Mental Health Professionals Risk Assessment Health And Social Care Essay

This assessment item requires students to compare and contrast traditional risk assessment approaches that offer static predictions of risk versus risk assessment approaches that offer dynamic holistic predictions of risk. Students are expected to research theoretical and empirical literature. This assignment emphasizes academic writing skills.
Since the 1980s there has been increased pressure on mental health professionals to improve their ability to predict and better manage the level of risk associated with forensic mental health patients, and offenders being dealt with in the justice system (Holloway, 2004). This increased pressure has also increased interest within a wider spectrum of researchers and forensic clinicians working within the justice system to improve the accuracy and reliability of their analysis of whether recidivism is a high possibility. The overall value of this research is that it enable the improvement in the assessment, supervision, planning and management of offenders, in conjunction with a more reliable base line for follow up evaluations (Beech et al., 2003).

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However there continues to be an increasing interest and expectation on professionals from the public and the criminal justice system in regards to the potential danger posed by serious offenders being released back into the community and the need for the offenders to be better managed, in order to adequately protect the public from dangerous individuals (Doyle et el, 2002). As the assessment of risk is made at various stages in the management process of the violent offender it is extremely important that mental health professionals have a structured and consistent approach to risk assessment and evaluation of violence. (Doyle et el, 2002).
This paper will examine three models of risk assessment that are used currently in an attempt to reduce potential danger to others when integrating violent offenders back into the community. These three approaches are unstructured clinical judgement, structured clinical judgement and actuarial assessment.
It is not intended in this paper to explore the various instruments used in the assessment process for the respective actuarial and structured clinical approaches.
Unstructured Clinical Judgement
Unstructured clinical judgement is a process involving no specific guidelines but relies on the individual clinician’s evaluation having regard to the clinicians experience and qualifications (Douglas et al, 2002). Doyle et el(2002, p650) refers to clinical judgement as “first generation”, and sees clinical judgement as allowing the clinician complete discretion in relation to what information the clinician will or will not take notice of in their final determination of risk level. The unstructured clinical interview has been widely criticised because it is seen as inconsistent and inherently lacks structure and a uniform approach that does not allow for test, retest reliability over time and between clinician’s (Lamont et al, 2009). It has been argued that this inconsistency in assessment can lead to incorrect assessment of offenders, as either high or low risk due to the subjective opinion inherent in the unstructured clinical assessment approach (Prentky et al, 2000). Even with these limitations discussed above the unstructured clinical interview is still likely to be the most widely used approach in relation to the offender’s violence risk assessment (Kropp, 2008).
Kropp (2008) postulates that the continued use of the unstructured clinical interview is that it allows for “idiographic analysis of the offenders behaviour” (Kropp, 2008, p205). Doyle et al (2002) postulates, that past clinical studies have shown that clinician’s using the risk analysis method of unstructured interview, is not as inaccurate as generally believed. Perhaps this is due largely to the level of experience and clinical qualifications of those conducting the assessment. The unstructured clinical assessment method relies heavily on verbal and non verbal cues and this has the potential of influencing individual clinician’s assessment of risk, and thus in turn has a high probability of over reliance in the assessment on the exhibited cues (Lamont et al, 2009). A major flaw with the unstructured clinical interview is the apparent lack of structured standardized methodology being used to enable a test retest reliability measure previously mentioned. However the lack of consistency in the assessment approach is a major disadvantage in the use of the unstructured clinical interview. The need for a more structured process allowing for predictable test retest reliability would appear to be a necessary component of any risk assessment in relation to violence.
Actuarial Assessment
Actuarial assessment was developed as a way to assess various risk factors that would improve on the probability of an offender’s recidivism. However Douglas et al (2002, p 625) cautions that the Actuarial approach is not conducive to violence prevention. The Actuarial approach relies heavily on standardized instruments to assist the clinician in predicting violence, and the majority of these instruments have been developed to predict future probability of violence amongst offenders who have a past history of mental illness and or criminal offending behaviours. (Grant et al, 2004)
The use of actuarial assessment has increased in recent years as risk assessment due to the fact that more non clinicians are tasked with the responsibility of management of violent offenders such as community corrections, correctional officers and probation officers. Actuarial risk assessment methods enable staff that do not have the experience, background or necessary clinical qualifications to conduct a standardised clinical assessment of offender risk. This actuarial assessment method has been found to be extremely helpful when having to risk assess offenders with mental health, substance abuse and violent offenders. (Byrne et al, 2006). However Actuarial assessments have limitations in the inability of the instruments to provide any information in relation to the management of the offender, and strategies to prevent violence (Lamont et al, 2009). Whilst such instruments may provide transferable test retest reliability there is a need for caution when the instruments are used within differing samples of the test population that were used as the validation sample in developing the test (Lamont et al, 2009). Inexperienced and untrained staff may not be aware of the limitations of the test instruments they are using. The majority of actuarial tools were validated in North America (Maden, 2003). This has significant implications when actuarial instruments are used in the Australian context, especially when indigenous cultural complexities are not taken into account. Doyle et al (2002) postulates that the actuarial approach is focused on prediction and that risk assessment in mental health has a much broader function “and has to be link closely with management and prevention” (Doyle et al, 2002, p 652). Actuarial instruments rely on measures of static risk factors e.g. history of violence, gender, psychopathy and recorded social variables. Therefore static risk factors are taken as remaining constant. Hanson et al (2000) argues that where the results of unstructured clinical opinion are open to questions, the empirically based risk assessment method can significantly predict the risk of re offending.
To rely totally on static factors that are measured in Actuarial instruments and not incorporate dynamic risk factors has lead to what Doyle et al (2002) has referred to as “Third Generation”, or as more commonly acknowledged as structured professional judgement.
Structured Professional Judgment
Progression toward a structured professional model would appear to have followed a process of evolution since the 1990s. This progression has developed through acceptance of the complexity of what risk assessment entails, and the pressures of the courts and public in developing an expectation of increased predictive accuracy (Borum, 1996). Structured professional judgement therefore brings together “empirically validated risk factors, professional experience and contemporary knowledge of the patient” (Lamont et al, 2009, p27). Structured professional judgement approach requires a broad assessment criteria covering both static and dynamic factors and attempts to bridge the gap between the other approaches of unstructured clinical judgement and actuarial approach (Kropp, 2008). The incorporation of dynamic risk factors that is to say taking account of variable factors such as current emotional level (anger, depression, stress), social supports or lack of and willingness to participate in the treatment rehabilitation process. The structured professional approach incorporates dynamic factors which have been found to be also significant in analysing risk of violence (Mandeville-Nordon, 2006). Campbell et al (2009) postulates that instruments that examine dynamic risk factors are more sensitive to recent changes that may influence an increase or decrease in risk potential. Kropp (2008) reports that research has found that Structured Professional Judgement measures also correlate substantially with actuarial measures.
Conclusion
Kroop (2008) postulates that either a structured professional judgement approach or an actuarial approach presents the most viable options for risk assessment of violence. The unstructured clinical approach has been widely criticised by researchers for lacking reliability, validity and accountability (Douglas et al, 2002). Kroop (2008) also cautions that risk assessment requires the assessor to have an appropriate level of specialized knowledge and experience. This experience should be not only of offenders but also with victims. There would appear to be a valid argument that unless there is consistency in training of those conducting risk assessments the validity and reliability of any measure either actuarial or structured professional judgement will fail to give the level of predictability of violence that is sought. Risk analysis of violence will always be burdened by the limitation which “lies in the fact that exact analyses are not possible, and risk will never be completely eradicated” (Lamont et al, 2009, p 31.). Doyle et al (2002) postulates that a combination of structured clinical and actuarial approaches is warranted to assist in risk assessment of violence. Further research appears to be warranted to improve the methodology of risk management and increase the effectiveness of risk management.
References
Beech, A.R., Fisher D., Thornton D, 2003. Risk Assessment of sex offender. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice 34: 339-352.
Borum, R. (1996). Improving the clinical practice of violence risk assessment. American Psychologist, Vol 51, No 9, 945-956.
Byrne, J.M., Pattaviana, A. 2006. Assessing the role of Clinical and Actuarial Risk Assessment in an Evidence-Based Community Corrections System: Issues to Consider. Journal of Federal Probation, Vol 70, No 2 p64-66.
Douglas, K.S., Kropp, P.R., 2002, A prevention-based paradigm for violence risk assessment: Clinical and Research Applications. Criminal Justice and Behaviour, Vol. 29, 5, 617-658.
Doyle, M., Dolan, M. 2002. Violence risk assessment: combining actuarial and clinical information to structure clinical judgements for the formulating and management of risk. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 9: 649-657.
Grant, T.H., Rice, M.E., Camilleri, J.A., 2004. Applying a Forensic Actuarial Assessment (the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide) to Nonforensic Patients. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol 19, p 1063-1064.
Hanson, R. Karl, Thornton, David, 2000. Improving Risk Assessments for Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Three Actuarial Scales. Law and Human Behaviour, Vol 24, No 1.
Holloway, F. 2004. Risk: More questions than answers. Invited comment on Psychodynamic methods in risk assessment and management. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 10: 273-274.
Kropp, P.R., 2008, Intimate Partner Violence Risk Assessment and Management. Violence and Victims, Vol 23, No 2.
Lamont, S., Brunero, S.,2009. Risk analysis: An integrated approach to the assessment management of aggression violence in mental health. Journal of Psychiatric Intensive Care, Vol.5, 25-32.
Maden, A., 2003. Standardised risk assessment: Why all the fuss? Psychiatric Bulletin, Vol 27: 201-204.
Mandeville-Norden, R., 2006. Risk Assessment of Sex Offenders: The Current Position in the UK. Child Abuse Review, Vol 15, 257-272.
Prentky, R.A., Burgess, A.W., 2000. Forensic Management of Sexual Offenders. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press: London.
Introduction
Since the 1980s there has been increased pressure on mental health professionals to improve their ability to predict and better manage the level of risk associated with forensic mental health patients, and offenders being dealt with in the justice system (Holloway, 2004). This increased pressure has also increased interest within a wider range of researchers and forensic clinicians, working in the justice system to improve the accuracy and reliability of their analysis of whether recidivism is a strong possibility. The overall value of this research is that it allows the improvement in the assessment, supervision, planning and management of offenders, in conjunction with a more reliable base line for follow up evaluations (Beech et al., 2003).
However, there continues to be an increasing interest and expectation on professionals from the public and the criminal justice system in regards to the potential danger posed by serious offenders being released back into the community and the need for the offenders to be better managed, in order to adequately protect the public from dangerous individuals (Doyle et el, 2002). As the assessment of risk is made at various stages in the management process of the violent offender, it is extremely crucial that mental health professionals have a structured and consistent approach to risk assessment and evaluation of violence. (Doyle et el, 2002).
This paper will examine three models of risk assessment that are used currentlyto reduce potential danger to others when integrating violent offenders back into the community. These three approaches are unstructured clinical judgement, structured clinical judgement and actuarial assessment.
It is not intended, in this paper, to explore the various instruments used in the assessment process for the respective actuarial and structured clinical approaches.
Unstructured Clinical Judgement
Unstructured clinical judgement is a process involving no specific guidelines, but relies on the individual clinician’s evaluation having regard to the clinicians experience and qualifications (Douglas et al, 2002). Doyle et el(2002, p650) refers to clinical judgement as “first generation”, and sees clinical judgement as allowing the clinician complete discretion in relation to what information the clinician will or will not take notice of in their final determination of risk level. The unstructured clinical interview has been widely criticised because it is seen as inconsistent and inherently lacks structure and a uniform approach that does not allow for test, retest reliability over time and between clinician’s (Lamont et al, 2009). It has been argued that this inconsistency in assessment can lead to incorrect assessment of offenders, as either high or low risk due to the subjective opinion inherent in the unstructured clinical assessment approach (Prentky et al, 2000). Even with these limitations discussed above the unstructured clinical interview is still likely to be the most widely used approach in relation to the offender’s violence risk assessment (Kropp, 2008).
Kropp (2008), postulates that the continued use of the unstructured clinical interview allows for “idiographic analysis of the offenders behaviour” (Kropp, 2008, p205). Doyle et al (2002) postulates, that clinical studies have shown, that clinician’s using the risk analysis method of unstructured interview, is not as inaccurate as generally believed. Perhaps this is due, largely to the level of experience and clinical qualifications of those conducting the assessment. The unstructured clinical assessment method relies heavily on verbal and non verbal cues and this has the potential of influencing individual clinician’s assessment of risk, and thus in turn has a high probability of over reliance in the assessment on the exhibited cues (Lamont et al, 2009). A major flaw with the unstructured clinical interview, is the apparent lack of structured standardized methodology being used to enable a test retest reliability measure previously mentioned. However, the lack of consistency in the assessment approach is a substantial disadvantage in the use of the unstructured clinical interview.  The need for a more structured process allowing for predictable test retest reliability would appear to be a necessary component of any risk assessment in relation to violence.
Actuarial Assessment
Actuarial assessment was developed to assess various risk factors that would improve on the probability of an offender’s recidivism. However, Douglas et al (2002, p 625) cautions that the Actuarial approach is not conducive to violence prevention. The Actuarial approach relies heavily on standardized instruments to assist the clinician in predicting violence, and the majority of these instruments has been developed to predict future probability of violence amongst offenders who have a history of mental illness and or criminal offending behaviours. (Grant et al, 2004)
The use of actuarial assessment has increased in recent years as risk assessment due to the fact that more non clinicians are tasked with the responsibility of management of violent offenders such as community corrections, correctional officers and probation officers. Actuarial risk assessment methods enable staff that do not have the experience, background or necessary clinical qualifications to conduct a standardised clinical assessment of offender risk. This actuarial assessment method has been found to be extremely helpful when having risk assessing offenders with mental health, substance abuse and violent offenders. (Byrne et al, 2006). However, Actuarial assessments have limitations in the inability of the instruments to provide any information in relation to the management of the offender, and strategies to prevent violence (Lamont et al, 2009). Whilst such instruments may provide transferable test retest reliability, there is a need for caution when the instruments are used within differing samples of the test population that were used as the validation sample in developing the test (Lamont et al, 2009). Inexperienced and untrained staff may not be aware of the limitations of the test instruments they are using. The majority of actuarial tools were validated in North America (Maden, 2003). This has significant implications when actuarial instruments are used in the Australian context, especially when indigenous cultural complexities are not taken into account. Doyle et al (2002) postulates that the actuarial approach are focused on prediction and that risk assessment in mental health has a much broader function “and has to be link closely with management and prevention” (Doyle et al, 2002, p 652). Actuarial instruments rely on measures of static risk factors e.g. history of violence, gender, psychopathy and recorded social variables. Therefore, static risk factors are taken as remaining constant. Hanson et al (2000) argues that where the results of unstructured clinical opinion are open to questions, the empirically based risk assessment method can significantly predict the risk of re offending.
To rely totally on static factors that are measured in Actuarial instruments, and not incorporate dynamic risk factors has lead to what Doyle et al (2002) has referred to as, “Third Generation”, or as more commonly acknowledged as structured professional judgement.
Structured Professional Judgment
Progression toward a structured professional model would appear to have followed a process of evolution since the 1990s. This progression has developed through acceptance of the complexity of what risk assessment entails, and the pressures of the courts and public in developing an expectation of increased predictive accuracy (Borum, 1996). Structured professional judgement  brings together “empirically validated risk factors, professional experience and contemporary knowledge of the patient” (Lamont et al, 2009, p27). Structured professional judgement approach requires a broad assessment criteria covering both static and dynamic factors, and attempts to bridge the gap between the other approaches of unstructured clinical judgement and actuarial approach (Kropp, 2008). The incorporation of dynamic risk factors that are taking account of variable factors such as current emotional level (anger, depression, stress), social supports or lack of and willingness to participate in the treatment rehabilitation process. The structured professional approach incorporates dynamic factors, which have been found, to be also crucial in analysing risk of violence (Mandeville-Nordon, 2006). Campbell et al (2009) postulates that instruments that examine dynamic risk factors are more sensitive to recent changes that may influence an increase or decrease in risk potential. Kropp (2008) reports that research has found that Structured Professional Judgement measures also correlate substantially with actuarial measures.
Conclusion
Kroop (2008) postulates that either a structured professional judgement approach, or an actuarial approach presents the most viable options for risk assessment of violence. The unstructured clinical approach has been widely criticised by researchers for lacking reliability, validity and accountability (Douglas et al, 2002). Kroop (2008) also cautions that risk assessment requires the assessor to have an appropriate level of specialized knowledge and experience. This experience should be not only of offenders but also with victims. There would appear to be a valid argument that unless there is consistency in training of those conducting risk assessments the validity and reliability of any measure either actuarial or structured professional judgement will fail to give the level of predictability of violence that is sought. Risk analysis of violence will always be burdened by the limitation which “lies in the fact that exact analyses are not possible, and risk will never be totally eradicated” (Lamont et al, 2009, p 31.). Doyle et al (2002) postulates that a combination of structured clinical and actuarial approaches is warranted to assist in risk assessment of violence. Further research appears to be warranted to improve the methodology of risk management and increase the effectiveness of risk management.
 

Code of Ethics for Healthcare Professionals

Health care professionals are required to gain consent before providing treatment
 
Abstract
Introduction
Ethics are appropriate in all the fields of human activity. Ethics are important for us while dealing with others, environment and animals. It is vital for us to have an official statement or a national reference point for ethical considerations regarding human research, treatment of humans and healthcare for humans (NHMRC Act, 2007). The current essay focuses on various ethical and legal standards of healthcare treatment that has to be provided to the humans and the importance of such activity. The ethical principles not only have impact on the research subjects but, also will influence the people affected by the research outcomes. The three basic ethical principles in medical research practice are respect for people receiving healthcare or for people in general, and showing beneficence and justice.
Principles of Declaration of Helsinki
The world medical association (WMA) considered the Declaration of Helsinki as the global official set of ethical principles for medical research involving humans. The declaration is mainly addressed to the physicians, although WMA inspires the researchers of human information to embrace these principles.
According to the Declaration of Helsinki, medical research on humans must primarily focus on the well-being of the research subjects than on the research interests. Medical research has to comply with certain ethical standards, which endorses respect to all the human subjects. It is advised in the declaration for the researchers to take sufficient precautions in protecting the privacy, confidentiality of patient’s personal data, in reducing the impact of the study on the physical, social and mental integrity of the subjects.
The healthcare professional is allowed to combine medical research with medical care only to the extent that the research done is potential enough to prevent, diagnose and treat the medical condition. The physician must have a valid reason to see clearly that no adverse effect can cause health damage to the research human subjects.
Importance of Informed Consent
Every individual at some point of time would require medical treatment, which involve health risks and possible harm. To minimize the harm and to benefit the patient from treatment options, every physician must implement the same information to make different decisions based on every individual and a unique situation. Informed consent process is vital in the development of consumer focused health system. Informed consent helps the community to receive well-prioritized and well-organized services of healthcare (Consumers Health Forum of Australia, 2013). There is no specific connection between improved informed consent and better health effects. The consequence of informed consent process normally concentrates on consumer recall of the material, perception of its quality and relationship with the physician. Improvement in any of these areas might bring improvement in the clinical effects (Pizzi, Goldfarb, & Nash, 2001). Poor informed consent can result in customers encountering any health hazard due to inappropriate treatment. The autonomy of the patient is damaged due to the decisions taken in the absence of the informed consent, even though there is no physical harm.

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The guidelines provided by NHMRC (2011), regarding communicating the patient about the nature of the treatment and the approach of the healthcare professional include proposed therapy, expected benefits, common side effects, conventional or experimental procedure, information about the performer of the procedure, complaint management options, expectations on the outcome of the procedure and the potential costs involved in the procedure. Another way of providing information to the consumer is through decision making model (Carey, 2006). According to this model, the consumers are required to be informed about the existing range of choices while making decisions. Consumers have to be informed about available options, expected outcomes and statistical rate of success in the treatment process.
Why Should a Healthcare Practitioner Provide Consent for Treatment and Care?
The moral philosophy, the formula of universal law of nature, humanity formula, autonomy formula, duty and respect for moral law, virtue and vice, and deontology are some of the theories put forward to analyze the groundwork that is involved in making moral judgment. The code of conduct focuses on the behavior of the healthcare practitioner in providing good care with shared decision making, maintaining professional performance, working harmoniously with colleagues, other practitioners, healthcare system and patients (Physiotherapy Board of Australia, 2014). Therefore, it is important for the practitioner to maintain good relationships with the healthcare team, employers and consumers.
There are general theories which explain the basics of morality that is essential for a human being in general to exercise his or her responsibilities. Libertarianism is one among them, which is looked as a political philosophy that strongly focuses on the component of justice. According to this theory, people as persons have to be treated with justice, and the rights for their possessions have to be respected. The most popular libertarianism theory is “entitlement theory” proposed by Robert Nozick, (1974). According to him, distributive justice basically comprises of three principles including, principle of justice in acquisition, principle of justice in transfer and principle of rectification for violating the previous two principles (Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy, 2002, para. 5).
Deontology ethics focuses on duty-based morals. This set of principles considers that there are certain good things to be done and wrong things not to be done, irrespective of the consequences of the bad outcomes from the good actions. Kantian ethics explains duty based ethics as doing good with good will. According to Kant, goodness is not familiarized by its relationship with a context or a desire. Kant’s concept of ‘categorical imperative’ tells everyone to act in a way if it can be made as a universal good way, so that everyone can follow the same way in the similar situation. Therefore, in spite of the code of conduct or good healthcare principles proposed by several healthcare systems at national and international levels, it is necessary for a professional and a human being to hold the authority of morality as a primary requirement (Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy, 2004, paras. 2, 3, & 4).
Ethical Dimensions of Healthcare Inter Professional Teamwork
The ethics of healthcare inter professional team work are distributed in general principles of behavior, structures of knowledge and behavior patterns, and processes that involve procedures of ethical practice. There might be different circumstances when all the three overlap as they can address various sides of the same subject. These ethical aspects are analyzed generally at three levels like individual, organizational and team level (Carney, 2006; Drinka & Clark, 2000; Mason et al., 2002).
Healthcare inter professional ethics framework at individual level are developing self-disciplinary knowledge for respecting other team members, developing professional practice standards to improve relationship with other team members, and practicing respectful communication with other team members. Healthcare inter professional ethics framework at team level are promoting respect and developing understanding of values towards other team members, integrating professional knowledge with other team members, and developing ethics of open communication and dialogue with team members. Healthcare inter professional ethics framework at organizational level are respecting specific relationship between the team and the patient, providing enough resources for the team work, and supporting team development and function.
Barriers in Informed Consent
There are many ethical challenges encountered in creating high quality informed consent in the health system, which are associated with consumers, providers and health system.
There are certain ethical issues for consumers, who may not find informed consent as appropriate. Some of the consumers encounter issues like confusion about the purpose of the consent, intimidation thoughts for it, and experiencing stress at the time of consultation. These people may not find the consent process as helpful in allowing them to make decisions (Dixon-woods et al., 2006). The consumers may not be tough enough to ask for further information regarding the treatment options (Akkad et al., 2004).
There are certain ethical issues also for healthcare providers that include lack of time to explain patients about the procedure, confused about when to issue the informed consent, has to unnecessarily provide lot of information if the case is simple and less risky, cannot presume the risks involved and not able to convey properly the details of the risks involved, and not able to identify the comprehensive level of patients (Consumers Health Forum of Australia, 2013). Some issues regarding the health system or organizational issues include remuneration system for short consultations, not interested to provide team support nor follow workforce practice and a culture where the healthcare providers are considered as authoritative, while the consumers are not allowed to question anything (Consumers Health Forum of Australia, 2013).
Legal Issues in Informed Consent
The legal precedent on treatment of informed consent formulated by Rogers V Whitaker in 1992 has evolved from Bolam standard in 1957 and sidaway standard in 1985. This legal precedent that has been clinician-centered has now turned into consumer-centered. The decision of Rogers made the court to pose penalty on the surgeon who did not give the patient enough information and the material risks involved in the surgery. Legal body has made it compulsory for the healthcare practitioner to give minimum information and associated risks to the patient before conducting any medical procedure. This has become a series of tasks to be completed by healthcare practitioner rather than an interactive dialogue with the patient. In the case of cognitive impairment observed in the patient, substitute decision makers on behalf of the patient can be hired in legal perspective (Cartwright, 2011). Research studies by Schattner et al., (2006), showed that patients do not receive sufficient informed consent, it is not understood properly and cannot meet the needs of the patient.
Factors That Influence Decision Making of Nurses or Healthcare Providers
Professional and practice laws, safe and competent practice, respect for dignity, ethnicity, culture, beliefs and values of the community receiving healthcare, keeping the personal information of the patient as confidential, providing honest, impartial and accurate information to the patient and family regarding the treatment, supporting the well-being and informed consent of the patients, preserving the trust and privilege in the relationship between healthcare personnel and patient, building and maintaining the trust of community on the services of the healthcare profession and practicing healthcare reflectively and ethically are some of the factors that can influence the healthcare professional in decision making according to the new code of professional conduct for nurses given by Nursing and Midwifery board of Australia (2008).
Ethical Framework for decision making and Practicing Healthcare
According to the code and guidelines of the nursing and midwifery board of Australia (2007), there is a national level decision making framework that aid the medical personnel to make justifiable decisions on the patient’s medical condition. The healthcare provider must be motivated to make a decision that meets consumer’s health needs and which enhances the health outcomes. Nurses or practitioners are accountable for their decisions and they should consult or refer to other team members in case the situation is beyond their capacity or scope of practice. Decision should be taken after identifying the potential risks associated with the care. Decisions have to be taken with organizational support accompanied by appropriate skill mix, complying with the law, evidences, professional standards, regulatory standards, policies and guidelines. Decisions can be taken with sufficient education and experience regarding the safety of the patient, with competence in healthcare field, with confidence in performing the activity safely, and with necessary authorization. The organization or the registered nurse is responsible for selecting the confident, accountable, competent person to perform the activity safely. Clinically focused supervision of the medical procedure is required for supporting decision making. Health practice decisions are considered to be perfect when they are made collaboratively in terms of risk management, evaluation and planning. Periodic trainings for skill development and for continuing education and infrastructure that supports and promotes interdependent and autonomous practice can enhance the thinking and capabilities of the healthcare personnel in providing good care to the patients.
According to the ethical code formulated by the Speech Pathology Australia (2010), professional values, principles guiding ethical decisions, standards of ethical practice, and expected professional conduct of the speech pathologists by the peers and community can manage ethical issues efficiently in practicing speech pathology. The code and conduct forms the basis for the decisions of the ethics board of the Association.
Values
Professional integrity is maintained by the healthcare personnel with their patients. No discrimination is made based on race, gender, religion, marital status, disability, age, contribution to society, sexual preference, and socio-economic status. Healthcare professionals have to give respect and care to the consumers, should value the knowledge sharing and contribution of others to the healthcare work.
Principles
Beneficent to the receivers of healthcare, telling truth to the patients, being fair to the clients by providing accurate information, respecting autonomy of the clients, and complying with the state and federal laws are the principles followed by healthcare personnel for proper decision making.
Standards of Practice
This standard code of practice includes duties of the personnel towards the community and clients, towards their employers and towards their profession. The above broadly mentioned duties include acquiring informed consent from clients, providing accurate information to clients, having professional competence, maintaining confidentiality of the clients, good relationships with clients, planned safe service to the clients, working with employers to provide quality care to the clients, and possessing professional standards. Healthcare personnel can perform confidently by holding appropriate qualifications, by undergoing periodic training and enhancing their competence, and by following professional code and conduct.
Conclusion
The above discussion focuses on how the healthcare practitioners and professionals from other health disciplines are supposed to follow code and conduct pertaining to their profession that is formulated by national and international bodies to maintain integrity and harmony among the health professionals; and to make them deliver excellent services to the healthcare receivers. It is ethical and legal to take informed consent from consumers and to provide efficient, safe and beneficial service to them. The healthcare professionals are supposed to follow ethical framework, set by the national bodies that can help them in decision-making. The factors that can influence ethical decisions of healthcare professionals are values, principles and standards of practice.
References
Akkad, A., Jackson, C., Kenyon, S., Dixon-woods, M., Taub, N., & Habiba, M. (2004). Informed consent for elective and emergency surgery: Questionnaire study. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 111(10), 1133-1138.
Carey, K. (2006). Improving patient information and decision-making. The Australian Health Consumer, 1, 21-22.
Carney, M. (2006). Positive and negative outcomes from values and beliefs held by healthcare clinician and non-clinician managers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 54, 111-119.
Cartwright, C. (2011). Planning for the End-of-Life for people with Dementia: A report for Alzheimer’s Australia.
Clarke, P. G., Cott, C., & Drinka, T. J. (2007). Theory and practice in interprofessional ethics: A framework for understanding ethical issues in healthcare teams. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 21(6), 591-603.
Consumers Health Forum of Australia. (2013). Informed consent in Healthcare: An issues paper. Retrieved from www.chf.org.au
Engstrom, Stephen. (1992). The concept of the highest good in Kant’s moral philosophy. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 51(4), 747-80.
Dixon-woods, M., William, S. J., Jackson, C. J., Akkad, A., Kenyon, S & Habiba, M. (2006). Why women consent to surgery, even when they don’t want to: A qualitative study. Clinical Ethics, 1(3), 153.
Drinka, T. J. K., & Clark, P. G. (2000). Healthcare teamwork: Interdisciplinary practice and teaching. Westport, CT: Auburn House/Greenwood.
Mason, T., Williams, R., & Vivian-Byrne, S. (2002). Multi-disciplinary working in a forensic mental health setting: Ethical codes of reference. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 9, 563-572.
National Medical Health Research Council Act. (1992). National statement on ethical conduct in research involving humans, revised in 2007.
National Medical Health Research Council. (2007). General Requirements for consent. Retrieved from www.nhmrc.gov.au.
National Health and Medical Research Council. (2011). NHMRC guidelines: Communicating with patients: Advice for medical practitioners. National Health and Medical Research Council: Canberra.
Nozick, R. (1974). Anarchy, State and Utopia, New York: Basic Books. Extract reprinted in vallentyne and Steiner 2000a.
Nursing and midwifery board of Australia. (2007). Code of ethics-National framework for decision-making. Retrieved from http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard. gov. au.
Nursing and midwifery board of Australia. (2008). New code of professional conduct for nurses. Retrieved from http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard. gov. au.
Physiotherapy Board of Australia. (2014). Codes and guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.physiotherapyboard.gov.au.
Pizzi, L.T., Goldfarb, N. I. & Nash, D. B. (2001) ‘Procedures for obtaining informed consent’ in Shojania, K., Duncan, B., McDonald, K and Wachter, R.M., eds. Making healthcare safer: A critical analysis of patient safety practices. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Rockville, 546-554.
Schattner, A., Bronstein, A., & Jellin, N. (2006). Information and shared decision-making are top patients’ priorities. BMC Health Services Research, 6(1), 21.
Speech Pathology Australia. (2010). Code of ethics. Retrieved from http://www.speechpathologyaustralia.org.au.
Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. (2002). Libertarianism. Substantive revision: 2014. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/libertarianism/
Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. (2004). Kant’s moral philosophy. Substantive revision: 2008. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/#TelDeo
World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. (1964). Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Amended for the last by 59th WMA General Assembly Seoul, October 2008.
 

Necessity of Soft Skills for Professionals

Soft Skills are Smart Skills: Necessity of Soft Skills for LIS Professionals in this Twenty First Century
Abstract
Changing the users’ awareness and the technology developed in this Twenty First Century, Library Professionals required to introduce new services, based upon user interest. Managing and running this current century library, professionals have a highly specialized job. So LIS professionals should be required multi-talented and multi-fold personalities. To reach the success and adding new variety of services in their libraries, this paper will helps to LIS professionals through Soft Skills.Various skills need to become a good leader. In Library concept, if you become a good Librarian you should have Library Professional Skills, Managerials Skills and Soft Skills. This paper describes the necessity of soft skill for library professionals. And it listed out the list of soft skills which are essential to survive effectively. Through this paper, we recommend all the library professionals must acquire and execute soft skills in order to better the outcome of their Library.
Keyword: Library Science, LIS Professionals, Soft Skills, Twenty First Century Libraries, Librarianship.
“Professional skills may help to get your Job, But Soft skills can make you a good Librarian”.
Introduction
LIS professionals need continuous grooming by new skills. Then only they become obsolete in this fast changing environment. Soft skills, becoming important at the middle level of library management. Library professionals have to be effective in oral, written an e-communication with their patrons, colleagues and managers, This soft skills will make them more effective to promote their library product and services through marketing. And thus this will help them to show their value to the parent organization. They also need good interpersonal and networking skill to interact with users and effectively collaborate with their colleagues. There is also a growing realization that libraries and information service play important social and community function. Thus, social and community building skills are useful for information professionals- both for community of colleagues (Abdus Sattar Chaudhry & Christopher S.G. Khoo).
Definition
Technical professionals in various disciplines such as information technology, engineering, architecture, and research and development are increasingly required to broaden their skill sets to master the so-called soft skills. Soft skills, as defined by Wikipedia, are “the cluster of personality traits, social graces, facility with language, personal habits, friendliness, and optimism that mark people to varying degrees. Soft skills complement hard skills, which are the technical requirements of a job.
Set of Skills
There are various types of skills that can be acquired. These skills are categorized under “Sets” based on their nature. There are five types of “Sets” of skills (Vidya V. Hanchinal. 2014)

Hard Skills: certificates acquired through completing a formal education e.g.Certificates
Technical Skills: abilities essential to perform a particular job e.g. employability skills
Professional Skills: expertise in professional knowledge, e.g. teaching skills,corporate skills.
Life Skills: enriching the innermost qualities like peace of mind, concentration,positive energy levels, etc. E.g. Yoga, Meditation, Mind Power.

Soft Skills: a sociological term for a persons “EQ” (Emotional Intelligence Quotient) which refers to the cluster of personality traits, social graces, communication, ability with language, personal habits, friendliness, and optimism that mark each of us in varying degrees. Gupta Rajat(2012).

To differentiate clearly between – Hard skills, Soft skills and Life skills as; any type of job/work/profession/trade requires a set of tasks to be executed. These are hard skills or Core skills. So these skills are basics for success in professional life. Soft skills, prepare us to be acceptable by others, so that one can attain materialistic and psychometric success in his/her career. And Life skills, prepare us to attain psycho-somatic success (Inner Happiness) in life. Nishitesh and Reddi Bhaskara (2012).
All these three skills finally elevate and refine our personality to greater heights, if one knows how to balance all these skills. The ever changing life style, hybrid cultures emerging management styles, technological revolutions essentially require refined sets of skills consisting of Hard Skills(Professional Skills), Soft Skills and Life Skills.
Skills Required for the 21st Century Library
Though various skills are required, but the skill needs depend on the role and context of the parent organization As all skills do not relate to everyone, a summarized set of skills under three broad categories of skills, i.e. generic, managerial and professional skills have been listed below. (Fisher 2004). S.P. Singh & Pinki (2009) (Fouire 62-74) (Oldroyd 30:45-49:69:78:99; Sridhar 141-149); TFPL Skill Set)

Generic skills

Managerial skills

Professional skills

Communication skill

Local and global thinking

Information technology skills

Flexibility

Planning and organizational skills

a. Hardware/ software and networking Skills

Adaptability

Financial management skills

b. MS-Office suite

Assertiveness

a. Fundraising

c. Power point etc.

Self-confidence

b. Skillful use of financial resources

d. Library automation

Creativity

c. Accounting and auditing skills

e. Database creation

Innovation

Managing change

f. Internet

Analytical skills

Team building

g. Intranet skill

Problem solving

Decision making

h. Scanning techniques

Decision making

Leadership

i. Networking skills

Service attitude

Negotiation skills

* On-line search engines

Customer relationship

Consumer management skills

* On-line databases search

Improving one’s learning and experience

a. User need analysis

j. Desktop publishing

Presentation skills

b. Information seeking

k. Content development

Stress management

c. Behavior analysis

l. Digitization

Time management

Project management

m. Web based services

Interpersonal

People management

n. Virtual learning

Group skills

Stress management

Information literacy

Working with difficult people

Time management

Technical professional skills

 

Resource management

a. Information resource management

 
 

b. E- serial management

 
 

c. Metadata standards

 
 

d. Standards

 
 

e. System development

 
 

Knowledge management5

 
 

Traditional skills

Table No: 1 Required Skill for 21st Century Library
Soft Skills
Each one of us is endowed with two Kinds of Skills. Hard Skills and Soft Skills. Hard skills are human tangibles that often find a place in the individual.This soft skill are mostly of complementary nature representing human intangibles. Hard skills are nothing but academic skill that we have picked up in disciplines. Hard skills a can be obtained by reading books while soft skills cannot be acquired by merely reading books. Although it is difficult to give an exhaustive list of soft skills, let us look at the following list proposed by Goeran Nieragden under four heads:

Interaction

Self-Management

Attitude Awareness

Compensation strategies

Conflict Handling

Decision making

Co-operation

Learning willingness

Diversity tolerance

Self-assessment

Etiquette

Self-discipline

Interlocutor orientation

Self-marketing

Teamwork willingness

Stress resistance

Communication

Organization

Delegating skills

Problem solving

Listening skills

Systems thinking

Presentation skills

Troubleshooting

List of Essential Soft Skills for Library Professionals
Following are some of the significant soft skills that are required to become a successful library professional.

Listening skills: The library professionals must have good listening skills a she/she has to interact with different types of users all the time.

Communication skills: Command on language, especially English and also regional will improve the communication. A good communication skill also requires understanding people, self-confidence which enables to solve the problems with ease.

Writing skills: The librarians are asked to help in writing research proposal/business proposal/project report, which requires good writing skills. Today there are many library professionals who are contributing to various publications, even in-house also or by sharing information and their experiences through library blogs and websites.

Presentation skills: The presentation skills are required in report writing, library committee meetings and even in daily work which represents the overall library management.

User service: To satisfy the information needs of the users is the utmost priority for any library. The library professionals provide various services such as CAS and SDI or other specialized services.

Leadership skills & Teamwork: Library management, especially in a bigger library set up is about team work/exercise. Hence, it is required to have leadership skills to manage and guide the team from time to time, as every subordinate is important for carrying out their work efficiently for smooth running of a library system.

Teaching skills: Libraries spend huge amounts to procure resources, both print as well as electronic, therefore, it is essential to possess teaching skills, which helps to conduct the information literacy classes effectively.

Conclusion
Soft skills, becoming impartant of Library professionals in this 21st Century. A current century internet provides more exercise of this Softskills. The overlap in soft skill development and best practices across disciplines needs the Library Science course institutions have to think how to teach soft skills effectively. This paper presents and briefly mentioned variety of soft skills likely to be significant importance to LIS professionals. If we start to learn beginning from library science study itself, the huge difference will be there to execute their work environment. Of course, more and more innovative methods need to implement this soft skills to library studies. Through this paper, we request to add soft skill training to all library and information courses curriculams.
References

Abdus Sattar, Chaudhry., & Christopher, S.G. Khoo.(2008). “Trend in LIS Education: Coverage of Soft skills in Curricula”. Journal of Librarianship and Information Studies, 66,1-13.
Goeran Nieragden, (2000). ‘The Soft Skills of Business English’, The Weekly September 2000. http://www.eltnewsletter.com/back/September2000/art282000.htm Accessed on (Dec- 2014).
Gupta Rajat (2012). “Soft Skills: Tools for Success”, Yking Books, Jaipur, P.4
Nishitesh and Reddi Bhaskara (2012).”Soft Skills and Life Skills : The Dynamics of Success”, BSC Publishers and Distributors, Hyderabad, P.16
Vidya V. Hanchinal (2014).”Developing Leadership Qualities in Librarians through Soft Skills”, Episteme: an online interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary & multi-cultural journal,6 (4).
Sridhar (2000), “Skill Requirements of LIS Professionals in the New E-World”, Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 36.(3) Pp.141-149.
TFPL Skills Set: Knowledge and Information Management Skills toolkit. http://skillstoolkit.tfpl.com Access on (Dec- 2014).
Fisher (2004). “Workforce Skills Development: The Professional Imperative for Information Services in the United Kingdom.” Australian Library and Information Association 2004 Biennial Conference. Sydney, 19 June 2004.
S.P. Singh & Pinki (2009). “New Skills for LIS professionals in Technology-Intensive Environment”. ICAL 2009 – CHANGE MANAGEMENT, Pp.331 -336

 

Benefits of Mentor Guidance for Engineering Professionals

At the start of the academic year, presenters from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers [IMechE] and Royal Aeronautical Engineering Society [RAeS] visited the University and explained how their organisations can help graduate engineers become registered with the Engineering Council UK. One of the services they offer is putting the graduate in contact with a mentor. Why is the support of a mentor offered? Identify at what stage(s) of the application process is it best to consult with a mentor, and explain why.

The differences between University and the work environment pose changes that can be considered as difficult in its transition stages, where knowledge and its application are of paramount importance to employers, being that need for accelerated rates of adaption by organisations are often challenging for graduates, when considering efficiency rates.

In order to encourage new employees to quickly adapt companies often implement mentoring schemes to ensure staff are fully trained and are able to work effectively and efficiently within a short period of being employed (Judy McKimm, 2007). Societies’ such as the Royal Aeronautical society and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers often help final year and graduating students make the transition from University to a professional working environment by offering mentoring schemes. The main intentions of mentoring are to enable students to gain a better understanding of job roles and what will be expected of them, as well as finding the right fit for their needs, and developing their skills, expertise and performance. The mentoring relationship evidently is of benefit to the mentor, the mentee and potential employers, (Colwell, 1998)

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The prospective performance of “mentee’s” may be impacted by the guidance of a mentor, helping to identify and improve the strengths and weaknesses of the mentee, leading to their own understanding of potential fits as well as passions in the industry (Judy McKimm, 2007), helping to ascertain probable career paths as well as assisting in the application process, confidence of the mentee and motivation to specialize in more specific fields as apposed to having a generic engineering background which is undesirable to many employers, (Clutterbuck and Lane, 2004). There is not only a benefit for the mentee but also for organisations and the industry as a whole as the knowledge base of the mentee would be enhanced, achieving organisational visions and missions at an unimpeded rate as well as improving organisational standards exponentially. 

During the application process, undergraduates may seek guidance from their mentors on more general professional concerns, such as; networking, curriculum vitae or personal statement writing and integration into the working environment, mentees may also seek advice when trying to understand feedback from interviews and how to correct their mistakes going forward, (Matlay and Rae, 2007). With this in mind graduate student mentors can provide theoretical and editorial criticism on the mentee’s applications as well as samples of CV’s and cover letters as well as leading by example in professional attitudes and conduct. Educational sessions may also be used in the mentoring process in order to distinguish specific career paths for mentee’s as well as personal statement writing, preparing for interviews and recommendation requests, (American Psychological Association, 2007). 

From my own experience there are four specific parts of the application process that mentee’s should consult with their mentors, the identification of “best fit” careers, by this the mentee would often have a general field of interest, but does not know what roles best suit their knowledge and passion for their field of interest, at this stage the mentor could promote interests if the specification where the mentee has apt knowledge and desire as well as be suggestive of particular job roles that therefore suit the candidate.

Another stage or the application process where it is best for mentees to consult with their mentors is obtaining the correct application materials such as; CVs, cover letters, personal statements, interview techniques, aptitude test examples, and professional mannerisms and getting these up to industry standard. The reason for needing these materials is to show the level of knowledge and professionalism of the mentee is acceptable for employers and the role they are applying for.

Networking is another key stage of the application process, which is often dismissed by mentees and mentors alike, however one which could help secure a role and develop the mentee’s ability to work alongside other teams toward a shared goal, something which is highly valued by any organisation, this also shows the mentee’s potential to progress within the organisation.

The final stage which I have identified from research as well as experience that I would advance to be best to consult with a mentor would be the review stage, this is a key stage as the mentoring process is about learning and development, it also equips the mentee with the ability to accept rejection and move on with a positive attitude and learn from the experience, (Clutterbuck, 2005). At the review stage the mentor would go through the feedback provided by the organisation and deduce what could have been done better by the mentee.   On a final note, while it is important for mentors to encourage the Mentees to be successful in their applications, it is the responsibility of the mentee to seek guidance and prepare for applications and interviews in a timely manner. Mentors may be committed to their mentee’s cause feeling that the accomplishment of the application process is a personal duty, (Murray 2002).

Imagine you have been asked to coach a team of first- year undergraduate students working on a project in your specialist area. What personal characteristics and skills would you need to carry out this responsibility effectively? Based on relevant publications and your experience of giving and receiving coaching, do you believe that coaching would be more effective, or less effective, when the coach is from a different country, culture or engineering discipline than the team? Explain your reasoning.

The comprehension gained from literature and experience in coaching is that it can take a variety of articulations, including; Leadership coaching, colleague coaching psychological coaching and several others (Knight, 2009). From reviewing recent literature on the effects of coaching, we can deduce that there are constructive effects on teacher attitudes, practice and efficiency (Cornett & Knight, 2009). Many types of coaching including peer based increase application rates of knowledge to professional development within student achievement (Sanders & Rivers, 1996; Wenglinsky, 2000).

My own experience has shown that coaching is essentially about asking the right questions to and encouraging the coachee to find their own answers. Considering that coaching is based largely on generic goal oriented questions and possible pathways, I initially expected that culture and industry related knowledge wouldn’t be needed, as this would be reflected by the coachee in their own culture, knowledge or traditions (Manuel, Mckenna and Olson, 2008), this encourages the coachee to better understand themselves and their potential, independent of their gender, age, or industry.

Tobin and Espinit (1989) found that the participation in coaching presents one critical barrier, poor content knowledge of undergraduate students when considering the implementation of change in teaching for professional development of students, by this coaches would tend to spend most of their time working collaboratively with lecturers and teaching staff to enhance the content and instruction to develop students professionally in engineering placement  (Knight, 2007). The required level of technical knowledge for undergraduate students is adopted by the coach whom is considered to have relative expertise in the field, hence the instructor or in this case lecturer plays a fundamental role in the coaching needs of the graduate coach, often enhancing their threshold of technical knowledge, this then inflects the coachee’s own level of specifications.

Reassurance and encouragement is also an area where coaching can be used as a tool in the case of ethnic minorities and disadvantaged groups, where it is indicative of facilitating unimpeded transition into a new environment during the adaption period. The standardisation of coaching cannot be used in this case, research shows that the adaptation of coaching procedures and applications is essential when considering influences such as culture, age and industry (Passmore, 2013). Countries and cultures pose different philosophies, in turn processes of learning are different from others, one example of this could be the Middle East, a region with a great economic growth and vast cultural differences when considering western ideals. Differences include ethics, societal concepts, hierarchy of society, legal, values attitudes and lifestyles.

The differences presented here are said to directly influence the values attitudes, behaviors and lifestyle or relationships, impacting greatly on the way in which they need to be coached, (Agarwal, Angst and Magni, 2009), the effectiveness of coaches is dependent on their ability to adapt their questions for the appropriation of the coachee’s attention, with detailed focus on their practices, providing reassurance and confidence that the evaluation and analysis of the coachee’s self is valuable to their own situation and their long and short term goals, ( Grant, Curtayne and Burton, 2009), something I have also found to be true from my own experience.

Motivation is another factor to consider and arises in several instances, the goals of the project should be associated with one or more societal need, demonstrating the applicability of the project to broader concerns of the coachee and adding intrinsic value to the overall project, (Silva and Yarlagada, 2014). The motivation of the mentees also stems from the consistent reassurance of the graduate mentor, including the recognition of the coach and establishing assurance in the coachee’s own ability. Changes and necessities that have been presented ensure the efficiency of the coaching process and project outcome as a whole. Overall I believe coaching can be effective, however would rely on the coaches ability to adapt their ways of thinking, their practices and processes in order to satisfy those of each different culture, country or industry.

References

Agarwal, R., Angst, C.M. and Magni, M., 2009. The performance effects of coaching: A multilevel analysis using hierarchical linear modeling. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(10), pp.2110-2134.

American Psychological Association. (2007).

Clutterbuck, D. and Lane, G. eds., 2004. The situational mentor: an international review of competences and capabilities in mentoring. Gower Publishing, Ltd..

Clutterbuck, D., 2005. Establishing and maintaining mentoring relationships: An overview of mentor and mentee competencies. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 3(3), pp.2-9.

Colwell, S., 1998. Mentoring, Socialisation and the mentor/protege relationship [1]. Teaching in Higher education, 3(3), pp.313-324.

Cornett, J. and Knight, J., 2009. Research on coaching. Coaching: Approaches and perspectives, pp.192-216. Getting in: A step-by-step plan for gaining admis- sion to graduate school in psychology (2nd ed.)

Grant, A.M., Curtayne, L. and Burton, G., 2009. Executive coaching enhances goal attainment, resilience and workplace well-being: A randomised controlled study. The journal of positive psychology, 4(5), pp.396-407.

Knight, J. (2007). Instructional coaching: A partnership approach to improving instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Knight, J. (Ed.). (2009). Coaching approaches and perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Manuel, M.V., McKenna, A.F. and Olson, G.B., 2008. Hierarchical model for coaching technical design teams. International Journal of Engineering Education, 24(2), p.260.

Matlay, H. and Rae, D., 2007. Connecting enterprise and graduate employability. Education+ Training.

McKimm, J., Jollie, C. and Hatter, M., 2007. Mentoring: Theory and practice. London NHSE.

Murray, M., 2002. Beyond the myths and magic of mentoring: How to facilitate an effective mentoring process. John Wiley & Sons.

Passmore, J. and Anagnos, J., 2009. Organizational coaching and mentoring. In The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Well Being.

Sanders, W., & Rivers, J. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement (Research progress report). In University of Tennessee Value- Added Assessment Center, Knoxville, TN. Retrieved March 28, 2001, from http://mdk12.org/practices/ensure/tva/ tva_2.html

Silva, P. and Yarlagadda, P.K., 2014. Complete and competent engineers: A coaching model to developing holistic graduates. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, pp.1367-1372.

Tobin, K., & Espinet, M. (1989). Impediments to change: Applications of coaching in high- school science teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 26(2), 105-120.

Wenglinsky, H. (2000, October). How teaching matters: Bringing the classroom back into discussions of teacher quality. Princeton, NJ: The Milken Family Foundation and Educational Testing Service.

 

Ethics in Human Services Professionals

Introduction

The human services professionals are a set of individuals with a motivation to excel in assisting organizations as well as people to be able to perform at a top level.  The human services professionals need to develop a vast amount of skills that help them towards understanding individuals as well as people within a particular group. Any worker within human service needs to be acquainted with knowledge in regards to how culture, human development, and the society affect human behavior and the impact of economic structures towards human behavior. The fundamental values of human services profession include honoring of cultural diversity, honesty, call for social justice and respect for the welfare and dignity of the people among other values. Human services professionals often use these standards during the professional and ethical decision-making process.

Impacts of the Human Service Professional Values Towards Service Delivery

The individuals who work in the human service professionals work by the National Organization for Human Services (NOHS) standards. The body is mandated with managing the values within the human services profession. The upholding of the values within the human service profession has led to many impacts as it relates to the process of service delivery. The values have contributed towards the management of the client relationships while delivering services. The customer and working relationship have been put under ethical guidelines. The code of ethics has promoted confidentiality, respect, and recognition of the rights of the clients to informed consent as well as self-determination. This practice has brought about respect of customer’s privacy when dealing with the matters of the customer (Sessoms, 2017)

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The values have promoted integrity when dealing with customers during service delivery. Integrity plays a vital role during the process of delivering services. The cost has contributed towards acting in a way which tends to abide by the moral principles. An example is an honesty in service delivery. The human service professionals can deal with other people’s emotions with care and sensitivity and always commit themselves towards working with good intentions.  The upholding of the NOHS values has dealt with the issue of discrimination in service delivery. Other positive impacts include the protection of the client’s safety in the course of the provision of services.

The NOHS values have also brought adverse effects towards the process of service delivery. Some of the negative impacts include loss of experienced human professionals due to effects of penalties and expulsion to failure to adhere to the NHOS standards. This practice has affected the process of quality service delivery as the profession continues to lose experienced professionals. The stipulated values are so stringent and hinder the professionals to go beyond certain boundaries hence not been able to solve some of the problems affecting the society. The values tend to confine the professionals within a particular code of conduct; this has hindered creativity, innovation as well as motivation towards commitment to human service delivery (NOHS, 2017)

Expectations for social responsibility by Human Service Professionals included in the Standards

There are different expectations of social responsibility that are contained within the rules that guide the human service professionals. Some of the expectations for social responsibility are outlined within the various responsibilities given to the human service professionals. This expectation includes the responsibility to the clients, society and public, colleagues, employers, self and the profession. Some of the expectations for social responsibilities include protection of the integrity, security, and safety of the records of different clients. The other expectation is adherence to the federal, state and local laws that govern the professional body. Another social responsibility expectation is to call for social justice and also work to eradicate oppression in the community

Comparison of the Human Services Values with Those of Health Care

There are differences and similarities between the professional values in both the health care sector as well as within human services. Some of the similarities include the need to safeguard the privacy and confidentiality of the patient’s information. Another similarity entails the need to act for the common good of the client. In medical it is referred to as beneficence which is a principle that calls for the willingness to do well. However individual differences do occur in regards to the values of the two professions. For example, in health care, the principle of beneficence calls for the client to be able to make his or her own decision. However, in human services, the issue of considering the entire public is essential .a customer is not given the ability to make his or her own decision since it might affect the whole society.

Impacts of Human Services and Health Care Values towards Services Delivery to Target Clientele

Various effects influence the process of delivering services for both the human services and the health care client. An example of the impact towards the course of providing care is the adoption of cultural competence within the health care system. This value has improved the quality of health care services as well as improving health care outcomes. The value of beneficence within the medical field has led to improved clinical outcomes as health practitioners engage conducting medical services to the patients with a motive to do good to the clients.  An example of how values have affected the process of service delivery in human services profession include through a creation of healthy relationships between the professionals and the clients. Another impact is the development of various measures that aim at ensuring the safety of customers during service delivery. The values also increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the provision of services to the public as the professionals consider the cultural diversity of various groups in the society (GEORGETOWN HEALTH POLICY INSTITUTE, 2004)

Conclusion

Based on the research different things can be noted. The human service profession works under set ethical rules which are established by the NOHS. The values have a great impact towards service delivery like management of the client relationships, promoted confidentiality, respect, and recognition of the rights of the clients. Some of the of the expectations for social responsibility that the study found include adherence to the federal, state and local laws that govern the professional body and call for social justice and also work to eradicate oppression in the community. An example of how values have impacted the delivery of services in the health sector include the adoption of cultural competence within the health care system. This value has improved the quality of health care services as well as improving health care outcomes. The issue of adherence to values has been of great concern across major professions in the society.

References

GEORGETOWN HEALTH POLICY INSTITUTE. (2004, February 5). Cultural Competence in Health Care: Is it important for people with chronic conditions? | Health Policy Institute | Georgetown University. Retrieved from https://hpi.georgetown.edu/agingsociety/pubhtml/cultural/cultural.html

NOHS. (2017). Ethical Standards for HS Professionals. Retrieved from http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/ethical-standards-for-hs-professionals

Sessoms, G. (2017). Code of Ethics for Human Service Workers | Chron.com. Retrieved from http://work.chron.com/code-ethics-human-service-workers-8132.html