Strength And Conditioning Programme Physical Education Essay

Strength and Conditioning is the combination of resistance training and endurance conditioning that is used by athletes and sports teams to improve and assist their performance (Driskell, 1999). Sport specific fitness can include a structured progressive program that could comprise of power, muscular endurance, strength, speed, aerobic or anaerobic conditioning (Steindler, 1955). It has been shown that strength and conditioning programs increase sports performance, producing better athletic results and reducing the incidence of injury (Burrows, 2007). Strength and conditioning programs are suitable for athletes performing at recreational levels, elite levels, sports teams or anyone else looking to ascertain new training methods that might raise their performance capabilities (Baechle & Earle, 2000).
The aim of this assignment is to undertake a needs analysis for a chosen sport and position and to design and outline a six week training programme suitable for the individual athlete. The assignment will consider periodization as well as an analysis of the macrocycle, mesocycle and microcycle sections of a training programme.
The sport and position that will be discussed within this report is football and a central defender. Football is a demanding sports in terms of the effort the players need to put into the game. Football training and conditioning is essential. Players can cover around 8-12km during a match of which 24% is covered by walking, 36% covered by jogging, 20% coursing, 11% sprinting, 7% moving backwards and 2% moving whilst in possession of the ball (Reilly, 1996).
Central defenders need a wide range of attributes, which include height, Strength, balance and a good mentality. Saif (2002) claimed that a defender needs to have good concentration during games and also require skill attributes such as tackling and heading.
Football players need to have excellent endurance. They require a VO2max that has been reported to range between 55 and 70 ml/kg/min in elite performers (Bangsbo, 1991). The game is played approximately 80-90% of maximum heart rate (Helgerud et al, 2001). The greater a player’s aerobic capacity, the greater the distance they would cover during a typical game (Reilly & Thomas, 1976).
Many factors need to be considered to plan and implement a successful training programme. These factors include periodization, macrocycle, mesocycle and microcycle along with other essential phases. These are all factors that need to be taken into account in order for a successful training programme.
Periodization is a planned execution of particular training phases (Bompa & Haff, 1996). The training during the periodization phase is based on increasing and decreasing the volume of repetitions, time and amount of sets. In addition an increase and decrease in intensity. These measures are implemented when planning a structured training program. An important characteristic of periodization training is the scheduling of a recovery period. The principal attributes of periodization include creativity, tactical preparation and utilization of the recovery (Bompa, 2005).

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Examples of periodization programmes include, Stepwise where training includes high volume with low intensity and progresses to low volume and high intensity. In addition, Undulating periodization is used. This is where volume and intensity of training are changed throughout the course of a short period of time. Periodization is the most effective form of training when aiming to improve on muscle strength, motor performance and body composition.
The macrocycle can be defined by four different components. These components include the number of competitions, dates of competitions, the recovery period between competitions and the preparation period before competition. (Dick, 2002)
The microcycle is the smallest part of the overall program as it accounts for only one week of the training. The mesocycle is the part of the year that the athlete is in, for example ‘mesocycle 1’ will be the pre-season phase. The macrocycle is the overall program based over a year (Dick, 2002).
The Anatomical Adaptation is established at the start of the season or immediately after the transition phase. It is introduced before the season starts as it adapts the body for future strength programs. The aim of this stage is to involve all of the muscle groups which prepare muscle, ligaments, and tendons and joins in preparation for training. These strength programs should look to include all parts of the body such as arms and legs but also for the core area, which includes the lower back, abdomen and spinal column musculature. The muscle areas present support for the arms and legs, to help absorb any shock during exercises that require landing or falling. This period is essential because it generates objective growth of the muscles.
Maximum strength phase sets to develop the highest force possible. The training requires the athlete to train at 85-100 percent of 1RM. Many sports require power, muscular endurance or a mixture of both. This phase will last between 1 and 3 months depending on the athletes needs (Bompa, 2005)
The conversion phase transforms the maximum strength that has been developed ready to use during competitive. This conversion occurs when specific training is performed. Throughout this phase an assured level of maximum strength must be acquired otherwise power will deteriorate. Weight training is the most appropriate method of doing this. The duration of this period depends on the ability being converted. The customary period is between 4 and 5 weeks. Conversion to muscular endurance is 6-8 weeks due to anatomical changes that take longer to transform (Bompa, 2005).
The competition phase consists of work carried out during pre-season and must be maintained to reduce the probability of detraining. If an athlete does not maintain their pre season training then muscle fibres can decrease, power is lost as there is a decrease in motor recruitment and speed which can result in a decrease of power. These decreases can result in poor performance during the season.
A transition period is commonly known as the off-season. The aim of this phase is to remove any fatigue a player has developed. It is a method of replenishing the energy systems by decreasing the volume of exercise. This can also be an effective way of reducing the psychological stresses that the player could experience during training and competition. This relaxation period can allow the player to loosen up and rest. Although this period has benefits it should last no longer than 4-6 weeks as there would be great deterioration of the players training. (Bompa, 2005).
Training programmes can be developed to aid the development of the player.The goal set to achieve in the training program is to try to improve performance levels. This includes fitness and skill levels. To find the improvements of a player the measurements will be recorded through fitness testing as a marker to distinguish if certain component skills are improving or not (Fleck and Kraemer, 2004). When planning a training programme for a particular sport, Specificity must be considered. This associates to how much difference there is between training and performance. This is very important, as training inappropriately could ultimately have a negative effect on performance.
Performance levels are measured through fitness testing. The levels will be assessed prior to the training program and after the training program to see if, there has been any improvement. Alternatively, the program may show signs of a decrease in skill levels because the training program did not work and therefore changes will need to take place to solve the problems immediately (Brooks, 2004).
When designing a strength and conditioning program the experience of the player must be taken into account. This is because it would be easier to improve a player at a lower level such as amateur league or Sunday league than a player who is at professional level (Reynolds, 1982). This is because; to improve a professional player other factors must be taken into account such as the attitude of the payer. If the player’s attitude to improve is good then it will become easier to improve than if the player has a bad attitude towards it however this could also be a factor for amateur players (Magnusen and Rhea, 2009).
Strength and conditioning programs must take into account the time of year such as if it is Pre season or in season etc. Moody (2007) suggests “The 4 Phases of a football strength training program” which includes, off-season, Off-Season/Early Pre-Season, Late Pre-Season and In-season.
During the off season players should look to build functional strength. Football like any sport, places a lot of demand on the body. Most players kick the ball with a predominat foot and using the same motor patterns, some muscles develop more than others. Some joints are also experience more stress than others. The goals of this phase are to prepare the joints, muscles, ligaments and tendons for more intense work in subsequent phases.
With a good foundation to build on after phase one the player is prepared to move into phase 2 which is the off-Season/early pre-season period where they set to build maximal strength. The goal of this phase is to develop the highest force possible. Since power is our overall outcome, it makes sense to develop strength first and then convert it into football specific power. The aim is to complete this phase before the start of the season. That way the latter stages of pre-season training can focus on power and strength endurance training.
Phase three is the late pre-season – muscular power and strength endurance. In this phase of football strength training, goal is to convert your strength gains into soccer-specific power and muscular endurance. Football is one of the few sports demands roughly equal amounts of explosive force and strength endurance. Plyometric training and/or circuit training should replace sessions in the weight room for this phase. It will last roughly 4-6 weeks depending on your schedule.
Phase four is the in-season maintenance which aims to maintain the gains you’ve made during a strenuous pre-season period without over reaching or over training. This is not one big, continuous phase in your soccer strength training routine. Because the competitive season can last up to 9 months, it should be split up so the strength routine is in smaller cycles.
Periodization of a player to perform maximally at competition level is crucial at times. For example, if the England team try to get maximum performance out of a midfielder for a world cup in four years time, they should make use of a young midfielder of 22, who would then be more of a mature player at 26 when the world cup begins. This Periodization is a long-term assessment; but for the amateur player a short-term assessment will be made (Bompa and Carrera, 2005)
The program will focus on training pre-season for the player so that the player is prepared for the new season in our training program. In addition, the competitive status of which the player will be training for is the amateur league so it will be competitive for the player and with in reason.
The strength of the player will need to be improved through free weights, as in a game situation the player will not be supported by any machines. Muscle groups that are a key in the sport are lower body muscles such as the quadriceps and hamstrings. The movements that will be involved with this are a squat position to strengthen quadriceps, hamstrings and calves. This may need to be done through maximum power. Tackles that the player makes needs to be explosive although the athlete also needs to be able to do this through out the 90 minutes. Upper strength also needs to be maintained to be able to keep balance and be strong enough to jostle for the ball and gain possession.
Another key skill component that will be needed is maintaining cardiovascular endurance. This is maintained by running on a regular basis in an environment, which the player would be performing. This is so that the player is aware of the environment and surroundings. Although working in a regular environment can help with the development of the player, the use of treadmills can also be efficient. Kravitz et al (1996) has shown that heart rate levels are higher with the use of treadmills than is an athlete uses a cycle. These findings suggest that the player would work harder when using a treadmill than training outdoors.
To assess an athlete’s performance fitness tests can be introduced to identify strengths and weaknesses. When tests are complete, the player can then assess what skill components they need to improve on and what needs to be maintained.
It is important to decide the most suitable fitness test, which can be used to measure these skill components. After the tests are identified data can be collected so that analysis can be made to see where the weaknesses and strength are obtained. After this analysis decisions can be made as to what exercises are needed to create the training programme.
Before any training can proceed, a medical of the player must be undertaken. This is to make sure they have no illnesses that can harm them during their training (Waehner, 2010)
The facilities in which the player or a team may train in can vary a person’s ability to train. For example, if a player is training their football skills in the rain on outdoor grass, then it can become very difficult to train indoors as the difference in the environment can affect their ability. Although training outdoors in the rain can be off putting. However it can also be an advantage because it replicates playing in a competitive game where the weather conditions vary.
When assessing the individuals performance we need to fitness test them, so by doing this we are going to assess their cardiovascular system. This can be done by the 12-minute cooper test, which is a field test, which measures how far a person can travel in 12 minutes. This will be done prior to the training program and 6 weeks after the programme to see if there are any improvements within 6 weeks. This will be the same with all the fitness tests that are included to measure the skill components.
Next thing we need to asses is muscular power. We can do this by fitness testing one repetition max test. There are a number of exercises we could use to test this fitness component such as handgrip dynamometer and maximum bench press. The exercise we will be using for this is a squat as it improves lower body for tackling and needs explosive power when in a need for short bursts in a game situation.
Before a training programme can be created, the following training principles should be used. The principle is abbreviated to “S.P.O.R.T” which stands for, Specificity, Progression, Overload, Reversibility and Tedious as a way of guiding my training program.
Specificity is the principle of training that states that sports training should be relevant and appropriate to the sport for which the individual is training in order to produce a training effect (Triplett, 2006) The athlete is going to be training over a 6-week period prior to the new football season. It is important to emphasise the cardiovascular system whilst maintaining key component skill factors. Trying to improve Muscular Power is also a key factor so that the player can sharpen up and be more explosive ready for the new season.
The Principle of Progression implies that there is an optimal level of overload that should be achieved, and an optimal period for this overload to occur (Shepard, 2009). For the athlete to progress when training cardiovascular endurance, he will start off at a level that he is comfortable with and is able to perform such as running for a 10-minute period. For the progression, the athlete can add on 30 seconds each time he runs. Therefore, the next time this athlete runs it will be 10 minutes and 30 seconds, then 11 minutes and so on.
To progress when performing muscular power exercises the athlete could add on an extra 2.5kg every session. This is because if the athlete added to much extra weight they could become injured so progress made should be slower. This should only be prepared if and when the athlete feels, it is possible. If the athlete struggles with the weight, it is highly unlikely that the player will be able to lift anything heavier.
The principle of overload states that a greater than normal stress or load on the body is required for training adaptation to take place (Kavanaugh, 2007). To make sure that the athlete does not over load on his training programme we will be organising a programme that includes three training sessions a week for a 6-week period. This can reduce the risk of the player becoming fatigued and unable to train.
The Reversibility Principle dictates that athletes lose the effects of training when they stop working out. Conversely, it also means that detraining effects can be reversed when they resume training (Powers et al, 2006). When a player has started to progress their skill levels, they could become injured. If injury occurs, reversibility is a big factor that can affect progress. If the player trains three times during a week and sticks to the training program then this should not be a problem. It is much harder to get back into the fitness levels that you once were if reversibility sets in. This is in particular a big vulnerability when working with cardiovascular endurance.
Tedium commonly occurs in those who regularly perform monotonous exercise routines. Unlike fatigue, boredom leads to a lack of desire to exercise, rather than an inability to exercise. Boredom is one of the main reasons why people stop exercising and drop out of sport. It can be avoided if the type and location of exercise is varied, if achievable but challenging targets are set, and if exercise is made more fun (Baechle and Earle, 2000). Boredom sets in when the training program becomes the same every week and there are no goals or challenges for the player to try to achieve. If a training program becomes to boring for a player they may become jaded and therefore it will be very difficult for them to stick to the training program and be motivated for future sessions.
When designing a training program it is important to make sure that the coach assesses the situation of the athlete and starts the program at the level the athlete has reached. For example, if an athlete is at a low level of training then the coach must start the program with easier ability exercises.
The emphasis on the first week of the program is to get the athlete ready and motivated to become active. To achieve this, the program will include high intensity training to get the athlete ready and prepared for the new season and the program will start with Cardiovascular Endurance Training. The skill of the player will also need to be tested and this can be performed by the 12 minutes cooper run and finding out how far the player can run over a 12-minute period.
The results are assessed after the test to create a suitable starting time for this player. The player will start running at 10 minutes. This will then be done 3 times in the first week whilst adding 30 seconds on each time.
In addition, muscular power will also be assessed. To perform this test the player will use weight training and perform squats. Adams et al (1992) found that squats exercises enhance power production, which is why we are using squats as the main exercise in producing muscular power. The player will start off at a weight he can lift and add on 2.5k each time. This will overload the progression of muscular power. Low weights with high repetition would increase muscular endurance and high weights with low repetition would increase muscular strength, so we need to try to avoid this and balance the weight distribution evenly to try to increase muscular power.
Firstly we need to fitness test his ability and by doing this we will do a maximum repetition max test on how many this player can squat. One set of ten squats at a high intensity, which would be a high weight so that muscular power can be strengthened.
The following weeks are set for a progression from week one and to maintain football skills and team work the players must attend club training sessions which is held once a week for an hour and a half.
When the player reaches the final week of the programme, he should feel fit and ready to perform at a high level. His skill levels should be higher as well as his attitude and motivation, this then acts as an indicator to show he is ready to compete in a competitive game situation for the new season ahead.
The final cardiovascular training session should consist of a 12 minute cooper run again to find out if the player has improved or not. My prediction would be that the player would run further this time than he did the first time he ran the 12-minute cooper run, if the results show an improvement then the training program has been efficient. The Athlete should also repeat a muscular endurance test. The one repetition max test should be carried out during the last session to see if the player has improved.
In conclusion, Strength and conditioning programmes can be very useful to the progression of an athlete. Whilst other methods of training have been found useful, a well-designed programme has been shown to improve an athlete’s ability greatly (Burrows, 2007). This could be because the athlete knows exactly what is needed from them and exactly when the effort is needed. The structured plan can give a big confidence boost for the athlete therefore, they will be eager to test their ability with the addition of a test to improve their ability for the season ahead. With the programme set up the athletes and coaches, can set targets and the athlete can then work within the programme to reach the goals. With a well-organised and constructive programme, improvements should be found. When improvements are not found, this indicates that the programme was not successful therefore; a revised programme must be made to aid the athlete.
I feel that there would be great improvements in the athlete’s ability because the programme sets out to achieve goals that were set and was specific to what the athlete needed to work on. No ineffective training was performed leaving the athlete training only what was needed to play at a higher level of football that before the programme.
 

Proposal for Obesity Management Programme

OBESITY PROGRAMEE: “FITNESS FOR FULFILMENT”

 
Abstract
The world has seen a rise in the issue of obesity and its effects on the biological, psychological and social wellbeing of individuals. This proposal reviews literature in relation to the causes as well as effects on obesity specifically targeted at children between the ages of 6 – 18 years old and evaluates current programs in place to curb the rise in obesity. Programs from both the United States as well as Singapore are used to analyse the western and Asian perspectives on tackling the issue of obesity. The proposed program would be aimed at reducing social stigma and increasing self-esteem that past or current programs do not address. The program will be made up of three phases which include implementation, motivation and feedback as well as evaluation of the entire program’s effectiveness. Feasibility and efficacy of instilling the program are also discussed.
Introduction and Review on Obesity
Obesity has been an issue present through various generations and is one faced by many nations worldwide. Recent years has seen a rise in the levels of obesity especially in western nations but is currently seen to be a growing issue even in Asian nations (Ramachandran & Snehalatha, 2010). Based on recent findings by Ogden, Carroll, Kit and Flegal (2014) an estimated two third of the adult population in the United States are overweight or obese with about one third of school going children also falling under this category. A growing trend is also seen in Asia where findings in Singapore indicate that approximately one in nine Singaporean adults between the age ranges of 18 to 69 were considered to be obese in 2010 with obesity rates said to be increasing at an estimated 1 percent per year (“One in nine Singaporean”, 2014).

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Multiple factors have been suggested as causes to obesity, often focusing on mainly physical and psychological factors. General physical causes of obesity are often due to genetic factors that cause abnormalities in fat cell metabolism and metabolic defects or simply having a sedentary lifestyle (Bray, York & DeLany, 1992). There are also various psychological conditions or disorders that have been suggested to lead to obesity however depression is considered to be the main cause of it as evidenced in Blaine’s (2008) study which indicated that individuals who were depressed were proven to be at significantly higher risk of becoming obese. Obesity is also often comorbid with depression and other eating disorders Blaine’s (2008).
The key area of concern especially in recent times would be the effects of obesity on the individual as well as society as a whole. Numerous studies have been done to show the physical and psychological effects that obesity has on an individual. Physical aspects often include the risk of contracting illnesses such as heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes (Sturm, 2002). Psychological effects tend to focus on an individual’s body dissatisfaction and self-image (Wardle & Cooke, 2005) as well as well as psychosocial effects such as negative experiences through weight bias at home, in school, at work, through the media and even health and fitness areas (Amianto, Lavagnino, Abbate-Daga & Fassino, 2011).
Evaluation on Obesity Related Programmes
Over the years there have been many programs put into place by governments and private agencies around the world that have been aimed to curb obesity. One key program introduced in the United States was the HEROES Initiative which targets tackling issues on childhood obesity (King et. al, 2014). The HEROES Initiative is a grant-funded intervention that targets schools to play a vital role in educating youth in obesity related behaviours (King et. al, 2014). The key aims of this this initiative would be to take a comprehensive school health approach that decreases childhood obesity that in turn promotes healthy lifestyle habits among students as well as their families and also the school staff (King et. al, 2014). Key features that make the intervention unique would be that it offers a supportive means for participating schools by providing regular oversight, significant funding and various implementation strategies that are catered to a particular needs for certain schools depending on the district and neighbourhood that they are located in (King et. al, 2014). This initiative also enables schools to have a sense of ownership over assessing the needs of their students and in turn coming out with a plan to implement certain strategies for changes in the school’s health programs (King et. al, 2014). The key feature in maintaining the effectiveness of this program would be the strong emphasis on an annual cycle of evaluation and assessment on opportunities in enhancing the program to cater to the needs of the students which turn increases the intervention’s efficacy (King et. al, 2014).
The evaluation process was broken down into 3 main areas. The process evaluation stage, school level outcome evaluation and student level outcome evaluation (King et. al, 2014). The process evaluation stage is carried out by site visits to schools to view their administrative processes in carrying out health promotion as well as inspection of the school’s general environment and conducting interviews with the staff to determine challenging areas (King et. al, 2014). Feedback on information obtained is given to the staff as a means to address these issues (King et. al, 2014). In the school level outcome evaluation, assessments are made to the systemic changes in promoting healthy behaviour and reducing obesity rates in the students. The school level outcome evaluation is based on domains relating to physical education/activity, nutrition education, food service, staff wellness, as well as family and community involvement (King et. al, 2014). The student level outcome evaluation, focuses on understanding the changes in behaviour and knowledge in relation to obesity and its effects (King et. al, 2014). This done through weight measurements as well as surveys and quizzes to identify student’s knowledge about obesity (King et. al, 2014).
With regard to the effectiveness of this initiative, evaluation between the periods of 2011-2012 showed a significant amount of variability between schools. Based on results obtained from the process and school level evaluation outcomes, it was found that the school’s processes were well implemented however some schools found difficulties in coming up with new or improved health and wellness related policies (King et. al, 2014). Based on the student level outcome evaluation it was found that small but significant changes were made in terms of behaviour and mindset of the students (King et. al, 2014). Students were also more engaged in rigorous physical activities in comparison to the baseline from first 18 months of the intervention (King et. al, 2014). However a set back to the intervention was that changes to behaviour were mostly found in overweight students rather than students who were already obese.
In relation to the Asian context, there have been various health related programs and promotions carried out in Singapore. The Singapore health promotion board has come up with various programs and initiatives to promote healthy lifestyle practices to prevent conditions such as obesity. Programs such as the 1 million kg challenge, aims to encourage individuals to lose weight by allowing them to set a weight loss target then setting a period for them to lose this weight. If individuals are able to lose the amount of weight within the given time frame they are rewarded with certain incentives and prizes (“1 million kg challenge”, 2014).
In relation to health promotion in schools, a key program that was introduced in the early 90s was the National Physical Fitness Award Test (NAPFA) and the TAF (Trim and Fit) scheme which aimed to increase physical activity and reduce the weight of overweight and obese students in both the primary and secondary levels of education (Gupta et. al, 2010). The TAF program basically tasked students with physical activities before and after the school day (Gupta et. al, 2010). The initiative was a success in the 90s with obesity levels dropping between 10-17% in students (Gupta et. al, 2010). Success of the TAF scheme would later bring about a collaboration between the Singapore Health Promotion Board and the World Health Organisation to introduce a HPB-MOE bi-annual award aimed at targeting the healthy development of students and awarding schools for good health practices (Gupta et. al, 2010).
Challenges faced in the TAF program as well as similar programs introduced in Korea as mentioned by Shin and Shin (2008) was that such programs bring about a sort of negative stigma to students involved. Student then tend to become highly self-conscious and develop body dissatisfaction which in turn effects their self-esteem (Shin & Shin, 2008). This is often the result of segregation from their peers due to their weight and appearance and this segregation is further contributed by schools who single out overweight or obese individuals to be part of such programs (Shin & Shin, 2008). This effect could in turn lead to depression which has been established as a cause for obesity and would hence defeat the whole purpose of having such health promotion programs.
Proposed Health Program
Having identified the causes and effects of obesity as well as certain health programs available both on the western and Asian context along with their strengths and weaknesses, an alternative health program could be developed. Through analysing the health programs available in both the United States and Singapore, a program catering specifically to the needs of students between the ages of 6 – 18 year olds could be proposed. The program will be entitled the “Fitness for Fulfilment Programme” (FFFP) catered specifically in the Singaporean context. The program is also given a name that does not infer or refer to obesity so as to prevent any form of social stigma relating to obesity. The main goals of the program would be to reduce the weight of overweight and obese students but to do so in a manner that will not cause stigmatization or embarrassment. The program would also further aim to instil a healthy mindset in these students and encourage them to maintain healthy behaviour well into adulthood.
The FFFP will mainly be broken down into three key phases. The first phase will be the implementation phase which will introduce rigorous exercise specifically catered to losing weight for obese children. These exercises will be done during school hours as part of an enhanced physical education program and these obese students will carry out their activities together with other students so as to limit any sense of being ostracised. The enhanced physical education program will target the specific needs of each student be it normal weight students or overweight or obese students by focusing on their weak physical areas that are limiting them from passing or getting a good grade on their NAPFA test. The fitness program will be one that gradually increases in rigorousness so as to allow the students time to condition themselves to its requirements. Another key feature of the implementation phase would be the enforcement of strict diet practices during the school day. Since schools are already given guidelines by the Health Promotion Board on the type of food to be served, there must be a form of enforcement that ensures that students are getting the appropriate meals. Therefore there should be two to three staff on canteen duty to ensure that proper meals are being served to the students and that obese children are getting sufficient food but maintained at healthy levels.
The second phase of the FFFP would the feedback and motivation phase. This would be a key feature of the program as it caters to the psychological well-being of the students involved. This phase will be implemented during the first and last session of the enhanced physical education program. During these sessions, time will be set aside for instructors to carry out one on one interviews or feedback sessions with the students which will aim to understand the challenges that they face with physical exercise as well as issues they have with motivating themselves to indulge in physical exercise. With knowledge of the challenges that individual students face, instructors can cater their physical education session to better accommodate to both the strengths and the weaknesses of the students. This will facilitate a more positive outlook in carrying out physical exercise and encourage students to put in a greater effort and hence may lead better physical results and lower obesity levels. Another aspect of this phase would be educating other students in the challenges that overweight and obese students. Students will be taught to encourage and motivate rather than stigmatize or humiliate their overweight or obese peers.
The final phase of this program will be the evaluation phase. Ideally a review council should be formed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program at national level. This phase will be similar to the HEROES initiative evaluation process used in the United States, but will comprise of two instead of three key parts of the evaluation process of the effectiveness of the program. The process and school level evaluation will be combined into one. This part of the evaluation process will seek to understand the challenges that the staff have with the FFFP through means of interviews as well as on site assessments of the program in action. Availability of proper equipment and exercise facilities in the school will be key points at this level of evaluation. The next part of the evaluation will be at the student level, the review council will assess data relating to changes in weight as well as NAPFA standards and also find out the level of knowledge that students have with regard to healthy behaviour through surveys and quizzes which can be done through the internet. The evaluation process should be done annually and aim to identify problem areas so that newer and improved implementation could be introduced in the following years.
The feasibility and efficacy of the FFFP would depend on the amount support through funding from private agencies or the government as well as having instructors who are trained in not only physical aspects of exercise and healthy lifestyle but also with the psychological capability to deal and understand the needs and challenges for individual students to overcome obesity.
References
Amianto, F., Lavagnino, L., Abbate-Daga, G., & Fassino, S. (2011). The forgotten psychosocial dimension of the obesity epidemic.The Lancet, 378(9805), e8
Blaine, B. (2008). Does depression cause obesity? A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies of depression and weight control.Journal of health psychology,13(8), 1190-1197.
Bray, G. A., York, B., & DeLany, J. (1992). A survey of the opinions of obesity experts on the causes and treatment of obesity.The American journal of clinical nutrition,55(1 Suppl), 151S-154S.
Gupta, N., Chin, M. K., Yang, J., Balasekaran, G., Chia, M., Girandola, R. N., … & Mok, M. M. C. (2010). Obesity prevention in Singapore: Collaborative efforts among government, health professionals and the community.
King, M. H., Lederer, A. M., Sovinski, D., Knoblock, H. M., Meade, R. K., Seo, D. C., & Kim, N. (2014). Implementation and Evaluation of the HEROES Initiative A Tri-State Coordinated School Health Program to Reduce Childhood Obesity.Health promotion practice,15(3), 395-405.
Ogden C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B.K., & Flegal K. M. (2014). Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012.Journal of the American Medical Association,311(8), 806-814.
One in nine Singaporean adults were obese in 2010: Survey (2014, January 17).Today.Retrieved from http://www.todayonline.com/daily-focus/health/one-nine- singaporean-adults-were-obese-2010-survey
One million kg challenge. (2014). Retrieved August 21, 2014, from http://www.hpb.gov.sg/
References
Ramachandran, A., & Snehalatha, C. (2010). Rising burden of obesity in Asia.Journal of obesity,2010.
Shin, N. Y., & Shin, M. S. (2008). Body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and depression in obese Korean children.The Journal of pediatrics,152(4), 502-506
Sturm, R. (2002). The effects of obesity, smoking, and drinking on medical problems and costs.Health Affairs,21(2), 245-253.
Wardle, J., & Cooke, L. (2005). The impact of obesity on psychological well-being.Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism,19(3), 421-440.
 

Effective Management and Leadership Programme

The purpose of the presentation is to present the key recommendations for developing an effective management and leadership programme.
Make a presentation including bibliography/references which will show your source of information gathered.
Details about the reliability of your information, why did you choose the source, and to what extent can you trust the source and why- e.g. a company report might be more upbeat about the situation of the company than an externally conducted analysis similarly. Similarly you might identify conflicting information from different newspapers on their political biases etc how did you get around this.

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Leadership and management have been amongst the most studied and controversial topics of the study of business and management for the last century.  The body of theory which has grown up around the subject reflects the change in thought on management theory and can be distilled into a framework which shows the evolution f the ideas of what makes a good leader and management, and by proxy of this one can define with reference to the theory the key skills which need to be developed in order to produce good leaders.  Broadly there have been a number of movements in the thought on leadership and management, beginning with the ‘great man’ approach, defined in a number of studies on the history of leadership and management studies as the belief that leaders are exceptional people born to great innate abilities, this reflects the early school of militaristic styles of leadership, reflected in the organisation as a male dominated and hierarchical structures to business as a whole.  This data is drawn from two key studies, one a study of  the comparisons of more modern transformational leadership compared with previous styles, which allows one to assess the need for key innate personality traits, the other a modern study of an attempt to define a universal framework of leadership.  Both of these studies argue that a key part of the management and leadership of an organisation, despite the move from the great man approach, is still rooted in the idea of an inspirational character with innate abilities.  These abilities have also been studied with some detail and indeed the evolutionary process in management thought moved from this point to study the traits that made an effective leader and manager.  The table shown below comes from an extensive study on the skills and traits of leaders, and is still used in theory to define those skills advantageous to leaders and managers.

Traits
– Adaptable to situations
– Alert to social environment
– Ambitious and achievement-orientated
– Assertive
– Cooperative
– Decisive
– Dependable
– Dominant (desire to influence others)
– Energetic (high activity level)
– Persistent
– Self-confident
– Tolerant of stress
– Willing to assume responsibility

Skills
– Clever (intelligent)
– Conceptually skilled
– Creative
– Diplomatic and tactful
– Fluent in speaking
– Knowledgeable about group task
– Organised (administrative ability)
– Persuasive
– Socially skilled

Leadership Skills and Traits (Stogdill, 1974)
Therefore it can be argued with reference to the literature that the first steps in designing an effective leadership and management programme is to identify by aptitude and ability the kind of people who are going to make good leaders.  In the past it was thought that leadership was something that one was born to, but as will be seen the relationship to leadership of the personality is not as clear cut and much depends on the type of leadership one wishes to develop, and indeed the organisational factors.The movement away from the individual qualities of leadership began with the behavioral school, according to much of the literature the move is seen as a departure from the militaristic style of the study of management and leadership.  Theories of the subject include the now standard McGregor’s X and Y beliefs, shown below;

Theory X managers believe that
:
• The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if possible.
• Because of this human characteristic, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort to achieve organizational objectives.
• The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, and wants security above all else.

Theory Y managers believe that
:
• The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest, and the average human being, under proper conditions, learns not only to accept but to seek responsibility.
• People will exercise self-direction and self-control to achieve objectives to which they are committed.
• The capacity to exercise a relatively high level of imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population, and the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilized under the conditions of modern industrial life.

Theory X and Y Managers (McGregor, 1960)
And Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid, as depicted below;
The Blake Mouton Managerial Grid (Blake & Mouton, 1964)
This move away from seeing the organization as more than a hierarchy with leaders at the top of the pile and workers as subservient to them is a dramatic change in management theory and suggests that in designing any effective leadership or management structure and training the type and classification of the organization and the people involved become central to the success.  Clearly this is demonstrated by a body of literature on the subject of behavioral management, and it is easy to see why the move become more popular than traditional management as it follows a move in the philosophy of management as a whole.  The behavioral School I still important, but the consensus has been that it cannot explain everything in the leadership and management paradigm.  Modern thought has centered on a contingency paradigm, which begins from the point that there is no one way to manage or lead, and the correct style is contingent on the nature of the organization, the external needs of the business and society and the internal needs of the workers and management.   A number of models have been produced, from ones dealing with social enterprise and the public sector, of which this example from the National College for School Leadership is an example of the types of leadership they have identified;
“•
Emergent leadership
, when a teacher is beginning to take on management and leadership responsibilities and perhaps forms an aspiration to become a headteacher •
Established leadership
, comprising assistant and deputy heads who are experienced leaders but who do not intend to pursue headship •
Entry to headship
, including a teacher’s preparation for and induction into the senior post in a school•
Advanced leadership
, the stage at which school leaders mature in their role, look to widen their experience, to refresh themselves and to update their skills •
Consultant leadership
, when an able and experienced leader is ready to put something back into the profession by taking on training, mentoring, inspection or other responsibilities.”
To frameworks developed for the professions especially in terms of ethical leadership and responsibilities, as this one from the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales;

Through to the guidance and descriptions issued by the IMPM for its advanced leadership and management course;
“The International Masters Program in Practicing Management is designed to be the “Next Generation” Masters Program, combining management development with management education. It is a degree program that focuses directly on the development of managers in their own contexts – their jobs and their organizations. The IMPM is therefore deeper than conventional programs of management development and more applied than traditional degree programs. It was launched in March of 1996 to acclaim from participants and their companies alike, as well as from the international business press.
“The IMPM seeks to break the mould of the functional “silos” so common in management education – marketing, finance, organization behaviour, and so on. Instead, the Program is structured around managerial “mindsets”, one for each module. It opens in Lancaster with managing in general and the
reflective
mindset in particular. Then it moves to McGill, where attention turns to Managing Organizations and the
analytic
mindset. Bangalore follows with Managing Context, the
worldly
mindset. In Japan, it takes up Managing Relationships, the
collaborative
mindset. The Program closes at INSEAD with Managing Change, the
action
mindset. More detail is given about each of these mindsets by Mintzberg and Gosling (2003):
• The
reflective
mindset refers to “managing self” – developing the ability to reflect and make meaning – a form of emotional intelligence.
• The
analytic
mindset refers to “managing organisations” – developing the ability to analyse and synthesise not only the hard data, but also the soft – “to appreciate scores and crowds while never losing sight of the ball”.
• The
worldly
mindset refers to “managing contexts” – to appreciate cultural and local differences and similarities and respond accordingly.
• The
collaborative
mindset refers to “managing relationships” – developing partnerships and networks; working with people – managing “relationships” not “people”.
• The
action
mindset refers to “managing movement” [or “change and continuity”, or “mobilization”] – managing change without losing track of continuity.
It is argued that the good manager/leader must master and integrate each of these mindsets and so offers a more cognitive and reflective approach to management development than more traditional behaviour and skills-based programmes.” In conclusion the recommendation of this presentation is to consider three areas of design.  Firstly to consider the criteria for considering an applicant’s needs and suitability, reflecting the traits, in relation to the needs and requirements of the organization, reflecting the contingency of the organization and society. Secondly to look closely at the needs of the organization, especially at the needs of subordinates and the overall strategic direction of the organization, which reflects both behavioral and the specific needs of the organization in relation with the external environment.  Lastly To examine the type of leadership needed, with specific reference to the examples from the public, private and professional examples given above, which show that the ideal leadership and management style is very specific to the sector in which the organization is based.

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References
Blake, R.R. and J.S. Mouton (1964) The managerial grid. Houston TX: Gulf.Gronn, P. (1995) Greatness Re-visited: The current obsession with transformational leadership. Leading and Managing 1(1), 14-27. Gosling, J. and Mintzberg, H. (2003) Mindsets for Managers. Working paper, Centre for Leadership Studies. Hamlin. R. (2002) Towards a Universalistic Model of Leadership: a comparative study of British and American empirically derived criteria of managerial and leadership effectiveness. Working paper WP005/02, University of Wolverhampton.McGregor, D. (1960) The Human Side of Enterprise. New York: McGraw Hill. Stogdill, R. (1974) Handbook of Leadership (1st Ed.). New York: Free Press.

Gronn, P. (1995) Greatness Re-visited: The current obsession with transformational leadership. Leading and Managing 1(1), 14-27.

Hamlin. R. (2002) Towards a Universalistic Model of Leadership: a comparative study of British and American empirically derived criteria of managerial and leadership effectiveness. Working paper WP005/02, University of Wolverhampton

Gosling, J. and Mintzberg, H. (2003) Mindsets for Managers. Working paper, Centre for Leadership Studies.

Gosling, J. and Mintzberg, H. (2003) Mindsets for Managers. Working paper, Centre for Leadership Studies

National College for School Leadership – Leadership Development Framework. Source: http://www.ncsl.org.uk/index.cfm?pageid=ldf

Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales – Ethical Principles for Members. Source: http://www.icaew.co.uk

International Masters in Practising Management, available from www.impm.org, retrieved on 18/4/10

 

Integrated Care and Support Pioneers Programme Analysis

A critical analysis of the Implementation of The Government Initiative – The Integrated Care and support Pioneers programme, specifically focusing on the North West London Pioneers

This assignment aims to address what is integrated care and why it is thought to be so important within healthcare. To visit a national initiative that promotes integrated care and to critical analyse this.

What is Integrated care ? and why develop this approach to care ?

Integrated care or co-ordinated care has been discussed within health care for many years and is believed to be the best approach to healthcare. It is thought to get the best outcome for patients with co morbidities, their families and the services that provide the care. Curry and Ham, (2010) support this by suggesting that the benefits of integrated care are ‘most likely to be achieved when the model is targeted at the patients most at risk of fragmented care, such as elderly and those adults with multiple health issues. These areas of care are thought to be a drain and the integration of their care would improve the patient’s healthcare journey’. This idea of integrated care was addressed by Stein and Reider (2009) who stated that ‘we now refer to as ‘integrated care’ is an umbrella term, encompassing diverse initiatives that seek to address fragmentation, but that differ in underlying scope and values’. Evidence suggests it will reduce patients being given a disjointed approach to their needs. This is presently in many areas of care leading to repetition, seeing different healthcare providers, causing delays, as well as adding to financial pressures. Kodner and Spreeuwenbur, (2002) offers that ‘without integration at various levels of health systems, all health care performance can suffer. Patients get lost, needed services fail to be delivered, or are delayed, quality and patient satisfaction decline and the potential for cost effectiveness diminishes’.

Government developments to integrate care

One of the ways in which the government has addressed this, was with the Integrated Care and support Pioneers programme a national initiative introduced in November 2013. Within this there were many differing models for integrated care, in terms of this paper the North West London (NWL) pioneers first two years will be critically evaluated. Along with theories that could be considered and how these may have aided or hindered the introduction of these care models.

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Valentijin, (2015) offers the opinion that ‘integrated primary care services are considered a vital strategy for maintaining sustainable and affordable healthcare provisions’. Since the health and Social Care Act 2012 was introduced many ways of working have been introduced to adopt integrated care. This then brought on The Care Act 2014 which then placed more pressure on local authorities to develop co-ordinated care. Alongside National voices, which was released in 2012.In which spoke it of ‘patient centred coordinated care’ and took into consideration the patients wants and needs. This was a strong driver for change and The Integrated Care and Support Pioneer Programme was announced in May 2013.

Local areas were invited to bid to be pioneers, asking them to demonstrate how they were or were planning to deliver integrated care for its local areas. The successful Pioneers were split into two waves: wave one introduced fourteen sites in November 2013 and wave two with another eleven sites in January 2015. The plan for these was to ‘pioneer new approaches to provide care and support which is coordinated to people’s needs’ NHS England, (2015). Each was provided with funding to assist their projects, as well as sponsor from a national partner agency. These pioneers were planned to become figure heads for the rest of the Healthcare system and develop New models of care.

North West London

One of the first fourteen pioneers chosen was NWL project, this was a huge project, it planned to involve eight boroughs. It was to encompass over two million people and according to NHS England, (2015)’ The scale and complexity of transformation in NWL is almost unprecedented in the history of health and social care in England’. Not only due to the large population but due to the diversity of the people within those boroughs, who had differing needs in terms of culture, affluence and health. The large number of Clinical Commissioner Groups (CCGs) and General Practitioners (GPs) led this to be thought of a large system transformation. Best et al. (2012) offers that ‘Large‐system transformations in health care are interventions aimed at coordinated, system wide change affecting multiple organizations and care providers, with the goal of significant improvements in the efficiency of health care delivery, the quality of patient care, and population‐level patient outcomes’, which fits the NWL model well.

NWL was well into its planning stage when it applied for Pioneer status and that’s what led to the decision to encompass so many more boroughs in the pilot. It planned to address integrated care for the elderly and adults with one or more health conditions. NWL had already had previous success with their integrated care pilot in November 2011, where they had won a Health Service Journal award for their work on improving care for the over 75s and patients with diabetes. It aimed to build on this and reduce hospital admissions and keep patients in control of their own care alongside their G.Ps. They planned to do this by giving the patents a ‘single point of contact who would work with them to plan all aspects of their care taking into account all physical, mental and social care needs’ Department of Health and social Care ,(2015).

Co-design and early Adopters

After NWL had achieved this status it was decided the project needed to be broken into phases, first being of a process of co-design and then move to a first adopters’ stage. During the co-design stage many were consulted such as ‘health and social care organisations, patients, other service users and carers from across NWL. These were invited into working groups to develop solutions to common challenges to the design and delivery of integrated care’, Nuffield Trust, (2013).

Due to NWL’s history of working together, this allowed them to easily invest time into gathering interest develop strategic planning and joined vision, as links had already been made. The vision needed to be embedded, so during the co-design stage ‘Lay partners’ were asked to get involved. This would give the project a diversity of opinions and ideas across the boroughs. These ideas for new ways of working and models of care were explained in the Whole system Integrated Care toolkit which was developed and released in May 2014. This toolkit was the coming together of over 200 individuals and organisations across NWL, sharing their knowledge and the development of ideas of how to implement whole systems integrated care. (North West London CCG, 2018).

All the areas within NWL were invited to bid to be early adopters, the learning that would be gained from these adopters would then be developed and refined further to then implement the New models of care to the rest of the population. The adopters were given high level of support to ensure that they shared the vision of joined up care, but they would face their own local problems individually.

Evaluation

The Nuffield Trust and the London school of Economics and political science were asked to evaluate the North West pioneers from February 2014 to April 2015. This gave huge insight into how this particular project was fairing, they gathered their data from meetings, observations, focus groups and surveys of the early adopter steering committee members and the GP practices involved. This highlighted many positives in these early stages of. Smith, Gaskin et al. (2015), who were involved in the Nuffield trust evaluation, stated that they ‘found North West London approach to developing integrated care was large scale, ambitious and very well resourced’.

Analysis of Co-design phase & Early Adopters

Evidence suggests this was a strong phase and that within this time from multiple working groups that met regularly, with the overseeing ‘Embedding Partnership group’, this was governed by the lay partners. (Morton and Paice, 2016). Smith, Gaskin et al. (2015), (2015) believed this phase to be ‘one of the programmes defining characteristic’s’. This was backed up by Sawell, (2015) who was quoted by Timmins, (2015) that one of the factors of success in NWL had been genuine co-design with lay people. Timmins, (2015) offered that ‘Involving patient, service users and carers is vital because they help identify which elements of service redesign are needed’ which is what NWL achieved.

But evidence showed due to the long co-design and adopter stage ‘there could be risk these patients, service users and carers, could become frustrated and question the purpose of their involvement’ Smith, Gaskin et al. (2015), Through the qualitative data gathered by Smith, Gaskin et al. (2015), it was determined that the enthusiasm was particularly high at senior level, but there was ‘a relative absence in the co-design phase of frontline staff, including social workers and community Nurses’. They also went on to uncover that even though there was a core group of G.Ps that felt highly motivated there was also a group that felt unaware and distant from the pilot. Sawell,(2015) cited in Timmins, (2015) who is the Director of Strategy and Transformation for NWL Collaboration of CCGs, when questioned stated that ‘7 of the 8 councils supported the integration project, so they worked with irregular geometry, you work together where it makes sense and then you don’t where it doesn’t or cant for the time being’. This could give the explanation of the evidence uncovered by Curry, Harris et al. (2013) that participants felt that multidisciplinary groups were not producing a ‘significant cultural shift in ways of working’. Senge, (2015) also stated that ‘Yet more often than not they have floundered—in part because they failed to foster collective leadership within and across the collaborating organizations.

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This has been considered to be a ‘Top down approach’ offered by Sabatier and Mazmanian, (1979) cited by Cerna, (2013) which as Matland, (1995) who was also cited by Cerna, (2013) offers it allows ‘consistent recognisable patterns in behaviour across different policy areas’ to be adopted and used, but of course as above suggests the frontline staff are not taken into consideration When considering these approaches and what NWL carried out in their co-design phase you could also reason that the bottom up approach was adopted by using the lay partners. As Matland, (1995) offers ‘Bottom-up designers begin their implementation strategy formation with the target groups and service deliverers, because they find that the target groups are the actual implementors of policy’, but as equal to the top down approach the bottom up had disadvantages such as ‘policy control should be exercised by actors whose power derives from their accountability to sovereign voters through their elected representatives, but authority of local deliveries does nor derive from this’ Matland, (1995). Therefore, it could be suggested that if a systems leadership approach was adopted then these disadvantages could have been avoided. ‘System leadership has become less of a nice to have and more of a must have’ (Timmins, 2015). He then goes on to offer the explanation of system leadership as a collective leadership and that for the NHS to adapt and develop they must move towards this belief ‘that leadership is the responsibility of teams and needed at all levels’.

From what Sawell, (2015) cited in Timmins, (2015) states ‘ the 8 CCGs have been ahead in thinking about how, without giving up their sovereignty, they can see benefits from working together. The chairs had worked together as clinical leads in the PCTs for longer than in many other places. They were used to working together, on leading Shaping a healthier future’. NWL had started to adapt to a systems leadership approach but this does have its disadvantages as offered by Timmins, (2015) ‘it is not easy, It takes time, its starts with the collation of the willing, patients and carers are crucial in helping design the change. As visited, this certainly echoes the challenges and the practices of what NWL had carried out and come across.

It was found that the early adopters were encouraged to take time and resolve any problems, it did have an effect of pushing the timescales back. In fact Smith, Gaskin et al. (2015), found the early adopter to be 15 months behind planned timescales. Wistow, (2016) found that the move from planning to implementation of the early adaptors ‘far more troublesome than anticipated’. He stated that ‘the programme struggled to find balance between collective leadership and local autonomy, NHS leadership and local authority engagement to name a few’. (Wistow, 2016). Moving on from the co-design phase Nuffield Trust, (2013) research suggested that the gap between the G.P’s feeling involved and distant had been more aligned in the adopters phase. They were also very positive about the WSIC toolkit.

The complex adaptive theory could be offered here as Best et al. (2012) discusses how this fits a Health system when approaching integration as it ‘seeks to draw out and mobilize the natural creativity of health care professionals to adapt to circumstances’. Healthcare could be thought of as a Complex Adaptive System as it is ‘constantly adapting to its environment’ (Encourage, 2010). But there are disadvantages to this theory as Best et al. (2012) offers that ‘successful action is less about meeting target and more about shifting the systems behaviour’ This of course is not method modern Healthcare can approach easily due to funding and other National initiatives that seek performance targets to be met for patient pathways, such as the cancer waiting times, ED and GP waiting times.

But NWL did make improvements Curry et al. (2013) also evaluated NWL and when looking at the patient experience found great support. Those asked were in favour of integration and 65% who have a care plan felt involved. Of course, there were some that didn’t know they had a care plan or that they were even involved in the pilot. Mastellos, Gun, et.al. (2014) suggest that ‘listening to the views of the patient can help policymakers and clinicians develop pathways that meet patients’ needs and enable the, to provide high quality integrated care’.

Another explanation for the barriers to move from the adopters into true implementation was also the approach to budgets in primary care. They felt this could be achieved by a capitated or whole population budget approach. NHS Improvement, (2017) suggests ‘it is an effective and practical way of implementing integrated care model’. But this approach has had issues and could lead to problems. As evidence suggests from past integrated care projects that used such a model such as the Alzira project. A capitated budget has its disadvantages as the budget is forever shifting between primary and secondary care and leading to loses. But the Alzira project does work differently to NWL in terms that North west is primarily using this budget for primary care. This payment approach is still being developed NWL has one of the largest pooled budgets out of the pioneers due to the CCG’s involved. Changing the way the services are budgeted could be possible as coordinated care would reduce duplication and streamline care given.

 Another area that used a similar model to NWL was Odense in Denmark like NWL Odense was well financed, excellent organisation but failed at the clinical implementation. As highlighted in Buch et al. (2018) ‘Odense and London shared an aligned governance structures, increased patient involvement and improved coordination between services’. Like London they also had a large pooled budget due to the area covered. Unlike London Odense planned to go from planning stage to wide spread role out. Buch et al. (2018) suggests ‘this was partly due to time constraints due to the limited span of time in which the partnerships had permission to share data across areas’. This differed from NWL where that did have the ability to extend the co design phase and the early adopters to ensure all issues were managed and worked out before the projects were to be widely implemented. There was though a feeling of ‘top down’ which was felt in the NWL project and that there was not autonomy as Buch et al. (2018) found in his study ‘Too many participating Doctors found this process undermined their motivation to committed to the project’. The lessons learnt from Odense did highlight the same positives as NWL in terms of patient experience and all patients involved had a clear understanding of what the aims were. Buch et al. (2018) did in fact argue that with ‘Hindsight it was unwise to copy NWL before it was properly evaluated’ and in actual fact ‘English evaluations had in fact identified a number of the same challenges Odense had faced.

Conclusions

Many aspects can be taken from the NWL pioneers, due to the over running of the pioneers project Curry et al. (2013) did offer that it was too early in the implementation to see a ‘major impact on service use specifically as a result of the changes in care management and coordination’. At the time Nuffield’s evaluation was ending it was becoming apparent that some of the barriers that had been experienced from national agenda were starting to think along the same lines as NWL. Therefore the evidence weighs heavily towards even though the NSL was not as successful in its implementation during its time as pioneers, the co –design and early adopter phases were the necessary stepping stones to build a new care model As Sawell, (2015) cited in Timmins, (2015) suggested ‘sometimes your planning can become so perfect that you never move onto that messy bit called implementation’. The author of this assignment recognises that this critical reflection was only on the early stages of NWL since then it has carried on with its Integrated care model. NWL has offered much learning from its Co-design and adopter phase and other projects have used this model, it has also offered how different theories to integration and leadership have had an affect on implementation as well as the barriers offer by national agenda.

References

Acerete, B., Stafford, A. and Stapleton, P.(2012) New development: New global health care PPP developments—a critique of the success story. Public Money & Management, 32(4), pp.311-314.

Best, A., Greenhalgh, T., Lewis, S., Saul, J.E., Carroll, S. and Bitz, J. (2012) Large‐system transformation in health care: a realist review. The Milbank Quarterly, 90(3), pp.421-456

Buch, M.S., Kjellberg, J. and Holm-Petersen, C., 2018. Implementing Integrated Care–Lessons from the Odense Integrated Care Trial. International journal of integrated care, 18(4).

Cerna, L. (2013) The nature of policy change and implementation: a review of different theoretical approaches. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) report.

Curry, N., Harris, M., Gunn, L., Pappas, Y., Blunt, I., Soljak, M., Mastellos, N., Holder, H., Smith, J., Majeed, A., Ignatowicz, A., Greaves, F., Belsi, A., Costin-Davis, N., Jones Nielsen, J.D., Greenfield, G., Cecil, E., Patterson, S., Car, J. and Bardsley, M.(2013) Integrated care pilot in north west London: a mixed methods evaluation. International Journal of Integrated Care, 13(3), p.None. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.1149

Curry, N. and Ham, C. (2010) Clinical and service integration. The route to improve outcomes. London: The Kings Fund.

Encourage, I.I.D.(2010) Complex adaptive systems.

Kodner, D.L. and Spreeuwenberg, C. (2002) Integrated care: meaning, logic, applications, and implications–a discussion paper. International journal of integrated care, 2(4).

Mastellos, N., Gunn, L., Harris, M., Majeed, A., Car, J. and Pappas, Y. (2014) Assessing patients’ experience of integrated care: a survey of patient views in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot. International Journal of Integrated Care, 14(2).

Matland, R.E. (1995) Synthesizing the implementation literature: The ambiguity-conflict model of policy implementation. Journal of public administration research and theory, 5(2), pp.145-174.

Morton M, Paice E. Co-Production at the Strategic Level: Co-Designing an Integrated Care System with Lay Partners in North West London, England. International Journal of Integrated Care (2016);16(2):2. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.2470

NHS England (2015) Integrated Care Pioneers One Year On Available at : https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/pioneer-profiles-case-study.pdf (Accessed: 1 November 2018)

NHS England, (2014) Integrated Care and Support Pioneer Programme: Annual Report

2014.

NHS Improvement (2017) Integrated Budgets. Available at: https://improvement.nhs.uk/resources/whole-population-budgets/ (Accessed: 29 December 2018)

North West London Collaboration of Clinical Commissioning Groups (2018) WSIC Toolkit. Available at : https://www.healthiernorthwestlondon.nhs.uk/news-resources/information-sharing/wsictoolkit (Accessed: 17 October 2018).

Sabatier, P. and Mazmanian, D. (1979) The conditions of effective implementation: A guide to accomplishing policy objectives. Policy analysis, pp.481-504.

Senge, P., Hamilton, H. and Kania, J. (2015) The dawn of system leadership. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 13(1), pp.27-33

Stein KV and Reider A (2009) ‘Integrated care at the crossroads – defining the way forward’, International Journal of Integrated Care 9, 1–7.

Timmins, N. (2015) The practice of system leadership: being comfortable with chaos. King’s Fund.

Wistow, G., Gaskins, M., Holder, H. and Smith, J. (2016) Why Implementing Integrated Care is so much harder than designing it: experience in North West London. England. International Journal of Integrated Care, 16(6), p.A308. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.2856

Wistow, G., Gaskins, M., Holder, H. and Smith, J. (2015) Putting integrated care into practice: the North West London experience. London: Nuffield Trust.

Valentijn, P. (2016) Rainbow of chaos: a study into the theory and practice of integrated primary care. International journal of integrated care, 16(2).

Bibliography

Bailey, C. https://www.local.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/case-study-north-west-lon-e87.pdf

Brown, M. and McCool, B.P., 1986. Vertical integration: exploration of a popular strategic concept. Health care management review, 11(4), pp.7-19.

Gröne, O. and Garcia-Barbero, M., 2001. Integrated care. International journal of integrated care, 1(2).

Valentijn, P., Boesveld, I., van der Klauw, D., Ruwaard, D., Struijs, J., Molema, J., Bruijnzeels, M. and Vrijhoef, H., 2015. Towards a taxonomy for integrated care: a mixed-methods study. International journal of integrated care, 15(1).

Should you implement an Employee of the month programme

Abstract
The report presented here is a proposal for our company to adopt “Employee of the month” program as an employee recognition tool. Recognition is a tool for motivating high performing employees to further high productivity. In this program, the employees (who are supposed to be awarded) are given various kinds of incentives like photo in office and on company website, certificate of appreciation and similar activities.
The report will first tell about the importance of employee recognition from point of view of literature and then will focus on description of employee of the month program and ways in which it can be adopted in the company.
Importance of employee recognition
In any organization, Human Resource Management includes four main parts: developing employees, acquiring employees, motivation then and retaining employees. The first phase is acquiring human resource. This part deals with staff building related activities like fixing categories of employees, deciding number of employees etc. This past has three dimensions too namely career building expects management development and employee training.

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The second function is motivating employees. This includes searching for individual needs of employees and finding ways that can motivates employees towards the organization. The retention function mentioned above deals with activities that helps in sticking the human resource to the organization. This includes factors like work environment, satisfaction with salary, authority given to employee, role in team and decision making process etc.
As we know that the most precious resources of an organization is its people. So motivating people can prove an efficient way to enhance the performance and thus building a sustainable tool for completion. Employee motivation is a key for improving culture and value system at any organization. The purpose is to bring employees more closely to the organization. Some suggested ways to encourage employees are:
Few ways to encourage employees are:

Employee involvement in decision making.
Proper rewarding system and monitoring program.
Pleasant work environment and work culture.
Try to improve work-life balance in employees.
Employee training at regular intervals to prevent out datedness of the workforce
Employee recognition

One of the major tools for employee motivation is employee recognition. Employee recognition is the process of awarding high performing employees with fame. Employees are given appreciation and publicity within the organization so that they can further motivate for high quality work. The importance of employee recognition is further elaborated by Motivation factors, one of the key theories of Human Resource Management literature. It says that employee’s attitudes and motivation can be determined by the two kinds of factors Motivation Factors and Hygiene Factors

Motivation Factors or Intrinsic factors are the factors related with job content and lead to job satisfaction. Work staff is asked questions on
Augmentation: Knowledge they earned and were it worth.
Work Itself: Characterization of jobs as interesting or boring, varied or routine, creative or non-creative.
Recognition: Appraisals they get on their work.
Responsibility: Responsibilities related to their task and the power they have in their hands. Are they satisfied with it
Achievement: Analyzing personal efforts being put in by them satisfactory or not.

Thus employee recognition again comes out be a important component of employee motivation.
Need for Employee of the month program
As suggested form literature in above section, employee recognition is a key way of motivating the employee in any HRM process.
One of the ways of employee recognition is “Employee of the month program”. There are number of ways of employee recognition but one of the most widely used methods is EMP (Employee of the month). EMP has been used and verified by huge number of companies and is presently a benchmark for employee recognition.
In employee of the month program, an outstanding employee (based on the performance of a single month) is been chosen by voting or by other ways and that employee is awarded by organization-wide popularity and certificate of appreciation. This fills the employee with emotional and social satisfaction as his or her effort is been recognized by those he or she working with. Other kind of incentive like high pay etc does not care about the social recognition need of the employee and thus results in dissatisfaction from the job. Thus the kind of appreciation provided with employee of the month program will not only boost the confidence of the employee but will also create a sense of competition among the employees to attain the this kind of appreciation and will enhance their productivity. (How to Start an Employee of the Month Award, 2010)
Employee recognition program: Introduction
An employee recognition program should be of great use for building the spirits for any kind of organization, be it a small organization or a large organization. Every person in the organization would like to be recognized because he would like to mark his presence a pleasant one in the organization. This also means that an employee would like to get recognized because of the hard he does in the organization. And to start this many effective programs can be started and this can probably show the way to innovation, higher output and great job fulfillment for the workers.
A plan for employee recognition must comprise of several levels of acknowledgment which is also known as appreciation. That is from a simple Credential of Appreciation to the Staff of the month to giving awards to the employee in different divisions and also Credentials must be given to the Staffs who go beyond expectation. This Credential of Appreciation should not be that easy for the employees to achieve it. Else the meaning of Credential of Appreciation for the employee will lose its meaning. Employees who work in the lower level that is the starting of the carrier should not feel that achieving those credentials will be easy. It should be made tough so that the company also gains something from them.
The cost of Credential of Appreciation is very less. Such as when a customer leaves a record of a small document regarding that particular employees goes ahead of or more than his normal duties, a simple credential in the name of that employee can be given stating that how did he satisfy the customer and what all measures he took to do that. This certification will improve the self belief of the employee to work harder where this will lead to the fulfillment of the company.
When a customer gives a written document to the employee’s leader regarding the service the customer received, the copy of that could be given to that employee along with the credential. This kind’s of reward should be presented at the department or employee branch meetings. This is one of the practical situation, where doing things like this such as reward for the employee will be effectively appreciated. (Employee of the Month Recognition, 2010)
Staff of the Month should be calculated by the co-staff’s he is working with. This is because, and then only the employees will work in a competitive manner. And during that particular period of month the employees work should be monitored carefully by the head of the department and then be stated during the award ceremony. A well-made, framed credential, commemorative inscription or other physical reward should be provided to show along with a small financial reward making his appreciation highly popular by his team members.
Higher output and deeper commitment will result from clever use of this particular appreciation award because every staff will want to be named as the Staff of the Month for his or her hard work. Awards can be given depending on the range of the organization such as the award can be Staff of the Month, Staff of the Year or Staff of the Quarter. If the organization has its branches in many different countries, then a large reward or award can be very much effective as a much favorite after staff recognition award. (Employee of the Month Recognition, 2010)
To make the Staff recognition programs successful, the credit system must have already been clearly stated for each reward and award. These nominations must be made sure that they are being assessed by a balanced group of peers. If there are some sort of clue that the chance of gaining appreciation are high for the popular staff or the staff the boss likes the most, the entire staff recognition plan would be of little value.
Steps in starting employee of the month program
For the proposed employee of the month program as a recognition tool, the organization can implement these following steps: (How to Start an Employee of the Month Award, 2010)
Step 1: Make sure that the employees come to know what all are the criteria’s for taking part in the program. Also decide how long an employee must be working in order to be qualified for the Employee of the Month (EOM).
Step 2: Make sure a date has been chosen each month to select the Employee of the Month. Then place the employee’s name of all eligible one’s in a coffee mug or a hat and pick out one name.
Step 3: Inform the person that he is the Employee of the Month. Comprise a document of the prize as well as the list of benefits of the credit. Make a publication in the employee information sheet and place the choice on the organizations’ community bulletin panel.
Step 4: Create a list of bonuses for the EOM. Also include ideas made by the staff’s. The organization must allow the Employee of the Month to wear casual clothes during any day of the month. And also arrange manager to take the Employee of the Month to have lunch one afternoon.
Step 5: Have a poll done by the employees for their top 3 to 5 Employee of the Month benefits. Then an announcement should be done regarding the top choices after the polling. And make sure these details go in a printed document to the employees.
Step 6: The organization should create a unique notice board or display casing in which the Employee of the Month displays his or her photo and record so that the other employees also come to know about his or her better. And this has to be made sure that the organization clears the space for the next Employee of the Month to come.
Step 7: Put the Employee of the Month in charge of gathering the staff’s to select the next Employee of the Month. And allow time for that particular employee to collect all these during the last or that first day of the month. Then remove the person’s name of the earlier winners for a decided upon time.
Conclusion
It is evidenced that employee motivation is a key element in HR activates of a firm. The organization need to motivate its employees for better productivity and one of the ways of doing this is employee of the month program. Employee of the month program provides the social and emotional need to the employees and thus will encourage the employees to work harder.
The company thus can implement this kind of recognition program for better productivity.
An employee of the month program can be a huge morale-building instrument for any business, whether small or large. Everyone likes to be renowned for their undertakings and useful recognition programs can result in higher productivity, innovation and better job happiness for the workers.
Considering all the aspect of need of employee recognition and features of employee of the month program, it is suggested for the company to adopt this program to motivate its employees to perform well. The steps to implement the program are provided in the body of the proposal.
References

What is an Employee Recognition (ER) Program?. (n.d.). Retrieved on 30th March, 2010, form http://www.topresults.com/Creating_an_Effective_Employee/What_is_an_Employee_Recognitio/what_is_an_employee_recognitio.html
How to Start an Employee of the Month Award. (2010). Retrieved on 30th March, 2010, form http://www.ehow.com/how_4485719_start-employee-month-award.html
Employee of the Month Recognition. (2010). Retrieved on 30th March, 2010, form http://humanresources.about.com/od/rewardrecognition/qt/reward_criteria.htm

 

Research on Fitness Programme for Employees

Executive Summary

In the early 90’s The Office Personal Management (OPM) created a program that will allow government employees to participate in a Civilian Fitness Program. This program granted 3 hours per work for the employee to be excused from work to participate in a fitness program of their choice. Unfortunately, at the Department of State, this program has not been enforced for an employee to use. It may be greatly possible that the director is unaware of the program or maybe not educated on the benefits of the employees and himself.

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The agencies that implemented this program have seen better output and production from their employees. As industries change so should organizations, failure to adapt to the ongoing changes will result in a turnover of employees and less production (Morales, 2018). To help improve the overall experience for employees working for the Department of State directors should look into implementing the Civilian Fitness Program. See improvements from employees after implementing the Fitness Program:

Productivity Increase– Employees are able to focus better after working out.

Moral Increase– Employees see that their organization cares for their health and well-being.

Longevity of Workforce- Exercise can decrease certain health risk, which can in turn increase life expectancy. 

INTRODUCTION

It is no new news that people in different homes are spending huge amount of money in furnishing their homes with various fitness apparatus and equipment to stay fit. Those that cannot afford the price of this fitness equipment will enroll in a gym house where all the equipment are made available and are accessible once they have registered. There are several reasons people take their time to engage in various kind of fitness activities which may include; to stay fit, keep the body shape in form, reduce excessive fat, and to some it has been seen as a way of life. Moreover, people with good body shape and structure have increased ego and confidence. Thus some people engage in fitness activities cause of this.  However, it is evident that each reason for engaging in several fitness activities have health implication attached to each of them. It has been made generally known that several diseases are associated with people that are generally inactive and participate less in fitness activities. Coronary heart diseases have been found to be a major cause of death in the United States, and this can in a way attributed to the inactivity of the citizens and less participation in fitness activities (Sarah, 1995). However, this disease can be reduced by regular physical activities (Sarah, 1995). The health hazards associated with overweight raised the alarm to various people in such category. Although having a high body mass index is not a perfect indicator of being unhealthy, but it increases the risk factors for several chronic diseases. It is a general fact that as the body mass index (BMI) increases the health risk increases, i.e., a person fat has six times the tendency to have high blood pressure than a normal weighted person.

 There has been a few or limited organization that understands the essence of fitness in their workers, and as result, only a few have successfully implemented it as a schedule for the workers to have time for fitness activities. This unawareness of the employers is becoming an alarming issue as there have been several disease and numerous problem aside health issue that is connected to workers fitness in-activities. It has been made evident that workers that do not engage fitness activities are prone to have musculoskeletal disorder. This may be due to the excess and abdominal strength stress on the low back. Problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) may also develop in workers that are fat and are inactive (Fred et al., 2006). All these problems, in turn, lead to health problems of the workers and in turn, leads to low productivity of the workers and at large affect the company as a whole. However, there has been a remarkable outcome from companies that practiced and produce a conducive environment for their workers to perform in fitness activities. Some of the benefits they enjoyed are; healthy workers, increased or stable productivity, the dedication of workers to work, absenteeism, reduced health care cost, and improved ability of the company to employ more workers cause of increased productivity. 

 Due to the various reasons mentioned above, it has been made evident that in any organization that incorporates fitness time into the organization schedule several advantages are benefited by such companies and at large will lead to increased productivity for the company. It is, however, important to state that such program would start to yield a result at the onset of the introduction of the program. Hence most organization that implement such ideas do start as quick as they are aware of the benefits.

 There have been several companies that invested a huge amount of money in fitness activity for their workers with the main aim of increasing the company’s productivity by improving the worker’s health. It was recorded that Kimberly-Clark spent .5 million to build a fitness facility for her workers, American Can Cooperation annually pend $60,000 on her fitness facility in headquarters (Aghop et al., 1986). It was also recorded that huge amount of money spent on health-care was reduced as a result of the promotion in the various fitness activities made available by such organizations.         

The Problem of Unfitness at the Workplace and the Need for Investigation

 Most employees spend most of their time at their workplace and thus are unable to set apart time for their physical fitness. The limitation of time may lead to poor health which in turn leads to reduced productivity hence leading to more expenses to the employer. According to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention statistics in 2011 heart disease is one of the three killers.  Many of the deaths can easily be preventable (Camera and Smiles, 2018). Regular exercise is one of the means to drastically reduce the rate of unfitness related diseases. Given how important one’s overall health, it is worth giving more attention to exercise in a place where nearly everyone spends a chunk of days’ time. As a result of the current high levels of heart-related due to unfitness, there is need to carry out an investigation on the issue to determine the need to have time for exercise.

In the modern day, lifestyle diseases have become common. Having unhealthy food habits and living lifestyle makes more and more employees diabetic, get hypertension and others. At later stages, such diseases may turn to serious ailments related to the heart. The result is unproductive workers. The affected employees will incur high costs based on health-related expenditures at work and also increased absenteeism (Chamberlain, 2015). The study is essential for the workplace given the economic impacts of the fitness program and the promotion of wellness among workers.

Secondary Research I Have Conducted about the Problem

There are different secondary sources used in conducting the research. The information evaluated includes physical activity and human health journals, different papers from conferences relating to the matter and various databases. Nevertheless, the available research is not much experienced in secondary research as a result of different difficulties experienced by researchers in conducting analysis thus the need to have primary research. 

Primary Research that Will Be Used to Conduct the Research

There may be the need to consult primary research. To conduct the primary research, a randomized uncontrolled study of about thirty workers will be carried out for a period of three months to evaluate the fitness program. The measurements after the program will be, fat percentage, heart rate, blood pressure, and body mass. For the purpose of statistical analysis, both the intent-to-treat analysis and t-test will be used. The consent of the participants will be appraised.

The process of data tabulation and analysis will be performed by using the software statistical package for social sciences. To compare the initial and final values of the measurements taken, the mean, the standard deviation of the paired sample and the t-test will be calculated.

The Benefits of the research authorization

The organization is likely to benefit from the research in various ways. The research on the need to have an hour of fitness will enhance self-development of the employees through the process of training and monitoring. It is a way of assessing the management performance, re-engineering process, and the well-being of the workers (Schwarz and Lindfors, 2015).

The research will bring about both relevant and meaningful policies and procedures implementation which would result in positive change in the organization. These positive results include job satisfaction, self-efficacy, improved productivity and job performance, cost-effectiveness, boosting of workers morale as the fitness would help keep the body structure in shape and other intangible benefits.

Preliminary Ideas for Solving This Problem

Fitness is one of the excellent ways to stave off unproductivity and illness. A healthy body and mind result in positive results of disease prevention. It is possible to make the organization a campus of activity. For instance, the organization may choose to add bike racks and areas where the workers may freshen up after the fitness activities.

It is important for the company to make the program voluntary but at the same time sensitizing the resisting employees on the need of participating. This way, the employees will likely to fully participate and become motivated in ensuring the success of the program. It is important to encourage the employees to come up with exercise clubs. Also, occasionally the company may choose to have a walking meeting instead of having the common boardroom meeting

However, it will require more than pamphlets, sensitization, and construction of fitness center for workers to motivate the entire workforce in an organization towards fitness and health; there are several other activities that need to be put in-place. Some of the efforts that need to be put in-place includes;

Initiation of Culture Change by Senior Management

To achieve this, senior management needs to set the priority as regarding the fitness activities, make conducive environment available, provide training, system and support integration. It should also be ensured that the safety conditions and regularization should be put into place. All this, however, should be incorporated into the existing organization system. If all these are ensured workers participation can reach nearly 100%.

Thorough Supervision

Every organization activity requires thorough supervision, as such the fitness program should be thoroughly supervised. Often time the enthusiasm of the supervisor and the energy he puts into the program will determine the success of the program. Positive input from the supervisor will bring about the success of the program. Hence, the supervisor should inculcate positive input.

Integrated System that is Built on Team Work

The success of the fitness program will be dependent on the team work incorporated by each time this is because the team formed from the workers of same organization will generate team power. The team formed will improve communication among team mates for better safety and healthy activities, the team members will come up with common goals, the team will help strengthen the weak ones by encouragement, and the team will provide recognition for each member. All these are the advantages that can be benefited from forming a team.

Program that Targets the Whole Employee

This is needed to ensure all the worker in the organization participate to achieve maximum involvement in an integrated fitness and safety initiative. The fitness must target all muscle area, the hand, legs, back, and the tommy.

Continuous Change in the Exercise Routine

It is evident in several fitness programs is the high rate of dropout in the fitness program. To avoid this disinterest in the workers, the fitness program needs to be changed constantly either every month or 2 months. This will help create interest in the participant as they will be enthusiastic to participate in the new fitness to be introduced.

Constant Monitoring

Constant monitoring is needed to ensure that all that has been learned will be incorporated into every day to day activities of the workers. Furthermore, this is needed to constantly monitor the participation of both senior managements and the junior staffs, and access the safety performance log of the fitness. This will help introduce better safety measure if the need arises.

Recommendation and Action Step

It has been made evident from findings above and other researches that fitness activities help maintain the employee’s good health, increase productivity, increase workers ego and help them to focus more on the target before them which will, in turn, produce increased productivity. The review has also shown the amount of money saved on health care by investing in fitness activities. However, to achieve this, some other factors must also be put in order to enhance proper integration of fitness activity into the organization. Hence, based on this I recommended that;

Proper monitoring of both senior management and junior staffs should be ensured

Workers should be grouped into teams to enhance better overall participation and encouragement of those that are unwilling to participate

Constant change of the fitness activities should be ensured to avoid been bored by the participants and always stir up the enthusiasm to participate in the new set of activities that will be introduced

Proper safety measure should be put in place because every fitness activity has several hazards associated with it.

The fitness activity should be outlined in a way that will benefit all the employees and interest them

Safety training should be given to the employees on how to perform first aid treatment in case of emergency during training. 

Conclusion

In conclusion, physical unfitness has led to major problems in the workplace. These problems include unproductivity of the workers which in turn leads to economic difficulties for the organization. There is thus the need to have fitness hour of fitness of the employees. In addition, it leads to more self-confidence and concentration in their assignments as compared to others inactive workers.

References

Aghop, D., and Norma G. (1986). Effect of Physical Fitness Program In The Workplace. Journal of Business And Psychology, Volume 1, No. 1, pp. 51-60.

Camera, D. M., & Smiles, W. J. (2018).Autophagy, Exercise, and Lifestyle Modification.Autophagy and Cardiometabolic Diseases, 305-314. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12805253-2.00025-0

Chamberlain, J. M. (2015). Fitness to practise in the workplace: Medical revalidation. Medical Regulation, Fitness To Practice and Revalidation, pp. 23-58. doi:10.1332/policypress/9781447325444.003.0002

Fred, S. D, James, D. R., and David R. (2006). Integrating Employee Safety & Fitness A model for meeting NIOSH’s Steps to a Healthier U.S. Workforce challenge, pp. 1-11. 

Morales, A. (2018). How Can Businesses Adapt To A Rapidly Changing World? Retrieved from Forbes: https://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2018/01/05/how-can-businesses-adaptto-a-rapidly-changing-world/#7fec814a5930

Peter, E. M. (1992). ‘Work’ or ‘leisure’? The protestant work ethic and participation in an employee              fitness program. Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 13, pp. 81-88.

Sarah, L. (1995). Employees On The Move. The University of New Mexico, Center for Health Promotion, NE – Surge Bldg, pp. 1-13. 

Schwarz, U. V., &Lindfors, P. (2015). Improved fitness after a workbased physical exercise program.International Journal of Workplace Health Management,8(1), pp. 61-74. doi:10.1108/ijwhm-10-2013-0038

 

Impact of the Single European Market Programme on the Automotive Industry

The Single European Market is referred to as “one territory without any internal borders or other regulatory obstacles to the free movement of goods and services”. (European Commission, 2018). The main aim when the EU was introduced was to make Europe a war-free zone, so they developed both a joint system of law and making the member states economies within completely co-dependent. The Single European Market encourages more competition, trade and driven economic growth, which makes the day-to-day running for businesses much easier. A sector within the Single European Market, which is otherwise known as SEM, that covers a substantial proportion of Europe’s economy is the automotive industry. This sector is a vital party for Europe, as it provides jobs for 12 million people and also represents 4% of the EU’S GDP. The automotive industry is extremely important for multiple reasons, some of these being: links to other sectors, employment and economy.

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The automotive industry within the EU is one of the world’s largest producers for motor vehicles, and also represents one of the biggest private investors in research and development (R&D).  This industry is one of the most productive compared to different manufacturing sectors as it employs 169,000 people directly and 814,000 in connection to supply chains throughout the UK. The Single European Market can impact the automotive sector in many ways, as it is one of the most integrated sectors within the EU, so having things such as complex supply chain. can be both a positive, and a negative.  Tariff barriers, movement of labour and low barriers to entry different things that can have a large impact on the automotive sector within the Single European Market.

The backbone for the European economy is the automotive sector, so the vision of trade is a large aspect for this industry. Within the UK, they export around 80% of the cars that are produced here, and around 56% of those go the rest of the EU. In regard to Brexit, when the UK will not be a member of the Single European market they will not have the ability to trade freely with EU members, which means their export costs to companies within the EU after Brexit has come into play will increase. However also 86% of the vehicles that are sold in the UK are imported and around 70% of these are from the rest of the EU itself. This will impact the UK a great deal unless both parties can negotiate and come to an agreed arrangement, which allows free trade within the Single Market and the UK, which would benefit both. According to George Osborne and Nigel Farage “the Norway option of leaving the EU but joining the European Economic Area (EEA) might be on the cards”. (The Institute for Government, 2018). The Norway option is that the UK would stay in the EU Single Market and leaving the customs union, but by doing this they would still have to accept the EU four freedoms even though they would have full access to the single market for goods and services.

Nissan which are one of the Europe’s largest car plants and is one of the most productive factories in the UK. Many of the parts for Nissan’s cars are imported from countries within the Single Market and 55% of all cars produced are exported within the EU. Trade is  a positive of how the Single European Market has impacted this the motor vehicle sector, because Nissan trades a lot with the EU, this saves them a lot of money as they don’t have to pay import and export taxes on any of the parts they buy or the cars they import/export. This also means they have an integrated supply chain, meaning it will be easier for the company to trade to get different parts.  The Nissan Qashqai is Europe’s top  selling cars, which suggests that there is a higher demand for it in different countries of the EU, so being able to Trade freely within the Single Market will generate economic growth for the EU.

The four freedoms which are also known as the founding principles of the EU are the movement of goods, services capital and labour. The movement of labour is a large part of the automotive sector within the EU as, it gives people the right to work in a different country without having to apply for a visa. Having free movement of labour benefits all countries in the EU also as it means that workers can look for jobs in other countries which would benefit their economy. The Single European Market play a big part in the movement of labour for the motor vehicle industry. The movement of labour within the SEM can impact the automotive sector in many ways, as a lot of companies within this sector look to different member states within the SEM and the UK to fill any job vacancies they may have. This is a positive aspect for the motor vehicle sector as a company are creating a new car or are starting another project and have a specific job vacancy that needs filling. This means they are then free to advertise that job different countries within the EU that are more specialised to the that specific role, which means the person can go and work on the project without having to apply for a visa. By doing this the consumer will be getting a better-quality product at the end of the day as there would be people working on the project that specialise in certain fields.

However there is also some negative aspects that can come with the movement of trade in the Single European Market in the automotive sector. One of these aspects is that many businesses in the Single European Market could lose a lot of workers is there wasn’t movement of trade. The reason for thing being is that businesses would be limited in where the advertise for employees as they wouldn’t only be able to come from that specific country as if they wanted anyone else from specialist countries then that would be a long process as they would need to get a visa and get that approved in order for them to be able to work in the country.  As there are many foreign specialist workers and eastern Europeans in Nissan that work on specific areas developing different parts for cars.

Another factor of the Single European Market that can have an impact on the automotive sector is CO2 emissions. Within the EU cars are responsible fort around 12% of the total emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), which is the main greenhouse gas. A negative point of this is that once the UK leaves the European Union, we are launching our own emissions trading system or reverting to a carbon tax. Every two years the cap is changed on CO2 emission meaning car manufacturers would have to constantly change their engines. This would be a negative aspect for car manufacturers such as Nissan when Brexit comes into play the British government may decide to switch from the EU’s Emissions Trading Systems to a new UK Emissions Trading System. This means that car companies would have to re make a new engine in the middle of the term so they would be losing money and they would have to hire a specialist out to re design the engine to make it more efficient, and then ship in the parts from different areas, all which are costs that could be avoided by striking the correct negotiation deal.  As the motor vehicle is one of the largest sectors in the single market, the CO2 emissions is something that affects them as all companies want to do their part to reduce the carbon footprint. The UK has a target of planting 11 million new trees over the course of the next 25 years, however Brexit will also have an effect on this target according to the Environment Secretary, Michael Gove.

The EU currently have an agency with overlooks the plants and trees that get imported in the UK to make sure no diseased plant life are entering the UK. As Britain gets most of their trees imported, when Brexit gets enforced this can become a problem as Britain would have to import trees in and run the risk of having diseased trees or stop the imports totally but have high risk of missing the target. As trees take in the carbon dioxide that the cars give out, by having less trees this could harm the country in multiple ways.

The Single European Market has many laws and regulations for a lot of the automotive sector. Car Insurance Regulations is one of these important aspects that the single market has an effect on, in the motor vehicle. The cost of car insurance is already high for anyone however the single market a few years ago made sure that insurers weren’t allowed to take someone’s gender into account when they are looking to ask for a quote. This is a positive thing for all consumers when looking at trying to find the best quote they can they know that they are getting a fair quote, not being judged based on if they are a man or a woman. However, the referendum may cause some changes in the prices of insurance, but there is no major indication of it. Although there is nothing set that there will be any price change in general for insurance, as the UK will no longer be in EU they don’t have to abide by any European Laws, so the price of insurance could decrease for woman and increase for men. As statistics show that men have received more traffic violations and are seen as liable for a larger number of car accidents, therefore needing higher insurance, and women’s will go down as they’re deemed safer drivers for the population. 

One of the largest scandals in motor vehicle history, was Volkswagen’s Dieselgate. On the 17th of September 2015, Volkswagen was on a steady growth path on the American Market, however that all changed on September 18th as the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) tested the companies new Diesel-powered cars which failed under the grounds of violating the Clean Air Act. The cars had been proven to be a lot cleaner and safer for the environment. The company had been using a special software that allowed the car to pass emissions testing to the highest level, which then automatically shut off going back to normal driving. After this, all cars that were fitted with this type of software, ended up polluting almost double the amount of emissions that had been predicted for the year. The company also claimed to all their consumers that these cars where the cleanest on the market which was a statement their consumers bought into when purchasing the car. After recalling as many of the cars as possible and letting all consumers know they are free to send their car back to a dealership to get the software removed and apologise on the company’s behalf. The Single Market received some bad publicity in the years following this disaster as many people believed they didn’t do as much to help the environment following the event. Alongside Volkswagen there are multiple companies that are showing too high emission levels in different driving circumstances. This will affect how the EU react in different environmental issues, and what they do in those situations that can help benefit not only the businesses involved but the environment too.

To sum up, there are many different factors of the Single European Market Programme that could and have affected the Automotive industry. The Referendum, Freedom of Trade, Movement of Labour, CO2 emissions, Insurance, and the environment alongside Dieselgate are all major contributors of the Single European Market Programme impacting the Automotive sector. The motor vehicle industry is one of the largest contributors to the Single Market and while has multiple positive and negative aspects, they all affect everyone in in different ways. Brexit is one of the largest unknown factors for the UK and the Single European Market to date, and while no one is completely certain on the outcomes that it will have on the automotive sector in the UK, each one of these factors even with their own connections to the Single Market Programme, will try and predict the best possible future for the Automotive industry. The Single European Market Programme in connection to the automotive industry has affected the economy in more ways than one, and free trade allows many different business connections to happen so companies can expand their supply chain and integrate it with other sectors. Movement of Labour allows consumers to receive the best quality product they are able to, as companies can hire certain people for specialist jobs from anyway within the SEM, which improves productivity. CO2 emissions alongside the Dieselgate disaster have impacted this industry for many years to come, which will in the end benefit future generations who are currently being inspired by the work that goes into this sector to make it one of the largest and most productive there is. There will always be implications in any sector that has a partnership with the Single European Market Programme, however having faith in the current partnerships that each business has made, and having a vote of confidence in the government and how they will handle the UK the SEM is the most important part.

Bibliography

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