Developments in Public Interest Towards Plastic Pollution

How public interest towards Plastic Pollution changed through time: a Google Trends data analysis

Abstract

Plastic pollution is a very hot topic. Many documentaries and media are starting to communicate the problem to the public. But has the public an increasing interest in it? We analysed worldwide data from Google searches in a 15-years span. We looked at how the volume of search (VOS) for three plastic pollution-related words changed through time. These words were searched significantly more, and we modelled these changes. With these results, our research highlights the growing interest towards plastic pollution which is extremely important to define new researches and policies. 

Introduction

Public interest is very important to drive conservation success (1). But how can we measure public interest on environmental issues? Scientists used surveys before the age of the Internet and Big Data. Nowadays, the volume of internet searches operated by search engines can be a good proxy of people interest. Google is the main search engine in the world, it powers 74% of the searches worldwide(2). Google Inc. owns Google Trends (trends.google.com) a public tool to measure people interests. It has a website where we can look-up how frequently a word was searched in a specific time window and in different geographic areas. It is possible to download the data as .csv files. The data are also available in R environment, using the package ‘gtrendsR’ (3).

Google Trends data have been used in different fields, such as epidemiology (4)(5) and economy(6). Recently, Nghiem et al. (7), analysed the suitability of  Google Trends data to measure the interest in conservation topics. The terms considered in Nghiem et al. study didn’t include the problem of plastic pollution.

Plastic Pollution is a very hot topic. Eriksen et al. (8) estimated 5.25 trillion plastic particles, weighing 268,940 tons float in our oceans. We have the general idea that there was an increase in the interest of the media toward this problem. The Pacific Garbage Patch was sampled in the summer of 2009, the documentary “A plastic Ocean” was released in 2013, David Attenborough’s “Blue Planet” season finale on December 2017 was focused on plastic pollution, on October 2018 the Ocean Cleanup started using the System 001 to clean the Great Pacific Patch. Meanwhile more and more social media profiles on Zero Waste lifestyle were born. We want to test if there was a statistical increase in the VOS for plastic pollution related terms. This increase will be considered a measure of public interest. As highlighted by Phillis et al. (1) public interest is a very important element to drive policies and scientific research. An increase in people’s interest is a good sign towards the resolution of a big problem, as is plastic pollution.

Methods

We selected three keywords to understand the interest of people in plastic pollution-related topics: plastic pollution, garbage patch, and zero waste. These short terms are specific and generally not confused with other popular not plastic pollution-related search keywords (e.g. the single word plastic has many different contexts such as plastic surgery or as property of a material). To extract the data from Google Trends we used the R package ‘gtrendsR’(3). We used the VOS for these terms in monthly intervals from January 2004 to February 2019 with a total of 182 data points (n=182) for each keyword. The VOS on Google Trends is expressed as a number from 1 to 100, where 100 is the peak popularity for the term and a value of 0 means that there was not enough data. These values are always related to the term itself and a comparison between one or more term would not be meaningful for our purpose. Moreover, these values are not given as a measure in relation to the absolute total volume of researches. To overcome these problems, we corrected the research value with two benchmark terms. According to Malcevschi et al.(9) and to Nghiem et al.(7) we selected life and love as benchmarks. These words have a constant trend. We then divided the VOS for the plastic pollution-related terms by the VOS of life and love to have corrected values. To analyse and manipulate data we used R version 3.5.0. We analysed the distribution of the benchmark-corrected VOSs. None of them was normally distributed. Plastic pollution and zero waste have a right skewed distribution, while garbage patch has a distribution with two peaks. We first ran a seasonal Mann-Kendall test from the R package ‘Kendall’(10) following Nghiem et al.(7). This is a non-parametric test that gives you a  (tau) value, a positive value means an upward trend. In the case of positive trends, we performed generalised linear models with quasipoisson family to quantify the monthly amount of change in volumes of search. We use the VOSs corrected by the benchmark terms as response variable. The date was our explanatory variable.

Results

The seasonal Mann-Kendal test returns all significant positive values for all the benchmark-corrected words (table1). This means that we have positive trends for all three words.

Word

love

life

plastic pollution

0.387 (

0.562 (

garbage patch

0.371 (

0.403 (

zero waste

0.618 (

0.779 (

Table 1. Mann-Kendall’s   statistic (and 2-sided p-value in brackets for different plastic pollution related words and different benchmark terms).

The models gave us significant values for intercept and slope (table 2). The effect size is bigger in zero waste and plastic pollution than in garbage patch. One increase in date corresponds to a 0.0377-0.0467% increase in VOS for plastic pollution, 0.0212-0.0247% increase for garbage patch and 0.0426-0.0506% increase for zero waste. Table 2 summarizes effect sizes and parameters estimates.

Word

Benchmark

Variable

Estimates

Precision (SE)

Effect size

plastic pollution

love

Intercept (VOS)

-7.7378

2.0865

1.000377

Date

0.000378

0.000129

life

Intercept (VOS)

-9.0663

2.0763

1.000467

Date

0.000467

0.000127

garbage patch

love

Intercept (VOS)

-4.3300

1.2830

1.000212

Date

0.000212

0.0000813

life

Intercept (VOS)

-4.7639

1.2270

1.000247

Date

0.000247

0.000077

zero waste

love

Intercept (VOS)

-8.0198

1.6707

1.000426

Date

0.000426

0.000103

life

Intercept (VOS)

-9.1711

1.6437

1.000506

Date

0.000506

0.0001

Table 2.Parameters estimates, SEs and Effect Sizes from each models for each words and benchmark term. For every increase in day the value of the VOS is the effect size value times the VOS value of the previous day.

Figure 1. Plots of research volumes of plastic pollution, garbage patch and zero waste for each benchmark term. The volume of research is plotted by date. The black lines represent the models.

Discussion

Different studies have found negative trends in the public interest towards environmental issues (11), while others have shown the opposite (7). Our results show an increasing trend in the public interest in plastic pollution. Though, it is not easy to quantify the amount of increase. The VOSs present a not normal distribution. This is due to many stochastic events that are very difficult to take into consideration. The distribution is influenced by human psychological dynamics, events and how these are communicated by news and media. For example, garbage patch has many peaks. Two correspond (Summer 2009) to an expedition on the pacific garbage patch. Plastic pollution has some picks in April, May and June 2018, this might be because in June 2018 National Geographic published an issued dedicated to plastic pollution. It is hard to understand the reasons of peaks and it needs more accurate research.

Many might argue that Google is not widespread enough to perform such analyses worldwide. Malcevschi et al. (9) analysed both Google and Yahoo! data. They found similar trends despite difference in the number of users. Thus, we assume that Google Trends reflects the other search engine trends as well.

This research has an English-centred approach. For a more detailed picture we should analyse the same words in different languages (9). Different languages and cultures might have different concerns and outputs (7). Moreover, to be sure of the actual increase in interest we should analyse more keywords, for example plastic waste, plastic free and pacific garbage.

The results for the three chosen words show positive trends in the whole 15 years period. The VOSs fluctuate due to reasons difficult to model, but the Mann-Kendall test is a clear evidence of the positive trends. As suggested in another study (1), the increase in public interest towards environmental problems is a good factor to drive scientific research and policies. The Plastic Pollution crisis needs more scientific research and more governments legislations, our research suggests that we have the increasing public interest to achieve these objectives.

References

1.  Phillis CC, Regan SMO, Green SJ, Bruce JEB, Anderson SC, Linton JN, et al. Multiple pathways to conservation success. 2013;6:98–106.

2.  Net MarketShare [Internet]. 2019. Available from: https://netmarketshare.com

3.  Massicotte Philippe and Eddelbuettel Dirk. gtrendsR: Perform and Display Google Trends Queries [Internet]. 2018. Available from: https://cran.r-project.org/package=gtrendsR

4.  Ginsberg J, Mohebbi MH, Patel RS, Brammer L, Smolinski MS, Brilliant L. Detecting influenza epidemics using search engine query data. Nature [Internet]. 2009;457(7232):1012–4. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature07634

5.  Wang J, Zhang T, Lu Y, Zhou G, Chen Q, Niu B. Vesicular stomatitis forecasting based on Google Trends. 2018;1–16.

6.  Choi H, Varian HAL. Predicting the Present with Google Trends. 2012;88:2–9.

7.  Nghiem LTP, Papworth SK, Lim FKS, Carrasco LR. Analysis of the Capacity of Google Trends to Measure Interest in Conservation Topics and the Role of Online News. 2016;1–12.

8.  Eriksen M, Lebreton LCM, Carson HS, Thiel M, Moore CJ, Borerro JC, et al. Plastic Pollution in the World ’ s Oceans : More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250 , 000 Tons Afloat at Sea. 2014;1–15.

9.  Malcevschi S, Marchini A, Savini D, Facchinetti T. Opportunities for Web-Based Indicators in Environmental Sciences. 2012;7(8).

10.  A.I. McLeod. Kendall: Kendall rank correlation and Mann-Kendall trend test [Internet]. 2011. Available from: https://cran.r-project.org/package=Kendall

11.  Funk SM, Rusowsky D. analysing internet search data as a proxy for public interest toward the environment. 2014;3101–12.

 

 

What I have learnt during the last two weeks.

These two weeks of miniproject where very helpful to understand my interests and to give me the confidence that I needed to work with R. It was also a chance to exercise my writing skills in a deeper way.

It took me a very long time to decide what to work on. I could not find a topic I was passionate about. I looked at many different topics and started to play with datasets. I have learnt how to generate a word cloud and I assembled and disassembled datasets before understanding that they weren’t my cup of tea. Luckily, I have started doing that very soon. This was not a waste of time as I learned something new and on my own, which gave me more confidence in myself. Now I know that I am able to find the tools to tackle problems in R, but I also know that sometimes it might take time, so it is better to act sooner than later.

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I had moments when it was difficult to understand my results. I think the best way to deal with that is, first of all, to take a break. Sometimes my brain is just tired and needs time to cool down doing completely different things. It happens, that in a moment of break the correct understanding came to me without actively thinking. Secondly, I think it is important to ask for help from colleagues or people that can support you (for example your supervisor). External eyes might see different shades of your data, which is very helpful.

At the start of this master I realised my critical thinking skills were not as good as I thought, and this project really helped me practise them. Even talking with my colleagues or helpers is good practice for critical thinking. Debating and explaining my project was a good process to find limitations and answer critiques and problems.

From writing the miniproject report I finally understand why it is better to start writing as soon as possible. This really helped me in managing my time better. I had time to revisit my writing after a while with a clearer mind. Starting to write sooner also helps to feel less pressure.

I am happy of the past two weeks and really enjoyed this kind of work. I feel more confident on what I have learnt in the last months. I improved the skill of looking for answers on my own, but also to ask for help and confrontation. Other people might be a good source for help.

Public Health Obesity And Nhs Health And Social Care Essay

When the NHS was established in 1948, one of its founding principles was that it should improve health and prevent disease as well as providing treatment for those who are ill. In November 2004, the government produces a white paper choosing health, and one of its main purposes was to improve health of the national by setting goals, putting strategies and guidelines that would have the effect of increasing the general standard of the Public health (Choosing Health 2004). Although this white paper has many strands but the one which will be looked on this assignment is obesity as a Public health issue.

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This essay will start by looking the concept of health and it will look Public health and how it relates with overall care of obesity. A scenario will be used to describe the physiology of obesity’s patient and how it is affecting psycho social perspective of their life. The essay will also explain the roles of nurse in supporting individuals with health problems within the community setting as a part of inter-professional team. Government policies and frameworks in relation to patient needs will be provided. Different sources of information such as internet, books and journals to demonstrate the points will be used. Any name mentioned in this scenario has been changed in order to respect individuals’ confidentiality and comply with the code of NMC (2008).
Health has been seen as a complex concept. It means that health has different things to different people and is affected by a wide range of factors such as lifestyles, social, economic and environment such as whether people live in as a free society, what social support network are available, and how they live in terms of employment, income and housing (Simnett et al 2003). Health has two common meanings, one is negative which is the absence of disease or illness and is the meaning of health within the western scientific medical model. The other meaning of health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing, not merely the absence of disease or illness (Naidoo et al 2000). Other writer such as Seedhouse suggests that health is about improving people’s quality of life by enabling them to fulfill their own potential and empowering them so that they are capable of becoming (Simnett et al 2003). According to Ottawa Charter of November 1986, a conference primarily was response for growing expectation for new Public health movement around the world has seen health as a resource of everyday life not the objective of living (W.H.O 2000).
There are huge ranges of factors that affect health. Health can be affected by genetic, gender, lifestyle and behavior, housing, environment, food policy and many more. In Acheson report into inequalities in health on socio economic model of health, it shows the main determinants of health as layers of influence one over another. At the centre are individuals with their inbuilt genetic, age and gender related factors. Surrounding the individuals are layers of influences that in theory could be modified to allow the best possible of health. The inner layer is their personal behavior or lifestyle, with factors such as smoking and drinking habits, and physical activities with the potential to promote or damage health. Individuals are seldom alone; they interact with friends, relatives and community and come under social and community influence. This model emphasizes interaction between these layers. The model has been used to guide research for example it shows that the social environmental people live is related to their health behavior, patterns of eating, drinking, smoking and physical activities. The model also demonstrates the various interventions on attempting to change individuals’ risks by encouraging people give up smoking and change diet (Acheson 1998).
Obesity is a condition which weight gain has reached a point where it causes a significant risk of health (NICE 2006). World Health Organization defined obesity as abnormal or excessive fat increase that may impair health; this means BMI (Body Mass Index) is equal to or more than 30. (BMI is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) World Health Organization indicated that, globally approximately 400 adults and 20 million children under the age of 5 were obese on 2005 and by 2015 the number will reach more than 700 million. Obesity is one of the most Public Health challenges of the 21st century in the world and is already responsible for 2 to 8% of the health cost and 10 to 13% of deaths indifferent parts of the region. Obesity is also a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability (WHO 2010). Public health is a social and political concept aimed at the improving health, prolonging and improving quality of life of the population through promotion, prevention of disease and other forms of interventions (Acheson Report 1988).
According to the Department of Health guidance of March 2006, obesity is one of the biggest public health issues facing England. Estimates suggest that more than twelve millions adults and one million children will be obese by 2010 if no action is taken (NICE 2006). Obesity has grown up almost by 400% in the last twenty five years and it will entail levels of sickness that will put huge pressure on the health services (The House of Common 2004). According to the government study of 2007, half of the population could be obese within 25. Obesity has a substantial human cost by contributing to the start of the disease and premature mortality and it has serious financial consequences for the National Health Service (NAO 2001). It suggests the cost of epidemic, in terms of health care provision could reach 45 billion a year by 2050 (BBC 2007). There is also a cost to society and economic mostly on sickness absences which reduce productivity (DOH 2010).
The cause of Obesity is complex, and can be grouped into different areas. Individual’s genes may play an important part in influencing metabolism and the amount of fat tissues in the body. Genes could also affect individual’s behavior, inclining individual towards lifestyle choices that may increase the risks of obesity. The risks of excess weight also can be contributed by the pattern of growth during early life. The growth of the baby’s rate in the womb, following the birth is the part determined by parent’s factors especially with regards to mother’s diet and how she feed the baby (DOH 2008). The availability of more variety, cheaper and testes processed food with bigger size portion has also contributed obesity. More people are eating pre package food, fast food and soft drinks which are regularly high in calories, salt, fat and sugar. These foods are heavily advertised especially to children (Cancer Research UK 2009). The modern physical environment has contributed to increasingly inactive lifestyle over the past fifty years because of changing in work and shopping patterns from local to distant that has results people dependence on motorized transport. Other factor is UK has changed from an industrial to a service based-economic therefore fewer jobs are now requiring physical work. Obesity has also been contributed by poor urban planning where pedestrians and cyclists have lower priorities than for motor vehicle. Most people now spend less time on active games and more time in sitting at the computer, watching TV and playing video games. Our exercise, eating and drinking habits also are greatly influenced social and psychological factors (DOH 2008).
This example relate to an obese and a type two diabetes patient whom has been referred to District Nurse by a General Practitioner following her health condition. Her name is Maria, sixty two years old and she lives alone in a one bedroom flat. Maria is hardly walks because of her condition; she spends more time sitting in a chair and sleeping on her bed. She depends on Carer for her personal hygiene and preparing meals. A District Nurse visits her twice a day to administer insulin. Maria sometimes looks to be confused. She has been advised several times by Dietician and District nurse on her habits of eating unhealthy food, but she says she is not bothering and she does not feel sorry with her condition. Maria background shows that her father was obese and a diabetic, he dead from heart failure.
Obesity is a central player of pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. It is a major contributor to the metabolic dysfunction involving lipid and glucose. It influences organ dysfunction involving liver, endocrine, pulmonary and reproductive functions. It also increases the chances of myocardial infarction (Redinger 2007). Diabetes can cause heart disease, amputation, kidney failure and more death than cancer (Diabetes UK 2080). The case study shows that Maria father had died from heart disease.
People like Maria needs support to improve their health. The support could be treatment, a promotion activity, or a care services. According to the Ottawa Charter, health promotion is a strategy that aims to integrate skills and community development and to create supportive environments for health, make efforts to build healthy public policy and look at re orienting health services (WHO 1986). The Jakarta declaration on leading health promotion into the 21st century confirms that this strategy and action areas are relevant to all countries including cities, municipalities, local communities, schools, workplaces and healthcare services. The declaration identifies priorities on promoting health social responsibility, expand health promotion partnership, empower the individual and expand community capacity and secure health promotion infrastructure (WHO 1998). The WHO global strategy on diet, physical activities and health urged all the stake holders to take action to support healthy diets and physical activity global, regional, and local levels to reduce the prevalence of chronic disease and their common risk factors, primarily unhealthy diet and physical activities (WHO 2010).
In 1999, the UK government document Our Health Nation, has identified a three way partnership for a better health. The government, local communities and individual have to work together in partnership to improve our health. Partners include the government, health authorities, local authorities, business, voluntary bodies and individuals (DOH 1999).
Locally, Community care means to provide the right level of intervention and support to people and enable to achieve maximum independence and control over their own lives (Titterton 1994). The Acheson report on Public health, it defined public health as the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health the organized effort of society (Naidoo et al 2000). NHS original goals of providing a comprehensive health service, improving physical and mental health and to prevent, diagnose and treat illness is much in common with the health promotion. Use of the health services is universal so that everyone at some point in their lives comes into contact with the health service providers. Primary health care is the first level of contact of individuals and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live (MacDonald 1993). Primary health care provides a setting where health promotion at primary, secondary and tertiary levels takes place (Naidoo et al 2000). The primary prevention is to delay or prevent the beginning of disease. Joyce treatment of diabetes would have started at this point by screening and advising on changing diet and her lifestyle (SIGN 2007). The secondary and tertiary prevention is sought to reduce the occurrence of relapses and the establishment of chronic conditions through example, effective rehabilitation (WHO 1998). At secondary stage patients are vulnerable and require regular monitoring such as weight monitoring, signs of deterioration, etc.
One of the aims of the district nurses in the community is to improve health of the population by reducing obesity and increase the awareness of the positive healthy behaviors in community. Nurses delivering public health by influencing public policy and health promotion and are working to create the opportunity for people to live positive healthy lives (RCN 2007). The first visit of District nurse to Maria’s home was to assess the needs and prepare a care plan. The plan will include advice and educate on health eating and blood sugar management. District nurse visits will include administering of insulin depend on how serious the diabetes is. Because Maria spends more time sitting, the chance of developing pressure sore and leg ulcer is higher, a District nurse will advice Maria on how to avoid possible break of skin. The district nurse will refer Maria to dietician for advice on Maria’s diet, physiotherapist to help her on physical problems and occupational therapist who will work to improve her ability to perform daily tasks. A district nurse will do referral to social service if required. The general practitioner will be involve in the care of Maria on prescribing insulin and losing weight medicine such as orlistat which works by blocking the action of enzymes that is used to digest fat ( NHS choices 2010).
On the government side, Department of Health is responsible for policy on public health aspects of diet, nutrition and physical activities. It ensure that public and others have the information they need to improve health. It sets national priorities to improve health and reduce health inequalities. It also commissions research on the effectiveness of interventions. Department of Health works together with the Department for Education on promoting education and health school also encourage young people to be active by participating in sports within and beyond school. Schools provide a healthy diet and education and nutrition so that young people can eat a balanced nutrition diet. Department of health also works with other department such as the Department the culture, media and sports to promoting walking and cycling, facilitate active leisure and to improve quality of life for sporting activities so that more people to participate in sports( NAO 2001).
Many people like Maria do not even know that obesity as a problem because they have no access to health information services or support for individuals need’s for information is sometimes underestimated. It could be even health practitioners do not use their skills to promote health of individuals. Health professionals need to work face to face to with individuals so that to provide advising and persuading them to make them change their lifestyles. Accurate and appropriate information about people’s health should be provided and what social and behavior factors can affect their health. People should be made aware of important of health benefits associated with active lifestyle for examples, improve their self efficacy and confidence and enhanced their social opportunity. They should be aware that food high in fat, sugar and salt are not necessary and should be avoided or eaten in minimum (SIGN 2010).
To summing up, obesity is possibly dominating the public health issue in UK today and its effect can not be seen as an individual but is a society a whole. Communities, individuals and other groups need to work together in tackling obesity epidemic and work together in promoting health and well being.
 

Historical Development f Public Administration

Since at least the 1970s, public administration has been characterized by an intellectual identity crisis, the various dimensions of which can be most compactly summarized as the “legitimacy problem.”
Drawing from specific authors and schools of thought, outline the major dimensions of the legitimacy problem in public administration and describe the ways in which scholars and reformers have diagnosed and attempted to “resolve” this problem.
Next, explain why the legitimacy problem matters. What is at stake? In considering this aspect of the question, you should think about how the issues presented via the legitimacy question affect the everyday practice of democratic government and the identity of public administration as a field of study.
The debate over public administration identity and its legitimacy problem have been the focus for many years, and very likely to continue in foreseeable future. Previous scholars in public administration have examined this issue through a variety of approaches and perspectives. More specifically, the framing of the legitimacy issue and identity crisis in the discipline are all subjected to different scholars’ own focus and perception about the world. Perhaps the origin of the problem can be dated back to the establishment of US nation, when Founding Fathers drafted the constitution and design three branches of government with check and balance mechanism, they left out public administration, which others might considered that public administration is not a democratic production due to its hieratical structure, and therefore, does not have a legitimate place in government. In general, we can summarize these debates into following aspects: the accountability aspect, constitutional aspect, role of government aspect, and method of public administration employ to approach both academic study and practical matters. These issues affect how we conceptualize the practice of public administration as well as the conduct of research inquiry in the field.

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Historical development of public administration (accountability aspect)
The earliest scholars who mention the identity of public administration are Wodrow Wilson and Goodnow, which also raise the issue of politic-administration dichotomy. During the early period of 20th century, the government system is considered to be corrupted with patronages. Therefore, Wilson argued that there should be a distinct separation between politics and administration, and Goodnow further conclude that politics is the representation of people’s will and administration is the execution of that will. They envision a bureaucratic system with hieratical structure and formal rules and regulations, and expert administrators will act faithfully according to the political system. This notion give rise to the debate between Friedrik and Finer, where on one hand, Finer believes in strict regulation that guard against administrators abuse the power and administrators should only focus on the technical issues, while Friedrik was arguing administrators are experts and should actively engage in policymaking process. In addition, such dichotomy between politics and administration also revisited by scholars Dwight Waldo and Herbert Simon. Waldo in his Administrative State, points out that the dichotomy is between facts and values, which is impossible and should not be separate in government, since public administration deals with people’s perception toward the state, and the study as well as practice of it should be guided by different normative values. Simon on the other hand, in Administrative Behavior, arguing while there is close relation between politics and administration, the purpose of public administration should focus on the most efficient way to carry out those values.
Empirical aspects of legitimacy problem
(Role of the government aspect) There are multiple aspects revolving legitimacy problem, from empirical and practical aspect, Nye et al in their book government and its discontented perform empirical test and found that US public has low trust in government and perceive it as inefficient and ineffective which poses the legitimacy problem for the government. Such negative perception toward government, according to David Harvey is stem from neoliberalism, especially against Keynes approach to expend the government during Roosevelt administration. Essentially, the debate over the role of government, or the tension between neoliberalism and Keynes approach, is about the identity of public administration. In other words, neoliberalism considers administrators as hindrance while Keynes supporter see positive value in them. This also introduced the era of New Public Management (NPM) reform. According to scholars Lynn and Kettl, NPM advocates for emphasis on efficiency and accountability to customers, and the market approach which include privatization of services, contract out government service to private and non-profit sectors. However, recent scholars like Stivers, King et al, Denhardt, Fung, Nabatchi, and Lucio, they see weakness in empathizing rolling back or hollowing out the state, and highlight the importance of people trust and connection with others, which government should play active role.
(Constitution aspect) Another point of attention in legitimacy problem resides in the constitution, or federalist and anti-federalist debate. Constitution did not directly mention the creation of an administrative system but focus on separation of power, which produced the ambiguities of whether public administration is legitimate or not. Scholar Spicer believe the reason is because constitution regards people as not always rational and must rely on formal rules and structure, and government establishes its legitimacy through a federalist view. However, other scholars have different perspectives than Spicer’s. For example, McSwite argues that the creation of constitution is a compromise act, a conflict between the social elites that want to ensure their interests and lower members of society, in which the elites successfully create a centralized government that serve the interest of few. Therefore, McSwite was champion a more direct form of democracy system that can alleviate the legitimacy problem. On the other hand, scholar Rohr disagree with McSwite’s position and believes that constitution was actually intended for public administration to exist because constitution limits the legislature branch’s ability to fully represent people’s will. In other words, Rohr suggest that the legitimacy problem occurs due to different interpretation of constitution, and the solution to government legitimacy problem is public administration since administrators are closer to the people compare to congress.
Major schools of thoughts and scholars (method aspect)
It is not surprising that same constitution could have several different meaning for different scholar, which correspond to scholar David Farmer’s argument that social reality is different for different groups because each scholars understanding and approach the field is limited by their own experience and knowledge. Coming from a post-modernist perspective, Farmer suggests that the study of public administration should approach through examining the characteristics underlying in current society. In other words, Farmer’s solution to the public administration identity crisis is to examine the reality through different perspective, which allows for a better understanding of reality. In particular, he points out the limitation of contemporary methods in the practice of public administration which include emphasis on scientific reasoning in the discipline and market-ism in practice. On one hand, scientific reasoning overlooks values and ethic dimension. On the other, market approach practice contradicts with government’s goal of improving public wellness. Fundamentally, post-modernist perspective caution that reasons and rationality might hinder our understanding of the reality. Similar to Farmer’s post-modernist perspective, Stivers approach this science and enterprise method in public administration through feminism perspective. Stivers points out that current foundation for public administration was established on gender differences, where masculine attributes like science and rationality overcome the common attributes like trust and caring which considered to be feminine. In addition, Stivers believes that the legitimacy crisis is rooted in the nature of public administration, in which she argues that it is essentially about public trust and connection with each other, the attributes considered to be feminine. Yet public administration legitimacy was established through masculinity, therefore, which caused the decrease of interest in social wellness and seeks efficiency of individual interest. According to Stivers, the end result of that conflict leads to the legitimacy problem, therefore, Stivers believe the solution to the problem is that administrators should focus on improving the relationship and connection between individual among society, and enhance people’s notion of the public. Similarly, Stivers’s notion corresponds to Waldo’s previous suggestion. Waldo strongly disagree with public administration as a value-neutral discipline that apply scientific method to pursuit efficiency, he argues that efficiency is essentially a value also, and to emphasize on efficiency along will sacrifices other normative values. The famous example Waldo use is that Germany’s approach during World War II of ethnic cleansing is extremely efficient. Recent scholars like Denhardts also argue another weakness in scientific inquiry into public administration study is the risk that disregard as irrational in people’s behaviors that are not driven by rationality or self-interest.
To summarize the method aspect of legitimacy problem, for practitioners, the identity crisis resides in their perception toward different governance approaches: in traditional governance, the method is command and control; in market governance, the method is self-interest; and in collaboration governance, the method is trust and negotiation. How administrators identify which approach should take depend on their beliefs and perception. On the other hand, the methodological aspect of identity crisis in the academic study of public administration revolving around whether public administration is an art that surround with different values and perspectives; or a science that focus on analyzing facts. Scholar Raaschelders propose his solution to identity crisis by acknowledging there are advantages in each of inquiry methods, and the solution to this problem is to put this debate aside and move on.
Why legitimacy problem important?
Legitimacy issue is a critical challenge facing public administration for both government and academic discipline. Not surprisingly, scholars who participated in the debate over identity crisis all have their own argument why legitimacy issue is a serious problem. For example, scholar Rohr points out that if administration was seen as illegitimate to the people, this will lead to social unrest. Also, Ostrom, in the book “intellectual crisis in public administration” mentioned that the incidents like Watergate could be attributed to the crisis of legitimacy. Aside from previous scholars’ concerns, in my opinion, for academic scholars studying in the field of public administration, if we fail to reach consensus on what is public administration and what elements constitute a legitimate knowledge inquiry, then, public administration might be under the risk of being a subfield to another discipline, or even fractionized into several. In addition, the identity crisis of “what is public administration” can also complicated the intellectual crisis of “what the study of public administration should focus”. The failure of defining core identity and drawing a clear boundary of inquiry might jeopardize future development of public administration study. While my concerns might not be the same as what scholars like Raaschelders and Denhardt have argued, Raaschelders suggests that current debate over identity of public administration on its methodological approaches is backward, and somewhat meaningless due to the complexity nature of government rendering the true understanding of reality impossible, therefore, future scholars should just move beyond this debate and consider public administration discipline as an interdisciplinary study like a harbor anchoring multi-face studies. Denhardt on the other hand, argues that current emphasis on scientific method might limit the room for other considerations. Therefore, the study of public administration should include other perspectives. These are valid arguments, however, I believe how scholars perceive their studies and how the field defines itself will significantly shape future study and the methods. Yet in the education of public administration, which deals with the training of future administrators, and the curriculum design is associated with what capacity scholars believe administrators should have. My argument for the importance of legitimacy problem is that while public administration discipline includes various schools of thought with their own advantages and weakness, if the academic field is so complex and scholars cannot draw a boundary to the knowledge, then the accumulation of knowledge created since the inception of public administration, combine with extreme diverse scholars’ perception and methodology, I fear that the wide range content cover in current education system might exceed student’s capacity to comprehend. In more simplistic terms, my argument is that there is no doubt that every schools of thought is valuable and impossible to decide which one is outside the realm of public administration, however, the sheer amount of public administration knowledge still requires and challenges this discipline to triage its body of scholars’ work, so that the training and cultivation of future administrator is possible. Otherwise, over time, this problem of drawing definition might translates to future government administrators and the public struggling with the different experience and understanding; perceptions of government’s role; and their approach to formulate and implement policy.
 

Diabetes A Major Public Health Issue Health Essay

According to current estimates about 366 million people have diabetes in 2011 all over world. It has been projected that by 2030 this will have risen to 552 million. The number of people with type 2 diabetes is increasing throughout the globe. Among them about 80% of people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries. The majority of people with diabetes lie in the age group of 40 to 59 years of age. Almost half of this population, 183 million people (50%) is undiagnosed.
Diabetes caused 4.6 million deaths in 2011. 78,000 children develop type 1 diabetes every year.
India has become the global capital for both the kinds of disease- Communicable as well as NCD or life-style diseases. There is this double burden of disease. The major diseases in the NCDs are Diabetes, CHD and Hypertension. These three diseases alone cause more than 400 deaths per million population in a year. Among them Diabetes demands the major concern because it is intricately related to the development of the two other factors (increases the risk of) CHD and Hypertension. There is also an increasing trend of obesity world-wide which also adds to the development of Diabetes as a risk factor.

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It is the fourth or fifth leading cause of death in the most high-income countries and it is taking the form of an epidemic in many developing as well. Diabetes has become one of the most challenging health problems of this century. There have been many studies since the last two decades which confirm that the low and middle income countries are going to face the greatest burden of this disease. The governments and public health planners of many developing countries including India still remain ignorant of this upcoming health evil. The magnitude of this disease has serious implications in terms of its economic burden in its treatment and loss in terms of wage and deteriorated quality of work by people affected by Diabetes. This can drastically influence the growth of a country especially developing countries like India.
Global Prevalence of Diabetes and projection till 2030global-diabetes.png
Numbers of people with diabetes (in millions) for 2000 and 2010 (top and middle values, respectively), and the percentage increase
wed.png
Source- Nature | Vol. 414 | 13 December 2001 | www.nature.com
There have been reports of increasing cases of Myocardial Infarction even in very young patients among the Juvenile diabetes cases. It is a far more disabling than generally considered, it drastically decreases one’s stamina and working capacity. As it is a multisystem disorder it influences other sensory functions as well such as Diabetic retinopathy (hampering vision), Diabetic nephropathy (causing renal disease and failure), Diabetic neuropathy (including diabetic foot) and many other complications.
The presentation of classical symptoms of polydypsia, polyphagia, polyuria is not always the picture of diabetes. It is only seen in few classical cases. So, it is often diagnosed during routine test or examination done when patient had presented for some other disease or illness. The lack of awareness among people about this disease is of major concern. Due to this many cases go undetected.
India has imitated the Western ways of lifestyle and hence illnesses such as obesity and diabetes are increasing day by day. In 2011, India had 62.4 million people with type 2 diabetes, compared with 50.8 million cases in 2010, according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation. The nationwide prevalence of diabetes in India now tops 9%, and is as high as 20% in the relatively prosperous southern cities. By 2030, the IDF predicts, India will have 100 million people with diabetes.
Another matter of great concern is the fact that the onset of type 2 diabetes tends to affect people in the West in their 40s and 50s, whereas the disease strikes Indians at a much younger age. Even young people of 25 years of age are being diagnosed with the disease, a trend that threatens to seriously hamper the country’s economic development.
The rise of type 2 diabetes in India was in fact foreseen by some scientists and health experts. Till1980s, the urban prevalence of diabetes was at least double the rural prevalence. But this picture of diabetes has changed significantly over time and has spread out of urban cities into the countryside and majority of rural areas.
Type 2 Diabetes constitutes more than 90 % of the whole diabetes cases in any country including India. It has a wide variety of determinants and risk factors associated with it, which need to be known and focused during policy formulation to address Diabetes.
Aetiological determinants and risk factors of type 2 diabetes
Genetic factors
Genetic markers, family history, ‘thrifty gene(s)’
Demographic characteristics
Sex, age, ethnicity
Behavioural- and lifestyle-related risk factors
Obesity (including distribution of obesity and duration)
Physical inactivity
Diet
Stress
‘Westernization, urbanization, modernization’
Metabolic determinants and intermediate risk categories of type 2 diabetes
Impaired glucose tolerance
Insulin resistance
Pregnancy-related determinants (parity, gestational diabetes, diabetes in offspring
of women with diabetes during pregnancy, intra-uterine mal – or over nutrition)
Source- Nature | Vol. 414 | 13 December 2001 | Www.Nature.Com
“Villages in wealthier southern states like Tamil Nadu and Kerala are seeing prevalence hit double digits, which is enormous. If it was confined to affluent India, you could still put a lid on it, but now it’s rising quickly all over the country.” as per Nikhil Tandon, an endocrinologist at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi.
There is also a considerable genetic propensity towards Diabetes in the Asian population particularly in India.
india diabtes.png
AIMS & OBJECTIVES
Diabetes has yet not been recognized in our country as a major public health issue, although the morbidity and mortality and hence economic burden and loss due to it is much higher than that caused by many other communicable or other diseases such as AIDS or STDs, for which there are well formulated programs. But there are no such programs or targeted approach to tackle this very prominent deterrent of health in our country, Diabetes. There is almost no health care accessibility and availability dedicated in this regard in public scale. They are primarily excluded from government policies and decision making process. Not much work or studies have been conducted on the prevalence of Diabetes in India, especially rural India. There is a need to assess the real magnitude of this urgent problem which demands special concern in form of targeted policies and programs and screening. The aim of my study is to highlight the immediate need of recognition of Diabetes as a major public-health concern and formulation of strategies,
Policies and programs concerning Diabetes in India.
RECOMMENDATIONS
(1) Studies need to be conducted to determine the level of awareness and knowledge about diabetes at the community level in different parts of India. As we know IEC is very important for any community or mass scale program to be successful. It is also important in view of the Sickness behavior and the sick role played by the individuals. Creating awareness among the people will make them come up for the screening and a better turn up for treatment in early stage which will significantly reduce the loss due to the disease to the person and state as a whole.
(2) More studies and research required to identify the risk factors for diabetes, the relationship between anthropometric measures and diabetes risk and estimate the burden of diabetes in this rural Indian population with an objective to identify target areas for future healthcare planning.
(3) Screening programs need to be formulated in the mass scale and many rounds of such screening will be required to assess the real magnitude of the problem in Indian population, so that, resources are used accordingly for planning of policies and programs. These data will be extremely important for planning the public health policies especially the envisaged National Diabetic Control Program.
(4) Tracing the exact pattern of the disease in the population and its demographic pattern is essential. Some of the recent studies have identified increasing cases of juvenile diabetes and there is detection of more and more cases in the lower marginalized and poorer section of population (Diabetes was once believed to be disease of elites, those of the rich sections of population associated with over eating, obesity etc). Now the picture of disease is changing which needs to be traced and addressed in the following policies for diabetes control and prevention. Research should also be directed in the direction to identify the most appropriate test for screening purpose, as the results depend on the test employed to a significant degree, especially when employed for mass screening.
(5) Clear cut policy outlines to tackle with the complications of Diabetes- The complications due to Diabetes can be even more disabling and in some cases even fatal. So it is very important to make clear cut policy outlines to tackle with the complications of Diabetes and its prevention. Measures should aim at intensive control of blood glucose to prevent the retinal, renal
and neuropathic complications of diabetes. There is a concealed burden of Impaired Glucose Tolerance. The possibility of preventing type 2 diabetes by interventions that affect the lifestyles of subjects at high risk for the disease have focused on people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). It affects at least 200 million people worldwide. Approximately 40% of subjects progress to diabetes over 5-10 years, but some revert to normal or remain IGT. So, it is very essential to take this group of individuals into consideration.
(6) Formation of a separate body under Ministry of Health and Family Welfare as Diabetes Control Organization or so to tackle with Diabetes in an integrated and comprehensive way throughout the country. Formulation of Control and Prevention Programs to be implemented in each state.
Prior to this there should be formation of an Expert group to assess the actual prevalence and exact demographic characteristics of Diabetes in different regions of India.
(7) Reinforcing legislative changes such as increased taxation of certain ‘unhealthy’ foods to promote healthy diet. Although it is difficult but such steps may help to a great extent.
CONCLUSION
A much more integrated approach is needed to have a significant impact on the diabetes epidemic in India. Type 2 diabetes is not merely a disease but reflection of a much bigger problem, that is, the effect of environmental and lifestyle changes on human health. We need well integrated policies for education of the mass through IEC. The major proportion of Diabetes cases in India is Type-2 which is preventable. It is a huge threat to public health and in absence of interventions there would be great loss.
Thus prevention of diabetes and its micro- and macro-vascular complications should be an essential component of future public health strategies for all nations. An essential and immediate need is the formation of multidisciplinary national encompassing all parties that can help address and control the underlying socioeconomic causes that have led to the diabetes epidemic.
ANNEXURE
Recent studies have highlighted the potential for intervention in IGT subjects to reduce progression to type 2 diabetes. One such study is the recently completed Diabetes Prevention Program in the United States.
Diabetes education is necessary to control Diabetes. It includes diabetes self-management education (DSME) and diabetes self-management training (DSMT). It helps people to modify their behavior and hence mange the disease. Healthy People 2010 objective regarding diabetes education- At least 60 percent of persons with diabetes should receive formal diabetes education in order to attain considerable level of awareness in the community as per the American Association of Diabetes Educators.
List of Stake holders-
Govt. of India, Ministry of health and Family Welfare.
State Governments.
NGOs and other organizations
Media for awareness.
Family of Diabetic patients.
 

Public and Private Companies in Malaysia

The number of private going to public listed company is the common ways to practice in Malaysia. In contrary, public listed companies going private has increased sharply in recent years like the mushroom after raining release onto the business world. This adjustment is formed by the Stock Exchange of Malaysia, Bursa Malaysia. In the beginning of 2007, there has offer a series of privatisation of public listed companies on our local bourse, Bursa Malaysia. The trend of privatisation of public listed companies in the Bursa Malaysia has raised more than 20 privatisations since 2007 (source: Announcements from Bursa Malaysia).

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The establishment of the Stock Exchange of Malaysia in 1964 had given a new perspective in the Malaysian economic landscape. This institute will help in quick expansion of its longer term capital growth and enhancing global competitive. Since its formation, the Stock Exchange of Malaysia, Bursa Malaysia, has over 1,000 listed companies provide a wide range opportunity of investment choices to local and foreign investors include retail and institutional level, merchant banks and unit trust companies. Bursa Malaysia (formerly known as Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange, KLSE) has currently more than 982 public listed companies (as at 17 September 2008) with a total market capitalization in excess of RM930 billion. It is one of the largest Stock Exchange in South East Asia, No. 1 in terms of listed companies, and No. 2 in terms of market capitalization after Singapore.
The privatisation continued through 2008 with 21 privatisation proposals on the Bursa Malaysia. According to OSK Research Head Chris Eng comments that the wind of privatisation was expected to be strong next year in view of the low valuation of stocks, although earnings may contract but price-to-earnings ratio is still low. This demonstrates that the privatization will carried out efficiency in the view of the researcher excluded the global financial crisis. Jupiter Securities head of research Pong Teng Siew said “the privatisation trend was unlikely to insist during the global financial crisis. The privatisation issue will outcome in the view of global credit crunch. The global credit crunch can reduce funds available to local and foreign investor.
An example for proposed plan to privatise in AirAsia had illustrates core issue to privatisation, which is the funding source. However, this will cause the AirAsia stay at the security position. AirAsia’s major shareholder Tune Air Sdn Bhd, leadership by the group’s chief executive Datuk Seri Tony Fernandes, had announce to put on hold its plan to privatise and delist the counter from the local stock exchange due to the difficulties in securing funding. The privatise position will affect their funds and share easily acquirer by outsider owned sufficient capital.
Other factors that may fuel privatization include businesses that were fairly stable where there was no need to raise cash via equity, which in turn made the requirements of a listing such as the need to hold AGMs and issue annual reports.
Such requirements on listed companies had leave the companies with little breathing space, less liberty and make it difficult for companies to make major the decisions such as expanding overseas, acquiring new businesses or obtaining new shareholders without losing precious time in these pursuits. By going private, the company’s major shareholders are able to focus on taking bigger strategic risks in order to enjoy long-term profits without facing intense scrutiny of public shareholders and being constrained by the need to consider how a proposed transaction might influence the quarterly earnings or the volatility of the share price of the company.
Kenanga Investment Bank Head of Corporate Finance Debbie Leong agrees. She said other than cheap valuation; other motivating factors included the cost of maintaining the listing status. She said the same goes for companies too that were not bring benefit from having a listing status, such as the inability to tap the capital market for funds due to lack of visibility to investors, low analyst coverage, or the mere fact that the companies were too small to gain attention from institutional shareholders.
In the view of point, Analysts from anonymous said privatisation also played a significant role in continuous bringing stock prices closer to their intrinsic values (actual cost of the company). Privatisations are likely to involve small to mid-cap companies going forward, as the quantum involves in completing the privatisation would be smaller (less than RM100 million) and thus more manageable when it comes to funding in view of the current global credit crunch.
OSK Research head Chris Eng said it believe that there is an increasing privatisation trend among small, family-owned public-listed companies especially identified where cash per share is higher than the share price. Bursa Malaysia‟s Kuala Lumpur Composite Index had tumbled to 876.40 points on December 19, 2008, a 73% drop from its peak of 1,516.22 on January 2008. It is worth noting that the price-to-earnings ratio of the Kuala Lumpur Composite Index had also dipped to 10.10 times as of the week ended December 19, 2008 from a high of 16.84 times as of the week ended January 11, 2008. Its lowest price-earnings-ratio for the year was 9.31 times for the week ended October 24, 2008.
There are more than a total 86 new listings for the past 3 years from the year of 2006 until 2008, whereby there were 40 new listings in the year of 2006, 28 new listings in the year of 2007 and 18 new listings in the year of 2008 (as at 17 September 2008) on the Bursa Malaysia. Total money raised from the public listing exercise and other corporate exercise was RM 4.1 billon in 2006 and RM 16.8 billion in the year of 2007 (source: from Bursa Malaysia‟s 2007 Annual Report).
“Some RM46.29 billion has been wiped out from Bursa Malaysia‟s market capitalisation in the first half of the year of 2007, as 17 companies were taken private, a stock exchange official said. In contrast, the stock market added RM3.74 billion in market capitalisation from the listing of 16 companies in the same period. Global leveraged buyout volume for the first six months of the year 2007 was estimated at US$450 billion (RM1.56 trillion), more than double the whole of last year of 2006. The privatization of these companies signals a very mature and robust financial market, with a favourable credit market. The cycle of privatisation will turn when interest rate goes up and companies find it more expensive to raise funds from the credit market.” Selvarany Rasiah, Chief Regulatory Officer of Bursa Malaysia (Business Times Malaysia 20 June 2007).
(Source: Business Times 22 September 2008)
Privatisations are common done with reasons; the owner is motivated to do so when the share price does not reflect its fundamental value. Expectations are high that the rate of privatisation may pick up by the third quarter of 2009, once the global credit situation has eased and there is more clarity. Interestingly, PricewaterhouseCoopers Advisory Sdn Bhd, Senior Executive Director Tan Siow Ming says private equity firms may feature more prominently as an alternative source of financing for the privatisation exercises. Three factors, he says, may whet the appetite of private equity players in the “public to private deals”. Firstly, they have a considerable amount of investible funds in their coffers; secondly they are able to leverage at reasonable cost given the current credit crunch; and thirdly, it may fit strategically with their overall investment strategy.
The economy report made by shahriman johari, rupa damodaran ,chong pooi koon had said “Malaysia’s economy growth is expected to increase between 2 per cent and 3 per cent in 2010 which supported by private investment and consumption.”
(Source: Business Times Saturday OCT 24, 2009)
THE government plans to privatise selected government agencies and give customised incentives to attract fresh investments from the private sector. This forms part of the government’s plan to develop a new economic model based on high income, which will be the focus in the 10th Malaysia Plan (10MP). It did not select which agencies will be privatised, but this will recognized as the second wave of privatisation. The government has work out their effort to improve the financial sector to facilitate efficient intermediation. Then, it can measure to enhance access, cut transaction costs and promote stock broking and fundraising activities. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) won’t be left out. There are incentives to help them modernize and sustain their operations. In addition, the numerous grants and loan schemes will be rationalised to improve access and effectiveness (Source: Business Times Saturday OCT 24, 2009).
Obviously, the privatisation exist M&A transactions in Malaysia. The main regulations governing M&A transactions in Malaysia include the Companies Act 1965, the Capital Market & Services Act 2007 („CMSA‟), the Guidelines provided for the Acquisition of Assets, the Malaysian Code on Takeovers and Mergers 1998 („Take-over Code‟), Mergers and Takeovers issued by the Foreign Investment Committee („FIC Guidelines‟) and the Listing Requirements of the Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad („Bursa Malaysia‟) for public listed companies. Section 216 of the CMSA and the Companies Act 1965 govern M&A transactions that involve the sale or purchase of substantial assets by a public company while Section 217 of the CMSA and the Take-over Code regulate M&A transactions that involves the acquisition of voting shares which results in a change of control in a company. These regulations are put in place to protect the interests of shareholders and to ensure that all take-overs and mergers take place in a competitive, informed and efficient market. Also, the laws and regulations are to ensure all shareholders of a company involved in a take-over and merger situation receive fair and equal treatment. Public listed companies in the Bursa Malaysia are adjustment become private encourage whole acquisition offer to the shareholders of the public listed company. The conduct of the take-over schemes are regulated by the Securities Commission and are subject to the Malaysian Code on Take-Overs and Mergers 1998.
The general offer trigger is 33% where:
(i) In order to an acquisition of 33% of voting shares by a person in addition with persons acting in concert with them (acquirer), or when
(ii) The acquirer had already holds more than 33% but less than 50%, hold 2% within a period of 6 (six) months from the date of acquisition would require that such a mandatory offer be made.
Once the level of acceptance has achieved 50% of more, the offer becomes unconditional. Some acquirer exposure in a condition for a takeover of other property such that it must have at least 50% of the shares in a voluntary takeover scheme, failing which the acceptance will be the rate of return to shareholders. Once the acceptance of the takeover breaches the 75% level, the listed company breaches the public shareholding spread requirement under the Listing Requirements of the Bursa Malaysia. The public listed company which drop short of the 25% spread requirement may request for an extension of time from Bursa Malaysia to rectify the situation. The company could be suspended or delisted unless the listed company finds means of increasing the public spread to at least 25% again if no extension of time is granted by Bursa Malaysia (Source: Bursa Malaysia Listing Requirements and Securities Commission Malaysian Code on Take-Overs 1988).
The most common methods of privatization observed on our Bursa Malaysia are as follows:-
1. Direct offer – A voluntary general offer can be made for the rest of the shares not owned by the owner or related parties acting in concert.
2. Via a new company or special purpose vehicle company – The owner can use a new company or incorporate a special purpose vehicle company to acquire all his shares and the rest of shares owned by the other shareholders.
3. Acquire the business – In order to avoid rejection by some minority shareholders, more and more owners are using this method, i.e. seeking shareholders‟ approval to sell the entire business and thereafter distribute the cash proceeds back to shareholders. The end effect is the same as cash offer for the shares.
1.2 Objectives of the Study
Based on the gains sharing issue highlighted above, this study carries out an analysis on the numbers of publicly traded companies in Malaysia that had participated in going private transactions in 2007. Moreover, there have been myriads studies concerned on the motive and/or reasons for mergers and acquisitions mostly in the United States, United Kingdom and Europe, but very few motives and/or reasons have been addressed for public listed companies going private. The number of public listed companies going private has increased sharply in recent years like the mushroom after raining especially in Malaysia, as part of widespread corporate restructuring. Privatisation is the reverse of a public listing exercise. However, little evidence has been provided to prove for similar applications in the Malaysian capital market. This paper aims to fill the gap and contribute to existing literature. The objective of this study is to determine the following:-
1. What is the motive for a public listed company to go private?
2. How is the price earnings ratio and price to book valuation of a public listed company in relation to companies being taken private?
3. How emphasis is given to the offer price that has been offered by these companies to their public shareholders and with this the study strives to achieve the objectives? The following objectives below are;
i) To measure the fairness of the offer price offered to the minority shareholders by comparing the share price derived by the discounted cash flow valuation with the offer price offered by the companies when the transaction took place; and
ii) To assess whether the gain sharing proposition established in previous literatures can be generalized in Malaysia financial market as what observed in the in the country such as the U.S., the UK and other European countries.
1.3 Scope of the Study
This study will cover all public listed companies listed on the Bursa Malaysia which is being taken private in 2007. It will examine the motives and/or reasons for public listed companies in Malaysia going private. Recognizing the need to protect the minority shareholders’ interest in Malaysia, especially in the exercises that are undertaken by the publicly held company that have a significant impact on public shareholders, this study aims to contribute to this effort by focusing on going private transactions.
1.4 Purpose and Significance of the Study
There have been numerous studies concerned the motive and/or reasons for mergers and acquisitions, but very few motives and/or reasons have been addresses for public listed companies going private. The number of public listed companies going private has increased sharply in recent years especially in Malaysia, as part of widespread corporate restructuring and/or mergers and acquisitions. Furthermore, this study will cover and overview all public listed companies listed on the Bursa Malaysia which is being taken private in 2007 which is recognize as privatisation that reverse from public listing exercise. The objective of this study is to examine why this new trend emerges and what causes it to happen.
1.5 Limitations of the Study
The privatisation of Malaysia‟s public listed companies was relatively new phenomena that started in 2006 and implement in 2007 throughout 2008, a relatively short period of study as compared to studies of privatisation of public listed companies in UK from 1997 to 2003 by (Renneboog, Simons and Wright 2005). Thus, the scope of the study is limited to Malaysia‟s public listed companies in the Bursa Malaysia – going private in the year of 2007. There is lack of information for Malaysia due to the new trend or phenomena.
1.6 Organization of the Study
The paper is divided into five (5) chapters. The first chapter of this research describes the driving factors that led to this study. It highlights the background, objectives, scope of the study as well as the significance of the study. Chapter two (2) of this study will cover the literature review and to provide evidence which found from the previous studies on various reasons behind public listed companies going private. It will be used to support discussion and findings from the data analysis. Development of hypotheses, selection of measures, sampling design, data collection procedure and analysis are outlined in Chapter three (3). Chapter four (4) draws some research result of this study and conclusion and recommendations will be presented in Chapter five (5).
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
Before us deeply into the public listed companies to go private. Understanding that why did the companies decided to become a public listed company is very imperative. Roell (1996) documents five reasons why owners of firms decided to go public.
 

Intelligent Public Transport System Design

An Intelligent Public Transport System for Smart City

Gurnoor Walia, Kuljit Kaur

 
Abstract — Road safety has changed into a main subject for governments and automobile manufacturers in the last decade. The advancement vehicular technologies has privileged researchers, institutions and companies to target their efforts on improving road safety. new kinds of networks, such as for instance Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs), have now been designed to assist communication between vehicles themselves and between vehicles and infrastructure. Smart cities embrace intelligent traffic management in which data from the Traffic Information Centre (TIC) infrastructures might be accessible at any point. In this paper we have listed the details of various features relating to intelligent transportation system.

INTRODUCTION

Cities are complex, networked and continuously changing social ecosystems, shaped and transformed through the interaction of different interests and ambitions. Cities represent a promise for future years: a vision of creativity, opportunity, freedom and prosperity. More than half of the global population has become urban and surveys estimate this percentage may even grow towards 70% in 2050 [2]. The services are increasingly enabled by broadband infrastructures, Internet-based networked applications, wireless sensor networks, open data and open platforms. Within the last decade digital technologies have begun to cover our cities, working together to make the backbone of a big, intelligent infrastructure. Wireless telecommunications grids and broadband fiber-optic are supporting smart phones, mobile phones and tablets which can be increasingly affordable. Add to this foundation a uncompromisingly growing network of sensors and digital control technologies such as smart meters, all tied together by inexpensive, powerful computers and our cities are quickly fitting like computers in open air[3].

Smart City

A smart city use digital technologies to boost the performance and wellbeing, to decrease costs and resource consumption, and also to engage more successfully and actively with its citizens. The core ‘smart’ sectors comprise energy, health care, transport, water and waste. It should be able it to respond more rapidly to needs of a city and global challenges than one with a simple ‘transactional’ association with its people.
Interest in smart cities is motivated by major challenges, including economic restructuring, climate change, ageing populations, the move to online retail and entertainment, and pressures on public finances.[4] The terms ‘intelligent city’ and ‘digital city’ are also used. [5][6].According to IEEE “A smart city brings together technology, government and society to enable the following characteristics: smart cities, a smart economy, smart mobility, a smart environment, smart people, smart living, and smart governance.”[7].
1.3 Intelligent Transportation System
As India plans to take a leap forward with approval for smart cities, intelligent transportation is a must have technology. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) are applications which, without embodying intelligence as such, intend to offer innovative services relating to traffic management and different modes of transport and enable users to be much better informed and make safer, more synchronized, and ‘smarter’ use of transport networks.

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Intelligent transport systems differ in technologies used, from basic management systems such as traffic signal control systems; car navigation; container management systems; automatic number plate recognition; variable message signs or speed cameras to observe such applications, such as security CCTV systems; and to more complex applications that combine live data and feedback from numerous sources, such as weather information; parking guidance and information systems; bridge de-icing (US deicing) systems; etc.
 

INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC SYSTEM USING VANETs

The development of new vehicular technologies has shifted companies, researchers and institutions to focus their efforts on improving road safety. The evolution in wireless technologies has allowed researchers to style communication systems where vehicles directly take part in the network. Thus networks such as for instance VANETs are produced to facilitate communication between vehicles themselves and between vehicles and road side unit (infrastructure). Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a technology which uses moving cars as nodes in a network to make a mobile network [10].
VANETs are becoming a useful consideration due to the various important applications related to traffic controlling road safety. Smart cities saturated in traffic want to minimize their transportation problems due to the increasing population that results in congested roads. VANET helps to fix this issue by improving vehicles’ mobility and also helps at having more secured and sophisticated cities. VANETs provide easier communication facility among vehicles and also with fixed infrastructure. This can not merely improve the trail safety, but also gives benefits commercially.
Pollution reduction, accidents prevention, congestion reduction and safer roads are some of the benefits of VANETs. The development of an efficient system in VANETs has many important benefits, to the traffic police as well as to the drivers. Proper traffic alerts and updated information about traffic incidents will make safe driving, increase road safety and reduce the traffic jams in the city. It also helps to indentify where the traffic rules are violated. Furthermore, it also helps economically; real-time traffic alerting will reduce trip time and fuel consumption and therefore decrease pollution as well [11]. So it is definitely beneficial in many ways.

TECHNIQUES FOR IMPELMENTING VARIOUS ASPECTS OF VANETS

The smart city can utilize VANETs by having intelligent traffic lights (ITLs) set in the crossroads of a city. These ITLs gathering traffic information (e.g. traffic density) from the passing vehicles, updating traffic statistics (congestion) of the city and reporting those statistics to the vehicles to ensure that vehicle can select the very best path that is congestion free. Also, ITLs will send warning messages to vehicles in case accident occurs to prevent further collisions. As [14], the proposal manages traffic information to be able to avoid accidents, though the information here is gathered from the vehicles themselves so no more infrastructure is needed. Also the system could easily be utilized by the traffic information centre to style an adaptive traffic light system similar to [12] and [13]. The proposed system architecture [16] is as shown in figure 4.

Figure 4. The proposed System architecture [16] with intelligent traffic lights
It is assumed that vehicles have a global positioning system (GPS), aboard unit, full map information of the city including the exact position of the each ITL, to ensure that vehicles can very quickly select the nearest ITL. Warning message is of three types: yellow circle indicates that vehicle is independent and not communicating with every other vehicle, green circle indicates communication is made and messages transition is certainly going on red and signal indicates two vehicles come closer and there could be the chances of collision as shown in figure 4.
Inter-vehicular communication is presented based on an adaptive traffic signal control system [12]. This system reduces the waiting time of the vehicles at the square also results in decrease in waiting time at the signal. To realize this system, the concept of clustering is used to collect the data of the vehicles coming towards the intersection.
System that takes the control decisions based on the information coming from the vehicles is very well described by the authors [13]. Every vehicle is equipped with a short range communication device and controller nodes are placed in the intersection with traffic lights. This controller node at intersection acts as adaptive control signal system.
In [12] and [13] two adaptive traffic light systems based on wireless communication between vehicles and fixed controller nodes deployed at squares are designed. Both systems improve traffic fluency, reduce the waiting time of vehicles at squares and help to avoid collisions.
The work in [14] is a survey about multifunctional data driven intelligent transportation system, which collects a large amount of data from various resources: Vision-Driven ITS (input data collected from video sensors and used recognition including vehicle and pedestrian detection); Multisource-Driven ITS (e.g. inductive-loop detectors, laser radar and GPS); Learning-Driven ITS (effective prediction of the occurrence of accidents to enhance the safety of pedestrians by reducing the impact of vehicle collision);and Visualization-Driven ITS (to help decision makers quickly identify abnormal traffic patterns and accordingly take necessary measures). But, it requires large amount of memory to stores the videos.
The e-NOTIFY [15] system was designed for automatic accident detection, which sends the message to the Emergencies Center and assistance of road accidents using the capabilities offered by vehicular communication technologies. The e-NOTIFY system combines both V2V and V2I communications to efficiently notify an accident situation to the Control Center.
A technique of finding water-logging-prone areas is given in [8]. This recognition technique is principally based on the following steps. (i) Prediction of locations of low valleys in a sound prone 2D curve. (ii) Confidence score obtained from the calculation of valley area. The proposed solution could easily be integrated with participatory sensing for smart cities. If the smart-phone users voluntarily submit the GPS information received in their hand-held devices, the same can be used for water logging zone calculation. This can help the city authority to create a dynamic water logging prone map of the entire city.
In [9] researchers propose a radically different road pricing scheme to avoid and decrease the traffic congestion in metropolises. Unlike designating a small congestion charge zone in an area, they propose to employ a road pricing system over the entire city. Thus, the road pricing system can control the traffic flow in the whole traffic network of the city. Furthermore, the road costs are adjusted dynamically on the basis of the instantaneous traffic densities of every road in the city in order torapidly and efficiently control the traffic flow and to prevent the traffic congestion.
Geographical source routing is just a promising routing technique for VANETs, because adaptability for network dynamics and ability to take care of topology holes. In traditional geographical source routing algorithms a best-known neighbor, usually the neighbor nearest to another junction in a greedy fashion, is designated as the following hop. This method may cause two drawbacks: (1) the designated neighbor mightn’t have the packet correctly and (2) non-neighbor nodes are never given opportunities to complete forwarding. In [1],two problems are solved by introducing the thought of opportunistic routing to geographical source routing. A new routing protocol, named Geographical Opportunistic Source Routing (GOSR), is developed. GOSR allows non-neighbor nodes as well as the best-known neighbor to become forwarder. The notification cost of opportunistic routing is minimized by enforcing a scope from which candidate forwarders are selected. Defer timers are adopted in order to avoid conflicts due to simultaneous transmissions by nodes in the designated scope. Simulation results also reveal that GOSR can substantially reduce hop count and also improve end-to-end delivery ratio remarkably.

TOOLS USED FOR SIMULATING VANETS

It is significant to estimate the performance of any network in order to highlight any issues that may exist; the most appropriate way to accomplish this task is therefore to deploy simulations that provide the closest results to real-world annotations. Various simulation tools have been used to evaluate and simulate the performance of routing protocols in VANET.
5.1 Network simulator (NS2 and NS3 )
The NS-2 provides significant support for the simulation of TCP, routing and multicast protocols over wired and wireless networks.
The NS-2 simulator is written in C++ with an OTcl (Object Tool Command Language) interpreter as a command and configuration interface. C++ is fast to run but slower to change, making it appropriate for use in comprehensive protocol implementation.
NS3 is exclusively written in C++ and it is available for different platform such as Windows, Linux, Unix and OSX, with the coding limited to only a few hundred lines as opposed to 300,000 lines for NS-2. For the sake of huge network simulation,NS3 has come to support distributed and federated simulation tasks. NS-3 is free software available for researchers and developers in order to simulate internet protocols and huge systems in a controlled environment.
5.2 GlomoSim
GlomoSim was developed to simulate wireless network simulation. It was coded in Parsec, in which all new protocols need to be described. GlomoSim has the ability to run on SMP (shared-memory symmetric processor: memory simultaneously accessible by all programs) and to assist in dividing the network into separate modules, each running as a distinct process. This decreases the load on the CPU by dividing its workload. GlomoSim supports multiple wireless technologies. GlomoSim was developed to support million of nodes as a single simulation.
5.3 MOVE
The mobility model generator for vehicular networks is based on the Java programming language and is built on SUMO (Simulation of urban mobility). MOVE has greater consideration of traffic levels supported by GUI facilities.
Mobility trace files can be generated from the Google Earth or TIGER databases. Custom (random and user) graphs a real so supported, although the node movement is constrained to a grid in a random graph.
5.4 TraNs
TraNs (traffic and network simulator environment) is based on Java with a visualization tool to integrate SUMO and NS-2 and is specially designed for VANET (Traffic and network simulation environment) in a single module to support vehicular simulation. This can be accomplished by converting traffic files in to a dump file by SUMO. This file can then be read by NS-2.
5.5 VANET MobiSim
VANET MobiSim was developed to overcome the limitations of CanuMobiSim. It supports car-to-car and car-to- infrastructure communications, which support stop signs, traffic lights and activities based macro-mobility with the support of human mobility dynamics. TIGER, GDF and random and custom topology are used to obtain road and traffic topology. Vanet MobiSim uses a parser to obtain the topology from GDF or TIGER.
5.6 NCTUns
NCTUns (National Chiao Tung University Network Simulator) (WangandLin,2008) is built using C++ programming language with a high level of GUI support. The user has less need to be concerned about code complexity. NCTUns combines the traffic and network simulators in a single module, making a distinct vehicular network environment available.
NCTUns supports the ITS (intelligent transport system) environment by using automatic road assignment supported by the SHARPE-format map file. Vehicle movement can be controlled automatically.

FUTURE WORK and CONCLUSION

In previous work researchers have designed a smart city framework for VANETs including intelligent traffic lights (ITLs) that transmit warning messages and traffic statistics. Simulation results reveal that the usage of ITLs in smart cities can not merely improve road safety but also the driver’s quality of life. They have explained the way the ITLs gather traffic and weather conditions of the roads and how they update those statistics. The goal is that the driver’s assistant device usually takes proper trip decisions, for instance in order to avoid congested roads, and therefore reducing the trip time and pollution as well. As a near future work, ITLs could communicate to passing vehicles indicating where would be the free parking spots in the city. With this specific information, the driver assistant device could indicate the driver where free spots are located. This technique could use a WSN to obtain the data about free parking spots and communicate it to the nearest ITLs. The ITLs could share that information although sub-network they form. This might save trip time, petrol and CO2 as a consequence, which helps to own sustainable smart cities. Also, statistics collected by the ITLs can improve data routing protocols selecting the road that offers an increased chance to forward a supply to the destination successfully. A VANET routing protocol that considers those statistics in its operation can also be designed.
REFERENCES
[1] Zhongyi, L., Tong, Z., Wei, Y., and Xiaoming, L., “Poster Abstract: GOSR: Geographical Opportunistic Source Routing for VANETs,” Mobile Computing and Communications Review, Vol. 13, No. 1, January 2009
[2] United Nations, “World Urbanization Prospects, The 2007 Revision Highlights,” United Nations, New York, 2008.
[3] Schaffers, H., Ratti, C., and Komninos, N., “Special Issue on Smart Applications for Smart Cities – New Approaches to Innovation,” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, Universidad de Talca – Chile, Dec 2012
[4] Dept Business, “Challenges Faced by Cities and the Need for Smarter Approaches,” pg-5, 2013
[5] Moir, “Challenges Faced by Cities and the Need for Smarter Approaches”, pg-18, 2014
[6] Smart City, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_city
[7] IEEE Smart Cities ,http://smartcities.ieee.org/about.html
[8] Choudhury, A.D., Agrawal, A., Sinha, P., Bhaumik, C., Ghose, A., and Bilal, S., “A Methodology for GPS-based Water logging Prediction and Smart Route Generation,” 12th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA), Kochi , 2012.
[9] Soylemezgiller, F., Kuscu, M., and Kilinc, D., “A Traffic Congestion Avoidance Algorithm with Dynamic Road Pricing for Smart Cities,” presented at IEEE 24th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications: Mobile and Wireless Networks, London, 2013
[10] Emmelmann, M., Bochow, B., and Kellum, C.C., “Vehicular networking: Automotive applications and beyond,” John Wiley and Sons, 2010.
[11] Ferrari, G., Busanelli, S., Lotti, N., and Kaplan, Y., “Cross- Network Information Dissemination in VANETs,” 11th International Conference on ITS Telecommunications, pp. 351-356, 2011.
[12] Maslekar, N., Boussedjra, M., Mouzna, J., and Labiod, H., “VANET based Adaptive Traffic Signal Control,” IEEE 73rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), pp. 1-5, 2011.
[13] Gradinescu, V., Gorgorin, C., Diaconescu, R., Cristea, V., and Iftode, L., “Adaptive Traffic Light Using Car-to-Car communications,” IEEE 65th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), pp. 21-25, 2007.
[14] Junping, Z., Fei-Yue, W., Kunfeng, W., Wei-Hua, L., Xin, X., and Cheng, C., “Data-Driven Intelligent Transportation Systems: Survey,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol. 12, Issue 4, pp. 1624-1639, 2011.
[15] Fogue, M., Garrido, P., Martinez, F. J., Cano, J. C., Calafate, C. T., Manzoni, P., and Sanchez, M., “Prototyping an Automatic Notification Scheme for Traffic Accidents in Vehicular Networks,” Wireless Days (WD) IFIP, pp. 1-5, 2011.
[16] Khekare, G.S., Sakhare, A.K., “Intelligent Traffic System for VANET: A Survey,” International Journal of Advanced Computer Research (2277–7970) Volume-2 Number-4 Issue 6, December 2012.
 

Ethics in Public Administration

Accountability in public administration is a very important aspect to civil service in every country. Dr. Beaumaster defined accountability as an objective responsibility which involves responsibility to someone, or some collective body (2010). Integrity, transparency and accountability are basic principles of public administration; therefore, governments must have a checks and balances systems that ensures the honesty and integrity of their local bureaucracies. These principles must be adopted and exercised in the country as well as in public administration. Accountability must be carried out in administration in order to have a transparent and integral government system. Although transparency, integrity, and honesty are all intertwined, they are different things. Transparency refers to the reliability in information keeping and providing citizen services for the country. Integrity refers to honest ethical practices, which deter corruption in the administration of public services.

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Public administrators and state heads must develop accountability criteria that is fair and not one sided. All public administrators and political leaders must be aware of these rules and regulations to abide by so that there are no weaknesses in the process, which can be taken for granted by the public servants and politicians. The first basic step in the accountability process in public administration is to recognize the efficacy of power. According to McKinney and Howard (1998), the power or authority is necessary to carry out any development program; however, transparency, integrity and accountability can not be obtained by simply cutting powers of administrators (p. 463-470).
The struggle for attaining more and more power between bureaucrats, presents an issue. And if this power struggle is not eliminated, this is a conflict that has potential to become progressively worse in the future. Accountability is a complex process. Government agencies have to address and tackle abuse, which is a practice that is essential in attaining government and public goals. Public trust of bureaucracy and government is very important in a democratic country and this can be only achieved by having a fair and strong accountability process in the country. Coercive political power takes place when a public officer takes advantage of their power and misuses it for self-benefit rather than the public’s good. When this occurs, it breaks trust of citizens and lowers public opinion towards public administrators and the government itself. The unethical decisions and acts performed by the public officials are also within the realm of accountability. The other types of issues in public administration which may arise are blaming of errors on other officers then oneself, leaking confidential information (i.e. whistle-blowing), fabricating time/quality/quantity and reports, misusing of expenses allowed, taking gifts/favors in exchange of preference or personal benefits to clients, taking unnecessary days off and taking extra time for breaks like lunch and dinner, are some examples of acts by public administrators that jeopardize transparency, accountability, honesty, and integrity (Gordon and Milakovich, 2009, p. 93-95).
In short, accountability is the process for ensuring that public monies and powers must be used effectively and with honesty for public services only. There must be no misuse of any public power or money by the public administrators and government itself. This also brings trust relationship between the public and the government and its departments. Accountability is a process which must be adopted in every department of the country.

Efficiency and Effectiveness

Efficiency and effectiveness are important in public administration. Efficiency and effectiveness are desired in every aspect of public administration. An example of this is proper spending of citizens’ tax dollars. Tax payers’ monies must be used effectively and efficiently; therefore, utilization of funds must be careful, constructive and productive on order to carry out the overall good of the public. Effective public administration if of fundamental importance because the public needs services delivered in a timely manner. In order to ensure proper implementation of programs and services, political demands of the ruling government adopt low cost efficient and effective processes based on the public interest of the country.
Efficiency refers to attaining a goal of providing the best services possible for the least amount of money and resources. It is always important to provide optimal public services for the least amount of cost, especially during today’s economic hardships. Effectiveness refers to making sure the work done is according to public demands, accountability process is carried out and democratic process is observed (Box, 2009, p. 254-255). The decisions made in the public sector are according to demands of the public, which are revealed through discussions between citizens, discovering issues, developing policies and rules, and managing public administrators to implement services and programs.
Public administration can be effective and efficient if the processes adopted by public administrators are efficient, fast and according to needs of the government and public. E-government processes bring efficiency and effectiveness in the public sector by minimizing the time scales on public level and inter-department communication and processes. E-government enables the public administrators and departments to offer citizen service through one click and their precious time saved. E-government includes online services provided to citizens of the country. This increases the efficiency and effectiveness in spending public money and for right purpose (Cloete and Petroni, 2005, p. 148-149). E-government has assisted in eliminating time spent standing in long lines and has helped to reduce the red tape that citizens are forced to deal with in many public institutions.
The success of any government and public administration can be measured by efficiency and effectiveness. Public opinion regarding effectiveness and efficiency can be measured from time to time by conducting satisfaction surveys, consultations with people directly, and direct individual interaction. From a government policy making standpoint, legislation must be made with the public’s interests in mind. Policies must be designed and implemented in accordance with how the public feels their hard-earned tax dollars should be spent.
In conclusion, efficiency and effectiveness are two basic principles of public administration and both must be present in any successful agency. Public administrations that design policies with consultation of the public, consider their requirements and also take feedback about their policies are successful with spending the public’s money honestly, effectively and reliably. The spending of public money must be done according to citizens’ needs and different tools can be adopted for finding what the public needs and requires by the government and public administration. Public services must be delivered effectively and efficiently so that there most of the output can be achieved with the public money and resources.

The Legitimacy of the Administrative State

Legitimacy is all about the source of power and who has it (Beaumaster, 2010). The legitimacy of the administrative state claims that it offers opportunities to community engagement and also provides a method for scientific decision making. Rohr (1986) emphasized that the blending of executive, legislative, and judicial powers are aligned according to the separation of powers in a democratic community (p. 35). Rohr argued that the legitimacy of the administrative state was originally meant for the American Senate. It provides a sustainability and permanence to the government system of America and plays a balancing role in different constitutional departments of the country government. The Senate also focuses on the limitations present in representations in the House of Representatives.
The legitimacy of the administrative state empowers future public administrators for playing their own autonomous role by selecting one of the constitutional masters that might clash with one another (Spicer, 2007, p. 2-3). Rohr (1986) worked on two basic principles: the people of the country if follow illegitimate powers and this is happening in present political environment, a legitimate state must be present to avoid such things (p. 35). Questions regarding the legitimacy of the administrative state emerged two centuries ago. The legitimacy was questioned because the constitution did not provide the bases for organizations.
Citizens must trust their government because legitimacy can only be achieved when their trust is garnered. The legitimacy of the public administrative state can be accomplished by means of expertise, public service, leadership qualities, and vision. Public administrators are responsible for the legitimacy of the state by having direct communication with the community by using their bureaucratic expertise, vision of the government, political leadership and best public service delivery. The legitimacy of the administrative state brings the sustainability to the country and ultimately to the state itself.
In conclusion, Legitimacy of the administrative state has four sources: constitution, legal, public perception, and professionalism (Beaumaster, 2010). They must deliver effective citizen services with honesty and ensure that the vision of the government is achieved. These efforts bring the legitimacy of the state in view point of the people of the country. The state is considered as stable and strong in terms of its constitution and legislative actions. The legitimacy of the administrative state also empowers the government to accomplish their policies and people who elected them to the house must trust them to bring legitimacy.
In Saudi Arabia the women cannot travel abroad without the permission of responsible man such as father, brother, and husband. Males in Saudi Arabia has the ultimate power and authority; they are legitimates because they have some power that woman don’t have. Even in some workplaces like government and public sector services, there are some certain jobs that are male dominant. So those males have legitimacy that females don’t have. Moreover, children under eighteen can’t travel without permission of male guardian. So, those male guardians have legitimacy because they have ultimate power and authority. Also the Customs inspector and Passport officers have legitimacy to stop anybody in the airport. They have the power and authority to do so. They also have to use ethics in their decision making so they will not be held accountable for any mistaken situation.

The Politics-Administration Dichotomy

The Politics/Administration Dichotomy idea was explained by Woodrow Wilson in his article “The Study of Administration”. This article is considered the backbone of public administration. The dichotomy offers an enduring image to elected political members, public officers, and students of the public administration. This depicts the real issues of policy and administration decisions which struck in government. Politicians or elected members are liable for policy making and agenda setting. Policy decisions and policy and program implementation is the responsibility of public servants. This dichotomy is meant for eliminating politics in the government departments and leaving elected politicians within the realm of legislation.
Svara (1998) explained that observations have shown that it is effective to create boundaries of public administration and develop a normative relationship between public administrators and elected politicians in a democratic community (p. 51-58). Wilson suggested that a dichotomy is inevitable because government policies must be via politics while its enforcement must be non-political administration. He also emphasized a more business-like approach to civil service and stressed that public administration is indeed a science of its own irrelevant of political science. Wilson’s theories assisted in forming the foundation of American bureaucracies in the early 1940’s. The politics-administration dichotomy had been in existence in Europe a century earlier.
According to scholarly research, Sapru (2006) claims that Wilson’s findings that were presented in The Study of Administration regarding the dichotomy are ambiguous (p. 56). For the first time in American history, Wilson changed the mindset of public administration by viewing from a scientific, systematic perspective. Wilson’s dichotomy also encouraged that the government recruit professionally educated bureaucrats in order to achieve a professional administration in America. Adopting this dichotomy meant making partisan-based appointments and the utilization of political power to get support for certain policies and programs. He was also successful in creating an image of government where administrators were dependent on political and partisan chief executives of the country due to a centralized approach to government. Wilson believed that administrators had to be granted a certain amount of discretionary decision making power by their chief executives in order to be efficient.
Brownlow (1956) was a famous consultant of public administration matters who praised the idea of politics-administration dichotomy presented by Woodrow Wilson. Brownlow believed that Wilson laid a foundation for a study program that allowed anyone in the country who is interested in art or the science of public administration to research the topic (Brownlow, 1956). In the modern era, Woodrow Wilson’s role in public administration is not denied. However, it might be argued whether he is the founder of public administration or only a dominant personality for the growth of public administration in America. Wilson’s essay about public administration was part of the administration and politics as the social, political and intellectual ferment till the 19th century (Durham, 1940, p. 1-6). Wilson’s essay presented ideas on how to approach and successfully conquer a rapidly changing American economy through social and political-administrative order.

The Issue of Representation

Representation is also a crucial pillar that relates to who should represent “the will of the people” according to Dr.Beaumaster(2010). The issue of representation is present across the globe in public administration. This issue comprises on gender, race, or ethnicity factors. The public administration of any country must be comprised of all races, genders and ethnic groups. The effective representative bureaucracy offers a public administration of all people in terms of demographics so that true representation of all groups is involved in decision making process of the public administration and government. The active representation occurs in bureaucracy when they represent the views of those with similar demographic backgrounds (Box, 2007, p. 138-139).
Representation issues must be decreased in order to increase the quality of public services. Female representation is another major issue in public administration due to lack of representation of females. American governments have historically been dominated by the white male and men typically hold political positions and chief executive offices. Diversity needs to be present in public officials so that diversified issues like religious, ethnic, gender or any other demographic issues can be properly and fairly addressed. Individuals belonging to lower socioeconomic classes must be represented, as well. The American government is based on an idea of equity; therefore, a government that recognizes diversity is one that is representative of all populations. In the event representation lacks within certain populations (i.e. minority populations), then there is a chance those of the power elite receive the most representation. The representation of the African American population is less when compared to the representation that the Caucasian population has historically received, which has caused problems for black communities across the United States. Furthermore, lack of representation of the black communities has resulted their distrust of government officials and agencies (Mosher, 1994, p. 142.)
Representation issues are heightened when immigrant and minority populations are represented inadequately in public administration. This also creates miscommunication and does not develop trust relationships among immigrants and public administrators. Similarly, race, ethnic and gender issues create problems. Environments of this nature also compromise efficiency and effectiveness. Representation must be according to the demographics of the country, state and local level. All people must have their proper representation. Females must have their own representation in the public administration as well as in House of Representatives so that all policies and rules are made according to the needs of the females in the country. Minorities must also be represented in government and in public administration so that the laws will be aligned according to their religions and independent beliefs.
In conclusion, the true representation of every class must be present in the administrative departments and government. This true representation enables government and administrators to develop and implement according to the needs of the people in specific demographics. Equal gender rights must be present in the country and community and this is only possible when there is equal representation of males and females in the decision making process.

The responsible public administrator

Cooper presented the idea of “The responsible public administrator” in which he suggested that the primary responsibility of the public administrator is to deal with public interest with honesty and common good responsibility which emerges from the fiduciary role of public administration (Boje, 2008, p. 72). According to this theory, public administrators are individuals that rely upon their own expertise and neutrality. The actions they take are based on scientific and neutral principles.
Cooper emphasized that a responsible public administrator knows how to decide an ethical choice in which one might be involved in right action versus wrong action and even sometimes right action versus right action. The individual must build up the skills of moral imagination which involves the capability to create a “movie in our minds” which must consider the dynamics of the environment in which ethical choice must be taken care (Menzel, 2007, p. 54). Also, Svara indicated that accountability is required in government and nonprofit organization. Being responsible and accountable for action are very important for ethical administration (2007). No government in the world is perfect. Mistakes and corruptions always happen because we are human being not angels. According to Madison in the Federalist paper 51. “If men were angels, no government would be necessary…”(Kettl, 2003).
The goal of the responsible public administrator is to practice good ethics, develop a creative reflection of a situation, while laying down the public service values (Cooper, 1990, p. 6). This emphasized how public servants are held responsible by the public and elected officials to act ethically and not take advantage of their powers. Public administrators must behave ethically during the administration of public service and practice making value-based decisions while performing their duties. Public administrators that are responsible know when take the right action versus the wrong action. Poor ethical practices can be detrimental to an agency’s success. Ethical decisions must be in compliance with the mission, vision, and values of the organization.
Cooper’s framework provides a solid base for all aspects of public administration within the realm of decision making. Cooper stressed that public administrator must balance professional, personal, and organizational values. This framework enables public servants while they are performing their duties to make decisions neutrally and ethically. Their decisions must be according to the rules and regulations of the government and must not violate any political and governmental rules. The framework not only reiterates the importance of wise ethical practices, but it also demands that their actions remain ethical and practically neutral. Svara(2007) stated “Public administrator has sufficient independence to be responsible for the action.”
In conclusion, the responsible public administrator is important for the integrity of democratic societies. Citizens of the country benefit when public administrators handle local and national social matters neutrally, ethically, and in accordance with the law. The democratic government is more likely to be successful if they have responsible public servants because they are the ones that are primarily in charge of implementation. Responsible administrators engage in ethical decision making practices that benefit the entire society, not just themselves. Responsible administrators are committed and dedicated to carrying out the overall public good.
 

Public Health Roles Of Nurses Health And Social Care Essay

The aim of this assignment is to identify and discuss the public health roles of specialist nurses and other frontline healthcare workers in the management and prevention of tuberculosis (TB). TB is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium that usually affects the lungs, although it can affect other parts of the body (Davies, 2003). Transmission occurs when an infectious person expels bacteria into the air by means of coughing (WHO, 2012). Although anyone can develop TB, the burden of the disease is highest in vulnerable populations that are characterised by behaviours or social characteristics such as homelessness, substance misuse, imprisonment, and immigration (RCN, 2012).

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Historically, several industrialised countries witnessed a decline in the incidence of TB around the middle of the nineteenth century (Pratt et al. 2005). But in recent decades, this decline has reversed (WHO, 2012). The present trend has alerted the UK government to the seriousness of this new threat. In 2004, the Chief Medical Officer’s TB Action Plan, Stopping Tuberculosis in England (DH, 2004) set out clear steps to reduce the risk of new infections of TB by means of organised public health efforts (DH, 2004). Hollo et al. (2008) attribute the resurgence of TB to migratory movements of people from high incidence countries. Yet hardly any phenomena have a single cause. Abubakar et al. (2011) argue that multiple factors have allowed TB to return as a serious public health challenge in the UK.
Acheson, (1988) defined modern public health as ‘the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through organised efforts of society’. Lawrence & May (2003) assert that modern public health practice comprises two types of activity: public health as a resource; this covers surveillance and epidemiology and public health action; this covers interventions to promote health and prevent disease. Cowley (1999, p.126) states:
‘Activities are justified as public health interventions if their main purpose is to contribute to the health of the whole population they serve, even though they meet the immediate health needs of individuals and families along the way’.
TB specialist nurses who view TB control from a public health perspective can make an important contribution to reducing the pool of infection in the community, and thereby preventing further transmission (Lawrence & May, 2003).
TB Nurses work within a specialist multi-disciplinary team, collectively known as a TB service (Pratt et al. 2005). The Royal College of Nursing (RCN, 2007) published a useful document titled Nurses as Partners in Delivering Public Health. In this document, the key aims of delivering public health through nursing services are summarised. These aims include: encouraging healthy behaviours so as to increase life expectancy; targeting vulnerable populations so as to minimise health inequalities; and increasing the awareness of positive healthy behaviours in communities. These aims are achievable through a variety of public health interventions that are integrated into TB nursing practice.
It is important to briefly discuss policy context seeing as policies developed at national, regional, and local levels exert a powerful influence on practitioners’ priorities and ways of working (Naidoo & Wills, 2005). Although it may seem remote from nurses’ daily concerns, policy context plays an important role. For example, a tuberculosis specialist nurse will be aware of treatment completion targets that need to be met (HPA, 2012). There are specific TB policies and general public health policies that guide the public health work of TB nurses.
The following list outlines the public health interventions undertaken by TB nurses in the UK. This assignment will elaborate on each public health measure and provide a discussion of the benefits each measure brings to the public’s health and the limitations to its application, where applicable.
i) To collect accurate TB surveillance data so as to monitor the changing epidemiology of new TB infections.
ii) To promptly diagnose and treat all active cases of clinically diagnosed TB in a specific geographical region (passive case finding).
iii) To screen high-risk groups and individuals for TB (active case finding).
iv) To administer the BCG vaccination to those who meet the criteria.
v) Implement TB awareness raising activities.
i) Since 1912, it has been a legal requirement in the UK for the clinician to report all cases of clinically diagnosed TB through a notification system (NOIDS; McCormick, 1993). In an endeavour to improve the ability to monitor the epidemiology of TB, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) implemented a surveillance database known nationally as Enhanced TB Surveillance (ETS). In 2008, ETS moved to a system whereby Nurses upload notification data directly onto an online national database. This relatively new concept has been welcomed by TB Nurses who view the system as a positive innovation that strengthens their autonomy and responsibility as public health practitioners (RCN TB Nurses Forum 2008/2009). The public health implications of using high-quality surveillance technology are far-reaching. At a local level, ETS can alert nurses to local trends, for example, a high incidence of drug resistant TB in a localised area. Although the level of completion for ETS meets national targets for most variables, a recent report published that information regarding ‘sputum smear status’ (i.e. infectiousness) was available for little over half of all cases notified in 2010 (HPA, 2011).
ii) The principal approach to detecting cases of TB in the UK is by means of passive case finding (NICE, 2011). This cost effective approach relies on patients presenting themselves to primary care settings with symptoms of TB. A public health benefit of this approach is that cases of TB are diagnosed early and patients start their treatment promptly; rendering those with infectious TB non-infectious. In spite of this benefit, there are constraints that challenge nurses’ ability to promote early diagnosis and/or cure cases of TB. One such constraint is poor adherence to anti-TB medication (Coker, 1999 & Haynes et al. 2008). Standard TB treatment comprises a combination of antibiotics which should be taken continuously for a minimum of six months. The development of drug resistance can manifest if there are interruptions in patients’ treatment (Bell, 2007). Undoubtedly, poor or non-adherence can increase the risk of onward transmission (WHO, 2012).
Increasingly, TB specialists have adopted the principles of medication concordance (Horne, 2006). This involves a consultation between the practitioner and patient that is based on shared decision making (Cushing & Metcalfe, 2007). This approach allows the patient to make an informed decision about their preferred course of treatment (Bell, 2007). Strategies such as DOT (directly observed treatment) which involves patients being observed ingesting every dose of their anti-TB medication, can be adopted. However, this approach is resource intensive and can be difficult to implement particularly in TB services that have inadequate staffing levels (RCN, 2012).
For some communities, TB is a frightening and stigmatising disease (Pratt et al. 2005). This perception can lead people to deny that they have TB symptoms because they are afraid of being excluded from their community if they seek treatment (Dean, 2012). An article published by the Nursing Standard outlines the public health activities of a HIV liaison nurse and a case worker in an ethnically diverse area of east London (Dean, 2012). Nurse Millett and case worker Dr Collinson hold clinics in community buildings and in soup kitchens and offer HIV and TB screening. Their primary aim is to normalise HIV and TB screening, thereby minimising the stigma around TB and HIV.
iii) Hard-to-reach individuals account for a significant proportion of non-adherent and highly infectious cases (Story et al. 2007 cited in Jit et al 2011). In response to this evidence, NICE (2012) produced guidelines for Identifying and managing tuberculosis among hard-to-reach groups. Individuals are ‘hard-to-reach’ if their social characteristics, language or culture delay diagnosis and/or treatment. This guidance advises specialist TB services to produce a local health needs assessment on an annual basis so as to ensure that their service reflects the needs of the area in which it serves (a ‘bottom up’ approach (Cowley, 1999)). In areas of identified need, a programme of active case finding should be adopted using mobile digital radiography in areas where people characterised by homelessness and/or substance misuse are found (NICE 2012). This recommendation has been successfully trialled in London by the Find and Treat service which detects active cases of TB among socially excluded individuals, and provides support for treatment completion to those identified by the service. A collaboration of nurses, social workers and outreach workers are employed by this innovative service. Jit and colleagues (2010) conclude that the Find and Treat service is a cost effective intervention. However, this research should be interpreted with a degree of caution because the researchers report some limitations to the analyses. For example, the analyses did not fully capture the extent to which the screening unit averts secondary cases of TB (Jit et al. 2010).
Contact tracing is a cornerstone in the prevention of secondary cases of TB (Pratt et al. 2005). The TB Nurse detects individuals who have latent asymptomatic infection, thereby reducing the development of active, infectious disease. Using clinical judgement, the TB nurse makes a decision about which contacts (i.e. household, workplace) require TB screening – this will be dependent on the infectiousness of the index case, and intensity of exposure. Contacts with an increased risk of infection such as pre-school children are given priority for screening.
iv) The BCG vaccination is a cost effective primary preventative measure against childhood TB that offers infants an overall protective value of 75% (Trunz et al. 2006). In 2005, the universal schools’ BCG programme was discontinued to correspond with the changing epidemiology of TB in the UK (Fine, 2005). Current Department of Health guidelines (2005) state that BCG should be given to infants who live in areas in which there is an incidence rate of 40 cases per 100,000 or greater and/or have parents or grandparents who were born in a high incidence country. Implementation of the programme by midwives, health visitors, and nurses has been variable, and the contentious issue of denying the vaccination to infants who do not meet the criteria remains (Abubakar et al. 2011). Indeed, confusion has been found amongst practitioners in the areas of Birmingham and Solihull regarding infants’ eligibility for the vaccination (Etuwewe et al. 2004). Current guidelines may not be clear in cases of interracial parenting (Etuwewe et al. 2004). Furthermore, there is evidence indicating that BCG offers minimal protection beyond 10 years post immunisation (Sterne et al. 1998).
v) TB Nurses contribute to the development of greater public awareness by embracing the health promotion principles advocated by the World Health Organisation (WHO, 1986) – community action, strong intersectoral collaboration, and equity. The importance of fostering strong intersectoral collaboration cannot be overemphasised. Organisations that provide services to high-risk groups work in partnership with some local specialist TB teams to provide training to both staff and clients in TB symptom recognition (NICE, 2012). As discussed previously, new infections of TB primarily occur in socially and economically disadvantaged groups and in migrants from countries with a high incidence of TB. Moszynski (2010) upholds that health inequalities lie at the heart of the UK’s rising number of TB cases. From a practitioner’s perspective, activities to tackle inequalities can be routinely integrated into clinical practice. To illustrate, effective TB services apply an integrated approach that views financial, social, and health problems as highly associated with one another. This approach ensures that services have a maximum impact on health inequalities.
Bothamley et al. (2011) completed an audit of TB control programmes in the 10 most populous urban areas in the UK. Nurses in Birmingham reported delivering seminars in nursing and care homes; training community nurses about TB, and organising educational meetings for ethnic minorities across the city. Events such as World TB Day can be used as an excellent opportunity for increasing community engagement. It is imperative that nurses ensure that services are accessible, and appropriate, and therefore used more effectively by the client group (Naidoo and Wills, 2005). Although furthering community involvement in TB projects should be clearly placed on the nursing agenda, services with fewer nurses are less likely to engage in health promotion activities (Bothamley et al. 2011).
To conclude, TB Nurses and other health professionals are an important component in achieving the aims of the TB Action Plan set by the Chief Medical Officer in 2004 (DH). Specialist TB teams utilise a variety of methods to reduce the pool of infection in the community, thereby preventing onward transmission of the disease. To summarise, these methods include: acquiring an understanding of the epidemiology of this infectious disease; promptly diagnosing and treating TB cases; active case finding; implementing the selective BCG programme; and engaging in health promotion strategies. As discussed in this assignment, there are forces that constrain nurses’ ability to apply these public health interventions; namely, poor adherence to treatment, fear and stigma, limited efficacy of the BCG vaccination, health inequalities, and inadequate resources. Looking to the future of TB control, intensive, sustained and cost effective efforts are required. From a nursing perspective, initiatives should focus on enhancing nursing representation in policy development and strategic decision making, increasing nurses’ capacity at management level, and integrating TB education into the nursing curriculum to develop nursing competencies.
 

Ecology of Public Administration

Ecology in public administration was primarily introduced by Professor John M. Gaus, one of the early pioneers of public administration. In his introduced concepts, he emphasized that the public administration including its development as well as its activities were influenced by its setting or ecology. According to Gaus, the plans, programs, policies, and design of public administration is influenced by factors concerning the physical environment or ecology, and that any structure and living thing existing in a given area has an interrelationship with the surrounding environment. In practice, this concept means that when building a structure, an individual must plan all aspects of the construction, from the materials needed for the structure, the actual area where it will be constructed in relation to the people residing in the area and the physical environment existing. This concept also means understanding the impact of the structure to the social relationships of people in that area and what specific technologies are being used and how it influences and impacts the inhabitants of that environment.

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Ecology thus pertains to interrelationships of living organisms and their environment. Ecological approach to public administration thus includes elements of the environment – the place, the individuals, the physical and social technology as well as the relationships of these elements. It is essential to note that Gaus has translated ecology – the complex structure and connections with each other of living things that are in a specific area of the public administration project – into a lens by which to analyze the project’s impact. And the means by which he applied this is directed to raise awareness of ecological factors that permits administrators to respond more wisely and appropriately to the demands and challenges of the external environment of their organizations.
Gaus also viewed the ecological concept in public administration as a means to devise a new and renewed institutional pattern for individuals. With such concepts, the ecological aspect of administration reflects a crucial role in understanding and directing the forceful change in public administration. A more sensitive and conscious approach to ecological factors allow the public administrators to provide a more appropriate response to challenges within and beyond their organization. If applied properly, this approach can serve as a diagnostic tool for the public administrator and can provide standards for evaluating impact on an organization. Ecology can aid the practitioner in visualizing the major elements in the administrative processes and provide a specific standard for measuring impact in an organization.
For Gaus, merging public administration with the concept of ecology helps in establishing a more novel way of conducting things and is actually related to the concept of change. He looked to public administration to find some new sources of content and opportunity for public administrators to emphasize some influence on the situation in which they find themselves. He believed in applied social science, that through an ecological approach to public administration, the new and renewed institutional pattern could be devised for individuals living in an age of change. Ecology in public administration became a vital instrument for comprehending, directing, and modulating the forceful change in the public administration. Through this application, public administrator can be active in the wider ecological approach to make change in strategic management and planning of public serving organizations.
This practice is clearly manifested in the management of ecosystems. The fragility of ecosystems that are threatened by construction of buildings and other public administration projects are now systematically addressed using the principles laid out by Gaus. One aspect of this situation is the dwindling of some species brought about by the disturbance of their natural habitat and ecosystems. Another aspect of this case also reflects the industries that are conceptualized and built by man and which have led to the threat of climate change. The gravity of the perceived threat of global warming has moved scientists and policymakers to recognize that sufficient measures to sustain ecosystems must be ensured by substituting the governmental jurisdiction as the major institutional level for implementation.
Due to this developments, the politics as well as the policy of natural resources management are experiencing drastic transformation. The dominant aspect of resource management has been focused around property ownership, or jurisdictional domain which is mainly concepts that originated from the West. But now, resource management is also organized around the parts of the whole ecosystems such as individual resources, wildlife, or commodities (Elfin 2004, 304). Hence, there is now a more comprehensive view of managing resources in the context of building public administration projects or even structures in general. Another factor that influences public projects from the point of view of ecology is the question of sustainability. Discussing resource sustainability reflects the issue as among the most poorly understood within the ecosystem planning and management process. The ecosystem approach confronts the political process by asserting a participatory process in which all interested key players are able to participate to achieve an effective and integrated ecosystem management while recognizing the role of individuals as part of the ecosystem. (Loomis 1993, 447-48)
 

Public Attitudes of Proposed Wind Farm

With Irelands excellent wind resources, wind power has become one of the most rapidly growing sources of renewable energy in Ireland (Comhar, Nov 11). Many people in Ireland claim to be in favour of wind farming, and maintain that wind power is good source of renewable energy, which helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, numerous people also believe that these wind farms spoil the scenery and may have a negative effect on the local landscape, as well as having negative effects on tourism in the area concerned. As plans to create a new wind farm in County Clare have been put in motion, I wish to access the opinions of the citizens of West Clare on the proposed construction of a wind farm on the western slope of Mount Callan.
Aims and Objectives
As both the people of West Clare, and the wind farm itself, have to co-exist in the area in question, the opinions and attitudes of the local people are paramount in formulating an effective plan, and in executing it to final completion of the project. As the financial sustainability of the residents of the chosen area rely primarily on agriculture and tourism, opinions given on the impact the building of a wind farm may have on both of these economic areas are crucial to effectively and smoothly completing the project.
The aim of this project is to access the opinions and attitudes of the citizens in West Clare on the proposed construction of a wind farm on the western slope of Mount Callan.
The main objectives of this survey are to:

Access whether or not the citizens of West Clare support the use of wind power.
Access whether or not the citizens of West Clare support or oppose the construction of a wind farm on Mount Callan.
Access whether or not the citizens in West Clare believe that a wind farm would benefit their local economy.
To find out the opinions of the citizens of West Clare, on the effects a wind farm would have on the local landscape.

Methodology
Statistical analysis mapping can be used to combine quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. This is used to create a basis for the primary research. I have used the statistical analysis mapping method to extract data from the census in order to help me identify my area of study. To provide appropriate information for my study, I have mapped data relating to location, age, gender and length of time living at the current location (Kitchin & Tate, 2000).

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Kilmihil, Creegh and Liscasey are the three closest townlands to the proposed construction site of the wind farm. These three townlands have a combined population of 724 with 65% of people being over the age of twenty. Of the population over the age of twenty, 52% of them are male and 48% are female (CSO). I will take a sample of 100 people, 52 male and 48 female from the combined population of the three towns aged over twenty. I will use systematic random sampling, selecting the fifth element at random, to conduct the questionnaire for quantitative data collection. These questionnaires will be distributed personally in local centres. This method of research has been used by Michler and Kodeih in their article Mussel and Seaweed Cultivation in Offshore Wind Farms: An Opinion Survey (Michler & Kodeih, 2008).
Q1.To which age category do you belong?20 – 30 31 – 40 41 – 50 51 – 64 65+
Q2Gender:Male Female
Q3. Marital Status:Single Married Widow/Widower
Q4.How many Children do you have?0 1 – 2 3 – 5 6+
Q5.Do you live in an urban or rural area?Urban Rural
Q6.How long have you lived here?
Q7.Is your household accommodation: Owner occupied with a mortgage? Owner occupied without a mortgage? Being purchased from the Local Authority? Being Rented from the Local Authority? Being rented from a private landlord?
Q8.What is your occupation?

Q9.If your occupation relates to agriculture, Arable farming what kind of agriculture are you engaged in? Livestock Other
Q10.Do you think wind farms will affect agriculture?Yes No If yes, please explain.
Q11. Would you support the constructionYes of a wind farm in your area? No
Q12.Do you think a wind farm would affectYes the house prices in your area? No
Q13.Do you think a wind farm wouldYes benefit your local economy? No
Q14.Do you think that wind farm will Yes contribute to Irelands energy independence? No
Q15.What affect do you think a wind farm would have on the local landscape?
Q16.What problems do you think a wind farm in your area might cause?
Q.17Would you be willing to take part in a follow upinterview to further express your views on wind farming? Yes No If Yes, please complete the following Name: Address: Phone Number:
“Qualitative research methods are necessary when limited research has focused on a concept or phenomenon and it “needs to be understood” (Hunt, 2010). I will focus on interviews with the residents of these three towns to collect quantitative data. I will use an open-ended interview to conduct this part of the project. This technique uses a type of structured questionnaire, which does not constrict the answers of interviewee to categories provided by the interviewer; this better reflects the interviewee’s own thinking (Kitchin & Tate, 2000). I have included a question on the quantitative questionnaire enquiring whether or not participants would be willing to take part in an interview. I am hoping I will receive twenty five participants that will agree to this. If I do not receive the required amount of participants for interviewing from the questionnaire, I will utilise the practice of cold calling to obtain the remaining participants. I will use a sample size of twenty five people, thirteen male and twelve female. I will interview six people from Kilmilhil, ten people from Liscasey and nine people from Creegh, to access their opinions on the proposed wind farm. This method of data collection was used by Sustainable Energy Ireland in their article on Attitudes towards the developments of wind farms in Ireland (ESI, 2003).
Interview schedule
I have read and understood this consent form completely and am willing to take part in this interview.
I understand the purpose of this interview.
I am aware that I can withdraw from this interview at any time.
I understand that all my answers will be considered in the strictest confidence.
Signed:Date:
I am interested in the opinions of the citizens of West Clare on the construction of a wind farm on the west slope on Mount Callan. I would like to ask you a series of questions related to this topic.
Q1. To what extent would you support or oppose the construction of a wind farm in your area?
Q2. Are you in favour of the further developments of wind farms in Ireland?
Q3. What benefits do you think a wind farm would bring to your area?
Q4. What problems do you think a wind farm might cause in your area?
Q5.What affects do you think a wind farm would have on the local landscape?
Q6. Do you think the construction of a wind farm in your area would contribute to Ireland’s energy independence?
Q7. Are you concerned about climate change?
Q8. Would you be willing to pay more for your electricity if it comes from a clean renewable source?
The benefits of generating primary data are that it is known precisely how the data was produced, and if any problems arose in the process. This is the system mostly used for data collection; however is some cases the generation of primary data is not possible then secondary data may be used. Secondary data may also be used to help supplement the primary data you have already collected (Kitchin & Tate, 2000). As numerous methods of data collection are required to conduct this study, use of secondary document analysis will also be employed. The data in these documents have been collected and analysed by someone else, and usually for a different purpose. However these secondary sources are useful and can aid in strengthening the understanding of a chosen topic.
The sources I intend to use are as follows:

Busch, M., Gee, K., Burkhard, B., Lange, M., & Stelljes, N. (2011). Conceptualizing the link between marine ecosystem services and human well-being: the case of offshore wind farming. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 7:3, pp. 109-203.
Comhar. (Nov 11). Community Renewable Energy in Ireland: Status, barriers and potential options. Dublin: Comar Publications.
CSO. (n.d.). Retrieved 04 18, 2014, from Central Statistics Office: http://census.cso,oe/sapmap/
ESI. (2003). Retrieved 04 2014, 19, from Sustainable Energy Ireland: http://www.seai.ie/Publications/Renewables_Publications_/Wind_Power/Attitudes_towards_the_development_of_wind_farms_in_ireland.pdf
Hunt, T. (2010). Big wind in small town Ontario:. Toronto: Department of Geography, Collaborative Program in Environmental Studies, University of Toronto.
Kitchin, R., & Tate, N. J. (2000). Conducting research into human geography: Theory, methodology and pratice. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
Michler, C. T., & Kodeih, S. (2008). Mussel and seaweed cultivation in offshore wind farms: An opinion survey. Coastal management, 36(4), pp. 392-411.
Smith, E. R., & Klick, H. (2007). Explaining NIMBY Opposition to Wind Power. Santa Barbara: University of California, Santa Barbara.
DeLacy, P. Barton, (2001) Wind farms: a valuation primer, Appraisal journal, 79(1), pp. 28-43.
Wilson, Keith (2011), Winds of change, Geographical, 83(5) p. 74.

Bibliography
Works Cited
Comhar. (Nov 11). Community Renewable Energy in Ireland: Status, barriers and potential options. Dublin: Comar Publications.
CSO. (n.d.). Retrieved 04 18, 2014, from Central Statistics Office: http://census.cso,oe/sapmap/
ESI. (2003). Retrieved 04 2014, 19, from Sustainable Energy Ireland: http://www.seai.ie/Publications/Renewables_Publications_/Wind_Power/Attitudes_towards_the_development_of_wind_farms_in_ireland.pdf
Hunt, T. (2010). Big wind in small town Ontario:. Toronto: Department of Geography, Collaborative Program in Environmental Studies University of Toronto, pp. 24-27
Kitchin, R., & Tate, N. J. (2000). Conducting research into human geography: Theory, methodology and pratice. Essex: Pearson Education Limited, pp. 28-44
Michler, C. T., & Kodeih, S. (2008). Mussel and seaweed cultivation in offshore wind farms: An opinion survey. COASTAL MANAGEMENT 36: 4, pp. 392-411.
SEI. (2013). Retrieved 04 19, 2014, from Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland: http://census.cso.ie/sasapmap