Determining the Success of a Project

Success has always been the ultimate goal of every type of project. Many specialists in the field have performed extensive researches in an attempt to try and define what projects success is. Judging the success of a project is rather an elusive concept since most projects we hear may be a failure to one set of stakeholders while others may consider it to be a success. This article makes an attempt to define success in projects based on the work of experts in this field of study.

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A project can be defined as a unique venture with a beginning and an end conducted by people to meet established goals within a parameter of cost reduced and quality increased (Field & Keller, P.2). furthermore a project has the following characteristics such as specific objectives, required resources, have a budget and schedule, and requires effort of community, measures quality and finally functions within a life cycle. On the contrary, project management can be defined as the way of controlling the success of the project objectives, by the use of existing managerial structure and capital to manage the project by linking a compilation of tools and skill without interrupting the regular function of a company.
The word success is a fascinating word as it’s is known universally and is broad in character; defining it is not easy, because if asked from different individuals its meaning would change according their perceptions. Project success can be considered as one of the indistinct concepts of project management. Since each stakeholder of a project has different needs and expectations, it is common to anticipate them defining project success in their own way of understanding (Cleland & Ireland, 2004, p2).
The Sydney Opera House project is a typical example of how different stakeholders have different perspectives of a project. The Opera house (Thomsett, 2002) took 4 times more of the original time to finish and its cost went 16 times over budget. But the final impact the Opera House created was so immense it simply made people overlook the project’s original unmet goals. The project was a huge hit for the general public even though it was considered as a failure in the view of project management. On the contrary, the construction of the Millennium Dome in London was a project that was completed on time and on budget but the British public considered it a failure because it didn’t deliver the glamour that it was originally expected to make (Cammack, 2005).
Since there is widespread variance of opinions in the study of “success in projects”, many learned writers seem to have given diverse views on this topic based on extensive research and surveys. Their works differentiate among project success, project success criteria and project success factors.
Project success
Jugdev and Muller (2005) in their article pointed out that in order to identify what success means in a project framework is like obtaining consensus from a group of individuals on the explanation of “Good Art”. Project success is a subject matter that is commonly talked about and yet very hardly settled upon (Baccarini, 1999). Commonly, the attitudes on project success have developed gradually over the years from simple explanations that were restricted to the implementation phase of the project life cycle to explanations that reflect gratitude of success over the whole project and product life cycle (Jugdev and Muller, 2005).
Cleland (1986) suggested that “project success is significant only if measured from two vantage points: the extent to which the project’s technical performance objective was accomplished on time and within budget; the contribution that the project made to the strategic mission of the organization.”
According to Pinto & Slevin (1988) in their research after sampling over 650 project managers concluded that, “Project Success” is something difficult than just meeting cost, time, and performance specifications. As a matter of fact, client’s contentment with the final result has a great deal to do with the perceived success or collapse of projects.
Baccarini (1999) discovered two different components of project success:
Project Management Success – This concentrates upon the project process and specially the successful achievement of cost, time, and quality. Also the way in which the project management process was performed will be considered.
Product Success – This deals with the effects of the project’s final product. A clear difference should be made between product success and project management success, in order to properly identify and evaluate project management success and product success, as they are differ from each other.
According to Baccarini (1999), Project success can be summarized as
Project success = project management success + project product success
With this definition in mind, it is also important to comprehend what measures enable us to judge whether a project is successful or not. These measures are termed as Project success criteria.
Project success criteria
Crawford’s (2002) view is that project success is an important project management issue and also in discussions, a frequently discussed topic is, it is difficult to find an agreement on the criteria by which success is judged. (Pinto and Slevin 1988; Freeman and Beale 1992; Shenhar, Levy, and Dvir 1997; Baccarini 1999).
A study of literature also reveals that a greater level of agreement with the definitions given by Baker, Murphy and Fisher (1988) that project success is a subject of perception and it is considered to be an overall success if the project meets requirements such as technical performance specifications, mission to be performed. It also needs a high degree of satisfaction about the project results among the key people of the project team and the key users of the project effort
The renowned and famous criteria to measure project success have been known as “Golden Triangle” or “Iron Triangle”. Hence Cost, time and qulity is referd to as the central criteria of the “Golden Triangle” (Atkinson, 1999, p338). Atkinson continues that this method of measuring project success have not been changed or developed in almost fifty years (1999, p338).
According to Stuckenbruck (1986), assessment on project success should be done by different stakeholder groups such as customers, managers, employees, stockholders, etc. Thus it was proposed that the criteria for assessing project success should reflect different stakeholder views.
Freeman and Beale (1992) presented an appealing example of different perceptions of people. According to their study: “An architect may consider success in terms of aesthetic appearance, an engineer in terms of technical competence, an accountant in terms of dollars spent under budget, a human resources manager in terms of employee satisfaction, and chief executive officers rate their success in the stock market.” In their study Freeman and Beale (1992) identified and proposed seven main criteria for measuring success of projects.

Technical performance
Efficiency in project execution
Managerial and organizational implications
Personal growth
Project conclusion
Technical innovativeness and business performance
Manufacturing feasibility

Wideman (1996, p3-4) believes that project success is time dependant and therefore it should be assessed with time taken into consideration. The reason behind ‘time dependency’ is based on the fact that project success varies with time. Wideman(1996) illustrated four time dependant groups as mentioned below.

Internal project objectives – efficiency during the project
Benefit to customer – effectiveness in the short term
Direct contribution – assessed in the medium term
Future opportunity – assessed in the long term

Shenhar, Dvir and Levy(1997) constructed a universal multidimensional framework that would help in assessing project success. In their methodology, project success is perceived as a strategic management concept where the end result of the project would fit with the strategic direction of a company whom the end result of the project is originally intended to serve. Their study also revealed that project success is time dependant and thus they identified four groups and translated them into measurable criteria.
Internal Project Efficiency (Pre-completion)
Meeting schedule
Completing within budget
Other resource constraints met
Impact of the Customer (Short term)
Meeting functional performance
Meeting technical specifications & standards
Favorable impact on customer, customer’s gain
Fulfilling customer’s needs
Solving customer’s problem
Customer is using product
Customer expresses satisfaction
Business and Direct Success (Medium term)
Immediate business/commercial recognition
Immediate revenue & profits enhanced
Larger market share generated
Preparing for the Future (Long term)
Will create new opportunities for the future
Will position customer competitively
Will create new market
Will assist in developing new technology
Will add/has added capabilities & competencies
Project success factors
As defined by Cooke-Davies “Success factors are those inputs to the management system that lead directly or indirectly to the success of the project or business” (Cooke-Davies, 2002, p185). In practice, some project managers instinctively determine their own project success factors. However, most of these factors are not clearly documented, thus are not considered to become a part of formal project management literature or historical project data (Rad & Levin, 2002, p18).
From the 1980s to 2000 many researchers have attempted to identify success factors for projects. Kerzner (1987), Pinto and Slevin (1987-1989), (Sadeh, Dvir, & Shenhar, 2000), Cooke Davis (2002) and Muller and Turner (2005) are among the top researchers who have conducted extensive researches in this area of study.
The table below (Table 1) points out critical success factors that were identified by specialists, and were later reviewed and tabulated by Belassi and Tukel (1996).
Baker, Murphy and Fisher (1983)
Clear goals
Goal commitment of project team
On-site project manager
Adequate funding to completion
Adequate project team capability
Accurate initial cost estimates
Minimum start-up difficulties
Planning and control techniques
Absence of bureaucracy
Lock (1984)
Make project commitments known
Project authority from the top
Appoint competent project manager
Set up communications and procedures
Set up control mechanisms (schedules, etc.)
Progress meetings
Cleland and King (1983)
Project summary
Operational concept
Top management support
Financial support
Logistic requirements
Facility support
Market intelligence (who is the client)
Project schedule
Executive development and training
Manpower and organization
Information and communication channels
Project review
Pinto and Slevin (1989)
Top management support
Client consultation
Personnel recruitment
Technical tasks
Client acceptance
Monitoring and feedback
Characteristics of the project team leader
Power and politics
Environment events
Table 1 – Critical success factors tabulated by Belassi and Tukel (1996).
Belassi and Tukel (1996) in their study, analyzed the above mentioned success factors and grouped them into four areas.
Factors related to the project
Factors related to the project managers and the team members
Factors related to the organization
Factors related to the external environment.
It is evident that whatever critical success factors that are known, can be grouped under these four areas identified by Belassi and Tukel (1996).
Dvir, Raz, & Shenhar (2003) conducted a survey among 100 Israeli defense projects, and their findings pointed out a noteworthy positive connection between the project’s success and each of the factors listed below.
The amount of effort spent in defining and identifying the goals of the project
The functional requirements
Technical specifications of the project
According to Verma (1995, 1996) communication, leadership and teamwork are essential for efficient management of project human resources and are vital to achieve project objectives successfully.
Murray, J.P. (2001) identified nine factors that could drive an IT project into success or failure.
Proper senior management commitment to the project
Ample amount of project financial support
A well defined set of project requirements and specifications
Cautious development of a all-inclusive project plan that incorporates enough time and flexibility to foresee and deal with unanticipated difficulties as they arise
A proper commitment of time and attention from the client, combined with a enthusiasm to see it through to the end
Frank, accurate reporting of the status of the project and of potential complexities as they arise
A critical assessment of the risks inherent in the project, and potential harm associated with those risks, and the ability of the project team to manage those risks
The development of appropriate contingency plans
An objective evaluation of the capability and enthusiasm of the organization to stay on the project course
Turner & Müller (2004, 2005) conducted studies on the impact of project manager and his/her involvement and leadership style on project success. Turner & Müller (2005) believe that past literature on the subject of Project success factors, have ignored the impact of a project manager on project success. However, Turner and Muller (2005, p59) has rather given a contradictive conclusion that “the leadership style and competence of the project manager have no impact on project success”.
In concern to project management, project success also relies on the capability to systematize, coordinate, and support a diverse group functioning towards a common target. Project success factors may differ depending on the type of project. Thus it is important to have a clear idea on what factors drives each type of project toward success. This would enable the project stakeholders to accomplish what they perceive as success.
In the past it was believed that if a project’s completion time exceeds its due date, or expenses overran the budget, or its results did not satisfy a company’s preset performance criteria, the project was considered to be a failure. At present it is understood that determining whether a project is a success or failure is far more complex.
It is important for a project manager to be aware of what the stakeholders consider as a successful project. In order to avoid any surprises at the end of the project, it is important to identify the different perspectives of what success means before the project begins.
It is generally agreed that schedule and budget performance may be considered as insufficient measures of project success however they are still important components of the overall constructs. Quality is interconnected with issues of achievement of functional objectives, specifications and issues of technical performance. It is also understood that a project’s success varies with time and varies in the eye of various project stakeholders. Thus, a criteria used to assess project success should be time dependent and should be using multiple perspectives of stakeholders. However, future studies may reveal other successful means of success criteria.
As for success factors, they can be generally grouped into four distinct sets. General management literature shows how effective leadership is a success factor in organizations, and has revealed that a proper leadership style can lead to better performance. However studies on leadership in project context are contradicting with this perception. A common factor pointed out by many authors is that senior management support is one of the most important factors that can drive projects toward success or failure. Success factors may vary depending on the project type. In conclusion, early classification of success criteria can ensure a definite view of how the project will be judged and early detection of success factors will assure a safe path to deliver success.

Prefeasibility Study of Upper Khudi -A Hydropower Project

CE1.1.1 This project entitled “Prefeasibility Study of Upper Khudi -A hydropower project” is one prepared by group of five students in partial fulfilment of requirement for the bachelor’s degree in civil engineering. This project was carried out at Kantipur Engineering College, Dhapakhel, Lalitpur, affiliated to Tribhuwan University. Our team comprised of five members and the project itself was supervised by Er. Baburam Bharadwaj (Project Manager of Khudi hydropower limited)

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CE1.1.2 Being the final year project of our engineering program, the timespan for this project was 1 year. We worked on it from June 2010 to November 2010. During this period, we presented the proposal, conducted the feasibility analysis, project analysis, project design, project defence, final presentation and final report. I was the team lead for my project and was a dedicated member from start to finish
CE.1.2 Background
CE1.2.1 As the name suggests, “Prefeasibility Study of Upper Khudi -A hydropower project”, is prefeasibility study aimed to use the theoretical knowledge we had from out text books to better understand the feasibility and optimization of the design of small scale hydropower project centered on Upper Khudi River in Lamjung district of Western Nepal. Majority of Nepalese households rely upon hydropower for their energy needs. So, developing small scale hydropower energy plants can be very efficient energy solutions as the rivers in Nepal are mostly mountain rivers with enough water throughout the year.
CE1.2.2 Khudi River has an average slope of 1 in 30 with gravels and boulders forming the river bed. It has a high sediment transport capacity. Upper Khudi Hydropower Project is a run of the river type hydropower scheme designed to produce power using the discharge of the Khudi River. It begins from the confluence of two Rivers, Sundar Khola and Khudi Khola. The catchments area of the River is 133 km2 at the Department of Hydrology & Metrology (DHM) station located at Khudi Bazar, which when transformed to our catchments is 25 km2, running from north to south.
CE1.2.3 The learning exercise included optimizing schemes per project capacity, sizes of hydraulic structures, penstock and electromechanical equipment and check the sensitivity analysis for the financial parameters which comprised of a significant result of in this feasibility analysis report. The study shows the feasibility of project with sufficient alternatives. We made sure we followed all the organizational rules and regulations of the University as well as the Hydropower Project.
CE1.2.4 The project was divided into five parts namely Data collection, Design and modelling, Cost estimation, Project planning and scheduling, Economic and financial analysis. Each member of the team was given one sector each as a main area of study and was responsible for the literature review of that part. I was given the Project planning and scheduling and the Design and Modelling part.
CE1.2.5 Organisational Chart

CE1.2.6 Project Objective
The objective of this study is to find the best project alternative and carry out the pre-feasibility study of the same. The main objectives are highlighted below:

To be acquainted with the various aspects of hydropower planning and development.
To find out the feasibility of project
To know about the major components of the hydropower project.
To select the best project alternative.
To carry out the engineering design of hydropower components.
To calculate the power and energy generated from the project.
To carry out the quantity estimation and their cost.
To prepare implementation schedule of the project.
To carry out optimization of project capacity and components.
To carry out financial analysis and sensitivity analysis of the project

CE1.3 Personal Engineering Activities
CE1.3.1 I have always been passionate about renewable energy and it is the main reason I took engineering as my career. In the context of Nepal, hydropower energy has a lot of scope. Most of the country in the upper hilly and mountainous parts are deprived of energy which is not a hard goal to achieve if small-scale hydropower projects implemented. I consulted my friends to form a group of five. We prepared the proposal to study for a hydropower project that could be used for a real project in the future. Then we prepared the proposal and submitted to the Dept. Of Civil Engineering with a detailed timeline graphed in a Gantt Chart. We consulted with the head engineer designated for this project and proposed that we would submit a study that could somehow facilitate the funded government project. He agreed to help us in every possible way and agreed to become our supervisor.

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CE1.3.2 Before we started, we decided that we visit a similar small scale hydropower project. We drove to a similar hydropower project that powered a small city called Banepa east of Kathmandu. We talked to the authorities and they allowed us to walk through the entire project and see the dam, the turbines control room, and allowed us to take the specifications of the turbine so that we could have a rough idea of what equipment we had to choose to prepare the analysis of the hydropower project we had to do the project for. I also conducted weekly progress meetings with the team and supervisor to tackle any hurdles that we faced. We consulted with senior professors about my problems and ideas.
CE1.3.3 The entire work of this study is done by desk Study and field visit and survey by minor instrument such as Tape, and Abney level etc. All the data and information available from different sources were carefully analyzed to perform the preliminary study of all the necessary components. For the hydrological study of the project, mean monthly discharge of 13 years’ records of Khudi Khola at Khudi Bazar station (439.3) are obtained from DHM and analyzed using catchment area correlation method to find necessary hydrological parameters. Topographic maps (1:50000) of proposed site was studied for the allocation and design of civil as well as electro-mechanical components of the project.
The methodology employed to undertake the study were desk study and map study, field survey and social interaction, literature review, hydrological analysis, screening and selection of the best alternative, hydraulic design of the components of the chosen alternative, cost analysis and preparation of bill of quantities and finally report preparation and presentation.
CE1.3.4 The topography of the site is steep and rocky and thus we proceeded deciding that tunneling is the best possible alternative for waterway. As I was given the responsibility of design and modelling, I am explaining what the engineering design from the headwork to the penstock is comprised of in brief.
CE1.3.5 The headwork was located at 1290 m elevation. The trench weir was provided for diversion of flow to the intake and passage of high flood water. For design of the weir with length 10m, the design flood is taken as 40.073 m3/s for hundred years-return periods. The trench size has been calculated considering 50% of the trash rack is clogged and the design discharge will be conveyed. The intake was designed to allow abstraction of water from the source with as little sediment as possible, thereby minimizing maintenance and operational costs and providing some measure of protection against damage too (e.g. blocking of the conduit by incoming sediment and debris).
A.) Design Aspects of Gravel Trap and Settling Basin: The main design principle of the gravel rap was that the velocity through it should be less than that required to move the smallest size of gravel to be removed. Since the water abstracted from sediment loaded river not only reduces the capacity of the conveyancesystem but also damages the hydro turbines, thereby causing operation and maintenance problems. To cope with economy of energy generation from this, I wanted to design and construct a settling basin before water enters the plant, which helps to limit the entry of sediment into the plant by trapping the particle size greater than 0.2 mm.
B.) Headrace Tunnel: The shape as well as the dimensions of the tunnel should be selected such that it should be readily accessible from every direction for control, maintenance and repair. In pressure tunnels operating under high heads, the provisions of lining of concrete (PCC or RCC) and even steel lining including steel pipes may be embedded. To reduce construction costs, relatively high flow velocities should be permitted in tunnels, higher ones than those of open canals. In addition to this I also calculated Friction losses Darcy Weisbach formula. The resulting dimension of the tunnel after all analysis was Inverted D shape 2m in diameter and 1500 m in length.
C.) Surge tank: A surge tank is generally constructed immediately prior to penstock or pressure shaft so as to damp out the oscillation in water level as soon as possible and to store water during load rejection until the new velocity has been established. Final design composed of a circular surge with diameter 2 m and height of 13.5 having upsurge and down surge of 6.256m and 4.704 m respectively.
D.) Penstock: Penstock is usually the pipeline in between surge tank and turbine inlet. Penstock may be low pressure or high-pressure penstock. Usually it is high pressure. The materials used are usually of steel, reinforced concrete. The pipe diameter and the thickness are such that the stress in steel computed from hoop stress criteria is well within the allowable limit. The hoop stress developed is given by the thin cylinder theory. I design we used inclined underground shaft made of mild steel.
E.) Turbine: To maintain the supply even in peak load conditions, two units of Pelton turbines with horizontal Shaft are in housed in the Powerhouse. Two units of generator are used to generate electrical energy. Turbine was selected on the analysis based on available head and design discharge. Two units are provided for continuation of supply on maintenance of one unit also.
Also, a tailrace was set to convey the water leaving the power plant back to the river. The tailrace should be designed to maintain the water surface at the elevation specified by the turbine manufacturer and to protect the power plant against flooding by the expected design flood level in the river.
E.) Power generation: A 66 KV transmission line has been proposed for the safe and economic transmission of the generated power, along a length of 30 Km for the interconnection of the supply to the national grid at Udaypur.
CE1.3.6 The subjects that I was enrolled in the undergraduate like fluid mechanics, hydraulics, water supply, engineering hydrology, survey, engineering drawing etc. helped me a lot to complete and prepare my project. I tried to utilise all my knowledge in utmost way to realise a hydropower project. While doing this project, I not only experienced the applied part of civil and hydropower engineering but also learned a lot of practical skills like communication skills, time management, project presentation and team work. During this project interval, being a group leader I had to solve not only my own but I have to help my group members in technical and other calculation part as well.
CE1.3.7 Me along with my team members worked together very hard and could complete the project in the defined time. We could study the pre-feasibility of Upper Khudi and prepare the final report in the designated time. After the completion of this project, I felt a big rise in my confidence level as an engineer and I felt I could easily tackle the obstacles by studying about it, applying the solutions in real life problems. We used various software like MS-Word, MS-Excel, MS-PowerPoint to document the report, prepare presentations and analyze available data. I feel like my reporting skills, drafting skills and drawing skills also utilised professionally over the course of this project.
CE1.4 Summary
Undertaking this project helped me to use my theoretical knowledge on practical and real life work scenarios relating design and construction of a hydro power plant. We were very happy that the project met all the initial objectives. The project has a conventional B/C ratio of 2.1 and modified of 2.13 and IRR of 23.4%. The total cost of the project is NRs 605,089,628.69 and cost per kilowatt is within the range of prevailing Cost per KW for the projects recently built in Nepal. Hence, the project was financially, technically, socially and environmentally viable, and can be forwarded for further study. In a nutshell, I was efficiently and successfully able to undertake, manage and complete the project ensuring that it met all its objectives within a designated time frame.

The Digital Dice Game Project: An Overview

A traditional dice is a small polyhedral object, usually cubic in shape. It generates a random number in the range of one to six. There are also non – cubical dice with different number of faces such as tetrahedrons (four faces), octahedrons (eight faces) or dodecahedrons (twelve faces). A digital dice is an alternative device that can be used to replace the traditional device with the help of a numeric display. It is controlled with the help of a switch. The count will display numbers randomly from one to six on the 7 segment display in a push of the button.
1.1 Rules of the Game:
The Digital Dice game consists of two players, Player A and Player B.
Both the players, Player A and Player B, are given a switch each to control the dice.
In this game, only one player is allowed to play at a time and the input of only one player is counted at a time. A LED indicates the player’s turn.
The output of each player’s throw is added to the output of their previous throw’s number. This gives their final score.
The maximum count is taken as 30. When any one of the players reaches the maximum count of 30, the Game ends. The player (Player A or Player B) has won the game.
The beeper along with a light indicates the player’s victory.
Chapter 2: Circuit Description
This chapter gives a detailed description of the block diagram for the Digital Dice game project. It discusses the main parts and also gives a detailed explanation on the same.
2.1 Block Diagram
The main parts of the block diagram as shown in figure 1 are:

2 – Clock pulses
Random Number Generator
Digital Dice Display
2 Adder Circuits (including the seven – segment FND display)
‘Game – Over ‘disabling circuit
Reset switch

2.2 Clock Pulse
Clock pulse is a signal used to synchronize the operations of an electronic system. They are continuous and precisely spaced changes in voltage. The main aim of this part in the circuit is to give the appropriate clock pulses to the next circuits to make a progress in the game.
For this purpose, 2 clocks have been employed for each player. Here a special circuit has to be employed so as not to allow the player that has already played to play until his opponent has had his chance. This is done by using the Toggling feature of J-K flip-flop (IC 7476). Each of the 2 clock pulses is then ANDED with the 2 outputs of J-K flip-flop which is Q and Q’. At any point of time, only one of Q and Q’ will be HIGH and so only one player will be able to play at a time as per the rules of the game. The clock of the other player being ANDED with zero will be ineffective. The appropriate clock then will pass through the OR gate and into the input clock of the J-K flip-flop, thus toggling it and providing a chance for the other player to play. The output of the OR gate is given to the rest of the entire circuit as a ‘common clock’.

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2.3 Random Number Generator
The main aim of this part is to generate any number between 1 and 6 (inclusive) i.e. 3-bit binary number, similar to a cubic dice where each face represents a number. However, the number generated in this circuit is not in any kind of a predictable sequence and is in a perfectly random similar to an actual dice in such a game.
This is facilitated by the use of IC NE-555, which generates series of output clock pulses. The resistors and capacitors surrounding it formulate a particular RC time constant and the IC then continues to generate output clock pulses till the end of this time period. So, when the appropriate clock pulse is obtained from the above discussed clock pulse circuit, the pulses generated by IC NE-555 are fed to the next Integrated Circuit, Binary Ripple Counter (IC – 7493). Another Integrated Circuit, Decade Counter (IC – 7490) can also be used. The Binary Ripple Counter counts from 0 to 5 i.e. 3-bit numbers provided the MSB (Most significant Bit) of the counter is not considered. After the count reaches five, the Counter resets to zero. When many clock pulses are received by it in a single time-constant period, it counts from 0-5 many times and outputs any of these numbers. This is known as Random Number Generation.
However, the numbers obtained from the above procedure are between 0 and 5 (inclusive) and the desired numbers are from 1 – 6. This is taken into account by including another Integrated circuit, Binary Parallel Adder (IC – 7483) which increments the above generated number by 1 as it is between 0 and 5. The output of the Binary Parallel Adder is the final desired random number which is then fed into the Digital Dice-Display circuit as shown in the figure 1.
2.4 Digital Dice Display Circuit
The only purpose of this part is to show the face of the Dice corresponding to the number generated by the randomizer circuit.
This is done with the help of a BCD – 7 Segment decoder which is used to drive a common anode 7 segment display. The output of the above discussed circuit forms the input for the BCD which then enters the input of seven – segment decoder. The random number generated by the random number generator circuit will be displayed on the 7 – segment display when the button is pushed by a player. The number displayed is any number between 1to 6 in a complete random sequence.
2.5 Adder Circuits
This is the core part of this game. All the numbers generated so far should be accounted for each player independently in the form of their score. As discussed earlier, this score gets incremented by each alternate fall of numbers on the dice. The Adder circuit performs this function.
The Adder circuit is made up of a group of 3 AND gates. One of the inputs of the AND gates is a bit of the random number generation and the other input is one of Q and Q’ (outputs of the J – K flip-flop as discussed above in the ‘Clock Pulses’ section). Hence, at a time, the score of only the appropriate player gets incremented by the number on the dice. Whereas the score of the other player remains the same (i.e. gets added by 0).
The outputs of the 3 AND gates enter the Integrated Circuit, Binary Parallel Adder (IC – 7483) as inputs for A. The Most significant bit (MSB) A is kept grounded. The inputs for B come from the output of the Integrated circuit, 4-bit Register (IC – 74194) and these stores the Least significant bit (LSB) of the final score. There are two Binary Parallel Adders and the output of this 1st Adder (IC – 7483) is connected to the 2nd Adder (IC – 7483), which converts the added binary number into its decimal equivalent and stores the output in the above mentioned 4 – Bit register (IC – 74194). This conversion is produced with the help of different logic gates (AND and OR gates). When the binary number is greater than 9, 6 (0110) is added to it, else 0 (0000) is added to the number thus generating the equivalent LSB decimal number. Therefore, the LSB remains less than or equal to 9, thus representing the score in decimal form.
The same technique is applied to the Most Significant Bit of the score. Here, 1 is added to the MSB of the Binary Parallel Adder (IC – 7483), if the above generated binary number is greater than 9. The other input for this 3rd IC-7483 comes from another 4-bit register (IC – 74194). Therefore, the MSB can also show decimal numbers from 0 – 9.
The same Most Significant Bit and Least Significant Bit numbers from the Adders are given as input to Integrated circuit, BCD (IC – 7447), which is the driver IC to the Seven-Segment LED display. The outputs of this Integrated circuit are fed into the LT-543, to show the corresponding numbers.
An important point to be noted here is that the same ‘common clock’ is given to the above mentioned IC-74194 registers so that they can output the stored numbers each time.
2.6 ‘Game – Over’ Disabling Circuit
This part of the block diagram indicates the END of the game, i.e. Game – Over. The game is considered to be over once the score of any one of the two players (Player A or Player B) reaches/crosses the score of 30.
The second input of the Most Significant Bits of the Most Significant Bit of the decimal score of both the players form the input to the NOR gate. Thus, when any score reaches/crosses 30, the 2nd Most Significant Bit becomes HIGH. Thus NOR output becomes LOW (i.e. In a NOR gate, when any one of the inputs is HIGH, the output is LOW). This is then ANDED with the clock-pulse to be given to the J-K flip-flop. As a result, the J-K flip-flop does not receive any clock. Thus, the ‘toggling’ feature of the flip – flop stops. Thus, the random number generation stops and the Dice-display remain unchanged. And, finally the scores remain fixed. Therefore, the game has come to an end
The winning player (Player A or Player B) is identified by the tone of the buzzer/alarm along with a LED to provide an indicating light. This is having one end on the above 2nd Most Significant Bit and the other end grounded.
2.7 Reset Switch
This is also a very important part of the game. The function of this switch is to bring the game back to start from any point of time.
This is performed with the help of a Combinational Circuit and a ‘Push-to-OFF’ switch. This is a kind of switch which has its 2 ends always connected, except when pressed/pushed. Thus, one end of the switch is grounded. Therefore, by default this makes the clear inputs of all registers HIGH. Here, the registers employ Active Low Clear inputs.
When the switch is not pushed, HIGH clear is fed to the registers via a NOT gate. Therefore, normal functioning of all the registers is obtained. Also, the output drawn from the OR gate then depends on the output from the AND gate (the 2 inputs of the AND gate come from the 2nd Most Significant Bit and 3rd Most Significant Bit of the output of the Binary Ripple Counter, IC – 7493).
When the switch is pressed, the connection of its 2 ends gets broken and thus making the Clear input to all registers LOW via the NOT gate (i.e. all registers are cleared). Therefore, one of the inputs to the IC – 7483 Adders become 0000. And, also the input of the OR gate becomes HIGH, thereby ignoring the 2nd input and thus providing HIGH output to the RO(1) Clear input of the Binary ripple counter, IC – 7493. Now, the counter is reset by 2nd Clear input RO(2) as it becomes HIGH, providing 0000 output. This forms the other input of Binary parallel adder, IC – 7483. Thus, the Adder circuits display 00 in the 7 – segment display. This 0000 output is then carried via the Binary parallel adder, IC – 7483 (here the input carry is also 0) to the Dice-display circuit which displays 00.
Chapter 3: Random Number Generation Circuit
This chapter explains the circuit diagram required for the random number generation and the digital – dice display. It also talks about the working for the same.
3.1 Circuit Diagram
The below figure (figure 2) shows the circuit diagram used for the random number generation of a digital dice.
3.2 Operation
Figure 2 shows the circuit diagram to generate any random number between 1 and 6 and display it on the 7 – segment display. In operation, a clock frequency of 50 Hz is generated by the pulse generator. It is ANDED with the push button. When the push button is pressed, the clock pulse generates a series of clock pulses. The combination of the clock pulse and the push button forms the counter clock for the Binary Ripple Counter (IC – 7493). This counter behaves as a Mod – 6 Counter and it counts from 0 – 5. Once the count reaches 5, it resets to zero. Thus, the connection of QB (with value 2) to R0 (1) and QC (with value 4) to R0(2) respectively.
The output of this counter is connected to the input A of the Binary Parallel Adder (IC – 7483), i.e. QA, QB, QC, QD to A1, A2, A3, A4 respectively. The function of the adder is to add the number 1 (Binary 0001) to the output from the Binary ripple counter. This is done by grounding the pins B1, B2, B3 and the pin B4 is connected to the supply to get a value of 1.
The output of the Adder is connected to the BCD – 7 segment display, i.e. the pins 9, 6, 12, 15 are connected to pins 7, 1, 2, 6 respectively. Therefore, any number between 1 and 6 is displayed in a totally random manner in the form of its decimal equivalent on the 7 – segment display.
This completes the random number generation and the Digital – dice display parts of the block diagram.
3.3 Components Assembled
The following components have been assembled on a Bread Board in order to create a random number display between 1 and 6.
3.3.1 Counter
A counter is a device which stores the number of times a particular event or process has occurred, usually in connection with a clock signal. Every counter requires a ‘square wave’ clock signal to make them count. A square wave clock signal (as shown in figure 3) is a digital waveform with sharp transitions between low (0V) and high (+Vs) voltage, such as the output from a 555 astable timer. Here it comes from the pulse generator.
Examples of counting are digital clocks, watches, timers found in a range of appliances from microwave ovens to VCRs and counters are also found in everything from automobiles to test equipments.
There are mainly two types of counters:
Ripple Counters
In a ripple counter, there are a chain of flip-flops with the output of each flip – flop forming the input for the next. Every time the input of the flip – flop changes from high to low (on the falling edge), the state of the flip flop output changes.
Ripple counters mostly count on the falling-edge which is the high to low transition of the clock signal. They use this edge as linking counters becomes easier as the most significant bit (MSB) of one counter can drive the clock input of the next. This whole process occurs because the next bit must change state when the previous bit changes from high to low – the point at which a carry must occur to the next bit.
The disadvantages of this counter are:
There is a slight delay (known as a Ripple Delay) as the effect of the clock ‘ripples’ through the chain of flip-flops. But in many circuits, this is not a problem as it is far too short to be seen on a display.
In a logic system, the connection to the ripple counter outputs will cause false counts which may produce ‘glitches’ in the logic system and thereby disrupt its operation. For example, a ripple counter changing from 0111 (7) to 1000 (8) will briefly show 0110 (6), 0100 (4) and 0000 (0) before 1000.
Synchronous Counter
A synchronous counter has a more complex internal structure as compared to a ripple counter. The advantage of this counter over the ripple counter is that it ensures that all its outputs change precisely together on each clock pulse, thereby avoiding the brief false counts which occur with ripple counters.
Most synchronous counters count on the rising-edge (refer figure 5) which is the low to high transition of the clock signal. They usually have carry out and carry in pins for linking counters without introducing any ripple delays.
These counters have a synchronous reset which occurs on the next clock pulse rather than immediately as in a ripple counter. Since reset must be performed on the maximum count required, it is a very important function. Binary Ripple Counter (IC – 7493)
This is the counter used in the circuit. Figure 3 shows a clock signal driving a 4-bit (0-15) counter. It is connected with LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) to show the state of the clock and counter outputs QA – QD. And Q indicates the output.
A counter can be used to reduce the frequency of an input signal and thus behaves as a frequency division counter (as shown in figure 7), i.e. they can be used to reduce the frequency of an input (clock) signal. Each stage of a counter halves the frequency, so here the LED on the first output QA flashes at half the frequency of the clock LED, i.e. QA is 1/2, QB flashes at 1/4, QC at 1/8 and QD at 1/16 of the clock frequency. It is usually labeled as Q1, Q2 and so on. Qn is the nth stage of the counter, representing 2n.
Division by numbers that are not powers of 2 is possible by resetting counters. Counters can be reset to zero before their maximum count by connecting one (or more) of their outputs to their reset input. The counter is in two sections: Clock A for QA and Clock B for QB, QC and QD.
If the reset input is ‘active-low’ a NOT or NAND gate will be required to produce a low output at the desired count. ‘Active – low’ is indicated by a line drawn above reset. For example:   (say ‘reset-bar’). The reset function requires an immediate reset on the next count. Decade Counter (IC – 7490):
A decade counter (refer figure 8) is a binary counter that is designed to count to 10 or 1010 in binary, i.e. it counts the number of pulses arriving at its input. The number of pulses is counted up till 9 and it appears in binary form on four pins of the IC. When the tenth pulse arrives at the input, the binary output is reset to zero (0000) and a single pulse appears at another output pin.
This function is performed due to the fact that the NAND output goes low, and resets the counter to zero. D going low can be a CARRY OUT signal, indicating that there has been a count of ten. So for ten pulses in the input, there is one pulse output. Therefore, the 7490 Decade Counter divides the frequency of the input by ten. And, if this pulse is applied to the input of a second 7490 decade counter, then the second IC will count the pulses from the first IC i.e. for 100 pulses input, there will be one pulse output.
3.3.2 Binary Parallel Adder (IC – 7483)
The parallel adder precedes the binary counter, i.e. once the counter begins its count from 0 – 5, it then enters the adder where the binary 0001 is added to it.
The central computational element in any circuit is the adder. The function of the parallel adder is to add two n – bit numbers together. For this purpose, n full – adders should be cascaded with each full – adder representing a column in the long addition. The carry signals ‘ripple’ through the adder from right to left.
Figure 9 indicates the working of a logic full adder/ subtractor. The adder circuit has a mode control signal M which determines whether the circuit has to operate as an adder or a subtractor. Each XOR gate receives one input from M and the other input from B, i.e. Bi. The function of the XOR gate is that if both the inputs of the XOR gate is the same, then the output of the XOR gate will be zero and if both the inputs to the XOR gate are different, then the output of the XOR gate will be 1.
When M = 0, the output of XOR gate will be Bi ⊕ 0 = Bi. Thus, the addition function takes place, i.e. the circuit performs A plus B (A + B). When M = 1, the output of XOR gate will be Bi ⊕ 1 = Bi’. Since it is the complement of B, subtraction function takes place, i.e. A plus 1’s complement of B which is the same as A minus B (A – B).
Every digit position consists of two operands and a carry. The operation of an adder is to add the two operands and the carry-in together. If the result is less than the base, this sum is outputted with a carry-out of 0. 0therwise the base is subtracted from the total of the two operands and the carry-in and this sum is outputted with a carry-out.
3.3.3 BCD – 7 segment display decoder
Here, the output of the Binary parallel adder forms the input for this BCD – 7 segment decoder to display the random number from 1 – 6.
The inputs A – D for the BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) display driver are connected from the outputs of the parallel adder. The display driver consists of a network of logic gates to make its outputs a – g become high or low. This lights the required segments a – g of a 7-segment display as shown in the figure. Usually, a resistor is required in series with each segment to protect the LEDs, 330 or 270 is a suitable value for many displays with a 4.5V to 6V supply. But for this project, only one 270 resistor is used which is connected between 3 (display test) and 8 (ground) pins of the integrated circuit.
There are two types of 7-segment displays:
Common Cathode (CC or SC): This display consists of all the cathodes connected together. These need a display driver with outputs which become high to light each segment, i.e. they are illuminated with high voltages. For example the IC – 4511. Here, there is a connection between the common cathode to 0V. IC 4511 is designed to drive a common cathode display and thus would not work with the common anode display.
Common Anode (CA or SA): This display consists of all the LED anodes connected together. These need a display driver with outputs which become low to light each segment, i.e. they are illuminated by connecting with low voltages. For example, IC – 7447 (BCD – 7 segment decoder) which is the IC used for this project. Here, there is a connection of a resistor in series between the common anode to +Vs.
The 7447 chip is used to drive 7 segment display. The input to the 7447 is a binary number DCBA where D is 8s (1000), C is 4s (0100), B is 2s (0010) and A is 1s (0001). The IC – 7447 display is intended for BCD (binary coded decimal) which has input values from DCBA = 0000 (0) to DCBA = 1001 (9) (i.e. 0000, 0001, 0010, 0011, 0100, 0101, 0110, 0111, 1000, 1001 in binary). Inputs from 10 to 15 (1010, 1011, 1100, 1101, 1110, 1111 in binary) will light odd display segments.
The following functions can be performed on the IC – 7447:
This IC has an open collector outputs a – g, which can sink up to 40mA.
A lamp test can be performed on the IC to check if all the segments are in working condition. This is done by keeping the part of the IC low. At this point of time, all the display segments should light (showing number 8).
There is another function which is the Blanking Input (). If the blank input is low, then the display will be blank when the count input is zero (0000). This can be used to blank leading zeros when there are several display digits driven by a chain of counters. The blank output can be achieved by connecting the blank input of the next display down the chain (i.e. the next most significant digit).
Also, a function stands for Ripple Blanking Input. When is low and DCBA = 0000, the display is blank otherwise the number is displayed on the display. This is used to remove leading zeroes from a number. For example, displays 89 instead of 089. If more than one display has to be used, a connection of (Ripple Blanking Output) from most significant 7447 to the of the next 7447 has to be done.
If a connection between of the least significant 7447 to 5V is done, the display will turn off when the number is 0.
This circuit can also be controlled by a PLC (Programmable Logic Circuit), if the inputs to the BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) come from the 4 output bits of the PLC output card.
Chapter 4: Summary
This chapter lists the achievements and developments of the project
The following has been achieved in this project:
Successful design and simulation of random number generation circuit along with the dice display – Block Diagram of the Digital Dice game, circuit diagram for the display of random numbers from 1 – 6 on the 7 – segment display.
Successful assembly of wires, binary ripple counter (IC – 7493), binary parallel adder (IC – 7483), BCD – 7 Segment display decoder (IC – 7447).
The development of this project is as follows.
The digital dice game is currently being assembled, and post assembly, it will be used as a game to be played between two players..
Remaining circuit diagrams with more detail about the remaining parts of the block diagram will be designed.

Methods of Assessment in Project Based Learning

(A) Synthesis of the Literature

Project-based learning (PBL) in scientific inquiry is an engaging instructional strategy that provides the opportunity of learning science concepts through challenging tasks that encourage students to explore, construct new knowledge, make decisions, and collaborate with their peers. (Erdogan & Bozeman, 2015). PBL in science requires students to demonstrate not only their knowledge of science, but also the ways that they can apply it in the real life (Nicole Holthuis, 2018). One of the fundamental factors to implement PBL strategies more effectively in the class, is the methods of assessment. Incorporating proper and authentic assessment strategies has a significant impact on the functionality of the PBL in learning science concepts. Based on the research carried out in the last 10 years, this literature review will focus on the assessment methods and strategies which best suit the project-based learning approach.

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Based on a study by Amy Trauth-Nare and Gayle Buck (2011), and also many other recent studies (Medine Baran, 2018; Pantiwati & Husamah, 2017; Nicole Holthuis, 2018), formative assessment has been considered as one of the best approaches in project-based science learning. The purpose of the formative assessment is not just evaluating the achievement. It is about assessing what students do or do not understand about a science concept. Since PBL is designed to be student centred, it is possible for teachers not to provide students with enough constructive feedback and support of critical thinking. However, research has shown that PBL is most effective when appropriate formative assessment strategies such as self assessment and revision, peer evaluation, and providing clear learning goals and expectations using a rubric are utilized (Amy Trauth-Nare and Gayle Buck, 2011). It is argued, that these teaching methods and techniques, which give learners the opportunity to structure and track their own learning processes with the guidance and feedback of the instructor, are much more effective than traditional methods, which use the dialogue techniques (Medine Baran, Abdulkadir Maskan, Şeyma Yaşar, 2018).

Based on a study carried out by Stephanie Bell (2010), many of twenty-first-century skills that help learners become productive citizens of a global society are not measurable by standardized tests. Rather, when students learn their processes, reflect on their own work in a collaborative group and also reflect how well they contributed, negotiated, interacted with other group members, the level of efforts, motivations, interests and productivity increased. In addition, by providing positive comments and constructive feedbacks to their peers, students will develop their social skills which help them become aware of their own strengths and improve their interactions with each other. (Amy Trauth-Nare and Gayle Buck, 2011)

The findings of a research by Anastasiya A. Lipnevich and Jeffrey K. Smith (2009) demonstrates that precise and specific feedback that helps students review their own work is the most significant benefit of formative feedback approach. Based on this study, traditional feedback in the form of grades decreases the positive effect of detailed feedback. This happens because grades usually cause negative effect around the task. Furthermore, based on a case study (Renee M. Clary, Robert F. Brzuszek, C. Taze Fulford, 2011) involved junior and senior level undergraduates (N = 40), the rubric appears to be an appropriate and effective tool for assessing creativity in project-based learning tasks.

The only challenge that teachers might encounter when using formative assessment is the matter of reliability and validity of peer assessment. The reliability of the peer assessment might be affected by the level of friendship between the students. According to a study (Ernesto Panadero, Margarida Romero, Jan-Willem Strijbos, 2013), it is clear that rubrics enhance validity of the assessment for low to medium level of friendship between students, but they increase “over-scoring” when the level of friendship is high.

Although a significant amount of studies has shown that formative assessment through clear criteria and a structured format is the most effective method in the project-based learning approach, the reliability of these methods of assessment in PBL requires further investigation (Rogheyeh Eskrootchi and G. Reza Oskrochi, 2010). One clear area for future research would be to study how different approaches of feedback and assessment in PBL affect subsequent learning in a course(Anastasiya A. Lipnevich – Jeffrey K. Smith, 2009).

(B) Purpose of the Study

Project-based learning has been considered as one of the most effective approaches of teaching science and engaging students in scientific inquiry (Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 2016). Incorporating appropriate methods of assessment in PBL plays a crucial role in the effectiveness of this approach. The objective of this study is to provide and analyze different methods of assessment such as formative assessment, self and peer assessment, and using rubric as an effective tool of assessment in PBL and also to probe the level of reliability and validity of these methods of assessment in project-based learning.

(C) Context of the Study

This study will take place at a public secondary high school located in Mississauga, Ontario where students come from diverse ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. There are currently about 1200 students registered in grades 9 to 12 at this high school. There are 4 grade 10 science classes running in this semester. There are about 30 students in each class which are randomly assigned to these classes. The average of students’ results in science standardized tests for all four classes are slightly more than the average of the province. As a result, the academic level of four classes, based on the tests, are almost in the same range. Currently, there is not enough evidence of using formative assessment in project-based learning approaches in these four classes. In this study, for the next new lesson, only two of these classes will incorporate formative assessment strategies such as self and peer assessment, and using a clear rubric for tasks. Teachers in these two classes will be provided enough resources and professional development support to implement these assessment strategies more effectively. The other two classes will continue to use traditional methods of assessment such as written quizzes and tests. The results of these two groups of students will be compared to recognize the difference of these two approaches of assessment and evaluation of science project-based learning. As a result, this study will aim to show the effectiveness of using formative assessment of PBL tasks compared to traditional methods.

(D) Definition of Terms

Project-based learning (PBL): Project-based learning is an approach of teaching that provides authentic learning tasks which focus on the learners’ interest and motivation (Michael M. Grant, 2011). These tasks require students to collaborate with their peers, consider the instructor’s constructive feedbacks, and revision their own work to improve their performance and come up with a final result (Erdogan & Bozeman, 2015).

Authentic Assessment: Authentic assessment measures the students’ ability to apply the constructed knowledge in the real life and beyond the school. Students will enhance their deep understandings of different concepts through collaborative tasks. (Torulf Palm, 2008)

Formative Assessment: In formative assessment, the teacher, instead of grades, will provide constructive feedbacks for students. The goal of these feedbacks is to improve students’ understandings and performance. (Huhta, Ari, 2010)

Rubric: Rubric is a type of assessment tool that categorizes students’ performance for a given task through specific criteria and definitions. (Bruce S. Cooper and Anne Gargan, 2009)

(E) Limitations of the Study

The ability of the teachers to incorporate effective formative assessment strategies in project-based learning tasks might affect the results of the study.

This study takes place in small population of students from only one school. If the sample size of the research was larger and also students were from different schools from different demographics, then the result of the study would be different.

The measurement of students’ engagement in learning science concepts through project-based learning tasks might not be accurate since there are other factors involved in this matter such as the teaching styles and other environmental elements.

The quality of the rubric design and the clarity of the criteria and expectations could affect the effectiveness of the results of the formative assessments.



Holthuis, N., Deutscher, R., Schultz, S. E., & Jamshidi, A. (2018). The New NGSS Classroom: A Curriculum Framework for Project-Based Science Learning. American Educator, 42(2), 23-27.

Baran, M., Maskan, A., & Yasar, S. (2018). Learning Physics through Project-Based Learning Game Techniques. International Journal of Instruction, 11(2), 221-234.

Trauth-Nare, A., & Buck, G. (2011). Assessment for learning: Using formative assessment in problem-and project-based learning.

Bell, S. (2010). Project-based learning for the 21st century: Skills for the future. The Clearing House, 83(2), 39-43.

Eskrootchi, R., & Oskrochi, G. R. (2010). A study of the efficacy of project-based learning integrated with computer-based simulation-STELLA. Educational Technology & Society, 13(1), 236-245.

Erdogan, N., Navruz, B., Younes, R., & Capraro, R. M. (2016). Viewing How STEM Project-Based Learning Influences Students’ Science Achievement through the Implementation Lens: A Latent Growth Modeling. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 12(8), 2139-2154.

Clary, R. M., Brzuszek, R. F., & Fulford, C. T. (2011). Measuring creativity: A case study probing rubric effectiveness for evaluation of project-based learning solutions. Creative Education, 2(4), 333-340.

Ginsburg, H. P. (2009). The challenge of formative assessment in mathematics education: Children’s minds, teachers’ minds. Human Development, 52(2), 109-128.

Panadero, E., Romero, M., & Strijbos, J. W. (2013). The impact of a rubric and friendship on peer assessment: Effects on construct validity, performance, and perceptions of fairness and comfort. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 39(4), 195-203.

Lipnevich, A. A., & Smith, J. K. (2009). Effects of differential feedback on students’ examination performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 15(4), 319.

Grant, M. M. (2011). Learning, beliefs, and products: students’ perspectives with project-based learning. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 5(2), 6.

Palm, T. (2008). Performance assessment and authentic assessment: A conceptual analysis of the literature. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 13(4), 1-11.

Huhta, Ari (2010). “Diagnostic and Formative Assessment”. In Spolsky, Bernard; Hult, Francis M. The Handbook of Educational Linguistics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. pp. 469–482.

Cooper, B. B. S., & Gargan, A. (2009). Rubrics in education. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(1), 54-55.


Project Management and Life Cycle

Project is a thing usually with very specific objectives. It is temporary, means it starts and end and it is some way unique, Roland and Bee (1998).
Project Initiation:
Project Life Cycle:
Project life cycle consist of four steps Concept or Idea, Planning, Execution and Termination, Field and Keller (2007).
In concept stage firstly we have to develop project agreement, analyze the requirements of the project and build up beginning project scope report, Burke (2003).
Planning stage consist of developing project management plan, plan and define scope than creating Work Break Down structure, which means to distribute the work according to schedule to different workers. Further sequence activities, activity resources, activity duration, cost, plan cost budget are estimated. Planning for quality assurance, communications, risk management, purchases and acquisitions is done. Moreover human resource planning is done to complete the planning stage, Burke (2003).
Project execution is managed in execution with performing the quality assurance, developing the project team and distributing the information. Further project work is controlled and managed, scope, schedule, cost, quality, risk is verified and control. Contracts and project team are managed, Burke (2003).
Project is closed and it contracts are closed as well, Burke (2003).
Project Manager:
Project Manager is the person who is appointed to manage as specific project and it is expected from him to achieve the goal keeping in mind the project scope, schedule and budget, Richman (2002).
Role and Responsibilities:
Project Manager’s responsibilities include estimating and planning the project including the collection of data, keeping in mind that what is to be done exactly and how to organize it properly within schedule and budget, Field and Keller (2007). Assembling a team is also a role of project manager. The success or the failure of the project totally depends on the project team. A project manager should motivate his team, manage any problems between the team members and ensure good communication between them, Field and Keller (2007). Project Manager is responsible for the whole project so he is the spokesperson of the project and its his job to answer his heads, the clients and every other person who is having part in this project, Field and Keller (2007). This is project manager’s responsibility to make sure that all the equipments and tools are there which will be needed for the project completion. Project manager after start of the project manages all the work done, coordinating with the team members and other staff, Field and Keller (2007). The changes due to any problem in the project are the role of project manager keeping in mind the budget and the schedule, Field and Keller (2007).
There are some skills that a project manager should have like people skill. A project manager should have to skill to deal with people, how to handle them, how to motivate the employees and how to convince other people to make the project successful, Richman (2002). A project manager should be able to estimate the cost and able to make the budget plan. He should be able to perform audit reports, analyze progress information and able to plan and perform a project, Richman (2002). Project manager should have to knowledge of the organization which will help him to take decisions and achieve its task on time and within cost. He should also have technical and integration skills so that he can be able to understand anything provided by the civil engineer or other employee relating the project, Richman (2002). A project manager should be responsible, and he should have skills of accountability and authority, Richman (2002).
Planning is a very important step of a project because the process of planning firstly establishes what have to be done and also helps in making it happen by smoothing the way, Burke (2003). Planning is everything about looking forward in time, Burke (2003).
Work Breakdown Structure:
It can be defined as a product oriented duty chain of command of all to be done to achieve the project objectives. The product can be anything documents, tests, reports or other, Rook (1991).
In Work breakdown structure the work of the project is divided and further sub divided for management and control purpose, Turner (1993).
Risk Management:
For a project to be successfully completed management of risk is very necessary, because of this a manger gets a clear idea about the risks a project might face in the future, Field and Keller (2007). Risk management is the active process of identifying, assessing and responding to the project risk, to ensure that the company meets its objectives and the project is successful, Field and Keller (2007).
Identify risk means to find out what type of risk a company might face during the project. Assessing involves the evaluation and estimation of levels of risks. Responding means to make precautions how to overcome these risks, Field and Keller (2007).
Scheduling is one of the many important stages for a project manager. To ensure that the project finishes on time it is important to make a detailed schedule for every activity in the project and keep an eye on the process against this schedule, Field and Keller (2007).
Gant Charts:
Bar charts showing a schedule of activities are usually called Gant charts. Gant chart is very simple and effective and because of this it is an attractive way of conveying information about the timetable to the people concerned with the project, Field and Keller (2007).
Network Diagram:
Network Diagram is a visual illustration of the schedule of a project. It is useful in project management for tracking and planning the project from the start till the end. Critical path as well as the total float of the project is also presented in network diagram, Field and Keller (2007). Float is the extra time existing for an activity in addition to the duration estimated. A critical path is said to be a path with smallest amount of float, Field and Keller (2007).
Managing Stakeholders:
Stakeholders can be an individual or a group who have an interest in the project, they are affected by it and can influence its result, Field and Keller (2007). It is a part of project management to identify stakeholders, assess their interest in the project and with this information, try and mange relationships with such groups, Field and Keller (2007).

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Building Team and Assigning Tasks:
People are the main source of any project. Success is achieved through people who work as a team, Field and Keller (2007). Project management is about working with people. Objectives, schedules, machines, plans are important but it is people who get things done, Field and Keller (2007). A manager should build a skilled team and assign them their tasks and make sure they get the point and than keep an eye on the team’s progress, Field and Keller (2007). The work breakdown structure should be the basic framework for assigning responsibilities, Field and Keller (2007).
Team Motivation:
Team motivation is a very important task to be performed by the project manager. A motivated team performs its responsibilities more efficiently and within given time, Field and Keller (2007). A team can be motivated through many ways, some are under:

Encourage and support.
Give rewards, awards and bonuses.
Promotional opportunities.
Give responsibilities.
Have a democratic system.
Staff training,
Recreational opportunities.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Lead by example.

Field and Keller (2007).
Project scope is defined, plan has been produced, the association has been set up, the assets have been allocated and the project has been approved. Now the project manager during the execution of the project has to keep in mind that the project is going according to the plan, the team is working as directed and the project is under estimated cost and time, Field and Keller (2007).
Managing Initial Stages:
The most important actions in start that a project manager should take are:

Identify training needs and arrange workshops
Arrange startup meetings with stakeholders.
Get contract for work assurance from project staff.
Setup the control change procedure.
Agree to a timetable for monitoring and control reports and meetings.

Field and Keller (2007).
Monitoring and Controlling Cost:
Project costs are usually measured through accounting systems in any business but projects managers usually setup their own system for monitoring and controlling achievements and project costs, Field and Keller (2007). The system is known as earned value system. It tells the manager the cost of work performed so far and in addition it also tells the value earned by the work, Field and Keller (2007). The earned value of the task completed on a project is the amount that was estimated and attached to that work when the project budget was described, Field and Keller (2007). Controlling cost is more difficult than monitoring the cost. It is very difficult to recommend how it should be done, Field and Keller (2007). Cost controlling is only about controlling future cost, it’s not about expenses done it the past. But it is helpful for a manager because he can decide through the future to control the price and try and keep it within the allowed budget.
Maintaining the Schedule:
Maintaining schedule includes updating the network of the project, tracking of milestone and usage of earned value curves, Field and Keller (2007). As the monitoring and controlling of cost is necessary in the same way maintaining the project schedule is also necessary to see that whether the tasks are completed late, on time or early, Field and Keller (2007). If the project is on or before time than no schedule changes are required but if the project is behind its schedule than the project manager needs to make some changes in the schedule to make sure that the project finishes on time, Field and Keller (2007).
Maintaining Quality:
Product quality is a powerful tool. Quality is to assure the client that the product will be every time produced to the required condition, Burke (1992). If the quality is not up to the mark than it’s a manger’s job to make sure that the product meet its quality and control the quality. Its manager’s job to do the inspection of the products and take any needed steps to make sure that the quality of the product is up to the mark, Burke (1992).
Termination of the Project:
Project manager right from the beginning had in mind the target of successfully closing the project, Field and Keller (2007). The project manager tries his best to finish the project in good quality, within budget and schedule, Field and Keller (2007). There are many problems that might rise in the closure or termination of the project defined by Spirer (1983) as:
Staff might have the fear of no future work which might lose interest in remaining task. It might also lose motivation of the staff in project delivering, team identity might be lost and this might cause diversion of effort, Spirer (1983).
There is a possibility that clients may change their attitude, they might lose interest in the project and may change their personnel dealing with the project, Spirer (1983).
There might be some internal and external problems that might be faced at the closure of the project like control of changes to project, closure of work orders and work packages, obtaining needed certifications and many more, Spirer (1983).
As a project manager of this huge project I have presented in this report the steps needed to successfully complete this project on time, within budget and with quality standards. This project is a dream come true for me and following the steps provided above I will easily achieve my objectives and the project will be successful.

Comparison of Project Management Methodologies

Project management describes an organizational approach to the management about ongoing operations linked to a project. Project management has an importance since the early 1980s as a distinct discipline. The first step in developing any discipline is to develop a Body of Knowledge on the discipline as detailed concepts, processes and methodologies are developed. Project management has recognition due to the massive growth of the IT industry and managing the problems of projects effectively. Project management has body of knowledge, project management tools and software. The project management body of knowledge is a universal body of knowledge on the discipline and it has developed to make basic competency and knowledge in project management personnel to handle difficult projects in an ordered manner.

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A methodology is a set of guiding principle that can be modified and useful to a precise condition. A methodology might also be a precise approach, templates, forms, and even checklists used over the project life cycle. A recognized project methodology is supposed to lead the effort of all team members all over the life cycle of a project. All members of a group should be well-known with and use the selected methodology right through their projects. Many project management methodologies agreement with the management of a single project, without appreciating that many other projects in a company compete for the very same assets and awareness. The project management methodology should also suggest project managers with the point of view that there is a project management framework and related methodologies present in the company.
In this article, we will be discussing PMBoK of the Project Management Institute (PMI, USA) and APM (Association of Project Managers) (UK). In addition, we will also look at PRINCE2, that is more of a software product for project management, but flexible enough to fit in between, a body of knowledge and a full scale SW product. While both APM and Prince2 have their origin in UK, PMBoK is from PMI of USA. APM represents the BoK from France, Germany, UK, and Switzerland. PMBoK and APM are body of knowledge while PRINC2 is a PM software product and hence branded as prescriptive (defined for the user with limited flexibility within the overall framework), while the BoK is just a body of knowledge, that need to be put to use by defining the operational elements.
Benefits of Project Management Methodologies
Structured approaches as in PMBOK and products such as Prince2, enable capture all elements of the project upfront; educate project team on the various elements and their relationships /dependencies, to create a workable and accountable team environment. Projects as different from non project (operational) environments are extremely time, resource, dependencies and outcome sensitive, and are not eternal. To implement a project, a team is assembled to execute the project as different from an operational phase where employees work on a consistent / homogeneous environment for long time, and there is a natural learning process of the job and cross dependencies. Projects cannot afford the luxury of natural learning. PM methodologies thus focus on the conscious deliberate approach to build capacity in the project team for execution through training, clear definition of the project, roles and tasks, assets, improvement description and methods of tracking improvement, communication, risk management and mid course correction, and so on. These are achieved through defined processes and definition of functional areas and their relationships. A project organization structure will deliver the output in line with the processes defined in the PM methodologies. Thus a structured approach greatly helps in avoiding costly and time consuming discoveries during the project phase, and adopting a trial and error method. It is basically an attempt to define and clarify upfront, and put in place processes to implement tasks that are clarified and defined. PM methodologies also ensure through IT technology that drives them, consistency and integrity of project information and the data it relies on, for subsequent actions by various project team actors. Data consistency and timely availability is one of the most critical impediments to any project. Technology induction in PM helps in having one single page view of all facets of the project at any point in time, for all stakeholders, on a need to know basis, within as well as outside the project. As structured approaches removes this shortcoming by capturing data from the business processes itself, there is no need for or time lost in database updating. The updating is thus compulsive, error free and automatic.
Structured approaches also helps define criticality and automatic generation of alerts on defined project events for timely intervention as well as tracking performance. This helps avoid costly actions that otherwise would have been taken based on hunch, without access to current data.
Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)
PMBOK was initiated by the PMI in 1987 to standardize generally accepted project management practices. The focus is on process driven management to ensure standardization of good practices on the lines of ISO 9000 and the Software Engineering Institute’s CMMI. PMBOK is structured as five process groups and nine knowledge areas and is compliant with IEEE Std 1490-2003. The five processes are: Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, and Closing. PMBoK processes are project phase driven in terms of Inputs (documents, plans, designs, etc.), Tools and Techniques (mechanisms applied to inputs) and Outputs (documents, products, etc.). The nine knowledge areas address Project Integration, Scope, Time, Cost, Quality, Human Resources, Communications, Risk and Procurement.
Each knowledge area is conceived to comprise all or some of the processes. The philosophy of any PM methodology is breaking down the works in a structured manner (WBS), sequencing them, define their relationships, dependencies, start and end dates, resources needed, costs, risks, and follow concepts of critical paths, resource leveling and so on.
PM methodologies explicitly identify all above ingredients of a project that are mostly internal to the project. In addition, there are several factors considered to be exogenous to the project itself, which thinking is changing now. These exogenous factors are the human resources, finance, environmental management, stakeholder management, regulations, relationships, risks, project outcomes in terms of quantifiable benefits and the time when they are to occur, Thus project management has extended its boundary by internalizing their forward and backward linkages with the project itself. PM is no longer a pure engineering function, but a critical holistic techno, commercial – managerial task.
The project management body of knowledge is a generalized body of knowledge on the discipline, developed to create basic competence and knowledge, in project management personnel, to handle complex projects in a structured manner. This was important since the people working and managing projects (having to manage projects) in the IT industry, was young and inexperienced, and IT project management itself was an emerging area. Therefore it was felt that a defined body of knowledge is necessary to build the concept of PM.
Comparison with Traditional or non-structured methodology (Waterfall Model)
Waterfall model is expensive and lengthy to back to a previous phase to fix them if encounter difficulties during one phase. If there have problems with the design during construction, then the only way is to stop all construction work and restart the design process otherwise most of the construction work will not match the new design. Construction can start again only after the new design finalized, documented, and signed off. It makes changes very difficult to implement the PMBOK can formulate waterfall development seem natural and appropriate.
PRINCE2 project management methodology is a world-class standard for managing projects to a successful conclusion. It is a de facto standard used widely by the UK Government and is broadly recognized and used in the private area, both in the UK and globally. PRINCE2, the method, is in the public area, offering non-proprietorial best-practice guideline on project management. In fact Prince2 is not good enough on the quality management in projects but strong on Risk Management.
It covers how to arrange, proceed and control your projects. As a Project manager, the principles of PRINCE2 and the related training can be used to any type of project to manage risk, control quality and change successfully, as well as build the most of demanding situations and opportunities, that occur within a project.
The key features of PRINCE2 are:

its spotlight on business justification
a definite business constitution for the project management team
its product-based development approach
its highlighting on isolating the project into controllable and manageable stages
its elasticity to be used at a stage suitable to the project

PRINCE2 does not explain all aspects of project management.  Fields such as leadership and people management skills, detailed coverage of project management tools and techniques covered by other existing and proven methods are excluded from PRINCE2.
Benefits of using PRINCE2
PRINCE2 gives benefits to the managers and directors of a project and to an organization through the apply of resources and the skill to manage business and risk more successfully. PRINCE is broadly recognized, understood and giving a general language for all participants in a project. It also supports formal identification of duties within a project and focuses on what a project is to deliver, why, when and for whom. PRINCE2 supplies projects with a controlled and organized start, middle and end. It helps to review of progress against plan and against the business case and ensure the involvement of management and stakeholders at the right time and place during the project and good communication guide between the project, project management and the organization.
Project Managers using PRINCE2 are able to:

set up terms of reference as a precondition to the initiate of a project
use a defined formation for delegation, authority and communication
split the project into controllable phases for more correct planning
make sure resource promise from management is part of any approval to proceed
give regular but brief management reports
maintain meetings with management and stakeholders to a minimum but at the essential points in the project.

For senior management PRINCE2 uses the ‘management by exception’ idea. They are kept fully up to date of the project condition without having to be present at regular, time-consuming meetings. There are many organizations providing teaching, consultancy and tools services for PRINCE2, thus ensuring a competitive supply. In addition, there is an active user group dedicated to the support, promotion and strengthening of the method.
APM Body of Knowledge
The APM Body of Knowledge is a recognized collection of project management knowledge. It gives introductions and general guides to those areas measured vital to the regulation of managing projects, and it is visibly structured with definitions, explanations and recommended further evaluation material. This information will direct and help those involved in project management in their effort, studies and learning for accepted qualifications.
While a structure has been provided to handle the BoK, it should not be construed as one element of the structure, being independent of the other. In fact they are all interdependent and the structure is only for the purpose of logical organization and clarity. They are treated separately due to their significance and to aid in simplicity of their presentation. In reality, many topics may fit into more than one section – as they may be applicable to more than one phase of a project. For example, project risk management and project quality management are not to be treated as topics in isolation.
APM Body of Knowledge and PRINCE2 Compared
There are many similarities that can be found when comparing the APM Body of Knowledge with PRINCE2. For example, they both:

Describe generic approaches to project management that can be useful in spite of the type of project
Can be applied across geological and cultural boundaries, even though they both originate within the United Kingdom
Recognize that they cannot provide a ‘one-size-fits-all’ formula to project success

Cover the topics of Business Case, Organizational Roles, Quality Management, Risk Management, Change Control, Issue Management, Configuration Management, and aspects of Planning and of Progress Control.
The key difference between APM Body of Knowledge and PRINCE2
PRINCE 2 is a structured project management method and APM BoK a body of project management knowledge
APM BoK provides descriptions and explanations of a broad range of project management topics and takes a discipline-based approach to project management , where PRINCE 2 Provides detailed descriptions of specific approaches that PRINCE2 has for a fairly narrow range of project management topics and takes a process-based approach to project management
A brief comparison of PMBOK and APM depicts following salient features
In addition to commonalities, PMBOK explicitly addresses socio economics, quality management, risk management, communication, stakeholders and organizational influences, while APM addresses success / failure criteria, post project appraisal, project environment such as law, mobilization, delegation, leadership communication, conflict, negotiation, and industrial relations, marketing skills.
IT Governance and Methodologies
IT project committee has come into view as an important corporate duty. The capacity to manage strict managerial and board control over main IT projects throughout their lifecycle, has become a decision making issue in shaping businesses bloom and creator with tools at the spirit of most businesses. PRINCE 2 offers a process model that is aimed to be applied, as a set of steps in a coherent sequence by a project manager in planning and managing a project. The application of the process model is adjustable to almost all types of projects and a good number of complexities. Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2 manual contains a number of materials that are regulations for a project manager in applying the process model. The
PMBOK details are a set of processes that descend under nine Knowledge Areas and can be connected in five groups if the project manager prefers. PMBOK offers the project manager a considerable range of data about proven practices in this area and provoke the project manager to relate these where they think appropriate but PRINCE2 provides more regulatory steps for the project manager and teams to follow.
Knowledge areas of the PMBOK and the procedures and materials of PRINCE2 and APM have many similar topics. It is clear that all three represent ‘best practice’ with their difference being in the implementation as a methodology and a number of terminology differences. The PRINCE 2 approach has some advantages that it brings a degree of consistency in an organization. At the same time as allowing for tailoring to a range of projects generally requires undertaking the same processes and using the same terminology for all projects. There have some payback in corporate program management, project staff training programs, project presentation and tracking systems. The disadvantage is restricts creativity in the diversity of methods applied to managing a project.
There have some benefits in accepting both PMBOK and PRINCE2 to co-exist in several companies. PMBOK presents the academic knowledge resource that is useful in improving the profession of project management. It also permits flexibility in adoption and implementation that is context driven. PRINCE2 presents a process model that is applied directly by project managers and teams from a diverse range of backgrounds to make consistent project management and project results. Though there are several commonalities across projects of all types one need to have organizational efficiency, flexibility and creativity to make various kind of projects. In short PRINCE2 is a ready to consume food, while PMBOK and APM are ingredients that need to be cooked the way one wants, but one need to know how to do it.
Concluding observations
While there are only a few initiatives on the Body of Knowledge in Project Management such as PmBok and APM, there are several Software products that help implement a professional and structured project management practice. These products vary from stand alone packages that are implementable on single systems to the most sophisticated ones that are even implementable as a web based system, Some of the products also integrate with the other organizational systems such ERP and functional software packages that help integrate the entire functions of running an organization whether in the excusive business of managing projects or projects are only one of the activities of the organization.
While the BoK helps those in project management to understand project management as a structured disciple the products helps in implementing structured project management practice.
Project management as any other discipline is still emerging and it should not be surprising if the discipline undergoes a complete transformation as the discipline matures and branches out into further project specific specialties as has happened in the case of Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP). Project management specialists should look out for such evolving opportunities with an open innovative mind.

Pneumatic Auto Gear Changer Project

1.1 This career episode is based on my design and fabrication project carried out during the penultimate year of my bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering at Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering (Anna University Affiliated)-Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu state, India. Established in 2001, it is a self-financed and one of the best engineering institutes in Tamil Nadu. The project was completed over a period of 3 months from December 2012 to March, 2013.

1.2 The project on “Pneumatic Auto Gear Changer” was carried out in order to understand and implement theories in gear change application. Its purpose was to analyze the various steps involved and to provide recommendations for a real world use of this technology. I carried out this project as a part of a group of four people. In this project, a push button was used to activate/deactivate a solenoid valve and at the time of gear changing, the switch was triggered and the solenoid valve was activated. This in turn causes the compressed air to go through the pneumatic cylinder. The compressed air pushes the pneumatic cylinder as it passes through a tube and henceforth changes the gear from one speed to the other with the help of a gear box arrangement.
1.3 The automatic gear changing structure is relatively useful in low cost automation in all automobiles. Pneumatic systems work at higher speeds and the manpower requirement is reduced due to this project. The design and the implementation of this project in the real world application was made and a detailed report was submitted.
This project work was supervised under Mr. Manoj Kumar, the associate professor in the department of mechanical engineering at Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering. As it was an open ended project, I had to look up through several online journals, document reviews and also took guidance from the head of the department on various projects and ideas. The project time was quite limited and had to be come up with a proper design plan before the actual start of the project. This proved to be quite a challenging task as this was the first real world project in my career. However, I was completely aware of the fact that, these would be the kind of challenges and problems I would face in real life as a professional engineer.
Some of the duties I was involved in during the course of this project were as follows:

I carried out an extensive study on various materials relating to the pneumatic systems.
Since, there was no specific consensus on the selection of compressors, I had to select the one that best suited the requirements of the project while considering all the technical aspects.
I also dealt with the equipment suppliers on behalf of my team to purchase the necessary materials needed for the project.
I attended meetings with my supervisor to discuss individual observation and the progress of the project.
I presented this project to the department faculties and also completed an extensive project report.

(c) Personal Engineering Activity

As a first step of the project, I explained my thoughts on doing this project to my supervisor. I carried out my research regarding the project and presented him the importance of the project before carrying out the project.  The present scenario gear changer plays a vital role in automobiles.  Manual transmissions have become uncommon in many cases of cars sold across Australia, North America and some parts of Asia. However, they remain dominant in parts of Europe and other developing countries. Hence, I did an analysis on the present day vehicles equipped with automatic transmission option and those that are not and further highlighted the importance of the project in the present and future of automobiles as well as in certain machineries.
After deciding on the project, I carried out numerous literature reviews in order to come up with an appropriate design plan and to acquire the necessary equipment needed for the project. However, the articles and writings published on the topic was quite limited and were available for only specific cases.  As my project was regarding the project pneumatic gear changer, I did my extensive research on the pneumatic side of the project. Furthermore, I reviewed the advantages of pneumatic system and discussed with my supervisor for the usability in the project. Pneumatic system and was best considered due to its following reasons:

The pneumatic system power output could be easily controlled
Over loading does not affect the pneumatic systems
The pneumatic system could be used at varying working temperatures
Transportation of air through pipelines over long distances can be easily done with pneumatics in place.
Pneumatics enables high working speeds
It is a system which requires minimal upkeep.

In this project, I used a reciprocating compressor as the key component for the supply of compressed air. I selected the appropriate equipment for the project after evaluating the suitability of information acquired from several sources. A compressor is an instrument that sucks in air and gas at an optimum pressure and deliverers the air back at a higher pressure as the output. It was very important for my project to select the appropriate compressor as pneumatic systems operate primarily on the supply of both compressed air and pressure into the system. Moreover, I had to make sure, clean conditions were maintained during the phase of the project as warm and moist air could result in precipitation of condense from the compressed air. The following is the schematic diagram of pneumatic auto gear changer used in this project.

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of pneumatic auto gear changer
I also considered an important element for this project which was the push button. The push button switch was fixed near the driving seat of the vehicle. Besides this, I had set up an air tank with fully filled compressed air in it. Prior to gear changing, the solenoid valve was activated by triggering the switch. The compressed air streamed from the air tank to the pneumatic cylinder as the solenoid valve was open. Likewise, at the time of compressed air inlet into the cylinder, the pneumatic cylinder moved forward and the gear box liver moved along automatically from one position to the next. The gear box liver was further activated which allowed the vehicle running at different speeds. I have highlighted the advantages of this type to my supervisor and was duly approved and appreciated by him. They are as follows:
It required simple maintenance cares

A safe system for the automobile.
Easy to Handle.
Low cost automation project
Repairing was easy.
Easy replacement.

However, some of the disadvantages of this type were as follows:

Initial cost was high.
The system was a complicated one.

During the course of this project, I used a control valve to control the flow direction within the system. I also used a 3/2 single acting solenoid valve, having one inlet, outlet and an exhaust port. The air entered the pneumatic single acting solenoid valve once the push button was activated. Moreover, I introduced a pneumatic shifter to the whole design as it works through compressed air power. So once the gear changing signals were received, the pneumatic shifter opens or closes the magnetic valve assembly. The compressed air flows into the system once these valves are open, or thrusts it out thereby creating the effect of shifting gear mechanism. More compressed air into the system allowed the gear to be shifted up and the gear shifted down as the air was let. Furthermore, I used an on-board tank to get this compressed air to the cylinder even though I knew re-routing the engine exhaust could be a possibility and be economically viable however, it would result in lower performance as most of the oxygen present in the exhaust gas would already be burnt.

Figure 2: Schematic of a 3/2 single acting solenoid valve

After the analysis on various aspects of this project, I discussed my project outcomes and my results.  Putting all the information to use, I wrote the final report titled “Pneumatic Auto Gear Changer “and presented this to my department professors and to the head of the department.

This project presented me with the opportunity to understand the applications of theoretical knowledge that I had acquired in class rooms to implement in a real world project.  Discussions during the project with the supervisor provided great insight to challenges presented throughout the project.  The challenges uncovered were resolved by use of appropriate technical skills. This project also helped me understand the working and execution of any engineering project and served as a stepping stone to the real world. Overall, I am very happy that I could contribute myself effectively to this project at its various stages and also helped to secure the highest possible grade for this project.

Final Group Project – Outline

Final Group Project – Outline
Working in groups of no more than four (4) students initially, your task is to research any industry and describe the top 3-5 competitors in that field. You should compare their marketing strategies and how they relate to each other. Your team will prepare a report and a class presentation that describes the key aspects of the companies and the industry in which they operate. You are required to work in teams of four (4); however a group may fire a team member if all are in agreement that the firing is warranted. That team member must then join another team. Students who work individually will receive a lowered grade for the project unless individual work is approved by Professor in advance.
Format of Paper
1. 10-12 typed pages, double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point font. 1” margins on all sides
2. Visual materials do not count as a part of the 10-12 pages
3. Use the most current information available
4. Late or handwritten papers will not be accepted. Papers will be accepted before the deadline.
5. Use the MLA Style of documentation throughout.
6. An electronic copy (MS Word) of your paper must be submitted in addition to hard copy.
Writing Advice
Plagiarism will result in a grade of zero for the project and possible disciplinary action.
There is no need to restate the questions above – just answer them
3. Don’t describe each of their products – mention product lines – major categories.
4. Don’t editorialize. Back up everything with facts. Your opinion, while very important to me, is not appropriate in this type of writing assignment.
5. Don’t assume that “most people know” or “as everyone knows” – Be explicit and cite your sources.
6. Avoid a conversational tone. Write as if you are submitting the paper for review in a magazine or journal.
7. Avoid the use of the first person. (I, me, we, us, etc.)
8. Do not hand in photocopied content. Your words are most important.
9. Cite appropriately or you will be penalized.
10. Use page numbers
11. Pay attention to formatting in all drafts – font size, typeface, bold, etc. Make it uniform.
12. Use bullets where necessary – use tables when presenting numerical or comparative data
13. Use section headings as shown in the outline above.
14. Be mindful of words like – dominate, win, conquer, etc.
15. Do not get too granular; talk about the company and its strategy, not the warrantees on dishwashers, etc. This is an analysis of a company, not a product or product line.
The structure of your paper should explicitly follow the outline below
I. Executive summary (1 page)
To be written last – it should include parts of each of the sections below.
II. The Industry (1-2 pages)
Briefly describe the industry in which the company operates.
Who are the main competitors?
What is the current state of the industry?
Is this company a top player in the marketplace? If so, how do they differentiate themselves?
III. The Companies (4-6 pages)
Company 1
Address each of the four P’s (Price, Product, Place, and Promotion)
Briefly describe their major product/service lines – but do not describe individual products unless they only have one or two of them.
What is their competitive marketing strategy?
What is the overall image of the company in your opinion? How does this fir with the image they are trying to project?
Global/international marketing issues -are there any? What do they do overseas?
Other – are there any other important facts that should be mentioned?
Company 2
Address each of the four P’s (Price, Product, Place, and Promotion)
Briefly describe their major product/service lines – but do not describe individual products unless they only have one or two of them.
What is their competitive marketing strategy?
What is the overall image of the company in your opinion? How does this fir with the image they are trying to project?
Global/international marketing issues -are there any? What do they do overseas?
Other – are there any other important facts that should be mentioned?
IV. Social Responsibility (1-2 pages)
Describe the company’s social responsibility program or policy – if they have one.
Are there any significant current or past ethical issues as it relates to marketing?
Is this firm both socially responsible and ethical in your opinion? Why or why not?
V. Conclusion
© Richard Hyland 2009 Final Group Project 1-5-10

Content Based Image Retrieval System Project

An Efficient Content-based Image Retrieval System Integrating Wavelet-based Image Sub-blocks with Dominant Colors and Texture Analysis
Multimedia information retrieval is a part of computer science and it is used for extracting semantic information from multimedia data sources such as image, audio, video and text. Automatic image annotation is called as automatic image tagging or automatic linguistic indexing. It is the process in which a computer system automatically designates metadata in the form of keywords or captioning to a digital image. This application is widely used in image retrieval systems to locate and organize images from database. In this paper we have proposed efficient content based image retrieval (CBIR) systems due to the availability of large image database. The image retrieval system is used to retrieve the images based on color and texture features. Firstly, the image is partition into equal sized non-overlapping tiles. For partitioning images we are applying methods like, Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), HSV color feature, dominant color descriptor (DCD), cumulative color histogram and discrete wavelet transform. An integrated matching scheme can be used to compare the query images and database images based on the Most Similar Highest Priority (MSHP). Using the sub-blocks of query image and the images in database, the adjacency matrix of a bipartite graph is formed.

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Automatic image annotation is known as automatic image tagging or automatic linguistic indexing. It is the process in which a computer system automatically designates metadata in the form of keywords or captioning to a digital image. This application is widely used in image retrieval systems to locate and organize images from database. This method can be considered as multi class image classification with a large number of classes. The advantage of automatic image annotation is that the queries that can be specified by the user. Content based image retrieval requires users to search by images based on the color and texture and also is used to find example queries. The traditional methods of image retrieval are used to retrieve annotated images from large image database manually and which is an expensive, laborious and time consuming in existence.
Animage retrieval system is a computer system for searching, browsing and retrieving images from a largecollectionofdigital images. Most common and traditional methods of image retrieval use some methods of adding metadata such as captioning or descriptions and keywords to the images so that the retrieval can be performed over the annotation words. Image searchis used to find images from database and a user will provide a query terms as image file/link, keywords or click on some image and the system will return images similar to that query image. The similarity matching is done by using the Meta tags, color distribution in images and region/shape attributes.

Image Meta Search: – searching the images based on associated metadata such as text, keywords.
Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR):- This is the main application of computer vision to retrieve the images from image database. The aim of CBIR is used to retrieve images based on the similarities in their contents such as color, texture and shape instead of textual descriptions and comparing a user-specified image features or user-supplied query image.
CBIR Engine List: – This is used to search images based on image visual contents as color, texture, and shape/object.
Image Collection Exploration: – It is used to find images using novel exploration paradigms.

Content Based Image Retrieval:
Content based image retrieval is known asquery by image content(QBIC) andcontent-based visual information retrieval(CBVIR) and it is the application ofcomputer vision techniques to retrieve the images from digital image database. This is the image retrieval problem of finding for images in large image database. Content-based image retrieval is to provide more accuracy as compared to traditionalconcept-based approaches.
Content-based is the search that analyzes the contents of the image instead of metadata such as keywords, tags, or descriptions associated with that image. The term “content” in this context means textures, shapes, colors or any other information about image can be derived from the image itself. CBIR is popular because of its searches are purely dependent on metadata, annotation quality and completeness. If the images are annotated manually by entering the metadata or keywords in a large database can be a time consuming and sometime it cannot be capture the keywords preferred to describe its images. The CBIR method overcomes with the concept based image annotation or textual based image annotation. This is done by automatically.
Content Based Image Retrieval Using Image Distance Measures:-
In this the image distance measure method is used to compare the two images such as a query image and an image from database. An image distance measure method is used to compare the matching of two images in various dimensions as color, shape, texture and others. Finally these matching results can be sorted based of the distance to the queried image.
This is used to compute image distance measures based on color similarity. This is achieved by computing the color histogramfor each image and that is used to identify the proportion of each pixel within an image which is holding a specific values. Finally examine the images based on the colors, which contains most widely used techniques and it can be completed without consider to image size or orientation. It is used to segment color by spatial relationship and by region among several color region.
Textures are represented as texels and are then located into a number of sets based on a lot of textures and are detected in the images. These sets are used to define texture and also detect where the textures are located in images. Texture measures are used to define visual patterns in images. By using texture such as a two- dimensional gray level variation is to identify specific textures in an image is achieved. Using texture, the relative intensity of pairs of pixels is estimated such as contrast, regularity, coarseness and directionality.Identifying co-pixel variation patterns and grouping them with particular classes of textures like silky, orrough.

Different methods of classifying textures are:-

Co-occurrence matrix.
Laws texture energy.
Wavelet transforms.

In this paper a multscale context dependent classification algorithm is developed for segmenting collection of images into four classes. They are background, photograph, text, and graph. Here, features are used for categorization based on the distribution patterns of wavelet coefficients in high frequency bands. The important attribute of this algorithm is multscale nature and is used to classifies an image at different resolutions adaptively and enabling accurate classification at class boundaries. The collected context information is used for improving classification accuracy. In this two features are defined for distinguishing local image types in image database according to the distribution patterns of wavelet coefficients rather than the moments of wavelet coefficients as features for classification. The first feature is defined for matching between the empirical distribution of wavelet coefficients in high frequency bands and the Laplacian distribution. The second feature is defined for measuring the wavelet coefficients in high frequency bands at a few discrete values. This algorithm was developed to calculate the feature efficiently. The multscale structure collects context information from low resolutions to high resolutions. Classification is done on large blocks at the starting resolution to avoid over-localization. Here, only the blocks with extreme features are classified to ensure that the blocks of mixed classes are left to be classified at higher resolutions and the unclassified blocks are divided into smaller blocks at the higher resolution. These smaller blocks are classified based on the context information achieved at the lower resolution. Finally simulations shows that the classification accuracy is significantly improved based on the context information. Multiscale algorithm is also provides both lower classification error rates and better visual results [1].
This paper proposed content based image retrieval technique that can be derived in a number of different domains as Medical Imaging, Data Mining, Weather forecasting, Education, Remote Sensing and Management of Earth Resources, Education. The content based image retrieval technique is used to annotate images automatically based on the features like color and texture known as WBCHIR (Wavelet Based Color Histogram Image Retrieval). Here, color and texture features are extracted using the color histogram and wavelet transformation and the mixture of these two features are strong to scaling and translation of objects in an image. In this, the proposed system i.e. CBIR has demonstrated a WANG image database containing 1000 general-purpose color images for a faster retrieval method. Here, the computational steps are effectively reduced based on the Wavelet transformation. The retrieval speed is increases by using the CBIR technique even though the time taken for retrieving images from 1000 of images in database is only a 5-6 minutes [2].
This paper presents content based image retrieval scheme for medical images. This is an efficient method of retrieving medical images based on the similarity of their visual contents. CBIR-MD system is used to facilitate doctors in retrieving related medical images from the image database to diagnose the disease efficiently. In this a CBIR system is proposed by which a query image is divided into identical sized sub-blocks and the feature extraction of each sub-block is conceded based on Haar wavelet and Fourier descriptor. Finally, matching the image process is provided using the Most Similar Highest Priority (MSHP) principle and by using the sub-blocks of query and target image, an adjacency matrix of bipartite graph partitioning (BGP) created [3].
In this paper a content based image retrieval (CBIR) system is proposed using the local and global color, texture, and shape features of selected image sub-blocks. These image sub-blocks are approximately identified by segmenting the image into small number of partitions of different patterns. Finding edge density and corner density in each image partition using edge thresholding, morphological dilation. The texture and color features of the identified regions are calculated using the histograms of the quantized HSV color space and Gray Level Co- occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and the combination of color and texture feature vector is evaluated for each region. The shape features are computed using the Edge Histogram Descriptor (EHD). The distance between the characteristics of the query image and target image is computed using the Euclidean distance measure. Finally the experimental results of this proposed method provides a improved retrieving result than retrieval using some of the existing methods [4].
An efficient content based image retrieval system plays an important role due to the availability of large image database. The Color-Texture and Dominant Color Based Image Retrieval System (CTDCIRS) is used to retrieve images based on the three features such as Dynamic Dominant Color (DDC), Motif Co-Occurrence Matrix (MCM) and Difference between Pixels of Scan Pattern (DBPSP). By using the fast color quantization algorithm, we can divide the image into eight partitions. From these eight partitions we obtained eight dominant colors. The texture of the image is obtained by using the MCM and DBPSP methods. MCM is derived based on the motif transformed image. It is related to color co-occurrence matrix (CCM) and it is the conventional pattern co-occurrence matrix and is used to calculate the possibility of the occurrence of same pixel color between each pixel and its nearby ones in each image, which is the attribute of the image. The drawback of MCM is used to capture the way of textures but not the difficulty of texture. To overcome this, we use DBPSP as texture feature. The combination of dominant color, MCM and DBPSP features are used in image retrieval system. This approach is efficient in retrieving the user interested images [5].
In this paper content based image retrieval approach is used. It consists of two features such as high level and low level features and these features includes color, texture and shape which are present in each image. By extracting these features we can retrieve the images from image database. To obtain better results, RGB space is converted into HSV space and YCbCr space is used for low level features. The low level features are to be used based upon the applications. Color feature in case of natural images and co-occurrence matrix in case of textured images yields better results [6].

To retrieve images more efficiently or accurately.
To improve the efficiency and accuracy by using the multi features for image retrieval (discrete wavelet transform).
Image classification and accuracy analysis.
Time saving.


Discrete Wavelet Transform.
Conversion to HSV Color Space.
Color Histogram Generation.
Dominant Color Descriptor.
Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM).

This architecture consists of two phases:

Training phase
Testing phase

These two phases of the proposed system consists of many blocks like image database, image partitioning, wavelet transform of image sub-blocks, RGB to HSV, non uniform quantization, histogram generation, dominant color description, textual analysis, query feature, similarity matching, feature database, returned images.
In training phase, the input image is retrieved from image database and then the image is being partitioned into equal sized sub-blocks. Further, for each sub-block of the partitioned image, wavelet transform is being applied. Then the conversion from RGB to HSV taken place preceded with non uniform quantization, inputted to histogram generation block where a color histogram is generated for the sub-blocks of the image. Then the dominant color descriptors are extracted and texture analysis of each sub-block of the image is done. Finally the image features from the feature database and the input image features are compared for the similarity matching using MSHP principle. Then the matched image is being returned.
In testing phase, the processing steps are same as training phase, except the input image is given as the query image by the user not collected from the image database.

It provides accurate image retrieving.
Comparative analysis and graph.
Provides better efficiency.

To retrieve images from image database, we can use discrete wavelet transform method based on color and texture features. The color feature of the pixels in an image can be described using HSV, color histogram and DCD methods, similarly texture distribution can be described using GLCM method. By using these methods we can achieve accurate retrieval of images.
[1] Jia Li, Member, IEEE, and Robert M. Gray, Fellow, IEEE, “Context-Based Multiscale Classification of Document Images Using Wavelet Coefficient Distributions”, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 9, No. 9, September 2000.
[2] Manimala Singha and K.Hemachandran, “Content Based Image Retrieval using Color and Texture”, Signal & Image Processing: An International Journal (SIPIJ) Vol.3, No.1, February 2012.
[3] Ashish Oberoi Deepak Sharma Manpreet Singh, “CBIR-MD/BGP: CBIR-MD System based on Bipartite Graph Partitioning”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 52– No.15, August 2012.
[4] E. R. Vimina and K. Poulose Jacob, “CBIR Using Local and Global Properties of Image Sub-blocks”, International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol. 48, November, 2012.
[5] M.Babu Rao Dr. B.Prabhakara Rao Dr. A.Govardhan, “CTDCIRS: Content based Image Retrieval System based on Dominant Color and Texture Features”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 18– No.6, March 2011.
[6] Gauri Deshpande, Megha Borse, “Image Retrieval with the use of Color and Texture Feature”, Gauri Deshpande et al, / (IJCSIT) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 2 (3) , 2011, 1018-1021.
[7] Sherin M. Youssef, Saleh Mesbah, Yasmine M. Mahmoud, “An Efficient Content-based Image Retrieval System Integrating Wavelet-based Image Sub-blocks with Dominant Colors and Texture Analysis”, Information Science and Digital Content Technology (ICIDT), 2012 8th International Conference on Volume:3 .

All in One Development Project Proposal

Project Proposal:
Restaurant & Convention
Table of Content





Background Project

Proposed Site Location ……………………………………………………………
Principal Reasons For Undertaking The Proposed Project ……….
Principal Function and Scale of the Building …………………………..
Problem Statement ………………………………………………………………..


Aim and Objective of Project

Strategic Objectives ………………………………………………………………
Solution to the Problem Statement ………………………………………..
Target Users …………………………………………………………………………..


Resources Required …………………………………………………………………………..


Proposed Output ………………………………………………………………………………..


Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………..


References ………………………………………………………………………………………..



Nowadays people are finding a place that they can eat, relax, hanging out with friends, meeting, and even held any events such as Birthday parties, Wedding and etc.; in a building or in other words all-in one building. In Malaysia, this type of building is rarely be found as people are looking for it. Most of the building in Malaysia have a single function.

Background Project

“Restaurant and Convention” is a place that people can eat in the building as well as having meeting or held any events.
Restaurant means a business that serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money. Normally, meals are served and be eaten in the restaurant or also can be take-out. Besides that, restaurant is a place for people to have a great time with family and friends.
Convention can be define as a place for large scale of people gathering with the same and common interest. Convention may refer to;

Meeting Convention: A place for individual people who meets at a certain arranged place and time in order to discuss in some common interest.
Fan Convention: It is a place to hold an event for the fans of a particular comic book, actors, celebrities, artists, gather to participate and do programs. Some also incorporate commercial activity.
Wedding Convention: Is a place where people hold a wedding ceremony at a certain arranged place and time.

So this proposed project is a combination between restaurant and convention where people can dine-in and at the same time can hold any events at the Convention halls.

Proposed Site Location

The proposed site location is located at the beach in Malacca called Klebang Beach. This beach is one of the best attraction in Malacca where the famous Coconut Shake is located near the beach. The purpose of choosing this site not only because of the attraction, it is because it has a nice view facing the sea, always have cool breeze blowing or natural ventilation, natural lighting from the sun and etc. Besides that, it is also near the main road, called Klebang Besar road. Below is the location map of Klebang beach from the Malacca State (Map 1.1) and proposed site of part of Klebang Beach (Map 1.2).

Map 1.1 Picture above shows the location of the site at the Part of Malacca Map.

Map 1.2 Picture above shows the site from the Klebang beach.

Principal Reasons For Undertaking The Proposed Project

The preparations for Malacca District development goals of the Malacca District Local Plan can be explained when the framework that has the details and important point for guiding the Malacca district development about five to ten years until the year of 2015, based on Vision 2020, Malacca State Government, and Ministry of Tourism and Culture.

Principal Function And Scale Of The Building

Based on the Background of Project above, function of “Restaurant and Convention” is for people to have meal and enjoy the time with friends and family. Besides the convention act as an event hall for people to do any wedding reception beside the beach scenery. Not only for wedding reception, other events such as meetings or even birthday parties can be held there too.
The estimated capacity of people in the building will be 1000 person on weekdays while 1500 during weekend. The Population will increase during the peak season such as School Holidays, Hari Raya Celebration, Chinese New Year and etc., as more people or family will visit Klebang Beach for their vacations or going back to their hometown.

Problem Statement

Based on Alor Gajah Municipal Council, the objective they stated for 2015 is, “to create a quality, sustainable and planned development in sectors as follows:

Infrastructure and Utilities
Public Facility

Out of these, the tourism and investment sectors will be the by-product of the district development efforts. However, even for tourism sector, potential areas for specific tourism will be identified to optimize the development effects on the tourism sector in this district.” (

Based on the statistics of visitors visited Jasin, Malacca, (Picture 1.3) which part of the proposed site, Klebang Beach, it shows that Jasin is famous and people do visits from time to time. Besides that, it can be a problem statement for this proposed project, which are Restaurant and Convention.

Picture 1.3 Picture above shows the visitors’ statistics that visited Jasin, Melaka. (
Apart from the Malacca state itself which is the majority of visitors, tourists from this country who came from the state of Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Kuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Penang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor and Terengganu. Tourists from outside also is of Neighboring countries of Singapore, the Netherlands and Australia. For tourism activities as well as migration, greatly affect the destination distance. Distance to the place of destination resorts will attract the number of tourists. Vice versa (Nicolas Mas, 2005). This explains why more tourists in the country against foreign tourists visiting to Malacca.

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Table 1 shows the country of origin of respondents who travel to Melaka. Based on the findings study, traveler’s original from Melaka is the most tourist compared tourists from other countries. The percentage of tourists who hails from Malacca was 32.1 percent. From this table, the visitors that visits Malacca can be broken down into two which are tourists in the country and overseas tourists. The number of tourists in the country, 93.6 percent of the tourists who come from States that are in Malaysia while foreign tourists whose numbers were only 6.4 percent of the tourists who come from outside from Malaysia, based on, Geography Online TM Malaysian Journal of Society and Space 9 issue 3 (12-23) 17 © 2013, ISSN 2180-2491.

Table 1 Table above shows Tourists from Other Countries and States in Malaysia that visit Malacca in the 2013. (

Aim and Objective of Project

The main purpose of this Restaurant and Convention project is the development is cost effective and will provide the state government with a return on investment in terms of tourism and economic levels.

Strategic Objectives

Enable the Restaurant and Convention to continue to grow its business and compete effectively and internationally in the convention and exhibition market.
Provide Facilities to people surroundings such as recreation, commercial and infrastructure.
To boost the popularity and attraction of Klebang Beach and some place surrounding.
Since it is a restaurant, so is too ensure customer satisfaction and build a repeat-customer base.
Besides it is to fulfill the people and the site needs, so that it will reach the people satisfaction.

Solution to the Problem Statement

All-In-One Development

As the first problem stated above by Alor Gajah Municipal Council, they want to develop a sustainable and effective development which are as above aspects. The aspects are:

Infrastructure and Utilities
Public Facility

So, solution to this problem is to combine some of the aspects together which is the proposed project. The proposed project which are combination of Infrastructure and Utilities, Recreations, Social/Community, Public Facilities and Commercial. With this combination, it can safe cost by develop all the aspects in one building instead of separate development. Not only can save cost, it can preserve the natural environment and nature surrounding at once, it can reduce the negative impact on nature. Since the proposed site is a beach, it will not pollute the beach during and also after construction.


It will also provide facilities to the people surrounding and also throughout the nation, Malaysia. As the proposed project is “Restaurant and Convention”, the development will not only consist of restaurant and convention halls. The development will consists of reading areas, IT areas, recreational areas, meeting rooms and etc. These facilities can serve the public efficiently. As I mentioned above, wedding halls are part of the convention halls in the development. Beach wedding reception is rarely found in Malaysia. With this development, it can provide wedding beach facilities and boost the economy level in Malacca as well as Malaysia.

Increase Attraction

Klebang is one of the potential area in Malacca besides the main city, Bandar Hilir. Attraction at Klebang is one of the factors that made Klebang Famous. The attractions are as follows:

People from all over Malacca and even Malaysia spend their time with friends and families at the beach. It has a really nice view of sea with cool breeze ventilating the area. It is a very nice place relax and spend time together.

Klebang beach has a very interesting snack, The Famous Coconut Shake, which is fresh coconut filling blend together with ice and Vanilla ice cream. This snack attracts people from Malaysia and even tourists that come from China, Japan and others.

Bustel is a word combination come from Bus and Hotel. Beside the coconut shake, this hotel is made from old bus and converted in hotels. This is to bring back the past time and make it into something new or in other word preserving. Tourist enjoy staying in Bustel because of the strategic place.

Target Users


Resources Required

Some resources and information are required for me to gather and refer that related to the proposed project such as research paper, location drawing, site drawing, survey drawing, case studies and others. These resources helps to consider the main aspects and criteria in order to design the proposed project, Restaurant and Convention.

Proposed Output

This proposal is to meet the output requirements in terms of drawings, 3D CAD presentation and physical models etc. There are several presentation techniques. 2D, 3D CAD or manual drawings will be used for this proposed project. By the end of this proposal, the effectiveness and appropriateness of the drawings/material presented, not the method used.


In a nutshell, Restaurant and Convention is a public facilities for the people surrounding to use efficiently. It is a relaxing place for families and friends to get together and enjoy the beach scenery with natural wind blowing while they are having their meal at the restaurant or while they are having any events at the convention hall.

References,. ‘Official Portal Of Alor Gajah Municipal Council – Special Area Plan’. Web. 2 Feb. 2015.

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,. ‘Pembangunan Pelancongan Lestari Di Melaka: Perspektif Pelancong’. N.p., 2013. Web. 2 Feb. 2015.,. ‘LAMAN UTAMA’. Web. 2 Feb. 2015.