we respect them and when we communicate with them effectively by listening and making time to them. We should consider their feelings as well by avoiding making assumptions and prejudgements, and try to know what the reasons that push them to behave differently. When we show interest in children as human beings and when we behave with them with a sense of humour makes relationship building with them easy task.
There are some social, professional, and cultural factors that affect our communication and relationships with people. Due to that the communication can be either formal or informal depending on the context and situation we are in. A formal communication can occur between a parent and any working staff in the school when discussing the child’s behaviour; it should take place as well when the teacher is discussing any learning information with children. On the other hand the informal one is considered to be an efficient manner to build relationships between teachers themselves and support assistants and also between teachers and their pupils. Informal communication gives more space and freedom for everyone in the school setting to get to know each other deeply. The other factor to be considered is culture. We already mentioned that working in a school setting we may come across different people from different backgrounds and cultures. For that reason, it is mandatory that we modify our communication to be adequate for everyone in order to avoid any misunderstandings, because what might be considered as respect in one culture might be considered as disrespect in another one.
In addition to these principles, the supporting assistant should adopt some skills and adapt them when communicating and when dealing with disagreements, either with children and young people or with adults.
Communication skills:
There are different skills that are important when we communicating with children. For example keeping eye contact and adopting the art of silence shows them that their talk is valued by the listener, and it gives them freedom to express themselves and talk freely, especially children who have a low self-esteem.
Once the child starts speaking we should pay attention to what they are saying and react appropriately by correcting their language mistakes implicitly. The use of questioning is another skill that proves to children that we are interested in what they are saying. It is an effective skill that enables us to converse with them. In addition to that, we value children more when we use body language; bending down to talk to a child gives him or her feeling of security and equality.
Some other aspects like the age of children, the context and communication differences are strong reasons for us to adapt our communication with children and young people.
When supporting 3-7 years age group, non-verbal communication is more used such as eye contact, tone of voice, gestures and motivation. Whereas, communication with the age range of 7-12 years is more verbal. Children at this age tend to converse freely with adults as they have more needs and problems to confess .This verbal and non-verbal communication is likely to change though ,according to the context of the situation we are in. For instance, the tone of voice may either be soft or loud depending on the activity being supported.
When we adapt communication with children and young people it strongly means that there are differences that must be put into consideration.
With children:
The tone of voice should be projected appropriately to assure that the instructions are heard and being acted upon. The purpose of communication with children aims more to teach them or ask them to do something and we should show interest, and then listen to them when they are responding to questions being asked.
With young people:
The tone of voice here should not be projected when it is not required in order to avoid causing any offence. The purpose of communication with young people is different, in terms of passing a lot of information besides what is being taught to them by adopting verbal communication. In general communication with young people takes another sense depending on their level of maturity ,on their interest in the subject being taught and depending on their personality.
Besides children and young people, adults as careers and parents also have some communication needs that support staff should be knowledgeable of, precisely when they pass information from school about their children or to explain them things that need to be done.
These are some adult’s needs that communication should be adapted to meet them:
Literacy: Information should be simplified and clarified as much as possible.
Vision impaired: We should show the parents their children’s work closely.
Hearing impaired: We should speak slowly and loudly with a clear voice.
Speaking English as a second language: The supporting assistant should simplify their English language level and a translator should be provided if required.
Communication skills are not only important to build positive relationships but also to deal with disagreements that may lead to break these relationships, and produce us negative relationships instead. Differences in personalities and culture backgrounds are factors that may lead children to disagree easily if they are not brought to accept and respect others.
When children disagree, it is preferable to follow these skills:
-Keep calm, as low voice makes it easy to discuss the situation.
-Encourage both sides to reconcile and communicate.
-Ensure no issue is dismissed regardless of how big or small they are.
-Encourage both sides to apologise and remind them that they should treat others as they would wish to be treated themselves.
Mostly disagreements happen with adults because of lack of communication, dishonesty, and inability to compromise, but if these negative elements are avoided adult’s disagreements might be decreased. When it is inevitable, adults should sort out their conflicts far from children’s earshot and sight especially if any aggressive disagreement is taking place. The support assistant should discuss other’s opinions calmly far from raised voices and assumption making. We should remain polite and professional as we are representing the school policies and principles. Then, consult with other member of staff or the teacher if the disagreement is beyond our position. We should also exercise confidentiality in all disagreements and discussions. When the support assistants comes across complicated disagreements ,they should refer them to teacher or head teacher of the school and it is also advised that they refer to the school grievance and policy.
The purpose of practicing these skills wisely and peacefully in disagreements, guaranties a safe and a secure schooling environment for children, and it helps them to develop their positive attitudes towards others.
Exercising confidentiality in the school setting is a crucial condition that ensures safety for children and young people. All the school staff has access to confidential matters of pupils their families and even the school information. To safeguard this data and information, we should be aware of the main legislations covering and governing this confidentiality. The Data Protection Act 1998 explains us how to exercise confidentiality lawfully, fairly, appropriately, and professionally.
The teaching assistant has a duty towards children and young people to reassure them that any information related to them is safe and will not be shared with someone else, as long as this information is not harming the child or anyone else around him. In every rule there is an exception no matter how strict this rule is. Therefore, confidentiality must be breached in cases like these:
-Situations disclosed by pupils that would indicate they could come to harm.
-Where a child is involved, or could become involved, in criminal activity.
-Evidence of an adult being at risk or suffering harm.
The teaching assistant should notify the child protection officer as soon as possible. There is another case that necessitates sharing data. For instance, having a child suffering from any dangerous illness. In cases like that the other members of staff should be privy to the whole situation so that attention is paid to the child to ensure his safety at any time.
When the teaching assistants raise their knowledge about these principles, skills, and regulations it makes their work with children and young people productive and easier. Effective communication and positive relationships are vital contribution to children’s progress in the school setting.

A Professional Development Plan

In reflecting on my professional development, I consider that my skills and competencies have developed significantly and that my level of responsibility has developed to reflect this. Leading the production of the Neighbourhood Plan is a challenging task that has drawn on my skills across a very broad range of areas. It has also however been a very rewarding area of work and one that I feel has significantly developed my core spatial planning skills and will provide a robust basis to further my professional development. I also believe that my experience at RDA and (name removed) City Council has enabled me to start to develop the wider generic skill set required of built environment professionals, particularly in terms of multidisciplinary working, negotiation and mediation, and leadership. This will provide a strong basis from which to develop my future career within the sector and effectively respond to change.
Well developed analytical and research skills
Strong report writing/policy skills
Breadth of experience in spatial planning and regeneration through roles at Development Agency & Council
Strong interpersonal skills
Wide range of professional contacts and networks through involvement in Regional Activities Committee and Young Planners Events
Limited knowledge of development control and ‘the mechanics of planning’ – inquiries, compulsory purchase powers etc.
No direct line-management experience
Need to develop skills in terms of managing conflict/difficult situations
Urban renaissance and current public policy commitment to building skills amongst built environment professionals – e.g. Academy for Sustainable Communities, Regional Centres of Excellence, CABE
Emergence of City Regions and development of associated organisations and bodies
Widening range of public sector special delivery bodies and regeneration agencies e.g. URCs, UDCs, RDAs
‘Missing generation’ of planners could provide opportunities for more rapid career progression
Impact of Comprehensive Spending Review on regeneration spending and growth within the sector
Impact of review of land use planning/potential change of political direction under new Labour leadership
Competition from recent increase in number of high calibre graduates completing accelerated RTPI-accredited Masters degrees.
Period: September 2006 ‑ September 2008
Date of next review: March 2007
Current job title and employer details
Since 3 April 2006 I have been employed as Planning Officer (Planning Regeneration) at (name removed) City Council.
Current job / role
My key area of work is the project management of the production of a Neighbourhood Plan as a non‑statutory area planning document. The core tasks which the production of the Neighbourhood Plan involves are:
Preparation and agreement of the scope and approach to the production of the Neighbourhood Plan;
Preparation of a Baseline and Issues report;
Commissioning and management of consultants to facilitate stakeholder and community engagement workshops;
Co‑ordination of both Officer Group and Advisory Group meetings; Principal point of contact for community and stakeholder enquiries; Preparation of the Neighbourhood Plan document and associated Sustainability Assessment and Consultation Statement;
Liaison with Elected Members; and
Preparation of formal reports to Planning Lead Member, Cabinet, and Council.
Outside the project management of the production of the Neighbourhood Plan, my role also involves:
preparing development briefs for key sites, and associated community and stakeholder engagement;
providing policy advice in relevant pre‑application discussions with developers relating to significant development sites;
working with partners to secure the implementation of plans and urban regeneration schemes;
preparing reports to Lead Member, Cabinet and Council to seek political endorsement where appropriate; and
providing planning advice to colleagues and stakeholders across a range of disciplines including housing, property, neighbourhood management, education services, and landscape design.
Current strengths
Policy / report writing skills ‑ these were significantly developed through my work at RDA and will provide a strong basis to inform my production of policy documents and development briefs. See log book entry, p.x
Analytical and research skills ‑ these were also significantly developed through my work at RDA and have been critical in supporting my preparation of a Baseline and Issues report for the Neighbourhood Plan area. See log book entry, p.y
Project management and collaborative working ‑ my project management of the Historic Towns and Cities study at RDA developed my project management skills in terms of managing the consultants and financial management. My skills in collaborative and multidisciplinary working were developed through liaising with the steering group and engaging key partners and stakeholders. See log book entry, p.z
Current areas for development‑
Engaging and working with the local community ‑ due to the nature of my role at RDA this is not an area in which I had experience prior to working at (current employer). It will be important that I continue to develop skills in this area in order to effectively carry out the duties of my role. Taking forward the Neighbourhood Plan process will be a key means of developing my skills in this area. See log book pages a, b and c.

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Knowledge of the development control / implementation side of planning ‑ this relates to developing my detailed knowledge across a range of key areas which could be termed the ‘mechanics of planning’. These include planning applications, appeals and inquiries, call‑ins, development control and enforcement, and compulsory purchase powers. These are not areas in which I previously had experience given the nature of my role at RDA. They will however be important areas for development given the more local l implementation based nature of my role at (location removed).
Developing skills in understanding and mediating political situations ‑developing skills in political awareness and mediation will be important given the political nature of planning, and partnership working more generally. In terms of my role at (location removed), the areas which I will seek to strengthen include managing relationships with key partners and stakeholders, colleagues from other sections within the Council, and Elected Members.
Long term goals
My long term goal is to develop my career in the public sector. There are a wide range of reasons which underpin this commitment. These include the range of opportunities available, the breadth of work and the ability to make a difference and see tangible results from your work, together with the supportive organisational culture and commitment to staff development and maintaining a positive work‑life balance.
My goal would be to work within planning/regeneration within a special delivery body as I believe this would offer the greatest potential for creativity and innovation. Within the existing organisational landscape, this could for example be within an Urban Regeneration Company. There are however likely to be other similar bodies emerging in the future as the organisational landscape changes.
I believe that my experience to date within the RDA working on a strategic / policy based level, together with the more local level, implementation‑focused experience I will get in my present role at (location removed) will put me in a good position to realise my goal by giving me a broad range of experience in planning and regeneration.
Short term goals
I will develop my skills in terms of working with the local community and securing effective engagement in the plan‑making process.
I will develop my knowledge of the ‘mechanics of planning’, including planning applications, appeals and inquiries, call‑ins, development control and enforcement, and compulsory purchase powers.
I will develop my skills of political awareness through managing relationships with key partners, stakeholders, colleagues from other sections within the Council and Elected Members.
(continued on next page to allow for space for comments, right)
Objective 1: Develop skills of community working and engagement.
How will I get there?
Liaise with the Consultation and Commissioning group and other colleagues to develop a best practice approach to community engagement as part of the production of the Neighbourhood Plan. First meeting December 06.
Learn best practice techniques of facilitation from specialist consultants commissioned to facilitate the Neighbourhood Plan workshops. Initial meeting set up for March 07.
Continue to assist in the facilitation of relevant community engagement workshops and events at the Council. Workshops approaching in November and December 06.
Continue to attend community facilitation workshops through my volunteer role with regional Planning Aid (see examples in log book, pages d, e and f). Workshop event July 07.
Attend relevant training events on community engagement techniques organised by the RTPI, Planning Aid, or the (location removed) Planners Training Group. Specifically, event on Engaging with Young People in February 07.
Objective 2: Develop detailed knowledge of the ‘mechanics of planning’.
How will I get there?
Involvement with development control colleagues at (development & regeneration services consultancy) in pre-­application discussions with developers for scheme proposals for key sites. Meeting scheduled for October 06.
Developing my working knowledge of the key development control principles, through familiarisation with the GDPO and planning legislation, and familiarisation with the Council’s relevant draft and adopted Supplementary Planning Documents, including the Planning Obligations SPD, Housing SPD, Greenspace SPD, Design and Crime SPD, and the Nature Conservation & Biodiversity SPD. Have read and understood all documents by January 08.
Relevant web-based research via Localaw and the DCLG and HMSO websites to develop my knowledge of relevant documents relating to the statutory procedures and legislative context.
Involvement with colleagues from the Plans Group in relation to assisting in the preparation of case for appeals and call-ins. One-to-one arranged with (colleague) for November 06.
Attendance at relevant planning inquiries to observe and learn from proceedings. Inquiry examining (details removed) due for January 07.
Keep updated of amendments to the statutory procedures through reading relevant articles in Planning, the Planning Matters website, and attending Planning Law update events. Ongoing – review amendments/learning outcomes in April 07.
Objective 3: Develop skills in terms of political awareness and relationship management.
How will I get there?
Co-ordination of the Neighbourhood Plan Officer Group and Advisory Group, which will develop my skills in relationship building with officers from across the Council’s Directorates, in addition to Elected Members and community representatives. Meeting scheduled December 06.
Actively engage key external stakeholders in the production of the Neighbourhood Plan, including the (location removed) URC, the PCT and NHS Trust, (local area) Police, and key Registered Social Landlords.
Continue to build my network of professional contacts through my role on the RTPI Regional Activities Committee and my involvement in the (regional) Young Planners Group and Planning Aid.
Comments Summary
Overall this is a clear and comprehensive Professional Development Plan. The candidate has thought deeply about where he sees his career progressing, so while his short term goals are focused on improvements relating to his current role, this is part of a wider vision for the future. There is clear ownership of the PDP – on reading it you understand the candidate’s strengths and weaknesses through the same themes being picked up and addressed in the SWOT, the strengths/weaknesses of the PDP, and future objectives. So while the short term goals might not directly and explicitly work towards the long term goals, it is easy to see how these goals/objectives have been arrived at. Although the rest of the APC submission is not shown here, the PDP is also clearly identifiable as belonging to this candidate, and it is therefore clear that it is a very personal account. References are made to sections of the log book, which help with this. The actions that are identified are a little vague – the comments show how this has/could be improved by identifying more structured/specific activities, and by introducing target time frames. The candidate does not rely solely on general activities in the workplace, but identifies some firm CPD activities that will very likely have to take place outside of the day-to-day employment e.g. structured reading/research with particular topics/documents in mind. Candidates should avoid relying solely on activities that will take place during day-to-day work to meet objectives – undertaking an activity at work doesn’t necessarily mean you will learn from it, and opportunities to take on certain work activities are often outside of your control.

Professional Values and Evidence Based Practice

The Role of a Nurse

The role of the nurse has developed massively from the times of Florence Nightingale to the modern 21st century. Florence Nightingale became an extremely famous heroine after her great efforts during the Crimean war. She fought to get all the wounded bandages, fresh bedding, food and cleaning supplies. Nightingale showed empathy and sympathised with the wounded and dying soldiers, she took the time to comfort and take concern for them. She was also able to manage others who worked around her, directing what could be done, such as assisting with letter writing and helping to wash or dress the men that were incapable. These are all factors that are now necessary skills for a nurse. (M.L.Lobo, Cited in J.B.George pg.43, 2002) Nightingales main priority was to secure and protect the environment that her patients were in. This consisted of keeping them clean and in a condition where infection could be minimised. These main features have been taken on board and have developed a vast amount to provide the most effective and safe practice of health care to date. This essay will aim to talk about the role of the nurse through the 4 principles of the NMC code (2015) and also express the importance of the 6 Cs of nursing whilst integrating them and linking each one to the NMC code. It aims to express the importance of communication, commitment, confidentiality, team work , fundamentals of care and professionalism.

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The NMC code (2015) have set out 4 main categories that describes everything a nurse should be able to do and what a nurse needs to abide by. These categories are; prioritise people, practice effectively, preserve safety and promote professionalism and trust. The first  section to be focused on is Within prioritise people of the NMC Code (2015) it states “treat people as individuals and uphold their dignity” this statement explores the importance of being non-prejudice when working within the nursing profession. Prejudice is defined as “preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience” (M.Waite, 2012) this is creating a judgement on someone from visual appearances and body language before you get to know a person. Prejudging someone, gives an overall first impression of a person. These are solely controlled by the nonverbal communication that happens when we first come in contact with someone. Therefore, the impressions we make are based on how a person looks, smells and sounds.  This is not always a positive impression. For example, if a new school teacher were to arrive to school in clothes that were creased, and their hair was not fixed, then we would assume that the teacher is incapable of teaching and is as disorganised as their appearance. However, these impressions can change; if the teacher were to perform extremely well and happened to be an outstanding teacher, then our first impressions are completely forgotten as they have over ruled them. Hence why a person should never judge a book by its cover. (Six degrees, 2018). However, regardless of the person, their background or what they have done, nurses and doctors take an oath to treat and care for all patients that come through the health service and prejudice is not even thought of.

Prioritising people also consists of upholding the patient’s dignity. This is key in the profession. Upholding dignity allows for the patient to feel comfortable and respected. Patients are extremely vulnerable in times of care and are exposed to situations that may be distressing for them. Nurses must be mindful of a patient’s morale in these circumstances. In cases where patients need to undress and get into a hospital gown, a nurse must ensure that they have their own private space, even if that means it’s closing the curtain from other patients around them. It consists of listening to a patient’s point of view and understanding how they feel. Its concentrating solely on them and giving them the person centred care that they deserve. There are ten elements of dignity that have been previously described by Dr Hicks in her book “Dignity, its essential role it plays in resolving conflict” that are beneficial in a health care profession. The most important that are relevant to nursing include; the acceptance of every persons individuality and identity, being understanding- taking into account what others are feeling at a distressing time, safety- ensuring that people are to feel at ease, fairness- treating all patients equally and lastly the most important is allowing the patient to have independence- this is to encourage people to have autonomy and to reiterate how they always have a say as to what happens during their care experience; it enables empowerment. (D.Hicks, 2011)

The Fundamentals of care was set out to improve the quality of care for adults. It is now the basis of nursing. The NMC have defined the fundamentals of care as “The fundamentals of care include, but are not limited to, nutrition, hydration, bladder and bowel care, physical handling and making sure that those receiving care are kept in clean and hygienic conditions… making sure you provide help to those who are not able to feed themselves or drink fluid unaided.” (NMC, 2015). The fundamentals of care aim to treat patients with dignity and respect but also ensuring that people’s physical, social and psychological needs are assessed and managed. Consent must be gained before carrying out any needs, such as assisting with feeding, brushing teeth, bed baths, assisting with toilet needs etc. This is the use of beneficence, acting in a way that is beneficial for the patient. Although the fundamentals of care are set out to promote care and have a benefit for the health, it can also have a negative impact on the patient. It is taking away the patients independence, patients are made to feel as though they are incapable of doing daily tasks that they carried out prior to coming into hospital. An example of this is on a cardiac ward; after having a heart attack and even though you are now stable and mobile, you cannot leave your bed area and therefore are made to go to toilet into a disposable bedpan, when in reality they could have gone to the toilet. One study found that 12% of patients aged 70 and over had noticed a decline in their ability to carry out essential tasks independently such as bathing dressing, using the toilet, eating and moving around, between their arrival to hospital and discharge (K.E.Covinsky et al, 2003). It also makes patients very reliant on nurses, they then feel that they can’t carry out tasks without a nurse and because they are so used to nurses assisting them with their care, they become more dependent and less mobile. In terms of mobility, being bed bound for weeks on end in hospital can cause muscles to break down in the body. Evidence has proven how longer stays in hospital can lead to worse health outcomes. Older patients can lose mobility rapidly when not kept active. Monitors recent review had shown how for healthy older adults, 10 days of bed rest can lead to 14% reduction in leg and hip muscle strength. With a further 12% reduction in aerobic capacity (Monitor, 2015 cited on National Audit Office p.14). This expresses how nurses should encourage patients to walk around on regular intervals if they are able and it is safe to do so to decrease the chances of having muscle loss and to ensure that they are able to go back to their own homes rather than to other care facilities.

The NMC Code (2015) second category for nurses to adhere to is “Practice effectively”. One of the points expressed is to “communicate clearly”. Communication amongst all nursing is one of the most important roles that a nurse has. Communication is usually taken for granted and is dismissed to the point where people believe that it is not important. But, in a nursing role, a nurse has to be able to communicate efficiently and effectively with both patients and other members of staff. There are two forms of communication; verbal and non-verbal. (S.Kraszewski & A. McEwen, 2010) Verbal communication is the use of speech or written information in order to express opinions and beliefs or simply for a conversation. The way in which we speak with tone of voice and with pitch is all based around the individual patients. If a patient were to be slightly deaf, then a nurse would understandably be using a higher volume of speech and also using a slow pace to give the patient time to understand what it is that they are actually saying. However, if the patient were to be of a well hearing health then a nurse would use a mediocre tone of voice and perhaps use a faster pace as the patient will understand more clearly. Verbal communication is the most common form. However, non-verbal communication also pays an important role. Non-verbal communication is the use of body language, eye contact and facial expression. This is useful in situations where the use of speech isn’t always appropriate. For example, in cases where a patient has been given a short time frame to live, a nurse may have broken the news and have used a healthy silence to allow the patient to digest the information that has been given. But, maintaining an open body stance and having soft eyes in this situation, allows the patient to recognise that they are there to talk to and ask questions when they feel they can (Nursing times, 2018). Albeit, there are many strengths and weaknesses to both forms of communication. Verbal communication can ensure that a point has gotten across to the patients and that they understand fully everything that has been explained to them. It also allows for a nurse to gain consent, they are able to discuss with a patient the procedure of their care and the patient is then able to decline or consent. This also brings out a sense of autonomy in the patients as they feel in control of their health care; they have a say as to what goes on, such as when they wish to wash, whether they want to go ahead with extensive surgery, to even when they wish to get out of bed. Effective communication also makes a patient feel valued. It shows how you are willing to listen and attempt to understand how they are feeling. This will build a report with a patient which makes them more trusting and they take on board what you have to say. Verbal communication can also have weaknesses. These can include language barriers. Visual and hearing impairments are a form of language barriers. The loss of hearing makes it difficult to understand what a person is saying. You would need to be able to speak sign language and studies have shown how only a minority of health professionals can communicate using sign language. It was reported in 2013 that 46% of reported deaf respondents have communicated with health professionals with the use of pen and paper. Having to write things down in order to have a conversation. 23% have reported they currently communicate using spoken English and the use of lip reading; stating that they would prefer not to. (Research into the health of death people, 2013). This research is only based on the presence of 553 deaf people within the UK. This can suggest how it is not a true representative of the whole deaf community worldwide. 553 deaf people is a small amount compared to the thousands that are present in the UK. This is stating that it only gives a slight insight into the difficulties faced by deaf people within the NHS; it cannot be said that all deaf people feel this certain way. Also, the study was carried out 6 years ago, therefore, it is slightly out of date. There is a possibility that there has been an increased awareness into the struggles that the deaf community face and changes could have been made over recent years to improve the experience these people face during health visits. It is important for a nurse to be aware of all these barriers when in their role.

Team work is also necessary when working within a nursing role. Teams have all different levels of experience and knowledge within the NHS and this has to be recognised and understood to enable the delivery of care to be most effective. The main function of a team during healthcare is to provide a good quality of care. The Harding committee (DHSS 1981, cited in S.Kraszewski & A. McEwen, 2010. pg.76-77) stated that a team has to have four certain key elements in order to function. These are; an overall common objective that is to be accepted by all staff within the team, an understanding of their personal roles, skills and how they function- taking into consideration about their own responsibilities and lastly having mutual respect for all other team members and their role. If a team was able to express and act upon these key elements, then the care delivered would be of a high standard. Even though, the definition is outdated coming from 1981, it is extremely relevant in modern day nursing as the principles of a team remains the same and the emphasis on teamworking is still at a high. However, the Harding committee failed to acknowledge the strength that communication has within a team. Under ‘practice effectively’ of the NMC code (2015) it states “work-co-operatively” and one sub-point says that a nurse must maintain effective communication with colleagues which links with another sub-point of sharing information to identify and reduce risk. Having effective communication whilst in a team can enhance the quality of care given.

The third category of the NMC code (2015) is to “Preserve Safety”. This is essential in nursing care both for the nurse themselves and for patients. This means that nurses have to recognise and notice their capabilities, to work within their own skill set and competence to prevent any harm. It is encouraging that nurses ask for help from suitably qualified staff, this not only increases the quality of care, but also improves and develops the skill sets of the nurse.  It also states how nurses should “always offer help if an emergency arises in your practice setting or anywhere else”. This form of commitment can be shown to the profession itself. If a shift was over and an emergency arises a nurse would not just clock off and leave, they would step in and help to resolve the situation and provide their services when needed. Nurses have a commitment to personal excellence. This is carrying out frequent evaluations of one’s self to further develop the professional care that is being given. It allows for nurses to critically evaluate themselves to make changes or improvements, writing up reflections in order to say what has been done well and what they would do differently. This is showing commitment to the job, making changes to improve and develop further to enhance not only yourself but the patient’s well-being. Commitment to the job can also be shown towards colleagues. Complimenting colleagues on what they have done well and help assist them on what they are still learning. Show care and compassion to other employers as well as patients. (J.R.Ellis&C.L.Hartley, 2004)

4 Promote Professionalism and trust





RCN 8 principles

Reference List


Nurse’s Professional Role in Advocating for Others

Using the 4 Ps to underpin your essay and using legal, ethical and professional issues discuss the nurse’s professional role in advocating for others and how personal knowledge, skills, values and beliefs contribute to your professional identity and development.

The aim of this assignment is to research legal, ethical and professional issues in order to discuss the nurse’s professional role in advocating for others, and also to look at how personal knowledge, skills, values and beliefs contribute to a nurse’s professional development and identity. Firstly, it will consider advocacy and how legal, ethical and professional issues shape the nurse’s role.

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Advocacy has been argued to be a fundamental aspect of nursing, it is reinforced by the current codes of conduct, as well as codes of ethics and competency standards that govern nursing practice. Advocacy has been defined as the ‘means by which individuals can be empowered to express their opinion’ (Gallagher et al. 2012, p. 71). There are three main models of advocacy that were discussed by Fry and Johnstone (2008), these are the ‘rights patient protection’ model, the ‘value-based’ decision model and the ‘respect-for-persons’ model. Each of these models interprets advocacy in a different way, but one key similarity is that each model looks at the best interest for the patients in their individual ways. The ‘rights patient protection’ model is where the nurse defends the patient’s rights, the ‘values-based’ decision model looks at the nurse helping the patient to discuss their needs, interests and choices without the nurse imposing their own personal opinions on the patient, and finally the ‘respect-for-persons’ model, here the nurse looks at the patient as a fellow human being who is entitled to respect. 

Being an advocate on behalf of a patient can mean many things, it could be helping a patient make an informed decision regarding their health, translating medical jargon and assisting them to understand complex systems and conditions or it could be helping them come to ethical decisions. It is important to remember that ethical principles are standards of conduct that constitute an ethical system (Johnstone, 2009) and that a nurse must understand the cultural differences may exist for the people in the care of the nurse. Different beliefs and values mean that advocacy will be different for each individual, two people will not require the same level of care and support. Advocacy is highlighted throughout the Nursing and Midwifery Code (NMC, 2018), in all four sections. Under ‘Preserving Safety’ it is stated that a nurse should be “raising concerns immediately whenever you come across situations that put patients or public safety at risk”. This helps to shape a nurse’s role as an advocate as it highlights the importance of raising concerns in the best interest of the patient, this could potentially refer to Safeguarding or a range of other policies when necessary, always ensuring that the patient’s safety and needs are put at the forefront. Furthermore, within the NMC there is a section for ‘Prioritising People’. Prioritising people shapes the nurse’s role in being an advocate as it is all about putting the patient first, ensuring that their care needs are met and that their safety is of the upmost importance. It also mentions that nurses are to challenge any discriminatory attitudes and behaviours that are aimed towards the people receiving care, this helps shape the nurse’s role in advocacy as it is another guideline of what a nurse should speak up against.

The nurses’ role of being an advocate has changed over the previous years, this is due to a number of reasons, including legal issues. Both criminal law and civil law affect the nursing profession in their individual ways, on the one hand criminal law focuses on conduct that would cause harm or damage social order, this refers to criminal acts. Criminal law is very rarely used against nurses in a professional manner, as it refers to committing crimes such as theft from a patient, assault or murder. On the other hand, there is civil law, which deals with actions in “tort” which means civil wrongs. Dealings of civil law are much more common than criminal law dealings in nursing practice, disputes of civil law can occur between two individuals, an individual and an organisation or two organisations, the most common form of “tort” in a healthcare setting is negligence, which may arise due to failure to gain consent or a breach of confidentiality. It is due to the cases that exist from both types of law that have altered and caused the need for new policies and legislation. Some legislation that has been developed due to legal issues and cases include the Human Rights Act (1998), Mental Capacity Act (2005), Equality Act (2010) and many more. These legislations have resulted in a change in the way nurses practice and how they advocate for their patients, the legislation sets out standards that should be upheld and met, and provide a type of guideline that can be used to show what is expected of a nurse.

Professional identity could be defined as including both personal and professional development and involving the internalisation of the core values recognised as essential to the nursing profession. Many factors contribute towards a nurse’s professional identity and development, these include, but are not limited to knowledge, skills and values. Throughout their career, a nurse is expected to continue expanding their knowledge and professional development, this is done through the requirement of lifelong learning for nursing. Lifelong learning is used in order to promote and deliver the best possible care that is based on the most updated and best available evidence. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is a requirement of the Nursing and Midwifery Council (2018), in order for a nurse to revalidate and remain on the register they are expected to complete a minimum of thirty-five hours every three years in order to increase the nurses level of knowledge and skills, this is a critical tool in order to deliver improved patient outcomes and a high quality of care. Furthermore, Eason (2010) stated that lifelong learning supports critical thinking which in turn is able to enhance a nurse’s satisfaction with their professional role and encourage the nurse to research and apply the newest evidence into their practice, this highlights the importance for a nurse to continue to develop their knowledge and learning new and more up to date information.

The NMC (2018) also expects nurses to keep their skills up to date throughout their working career by participating in relevant learning activities, this is to ensure that the nurse is fully competent and to ensure that they are using the most recent practices, ensuring patient safety and high standards of practice. The NMC Code of Conduct (2018) asserts that a nurse is to provide care to the best of their ability, using the basis of the best available evidence and also expects nurses to reflect and act on any feedback given in order to improve practice, this is highlighted under ‘Practice Effectively’ in the code (2018), and it emphasises the importance for continued learning throughout a nurses’ career, this is because in order to provide the best care, a nurse must be up to date with the most recent evidence. In addition, reflective practice is used in order to help to learn and develop practice in order to optimise learning and improve a nurses’ abilities, it enables the nurse to consider what they did, why they did it and allows them to consider what knowledge they can take from the experience.

A nurse should embrace fundamental values in every aspect of their practice, professional values are likely to be influenced by a nurses’ personal values, Badcott (2011) suggested that personal values and beliefs should have a minimal effect on professional values for practice, he further states that when certain values are required for a profession they must become integral for both personal and professional aspects of the nurses’ life. Professional values are seen to be rooted into personal values and are seen as a necessary aspect to nursing that reinforce a nurses professional and personal identity, as well as a nurse’s performance. The use of values in nursing practice is considered to increase the quality of patient care and are a source that aid in promoting nurses’ ethical competencies in a clinical setting and dealing with ethical concerns.

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To conclude, this assignment has researched the legal, ethical and professional issues in order to discuss the nurse’s professional role in advocating for others, and has also looked at how personal knowledge, skills, values and beliefs contribute to a nurse’s professional development and identity. It is clear from research that legal, ethical and professional issues have all influenced the nurses’ professional role in advocating for others, there have been a range of legal issues that have resulted in new legislation which have in turn altered the nurses’ role as an advocate for patients. Furthermore, from the discussion it is evident that there are many contributing factors to a nurses’ professional identity and development, one of the most significant ones from the discussion would be a nurses’ personal and professional values, both personal and professional values are considered as essential for a nurses’ identity and professional development as they are viewed to increase the quality of care that a patient receives and are a way of promoting nurses’ ethical competencies. Also, it is apparent from the discussion that knowledge and skills are of the upmost importance for professional identity and development, this is to ensure that a nurse remains able to give the most up to date care, based on the best and most recent evidence available, ensuring that they remain fully competent throughout their career and always provide the best quality of care.


Reference List

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Baillie, L. and Black, S. (2015). Professional Values in Nursing. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 88-89.

Eason, T. (2010). Lifelong Learning: Fostering a Culture of Curiosity. Creative Nursing, 16(4), 155-159. Available from: [accessed 05 December 2018]

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Badcott, D. (2011). Professional values: introduction to the theme. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 14(2), Available from: [accessed 10 December 2018]

Baillie, L. and Black, S. (2015). Professional Values in Nursing. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.

Eason, T. (2010). Lifelong Learning: Fostering a Culture of Curiosity. Creative Nursing, 16(4). Available from: [accessed 05 December 2018]

Fry, T. and Johnstone, M. (2008). Ethics in Nursing Practice: A Guide to Ethical Decision Making. 3rd edition. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. [accessed 08 December 2018]

Gallagher, A. and Hodge, S. (2012). Ethics, Law and Professional Issues. A Practical-Based Approach for Health Professionals. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. [accessed 07 December 2018]

Johnstone, M. (2009). Bioethics: A Nursing Perspective. 5th ed. Chatswood, Australia: Elsevier. [accessed 05 December 2018]

Nursing and Midwifery Council (2018) The Code for nurses and midwives. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council. Available from [accessed 06 December 2018]

Human Rights Act 1998 (c.42). London. Available from: [accessed 15 December 2018]

Mental Capacity Act 2005 (c.9). London. Available from: [accessed 15 December 2018]

Equality Act 2010 (c.15). London. Available at: [accessed 15 December 2018]