Reconstruction of Political Order Post World War

Economics Q 2

After the war, the nations of Europe were struggling to overcome the devastation caused by World War 2. Determined to prevent another war, Western European leaders decided to assume coordinated actions aimed at the reconstruction of European countries and their economies and the introduction of a new political order, which could guarantee the security of nations and give a chance for their successful development in the future. (European Portal of Integration and Development)

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In the process of planning the introduction of a new political order in post-war Europe, it was acknowledged that the key task was the reconstruction of European economies. (European Portal of Integration and Development) Western European leaders realised that only efficient and effective European economy would be a foundation on which new safety and development structures could be built. (European Portal of Integration and Development) The American aid plan for Europe – the European Recovery Plan, called the Marshall Plan, was a great support for those plans. (European Portal of Integration and Development) At that time the actions of the Soviet Union, a former ally, which after the war began violently affirming its supremacy in the controlled area of Central and Eastern Europe, openly promoting antidemocratic communist ideology, became disturbing and at the same time mobilizing for the Europeans. (European Portal of Integration and Development) Only common, coordinated actions could provide European countries with the force with which Western Europe could resist the Soviet influence and the economic dominance of the United States of America. (European Portal of Integration and Development)

This led to Robert Schuman the French foreign minister at the time presenting the Schuman Declaration on May 9th 1950. (European Union, 2017) It proposed the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community because it was thought that the merging of economic interests would help improve the standard of living and be the first step towards a more united Europe. (European Union, 2017) The countries that signed the declaration and became members of the European Coal and Steel community were France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. (European Union, 2017) Building on the success of the Coal and Steel Treaty, the six countries expanded cooperation to other economic sectors. They signed the Treaty of Rome, creating the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). (Wallace, 2000) These two communities along with the European Coal and Steel Community came to be referred as the European Community. (Wallace, 2000) This was the first series of supranational European institutions that would eventually become the European Union, as we know it today.

There are many ways in which European nations have pursued European integration from 1945 till now.  The first way in which European nations pursued European Integration was through the setting up of the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) and the European Payments Union (EPU) set up in conjunction with Marshall Plan in 1948. (Sulis, 2018) This led into the start of an “economic community” which has evolved into the modern European Union. This was set up because after the Second World War the European allies of France and Great Britain realised that they no longer had significant influence if they operated alone. (Bradley, 2012) The USA and the USSR had the economic and military power to completely immerse Europe into a ‘Cold War’ with pressure exerted from both sides. (Bradley, 2012) It became clear that European governments could only hope to control the actions of these key players on European soil if they co-operated. (Bradley, 2012) Whilst Britain where happy to align itself with its Atlantic alliance and Commonwealth, the French were very worried and it became apparent that only a united Europe could carry any weight globally. (Bradley, 2012) This concern led to the creation of the OEEC and the ECSC. The USA was happy with this idea, as it would prevent the Spread of communism throughout Europe. (Bradley, 2012)

As Mentioned previously the Treaty of Rome was signed in 1957 setting up a European Economic Community. (Bradley, 2012) This was a unity of the same six nations of the ECSC but with even stronger links and broader cooperation. (Bradley, 2012) Article 2 of the treaty set out its key objectives, which included increased stability and steady expansion; a clear sign that those six nations were consciously defending themselves against the threat of the USSR and sought closer cooperation with other European states. (Bradley, 2012) The development of Soviet nuclear arms was a real cause for concern and this Cold War security issue amongst many others proved the fact that ‘The Six’ had to work together and expand to find safety in numbers. (Bradley, 2012)

The rise in living standards caused by the Rome Treaty made nations mainly in Southern Europe and Scandinavia, see the benefits of integration for their economies and this remained a key selling point of European Integration right up to the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989-1991. (Bradley, 2012) After the collapse of the USSR the European Union reacted quickly by signing agreements with newly free nations in Central and Eastern Europe. (Sulis, 2018) These agreements were free-trade agreements with the promise of deeper integration and some aid. After unification of Germany in 1990, Germany opened its door to a “Grand Bargain” where Germany gave up the Deutsche Mark for a European Monetary Union and East Germany joined the EU without Negotiation. (Sulis, 2018) The President of the European Commission at the time Jacques Delors proposed a radical increase in European Economic integration with the formation of a monetary union. (Sulis, 2018) The Maastricht treaty was signed in 1992, which resulted in a monetary union by 1999 and a single currency by 2002. (Sulis, 2018) In June 1993 the EU says that Central European countries and Eastern European countries (CEEC’S) that were once under Soviet rule can join the EU. (Sulis, 2018) This led to the formation of the famous Copenhagen criteria for membership where it states that there must be a stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, rule of law, human rights and respect for and, protection of minorities and the existence of a functioning market economy as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the union. (Sulis, 2018) At the Copenhagen summit in 2002 the EU stated that 10 (CEEC’S) could join the EU in 2004, which led to the 5th enlargement of the EU in May 2004. (Sulis, 2018)

In the Next stage of my essay I wish to discuss the Factors promoting and slowing down the process of integration. European integration has been driven largely by the desire to prevent another European war and the desire to share the gains of integration with the newly democratic nations in Central and Eastern Europe. (Sulis, 2018) After the war the division of Europe (East and West) and the need for security from the Soviet threat and expansion of communism was a major threat to the desire of preventing another war. (Sulis, 2018) The position of America after the war gave them an unusual scope for shaping events in Europe. (EICHENGREEN, 2007) The Americans saw European integration as positioning the continent in an established democratic system. (EICHENGREEN, 2007) They saw the creation of pan European institutions as a way of forming a united front to beat back the soviet threat during the Cold War. (EICHENGREEN, 2007) The Americans saw stability and prosperity as the best guarantees that this united front would garner popular support. (EICHENGREEN, 2007) The introduction of these Pan-European institutions such as the OEEC and the ECSC helped to combat the need for rapid development in standards of livingand economic performanceto establish long-lasting peace and security. One of the most beneficial factors that have promoted European integration is the economic politics within the member states of the EU who are currently enjoying access to free trade, free movement of goods, services and people and low tariffs. (Sari) The discriminatory effects of EU integration have created a powerful pull effect that has steadily drawn all but the most reluctant Europeans into the EU. (Sulis, 2018)

In recent times there have been many factors that have slowed down the process of European integration. One of the main factors is countries rejecting treaties where all member states of the EU need to approve the treaty in order to pass. It started off with Denmark rejecting the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, as there were fears that Denmark’s Economy would be subsumed by Germany’s and would be captive to a remote bureaucracy in Brussels. (Bilefsky, 2016) The European community breathed a sigh of relief when Denmark voted in favour of the treaty in a second referendum in 1993. (Bilefsky, 2016) In 2001 Ireland initially opposed E.U expansion through the form of the Nice Treaty. (Bilefsky, 2016) But voters overwhelmingly approved the Nice Treaty in a second vote on Oct. 19, 2002, when voters were persuaded by a European Union guarantee that Ireland could opt out of military operations. (Bilefsky, 2016) In 2005 France and the Netherlands rejected the constitutional treaty which proposed to pave the way for a common bill of rights and to reduce the ability of member states to veto decisions in areas like asylum and immigration. (Bilefsky, 2016) Both countries were hesitant about losing power under proposed changes in voting rules. (Bilefsky, 2016) Following inadequate reform attempts (Amsterdam and Nice Treaties), negotiations and four rejections by European voters, it soon became apparent that EU institutional reform was difficult and not popular with EU voters. (Sulis, 2018) To avoid referenda in as many nations as possible, main reforms in Constitutional Treaty, which had been found to be politically acceptable to all EU members, were repackaged in the Lisbon Treaty signed in 2007 and came into effect in 2009. (Sulis, 2018) Initially rejected by Irish voters in 2008, which voted yes in second vote in 2009. (Sulis, 2018) In 2016 following the majority Yes vote in its referendum on Brexit, UK became the first member state to trigger Article 50. (Sulis, 2018) Article 50 refers to a clause in the Lisbon Treaty, which provides “for a mechanism for the voluntary and unilateral withdrawal of a country from the EU” (Sulis, 2018)

The most important factor in my view to have promoted the process of European integration relies on the tragic experiences connected with the largest and also most devastating armed conflict in human history, caused by Nazi Germany. (European Portal of Integration and Development) After the war in Europe, and more specifically in its western part, there arose conditions favourable for the start of a new planned integration of the countries of the Old Continent. (European Portal of Integration and Development) Western European countries though very weakened after the war, were agreeable to the necessity of defending basic human rights and democratic values. (European Portal of Integration and Development) Western European leaders decided to undertake coordinated actions aiming at the reconstruction of European countries and their economies and introduction of a new political order which could guarantee the security of nations and give a chance for their successful development in the future. (European Portal of Integration and Development)

Another important factor behind European integration has been economic. Fritz Scharpf convincingly explains that the core of European integration, despite recurring attempts to strengthen the “social dimension” of the EU, has mainly consisted in measures aimed at extending market mechanisms such as the free movement of goods, capital, services and labour. (Afonso, 2013) The achievements of the EU in this domain have been very impressive, set against the anti-competitive practices that prevailed in many member states in the 1970s and 1980s, including public monopolies, protectionist non-market arrangements, different standards and rules across countries, cartels, restrictive immigration policies, etc. (Afonso, 2013)

The main factor that has slowed down European integration is the fact that European integration has become an increasingly politicised issue in domestic level politics. (Afonso, 2013, p. 64) The market making impetus of European integration has created a substantial amount of resistance at the domestic level, as shown by the misfortunes of the EU Constitutional Treaty in France and the Netherlands in 2005. (Afonso, 2013, p. 64) Eurosceptic parties have become considerable electoral forces in many European countries and have contributed to restructuring coalition politics also in strictly domestic policy domains. (Afonso, 2013, p. 64) For example in David Cameron’s second term as Prime Minister of the UK he had to make an agreement with Ukip to hold a referendum on whether to trigger Article 50 in order to remain in power. This of course resulted in Britain leaving the European Union.

European issues are under increasing public scrutiny and bringing in unpopular EU reforms can now have severe electoral consequences. (Afonso, 2013, p. 65) There is substantial evidence that European integration has become increasingly prominent and controversial as a political issue in domestic politics. (Afonso, 2013, p. 65) For instance the share of news reports devoted to European integration in France, the Netherlands, Germany, Britain, Switzerland and Austria has more than doubled between the 1970s and the 1990s. (Afonso, 2013, p. 65) Similarly, the share of national protest actions directed towards “Europe” have increased from 5-10 per cent in the 1980s to 20-30 per cent in the second half of the 1990s. (Afonso, 2013, p. 65) Finally, an expert survey found that European integration was the third most important issue in national party competition in Western Europe in 2003, behind taxes/public expenditures and deregulation/privatisation, but ahead of immigration. (Afonso, 2013, p. 65)

To end this essay on a positive note I will quote a speech made in 2005 by Otmar Issing a Member of the Executive Board of the ECB where he said “If we think in terms of European history, the fact that we have come this far is an incredible achievement. We should never forget that European integration has been driven by the political will to overcome centuries of hostility and war. Moreover, we have had difficult times and crises before. And we have always found ways to overcome them. If the past is our guide to what the future will bring, we should remain confident that we will also find answers to our current problems.”  (European Central Bank, 2005)

Bibliography

Afonso, A. (2013). Social Concentration In Times of Austerity. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Bilefsky, D. (2016, April 19). Voting on European Integration: A Long History of Skepticism. Retrieved October 26 , 2018, from www.nytimes.com:  https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/19/world/europe/europe-integration-timeline.html

Bradley, B. (2012, February 15). Post- war European Integration: How We Got Here. Retrieved October 25, 2018, from www.e-ir.info: https://www.e-ir.info/2012/02/15/post-war-european-integration-how-we-got-here/

EICHENGREEN, B. (2007). THE EUROPEAN ECONOMY SINCE 1945 (1st Edition ed.). Princeton , New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press.

European Central Bank. (2005, June 16). European integration – achievements and challenges. Retrieved October 26, 2018, from www.ecb.europa.eu: https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/key/date/2005/html/sp050616_1.en.html

European Portal of Integration and Development. (n.d.). History of European Integration. Retrieved 10 24, 2018, from europejskiportal.eu: http://europejskiportal.eu/history-of-european-integration/

European Union. (2017, 10 24). The Schumann Declaration – 9 May 1950. Retrieved 10 24, 2018, from europa.eu: https://europa.eu/european-union/about-eu/symbols/europe-day/schuman-declaration_en

Sari, O. (n.d.). Main Factors behind the European Integration after World War 2 and driving forces of Eu. Retrieved October 26, 2018, from academie.edu: http://www.academia.edu/9802186/Main_Factors_behind_the_European_Integration_after_World_War_II_and_driving_forces_of_EU

Sulis. (2018, September 17). Sulis Ec4027 SEM1 2018/2019 : Resources. Retrieved October 26, 2018, from www.sulis.ul.ie: https://sulis.ul.ie/portal/site/3a8710c4-3290-436f-945d-e5ad25cd8b64/tool/c050af4e-1f33-436d-89ce-9c76b51ac43b?panel=Main

Wallace, H. W. (2000). Policy Making in the European Union (4th Edition ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press Inc.

 

Reconstruction of the Self in Literature

THE POWER OF LOVE

Introduction

When Leonard Andre Scovens was a young boy his stepfather physically abused him with objects such as extension cords, hangers and pieces of wood. His stepfather would justify each beating by telling Leonard that it hurt him more than it hurt Leonard and that he did it because he loved his stepson. Leonard’s own father was absence from his life for 20 years, addicted to crack cocaine. His early role models taught Leonard that love was supposed to hurt. Leonard grew up lost to drugs, guilt, rage and pain. This essay delves into Leonard’s journey from addiction to authorship and uses the interactionist social theory lens to examine the effectiveness of deep, loving relationships in facilitating self-transformation.

Meanings are created through relationships

According to social interactionist theory, individuals create identity and commit to actions on the basis of meanings they give to objects. These meanings are shaped by an individual’s social interactions; the meanings are not permanent and can change with future interactions (Jacobsen, 2017, p. 99-107). According to George Herbert Mead, under the interactionist theory an individual’s identity is an integral of two components: the ‘I’ and the ‘Me’. The ‘Me’ consists of the attitudes of others which an individual assumes as affecting their own conduct. The ‘I’ is the part of self that reacts to this information and can be considered as the ego. (Elliott & Lemert, 2014, p. 182 – 188). The sense of self becomes not something that the individual has created in isolation; it is what the significant others in the individual’s life have come to treat the individual as being (Auguste, Briggs & Vreeland, 2014, p. 11). 

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In a poem titled: When I was Nine Leonard narrates a childhood experience of being horrifically beaten by his stepfather. The stepfather used extension cords to mark out wounds in Leonard’s back, thighs and arms leading to significant bleeding. He then hit Leonard’s head with a slab of wood (Furey & Scovens, 2012, p. 12). These were common interactions in childhood which left Leonard with life-changing meanings of what loving relationships looked and felt like. Leonard in a letter written in prison describes that by 1996, at the age of twenty, he was “so lost and wild and confused and needful.” He goes on to describe his rage as a fire searing inside, struggling to survive as he warred with himself. Leonard explained that “the rage was a direct product of [him] being so thoroughly abused as a child” (Furey & Scovens, 2012, p. 68).

Leonard (as cited in Arthus-Bertrand, 2015) refers to his earlier childhood experiences as communicating the wrong message and goes on to explain that as a result he grew up hurting everyone he loved and that he “measured love by how much pain someone would take from [him].” In this account of young Leonard’s experiences, it is evident that his childhood relationships played a primary role in shaping his behaviour and meaning around love, relationships and violence.

Lonnie Athens in his Theory of Violentisation describes five stages through which people can evolve into violent criminals. Under Athens’ theory, violent socialisation takes place via the ‘violentisation process’. The theory describes 5 stages an individual progress through to violent criminals; facilitated by social interactions with violent significants in one’s life. At Stage 1 – Brutalisation a young person is exposed to violence from aggressive authority figures using violence to address problems. This follows into Stage 2 -Defiance where the exposed young person starts mirroring these violent behaviours in their own life. As the violent actions succeed, the young person gains respect and fear in the eyes of others. Violent performances is the third stage (Violent dominance engagement) during which individuals test their newly made violent resolutions. Before a violent person can graduate from Stage 3 they must achieve at least one or usually several major victories against formidable opponents. This validation and feedback builds and consolidates identity; a normalisation of violence. In Stage 4 – Virulency the individual continues to use violence and build social interactions with others who share the same perspectives. This serves to consolidate repeating acts of violence. The individual identity becomes one with violence at its core (Athens, 2015, p. 630-632). At the end of this stage, the former violent individual becomes an ‘ultra-violent’ one who lives and dies by the motto, “Do unto to others as they have done unto you, but do it to them first” (Athens, 2017, p. 503).

In 1996 Leonard met Patricia Ann Reed (Pat) during drug rehabilitation for a long standing crack addition. Pat welcomed him into her house; which Leonard returned the generosity by stealing from her and returning to Baltimore where his family was. Leonard rescinded back into crack addiction and made further contact with Pat seeking her help. Pat again agreed to help and welcomed Leonard back into her house. Shortly after in 1998, on the night of March 23, Leonard under the influence of crack strangled 40 year old Pat and her six year old son, Christopher Thomas Reed to death. Leonard’s violent identity, fuelled by crack addiction took him over the edge. He received two consecutive life sentences (Furey & Scovens, 2012, p. 22-23 & 68).

Meanings evolve through relationships

An important aspect of the self is its reflective nature; its ability to reconstruct itself. Mead refers to this reflective character of self-consciousness as that which enables contemplation of the self as a whole within an reflexive experiential purview. As a result the individual is able to consciously integrate and unify various aspects of themselves, to form a single consistent, coherent and organised personality. Furthermore by the same process, the individual can undertake and effect intelligent reconstructions given the right interactions exist to facilitate that self-reconstruction (Mead & Morris, 1934).

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Once Leonard was in prison, his reconstruction process began as his meanings and identity started to shift. In his own words, he says: “it wasn’t till [he] came to prison, in an environment that is devoid of love that [he] began to have some sort of understanding about what it actually was and was not” (Arthus-Berthand, 2015). Seven years into his life sentence following the death of his younger brother, Leonard became deeply empathetic of the victims of his crime. It was at this time he received a ‘mysterious note’ from a woman named Agnes Furey. At first Leonard was unaware of who Agnes was but found out that she was the mother and grandmother of Pat and Chris. Agnes first wrote at the age of 75 after many years of immense grief, as she wanted to learn more about Leonard. This began a healing and transformative journey for both Agnes and Leonard as they exchanged hundreds of letters and phone correspondence. They slowly built a bond cemented in a need to understand each other and heal (Furey & Scovens, 2012).

The reconstruction of self is emphasised by Mead as being of importance in the psychology of ethics: “when there is moral disintegration, the reflective self brings together different voices that conflict with each, evaluates them, and makes the best decision”. In this sense the old self has disintegrated, and out of the moral process a new self arises. Mead describes this process of reconstruction are primarily a social process. The reconstruction of self is not one-directional which only focuses on the endeavours of the reflective self. A beneficial environment for the reconstruction of self then, according to Mead, is one where all the personal interests are adequately recognised, all meanings are given room to be fully developed, and all values are subject to open criticism. (Sun, Hickman, Alexander, Anderson, Collins & Stikkers, 2013, p. 119-120).

Agnes and Leonard corresponded for eight years before co-writing Wildflowers in the Median in 2012: “This is the fruit of our relationship at work – transcendence, healing, redemption, justice. This is where the journey has taken us on our path to higher ground.” In Leonard’s own words, Agnes gave him his best lesson about love: “She gave me love…she taught me what it was” (Arthus-Berthand, 2015). Their story is a tale of healing and redemption.

Leonard continued to write and with Agnes, formed an organisation called Achieve Higher Ground. Through the organisation, they have opened Florida’s Department of Corrections to restorative justice practices. Agnes facilitates restorative practice programs in Florida while Leonard runs a restorative justice-centric peer-to-peer program in his own prison (Furey & Scovens, 2012, p. 107)

Conclusion

Through Agnes, Leonard experienced deep personal transformation – his best lesson of love. Their relationship shifted internal understanding, awareness, meaning and identity for both. Within their story  and a core theme of this essay, is an exposition of love as a transformative agent. From the interactionist perspective, Agnes’ expression of love created interactions that brought out and shaped Leonard’s new liberating meaning and identity. This is in sharp contrast to the violent interactions of Leonard’s early life that created a broken and violent identity. In addition, given that Leonard was able to transcend his former violent identity, the strength of loving interactions is overpowering years of deeply rooted violent trauma is highlighted by the story. While requiring further investigation into this transformative power of love, the sentiments of Leonard and Agnes story is captured eloquently in words of Martin Luther King Jr.: “Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that.”

A second aspect of the journey of Agnes and Leonard is the importance of significant, positive interactions at a young age to prevent children assuming violent adult identities. Restorative justice with this objective in mind has significant potential to create the ideal structural framework to heal and transform children in the early stages of violentisation. As education in schools are significantly shaped by relationships, which can often develop into conflicts that require resolution, forgiveness and healing; restorative practices help students learn from their mistakes and reconcile and resolve problems with others. An important component of restorative practices is the focus on restoring relationships after harm has been done, which allows offenders and victims to practise love. Furthermore, a school system that uses restorative practise have consciously embedded forgiveness, empathy and love within their behavioural management system. This serves to replicate tom some extent the relationship dynamics of Agnes and Leonard as exemplified in their transformative journey. 

References

Athens, L. (2015). Violentization: A relatively singular theory of violent crime. Deviant Behavior, 36, 625–639. doi:10.1080/01639625.2014.951577

Athens, L. (2017). Applying Violentization: From Theory to Praxis. Victims & Offenders, 12:4, 497-522. DOI: 10.1080/15564886.2016.1187692

Arthus-Bertrand, Y. (2015, September 4). HUMAN: Love from the most unlikely place [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=afvN6se3Yug&list=PLEgA6bEeal3ze5Ugq8LPC-uigROvLIvyi&index=13    

Auguste, E., Briggs, A. & Vreeland, L. (2014). Symbolic Interactionism and Bullying: A Micro-Sociological Perspective in Education. Journal of Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives in Education, 7(3), 10–19.

Elliott, A., & Lemert, C. (2014). Introduction to contemporary social theory. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com.

Furey, A. & Scovens, L. (2012). Wildflowers in the median Bloomington, IN: iUniverse

Jacobsen, M. (2017). The interactionist imagination: Studying meaning, situation and micro-social order. London: Palgave Macmillan.

Mead, G., & Morris, C. (1934). Mind, self & society from the standpoint of a social behaviorist. Chicago, Ill.: The University of Chicago press. Retrieved from https://brocku.ca/MeadProject/Mead/pubs2/mindself/Mead_1934_39.html 

Sun, N., Hickman, Larry A., Alexander, Thomas, Anderson, Douglas, Collins, Kenneth, & Stikkers, Kenneth. (2013). The Transformation of Self: A Study of Classic American Pragmatism, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

The Reconstruction of St Paul’s Cathedral

A Phoenix Raised by Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren: The Reconstruction of St Paul’s Cathedral, in particular, the West Front Portico

For more than 1400 years, St Paul’s Cathedral dominates the skyline of London. Standing as the largest cathedral in Britain and the fifth largest cathedral in the world, St Paul’s has had a very intriguing history which had undergone a series of invasions, natural disasters and human sabotage overtimes. Although this cathedral has had gone through transformations and modifications during its tough periods, it has sprung back with the support of numerous generations of citizens and became a great treasure in the architectural field. In this essay, I will first carry a brief introduction of the background history during its early period of construction and then examined into Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren’s relation to St Paul’s Cathedral, and to be more specific, I will discuss the west front portico that they produced respectively.

1. Background History

1.1 From 604 to 1087

In 604, Saint Mellitus established the first St Paul’s as the seat of the new bishop. Companied by Saint Augustine, they were on a mission from Rome instigated by Pope Gregory the Great in 597. It is assumed the first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood onsite, however, this cathedral had a relatively short-lived structure which constantly damaged by flames and attacks from the Vikings during that period. And later on, this “St Paul’s was destroyed by fire in 675 and by the Danes in 961” (Saunders 14).

1.2 From 1087 to 1621

After the previous wooden Saxon church built on the site, the construction of the fourth St Paul’s, which referred to as Old St Paul’s, was begun by the Normans during the reign of William the Conqueror after the 1087 flame. Along the renovation, the taste of architectural style moved gradually from Norman Romanesque-style to the English Gothic style which reflected in pointed arches and the use of clustered pillars as the substitution of heavy columns. The entire cathedral was not consecrated until 1240 since the construction was interrupted due to another fire happened at London Bridge in 1136. The roof was once more rebuilt after a succession of storms in 1255. Another conflagration in 1561 caused by lightning, caught at the spire crashed down through the nave roof of the building.

2. Inigo Jones’s Renovation and His West Front Portico

In 1620, concerned at the decaying state of the building, King James I launched a scheme for the restoration and appointed England’s first classical architect, Inigo Jones, by this time Surveyor of Works, to carry on this project. By the time, Jones just arrived from Europe after learning the ideals of the classical architectural structure. In the 1630s, inspired by the temples that he saw in ancient Rome and the work of Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio, Jones not only repaired the massive Gothic structure but used various of ancient and modern sources as models for his addition of the Corinthian portico on the façade of the west front. The whole process was interrupted by English Civil War which the Parliamentarian forces “defaced and mistreated the building. Old documents and charters were dispersed and destroyed; the nave was used as a stable for cavalry horses” (Kelly). The great works eventually stopped in 1642, at that time, apart from the central tower, the entire exterior of St Paul’s had been in one sense or another renewed. The choir which built in the 14th century was also “renewed by careful replacement of decayed masonry, including moldings and carved ornaments” (Summerson 55).

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The gigantic Corinthian portico at the west front was a new limb of the cathedral. Although it incongruous with the Romanesque nave and transepts on either side of the building, this was still the most remarkable piece of his work at St Paul’s. The work began in the year after Charles I decided to pay for the renovation out of his own revenue. If we can look closely at this classical portico, the engraving showed the symbol of Charles I’s identification with the antique past. Anderson stated that “the difference between this portico and the rest of the church is even signaled in the inscription place on it, which states that Charles paid for the portico’s construction” (193). The façade was featured with two levels that turrets at both sides on the upper level and porticoes at the lower level. On the top of the portico, “frieze of lions’ heads and foliage with plans for a series of statues which some say were to be saints and other kings to be placed along the top” (“Exploring London”). Without a pediment, the portico was featuring with 16 columns in total – ten monolithic Corinthian columns across its breadth, three intercolumniations at both sides of it. The columns have been suggested that stood about 56 feet tall which “structured twice its height Jones took from Palladio’s reconstruction of the temple of Venus and Rome” (Summerson 60). As for the order of the shape and size, Jones based upon the “temple of Antoninus and Faustina, an order which, to the modern eye, is at once the least elaborated and most eloquently profiled of the Corinthian orders of Rome” (Summerson 60). Nevertheless, in contrast, his columns here at St Paul’s were a trifle thicker than those of the Roman temple. Although the cornices are identical, the intercolumniation was astonishingly subtle, and both the frieze and architrave are shallower. And this lacking in gathering effect of a pediment result in the tendency of falling outwards. Jones solved the problem by “giving a pronouncedly greater intercolumniation to the center bay and then to close the ends with a penultimate column standing up against a square pier” (Summerson 61).

Beyond the fact that using portico is one of the most prestigious features in classical architecture, what else can explain the desire of adding portico which was conventionally linked with pagan temples to the churches in Christendom? Why should Jones include portico in the restoration of St Paul’s? If we compare St Peter’s to St Paul’s, it was not hard to find that both were featured with ten columns in the front and this was unlikely to be a coincidence. In this case, the desire to exceed St Peter’s must have been one driving force. “The English gained particular satisfaction in achieving the portico that the Romans had failed to build at the St Peter’s” (Worsley 132). Former apprentice John Webb wrote that this magnificent portico “contracted the Envy of all Christendom upon our Nation, for a Piece of Architecture, not to be paralleled in the last Ages of the World.” (23).

By 1642, the scaffolding was placed inside the cathedral for the reconstruction of the interior and the tower. However, war broke out between King Charles I and his Parliament. Since then, the cathedral was never put into use. “Timber was sold off to supply arrears of pay to the Parliamentary army, and the great building was turned into a cavalry barracks – at one point, 800 horses were stabled there. Booth and shops were built against the portico; the colonnade which had been a source of pride to king, bishop, and architecture became a place for sordid hucksters” (Saunders 27).

3. The Great Fire in 1666 and Christopher Wren’s Reconstruction

Today, if one of Europe’s great Cathedrals were to burn down, there is no doubt drawing together a team of specialist around the world to rebuild it to a facsimile of its initial form. However, it was not so in the 17th century of England after the Great Fire in England destroyed four-fifths of the Medieval City including St Paul’s at its heart. “The Great Fire took place on Monday 27 August 1666 in a baker’s shop in Pudding Lane, and by Tuesday afternoon the cathedral itself was threatened” (Campbell 22). Six days after the fire, Sir Christopher Wren, Surveyor General to the Crown, was given the mission of rebuilding London and St Paul’s. At that time, as a brilliant mathematician and an Astronomy Professor, his design had always following a perfect geometrically order. The essential feature of his renovation was the creation of the great dome and the redesigned the portico on the west front when he noticed that the stone of the portico designed by Inigo Jones “was in danger of collapse and utterly beyond repair” (Campbell 24).

Around 1685, Wren had engaged in renovating the west front portico. The two-tier portico was featured with Ionic portico on each level. On the upper level, 4 pairs of columns around the windows supported a pedimented on the top “with bird’s carving of the Conversion of St Paul’s on the road to Damascus” (Saunders 114), providing a view for the “screen walls”. On the church-floor level, the portico columns are raised 71 ft high above a pedestal. While the lower level differentiated themselves in order to emphasize the strength, they still continued the subject of the outer walls. In order to create a visual indication of thickness, the ground level windows were smaller and deeply recessed than those of the side walls. The remarkable feature here is that “the lower storey extends to the full width of the aisles, while the upper section defines the nave that lies behind it” (“Stpauls”). Since this novel portico is lack of an obvious antique precedent, Wren himself replicated a natural prototype. His prototype was the shade provided around trees, and that “when the temples were brought into cities, stone pillars represented the trees” (Hart 6). Although Wren imagined these trees as the origin porticoes, St Paul’s portico suggested that these trees were “not equally growing’ in the space” (Hart 6). Wren even imitated the proportions order of trees, for “at first the columns were six diameters in height; when the limitation of groves was forgotten, the diameters were advanced to seven; then to eight; then to nine, as in the Lonick Order; then, at last, to ten, as in the Corinthian and Italic Orders” (Hart 6).

Wren’s study was limited to the Renaissance that studied alongside the architecture of Inigo Jones and Baroque style he saw in Paris, however, he played a critical role in the shaping “the early sciences represented by the founding of the Royal Society which, in following the principles of Francis Bacon, was dedicated to enquiry into natural phenomena through observation and not received tradition” (Hart 4). His education highlighted the “shift in priority from a knowledge and geometry as the guarantor of architectural practice” (Hart 5). Under his concept, the mathematical science, the using of materials, and the science of structural system were more important than the art that the architecture present – “‘a fine Design will fail’, the first criterion of design shouldn’t be the appearance, but the intrinsic structural quality and geometric purity of the building” (10 Hart). As a geometrician, he deemed firmness and the structural integrity as the principles based on statics. When he discussed the roof of the Old St Paul’s he said: “the Roof is, and ever was, too heavy for its Butment” (Hart10). He emphasized later that his new design would shift from the practice of Renaissance architects to those based on geometry which took into consideration the safety issue.

Wren himself believed that “his own St Paul’s owed much in its initial stages to the remodeling of its precursor is well known” (61 Summerson 1990). Nine years of planning plus another thirty-five years of delivering, the present St Paul’s Cathedral designed by Wren not only fulfilled the needs but stood as a symbol for the England Church, the renovated city, and the emerging empire.

4. Conclusion

As two great savers of St Paul’s Cathedral in the history, Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren rebuilt the cathedral under different concepts. Inigo Jones, as the father of classical architecture, influenced on a number of architects after his time. As for the reconstruction of St Paul’s Cathedral, he brought his understanding of the ancient temples to the creation of the west front portico. Jones’s theory of design was strictly rational since Jones was a Platonist, who believed that “architecture should embody perfect geometrical or numerical forms to reflect the harmonious structure of the cosmos” (Higgott 1). As for Wren, since he had a thorough understanding of geometric proportion and professional in mathematics, he designed the building with its new feature based on the principles of architecture. “Unlike several of his colleagues, who regarded it as a set of rules and formulas for design, he had acquired, understood, and exploited the necessary combination of reason and intuition, experience and imagination” (Hart 17). He learned from Inigo Jones’s classical portico to that extent, adding with his own understanding of the “beauty” and presented the public a well-rounded front. Both of them were in favor of the mathematical relation of the structure and believed in the universal efficacy of number. Thanks to both of their dedication, we can see the great cathedral and having a sense of the classical and Baroque beauty on an original Gothic building.

Works Cited

Anderson, Christy. Inigo Jones And the Classical Tradition. Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp. 183-196.

Campbell, James, Building St Paul’s. London: Thames & Hudson, 2007, pp. 21-25.

Exploring London. “Lost London – Inigo Jones’s Grand Portico on Old St Paul’s Cathedral…”. 2015, https://exploring-london.com/2015/07/31/lost-london-inigo-jones-grand-portico-on-old-st-pauls-cathedral/. Accessed 25 Nov 2018.

Hart, Vaughn, St Paul’s Cathedral: Sir Christopher Wren. London: Phaidon, 1995, pp. 1-15.

Higgott, Gordon. “’Varying with Reason’: Inigo Jones’s Theory of Design.” Architectural History, vol. 35, 1992, pp. 51–77. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/1568571. Accessed 28 Nov 2018.

John Webb, A Vindication of Stone-Heng Restored. London, 1665, p. 23.

Kelly, Susan (2004). Charters of St Paul’s, London. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Saunders, Ann, and Sampson Lloyd. St. Paul’s – The Story of The Cathedral. 1st ed., Collins & Brown, 2003, p. 14.

Stpauls. Co. UK. “Upper Elevations and West End from C.1685 – St Paul’s Cathedral”. Stpauls.Co.UK, 2018, https://www.stpauls.co.uk/history-collections/the-collections/architectural-archive/wren-office-drawings/3-upper-elevations-and-west-end-from-c1685. Accessed 27 Nov 2018.

Summerson, John, ‘Inigo Jones: Covent Garden and the Restoration of St Paul’s Cathedral’, in The Unromantic Castle (London: Thames & Hudson, 1990), pp. 41–62.

Worsley, Giles, Inigo Jones, and the European Classicist Tradition. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2007, pp. 123-136.

 

Reconstruction and Classification of Newly Discovered Species from the Burgess Shale

Burgess Shale, Cambrian, Anomalocaris, arthropods, taxonomy, phylogenetics, cladistics, reconstruction, museum, informal learning, multimedia, animation

 

Abstract

 

 

Introduction

The fossil beds of the Burgess Shale, located in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia, contain some of the most exquisitely preserved remains of marine invertebrate organisms from the Middle Cambrian period (Brysse, 2008). The exceptional preservation of these fossilized fauna have allowed for detailed reconstructions and descriptions of these organisms functional morphologies thereby revealing modes of locomotion, sensory perception, and feeding strategies. Evidently, these specimens have proven to be invaluable in shedding light on the early evolution of animals shortly after the Cambrian explosion, in which most of the known animal phyla rapidly appeared and diversified (Brysse, 2008). However, the phylogenetic relationships of the Burgess Shale organisms have been, and continue to be, highly contested. Recent research efforts have been concentrating on re-examining previous reconstructions and classifications of the Burgess Shale organisms as well as identifying and classifying new species as new information and fossilized specimens become available. The findings of these studies are crucial for phylogenetic analysis and contribute to our understanding of not only the origin and early history of life on our planet, but the nature of evolution itself (Brysse, 2008).

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Despite the inherent importance of this research, the general public’s access to this information is often limited. However, museum exhibits including the Dawn of Life Gallery are hoping highlight the ROM’s exquisite fossil collections, including fossil specimens from the Burgess Shale, along with new ground-breaking research which will convey the complex evolution of life on our planet and introduce key evolutionary concepts. Multimedia animation is an effective educational material for museum displays since it is engaging and allows for more effective cognitive processing by using both the visual and verbal channels (Mayer et al., 2014). This is especially important because learning within a museum environment is characterized by unmediated, episodic and short interactions with exhibit displays (National Research Council, 2009). In addition, multimedia animations have been found to be a powerful venue for teaching scientific concepts and processes with particular strengths for archaeological displays in their ability to provide context for fossilized specimens. Currently, there are no multimedia animations about the reconstruction and classification of newly discovered species from the Burgess Shale and how these new finds enhance our understanding of early animal evolution. The aim of this research project is to address this gap.

Current reconstruction methods typically involve camera lucida drawings based on photographed specimens which are then prepared in Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator (Daley, Budd, Caron, Edgecombe, & Collins, 2009). Although 3D reconstructions of Burgess Shale organisms have been created, none have been used to

Background

 

The fossil remains of the Cambrian period, exemplified by the Burgess Shale of British Columbia, are significant for several reasons. These recovered fossils include a wide variety of soft-bodied and skeletonized organisms which provide a unique insight into Cambrian life (Zhang, Shu, & Erwin, 2007), and allow researchers to understand the major adaptive radiations at the beginning of the Cambrian explosion (Morris, 1989). In addition, the diversity of fossil remains and the unique morphological characteristics exhibited may represent extinct clades that have never been examined before. Furthermore, these fossil remains are exceptionally preserved, allowing researchers to interpret the anatomical details of these organisms in great depth and infer aspects of the organisms’ locomotion and ecology.

Arthropod Systematics

The organism to be studied and reconstructed for this research project is a close relative of Anomalocaris, an extinct genus that belongs to the familyanomalocarididae. The anomalocaridids possess a unique comination of morphological features which has led to a complex history of discovery, description and interpretation (Collins, 1996). They possessed a body with prominent lateral flaps and gills, a head with stalked eyes, frontal appendages, a circular mouth apparatus, and head shields that are often found dissociated from the rest of the body (Whittington and Briggs, 1985). These key features in addition to indirect evidence of bite marks on trilobites, suggests a predatory mode of life (Nedin, 1999). Anomalocaris was originally described from Mount Stephen in Canada (Whiteaves, 1892), and anomalocaridids have since been described from the Burgess Shale and other localities in the Canadian Rocky Mountains (Briggs, 1979), the Chengjiang fauna in China, the Emu Bay Shale in Australia, and various sites in the USA and Poland. Recent analyses suggest that they belong to the stem group of arthropods (Budd, 1996, 1999; Dewel and Dewel, 1998; Cotton and Braddy, 2004; Daley et al., 2009), although their phylogenetic position is controversial, with alternate interpretations regarding them as crown group arthropods (e.g., Chen et al., 2004) or as a sister group to the arthropods (Hou and Bergström, 2012).

Many aspects of the anomalocarididae morphology, diversity, and ecology also remain unclear due to scarcity of complete specimens and the manner in which they are preserved (Daley, Budd, Caron, Edgecombe, & Collins, 2009). Since fossil specimens of the Burgess Shale are flattened, multiple specimens preserved at different angles are required to reconstruct a species (Gooding, 2004). Given this and many other difficulties, fossil imprints are often interpreted by analogy to the morphology of modern counterparts.

Reconstruction Process

The 2-D diagrams are provisional interpretations of the more complex phenomenology of the

‘raw’ fossil imprints. They are labelled to indicate structures that could represent a plausible anatomy.19 Of

course, expert knowledge about possibilities influences the selection of features from the diagram.

This example illustrates some key features of visual thinking also found in other cases. First, there is a

dialectical play of personal and public representations.24 Second, diagrams select and highlight certain

features of the ‘raw’ (un-interpreted) imprint. Third, a technology (the camera lucida) is used to produce

abstractions which scientists then work with, using techniques devised to bypass difficult mental tasks such

as working out 2-D projections of complex 3-D structures.25 Fourth: the selected features are used to

construct a 3-D model capable of integrating information from diverse knowledge domains. Fifth:

information-rich, integrated representations are developed into process models that explain both the original

2-D imprints and the 3-D anatomical features they are now shown to display.26 Sixth: the complex models

are evaluated by abstracting simpler visualizations from them and comparing these to the source patterns.

Cladistics

New species discovered at the Burgess Shale are classified using a methodology of systematics known as cladistics, which gradually replaced the old method of evolutionary systematics. Cladistics is now the most widely used method of generating phylogenetic trees. Unlike evolutionary systematics, cladistics gives no weight to unique characters, and instead seeks to identify shared derived characters (synapomorphies) that indicate common descent between species. With this methodology, bizarre and unique attributes, which includes derived characters not shared with other groups, are excluded from the phylogenetic analysis of a species entirely. Two other concepts related to cladistics which are key to understanding Burgess Shale taxonomy are the crown and stem group concepts. Without these concepts it would not be possible to talk about the relationship of fossils to modern life. The crown group is a clade which consists of the latest common ancestor of a monophyletic group of extant organisms plus all the descendants of this ancestor, whether living or extinct. The stem group consists of organisms which are closer to the crown group than to any other extant clade, but do not fall within the crown group. Stem groups are extinct and will be paraphyletic since some members will be more closely related to the crown group than others are. This is because not all synapomorphies connecting members of a crown group will be acquired at once and will instead have been acquired successively within the stem group. Using cladistics and the crown and stem group concept, paleontologists can place new species within the extinct lineage leading to modern day arthropods.

Problem

The phylogeny of the arthropods has been a focus of heated debate for over a century, with an overall lack of consensus, apart from the probable relationship of the trilobites to the chelicerates (Budd, 1996). Although it is easier to describe fossil species entirely, due to the lack of detail available compared to extant species (Haug, Briggs, & Haug, 2012), many descriptions of fossils are inadequate to allow them to be used directly to prepare cladistic matrices for phylogenetic analyses. This is usually because authors concentrate on morphological features that differentiate new species from those previously described. Thus, the focus is on structures that are unique even though cladistic matrices require structures that are shared with other species. As a consequence, morphological details in many phylogenetic matrices have to be reinterpreted, often without the benefit of a comprehensive description.

 

Design Challenges and Considerations for Museum Displays

 

The ROM is currently developing a new permanent palaeontology gallery to open in 2020 called the Willner Madge Dawn of Life Gallery. This gallery will highlight the ROM’s superb fossil collections, which will include fossil specimens from the Burgess Shale, along with new ground-breaking research which will convey the rich and complex story of the evolution of life on our planet. This gallery will also introduce key geological processes, evolutionary concepts and major evolutionary innovations.

Visualization tools in museums gives the public access to current scientific research and data in a way that facilitates exploration and understanding (Frankel & Reid, 2008; Johnson et al., 2006). However, the museum environment, where learning is characterized by unmediated, episodic and short interactions with exhibits (National Research Council, 2009), imposes its own constraints on learning with a visualization tool. One of the main challenges of a museum environment is designing a visualization tool that meets the needs a broad and diverse audience. People who visit a museum exhibition differ vastly in their age, knowledge, and social background. Some people visit an exhibition to add to their growing knowledge, while others are looking for an entertaining and educational experience [15, 22]. This influences people’s expectations of an exhibition and the way they explore it. In addition, museum visitors are often under pressure because they want to see as much of the museum as possible within a certain amount of time. Due to the wealth of information commonly available in museums, exhibits are competing with each other for the attention of visitors. As a result, an exhibit that cannot create an incentive within ten seconds is usually abandoned [15].

Successful strategies for engaging visitors with exploring data through visualization tools in museum settings still need to be identified. However, there are a number of design considerations that do help to enhance the overall efficacy of museum displays.

 

Appeal

The visual appeal of information visualization in a museum context is highly important since

it influences people’s motivation to approach the visualization as an exhibit, the amount of time they actually invest in exploring it, and how they perceive and absorb the information it is presenting.

Data

Within a museum setting the information display is usually required to be dependent on the exhibition content. Thus, one of the design considerations is how the chosen data will contribute to, reflect on, or extend the context it is situated in.

Representation

Visual displays designed for museums face the likelihood that visitors will only spend a short period of time with an exhibit and rarely visit it more than once [15]. In addition, exhibit experiences are rarely mediated by staff. Therefore, the data representation should be intuitive to understand, engaging for exploration, and simple enough to have people understand the meaning quickly so that they can focus on exploring the actual information content.

Display Technology

The choice of display technology is an important factor that affects many aspects including overall visibility, input possibilities, and integration with the other exhibits. Since visitors often explore a museum exhibit in groups [22, 27], large display technologies may be preferred over smaller displays as they enable the exploration of the visualization in a collaborative way. Many examples show that one of the criteria for successful information visualization in museum space is to allow multiple people to actively or passively experience the visualization at the same time [1, 2, 26].

Multimedia Application for Museum Displays

 

Multimedia learning tools consisting of pictures (such as animation) and words (such as narration) offer a potentially powerful venue for teaching scientific concepts and processes. As a result, multimedia animation has been widely applied to the educational field in the appropriate form. Multimedia applications have particular strengths for archaeological displays in their ability to provide an idea of the original appearance of the fossilized organisms on display as well as an explanation of archaeological work itself (Economou, 1998). However, the design of multimedia animation ultimately determines the effectives of the teaching tool in promoting meaningful learning.

Interaction Strategy

According to Mayer, multimedia learning will be more effective when learning material is interactive and in control of the learners. Since learners don’t all study at the same speed, having the ability to control the speed of information presented will produce better learning outcomes. For this reason, the multimedia animation to be developed will be partitioned into a series of multimedia animations which the viewers can control by clicking start, pause, forward, and backward.

Reducing Cognitive Load

Mayer’s multimedia principle holds that deeper learning occurs when information is presented in words and pictures than in words only (Mayer, 2002). According to dual-coding theory, human’s process information in different visual and verbal channels that are relatively independent (Clark & Paivio, 1991). Therefore, multimedia animations which involve pictures and narrated text take advantage of the both of these channels, creating a fuller and more structured representation of the information that contributes to the acquisition of knowledge (Clark & Paivio, 1991).

However, the cognitive load theory presented by Mayer explains how the processing capacities of visual and verbal working memories are severely limited (Baddeley, 1992; Chandler & Sweller, 1991; Sweller, 1999). In short, presenting too many elements to be processed in visual or verbal working memory can lead to overload in which some of the elements are not processed. Four of Mayer’s design principles — contiguity, coherence, modality, and redundancy — reflect the theme that students learn more deeply when their visual and/or verbal working memories are not overloaded. In particular, constructivist learning is most likely to occur when learners’ needs have corresponding visual and verbal representations in working memory at the same time.

In the contiguity principle, individuals learn more deeply when they do not have to hold the entire animation in working memory until the narration is presented or vice versa. Compared to simultaneous presentation of animation and narration, successive presentation of animation and narration is more likely to create cognitive overload, resulting in reduced levels of understanding.

In the coherence principle, individuals learn more deeply when they do not have to process extraneous words and sounds in verbal working memory or extra pictures in visual working memory. Compared to concise presentation of animation and narration, embellished presentation is more likely to create cognitive overload that results in reduced levels of understanding.

In the modality principle, students learn more deeply when visual working memory is not overloaded by having to process both animation and printed text. When words are presented as printed text, they compete for processing resources with animation in visual working memory, thus resulting in less opportunity to build understanding. When words are presented as spoken text, they do not overload visual working memory, thus allowing for deeper understanding.

Finally, the same reasoning applies to the redundancy principle in which presenting both animation and printed text results in overloading visual working memory. Therefore, it is better to present an animation with narration alone.

Research Aims & Objectives

 

Primary Objective

The primary objective of this research project is to improve the accessibility of current research on Cambrian organisms from the Burgess Shale to the general public. More specifically, this project aims to facilitate public understanding of the evolutionary history of early lifeforms through the phylogenetic analysis of morphological characteristics found in extinct taxa from the Cambrian period.

This primary objective will be achieved through the creation of an animation that conveys the 3D reconstruction process of an extinct species from fossil remains and how the identification of diagnostic features from reconstructions provides insight into the evolutionary relationship of extinct organisms to living taxa.

Secondary Goals

1. To ensure that the 3D reconstruction of this newly discovered species is as accurate as possible given the limited fossil remains and research on related taxa that is available. Creating an accurate 3D reconstruction is crucial for the identification of morphological features that are involved in the classification of the species.

2. To ensure that the animation incorporates visual cues that engages and maintains the interest of a broad and diverse audience within an attention-competing environment.

3. To implement an iterative design process that involves ongoing feedback from content experts and a museum pilot study to assess the effectiveness of the learning tool.

 

Methods

 

Target Audience

 

The target audience for this research project will be natural history museum visitors since the final visualization will be displayed at the Royal Ontario Museum. In recent years the ROM has experienced a significant increase in school visits making students a large part of their visitor demographic. The secondary focus of this project will be for the scientific community and researchers of invertebrate paleontology.

Design Strategy

 

The design strategy for this project will involve two components: 1) the three-dimensional reconstruction of an extinct organism from fossil remains provided by the ROM and 2) the creation of an animation that conveys the reconstruction process as well as the classification and phylogenetic placement of this organism with respect to extant taxa.

Reconstruction Process:

 

The reconstruction of the organism will involve a number of major steps (Briggs & Williams, 1981):

1. Interpreting the state of the organism’s preservation. This includes determining whether the organism’s body parts have retained their original position relative to one another.

2. Determining how the differently preserved configurations of the organism relate to its original position relative to the matrix it is embedded within.

3. Producing preliminary sketches of the organism’s outline based on fossil remains that show dorsal and lateral views (if available) and supplemented by fossil remains that show intermediate orientations.

4. Producing detailed sketches of the organism’s external anatomy and key morphological characteristics through consultations with the content experts.

5. Modelling the organism in Zbrush. Sketches of the organism’s body plan and anatomy from different perspectives will be imported into Zbrush to use as templates for each plane to ensure that the scale and proportions of the organism can be modelled accurately.

6. Testing the reconstruction by comparing the model with the compacted specimens to see if any disparities are apparent and if so providing possible explanations for them.

7.  Modification of the reconstruction to meet the requirements of step 6. Steps 6 and 7 are repeated until a satisfactory model is achieved.

Animation Process:

1. Script and Storyboard: A preliminary script will be written with consultation from my committee to determine the events that will take place in the animation. Following the script, the storyboard will be created by sketching key shots of each animation. Iterations of the script and storyboard will be made following feedback provided by my committee in order ensure that the information is accurate and that the messages communicated are effective and those intended by the institution (ROM).

2. Animatic: The script will be narrated using Adobe Audition and an animated version of the final storyboard will be created to sync with this narration in Adobe After Effects. Creating this animatic will help to determine appropriate pacing for the narration as well as the how the visuals will sync with the audio.

3. Asset Creation: The 3D assets for the 3D portions of the animation will be modelled using Zbrush. This will include the 3D reconstruction of a newly discovered species from the Burgess Shale which will be developed using the techniques described above. The 2D assets for the 2D portions of the animation will be created using adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop.

4. Animating: The 3D portions of the animations will be animated using ZBrush and the 2D portions will be animated using Adobe After Effects. The final animation will be created and edited in Adobe After Effects.

Assessments

A museum pilot test will be carried out by the supervisory committee of this project at the Royal Ontario Museum. A research ethics protocol will be submitted to the University of Toronto Research Ethics Board (REB) and the field study will commence once ethics approval has been obtained. A sign will inform visitors about the study being conducted and an optional questionnaire will be available for visitors to fill out. Quantitative and qualitative questions will be asked to evaluate: the efficacy of the visual solutions, storytelling and pacing of the animation; viewer attention and interest in the visual display, and retention and comprehension of knowledge. Results of the field study will help to inform the iterative design process. Once the research goals have been met, the final iteration of the visual tool will be incorporated into the ROM’s Dawn of Life gallery in 2020.

Usage

The final tool will be a series of multimedia animations that will be displayed in the Willner Madge Dawn of Life gallery at the Royal Ontario Museum. These animations will be integrated with the other displays of the gallery and complement the educational material and chronological storytelling presented. In addition, these animations will be available through various online media, such as the Royal Ontario Museum website, to potentially be used as a supplementary learning tool for students.

Significance

 

The description of extinct species is fundamental to the science of zoology, including taxonomy, phylogenetic systematics, functional morphology and ultimately evolutionary biology and ecology (Haug, Briggs, & Haug, 2012). Morphological investigations of newly discovered specimens from the Burgess Shale helps to refine the descriptions and reconstructions of these extinct species and improve current phylogenetic analyses of these extinct taxa (Haug, Briggs, & Haug, 2012). This project aims to develop a better understanding of the close relatives of Anomalocaris through reconstruction and morphological analysis. The study of newly identified specimens allows for the construction of speculative but crucial hypotheses for the evolution of major arthropod features and the placement of these organisms within the arthropod lineage (Budd, 1996).

In addition, creating a multimedia animation series that will be integrated into the ROMS new Dawn of Life Exhibit will provide the general public with access to current scientific research in the field of invertebrate paleontology, while celebrating scientific advancements in this field (Henriksen & Froyland, 2000). Creating a museum display will also provide the opportunity to visualize key evolutionary concepts including the phylogenetic analysis and classification of extinct species. Making these learning tools available in a museum setting can help to improve scientific literacy in the general public by providing exposure to the scientific method and nature of science (NOS) (Meisel, 2010), which is widely accepted to be a primary goal of science education (Lederman 1992).

Design considerations for this multimedia animation will facilitate meaningful exploration of the subject matter.

Although multimedia learning tools tend to present information as absolute truth or the only authoritative interpretation (Economou, 1998), this technology can instead be used as a way to present alternative views and admit doubt and uncertainty when it exists (Economou, 1998). This includes the uncertainty and competing hypotheses presented for the phylogenetic relationship of extinct species from the Burgess Shale. In addition, this project will be the first to create and evaluate an educational animation series on the reconstruction and classification of a newly discovered extinct species from the Burgess Shale. Through the development of these animations, this project will investigate design strategies for creating educational displays for museums that addresses a broad a diverse target audience. The results of this project will contribute to the growing understanding of how to engage the public with exploring scientific datasets in an informal learning context.

References

 

Briggs, D. E. G., & Williams, S. H. (1981). The restoration of flattened fossils Blackwell Publishing Ltd. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1981.tb01918.x

Brysse, K. (2008). From weird wonders to stem lineages: The second reclassification of the burgess shale fauna Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.shpsc.2008.06.004

Budd, G. E. (1996). The morphology of opabinia regalis and the reconstruction of the arthropod stem‐group. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1996.tb01831.x

Clark, J. M., & Paivio, A. (1991). Dual coding theory and education. Educational Psychology Review, 3,149-210.

Collins, D. (1996). The “evolution” of anomalocaris and its classification in the arthropod class dinocarida (nov.) and order radiodonta (nov.) Paleontological Society.

Daley, A. C., Budd, G. E., Caron, J., Edgecombe, G. D., & Collins, D. (2009). The burgess shale anomalocaridid hurdia and its significance for early euarthropod evolution American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Daley, A. C., & Budd, G. E. (2010). New anomalocaridid appendages from the burgess shale, canada Blackwell Publishing Ltd. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2010.00955.x

Daley, A. C., Budd, G. E., & Caron, J. (2013). Morphology and systematics of the anomalocaridid arthropod hurdia from the middle cambrian of british columbia and utah Taylor & Francis. doi:10.1080/14772019.2012.732723

Morris, S. C. (1989). Burgess shale faunas and the cambrian explosion The American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Pates, S., & Daley, A. C. (2019). The kinzers formation (pennsylvania, USA): The most diverse assemblage of cambrian stage 4 radiodonts Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/S0016756818000547

Sheppard, K.A., Rival, D.E., & Caron, J. (2018). On the Hydrodynamics of Anomalocaris Tail Fins. Integrative and comparative biology, 58 4, 703-711 .

Zhang, X., Shu, D., & Erwin, D. H. (2007). Cambrian naraoiids (arthropoda): Morphology, ontogeny, systematics, and evolutionary relationships. Paleontological Society.

 

The Accuracy of Forensic Reconstruction

Forensic art, otherwise known as forensic reconstruction, is used by forensic anthropologists to construct the possible faces of missing or unidentified persons. These methods can help aid investigators in the identification of the unidentified and help with search and recovery of the missing. One of the most common methods used is age progression, in which a forensic artist will create, either by hand, computer, or a mixture of both, what the intended individual would look like at a certain age. This technique is specifically useful in missing persons cases, in which the person has been missing for an extended period of time and might not look the way he or she did at the time of the disappearance. However, there is no guarantee that the methods used in forensic art will be accurate enough for an identification. Since evaluation of age progression methods show a need to improve forensic art techniques and reliability and validity of age progressions is somewhat low, research shows that the accuracy of forensic art is fairly inaccurate.

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 In a study conducted by Andreas Lanitis, Lanitis attempts to create a dataset that will evaluate age progressions in order to generate more accurate outcomes. The goal of the data set is to retain features of the face that are most delicate to aging (Lanitis & Tsapatsoulis, 2014). This way, forensic anthropologists can produce age progressions of a specific individual at the correct age. The dataset Lanitis and his partner, Tsapatsoulis, are hoping to build upon is the FG-NET dataset. The two researchers are doing this by testing the aging differences of eight different facial features in hopes they will provide a more accurate picture. Though more work is being done on this research, Lanitis and a team of researchers conducted another study that evaluates eight different age progression methods: Method 1, angingalbum, oldface, oldbooth, maold2, maold, abooth, and in 20y (Lanitis, Tsapatsoulis, Soteriou, Kuwahara, & Morishima, 2015). The purpose of this research study was to test which method out of the eight provided the most accurate results of an age progression. Lanitis and his team gathered images of 30 different people, of various ages, races, and genders. There were two pictures for each individual. Image A was a picture of the person prior to present day, while image B was a present-day picture of the individual. The researchers then showed the image A photos to forensic artists and asked them to produce an age progression of so many years so that they could compare the age progressions to the image B photos. Lanitis and his team used three methods to compare the age progressions to image B to find out the similarity of the two and which age progression methods are most accurate. The researchers concluded that oldface and method 1 provided age progressions most similar to that of the target individual. They further concluded that age progressions that involve children under 6 years old were almost allows inaccurate, supporting the statement that improved techniques must be created to provide useful images in investigations.

 Two studies have been conducted at striving to advance current forensic reconstruction techniques to provide more accurate results. Researcher Eric Patterson and colleagues used a current dataset called, Wide Age-Range Progression (WARP) Image Set, to create a dataset that represents the elder population more effectively than current datasets (Patterson, Simpson, & Sethuram, 2014). The reason behind the research was to demonstrate the changing properties of the face over time, such as deformation in the face, loss of collagen in the skin, and fine lines and wrinkles. Patterson and researchers chose to age progress the images found in the WARP database because it is supposed to show a greater range of ages than other datasets available, like FG-NET and MORPH. Researchers then compared to see if datasets with wider age ranges and diversity showed more accuracy in age progressed images. Patterson and his team found that this is true. The results lead researchers to believe that datasets that contain images of individuals from a number of age groups and ethnic groups provided more accuracy than other datasets. The team also found that datasets that contained images of just one gender had improved the accuracy of age progressed images compared to gender-combined datasets. In another study aimed at advancing current forensic art methods, Patterson and a team of researchers created a new technique for the active appearance model, otherwise known as AAM, which is used in age progression images (Patterson, Sethuram, & Ricanek, 2013). The AAM uses both shape and texture of a specific face in order to adjust the image and form a more realistic age progression model. While the old technique is also used to signify shape and texture in the face, vectors are laid on top of the original photo to create the age-progressed image, often looking unrealistic. The new technique proposed by Patterson and his colleagues draws on shape and texture, while warping the age-progressed image into the original photo to create the changes in the face due to aging, therefore creating the presence of nasolabial lines and forehead lines. These changes allow for a more accurate representation of the target individual, however, still limits the accuracy due to the absence of changes in the hair and neck caused by aging.

 It is important to analyze the similarity between target individuals and age progressions to test the accuracy of the method. Charlie Frowd and his team of researchers wanted to test the likeness of age progressions and its intended individual, as well as the likeness of age progressions of an individual by multiple forensic artists. The researchers gathered photographs from volunteers at the ages of 5, 12, and 20, along with images of their relatives at those ages as well. The team then asked four different forensic artists to perform an age progression on each volunteer from the ages of 5 to 12, 5 to 20, and 12 to 20 (Frowd, Erickson, & Lampinen, 2014). Once the age progressions had been completed, Frowd and his team analyzed and compared the progressions to the actual images, as well as the progressions of the other forensic artists. The results from the experiment demonstrated that there was more similarity between the 5 to 12 and 12 to 20 progressions than the 5 to 20 progressions, suggesting that producing age progressed images are more accurate when the age gap is smaller. The researchers also concluded that the age progressions compared among each forensic artist was dissimilar to each other, indicating that experience and skill of the forensic artist may determine the precision of a progression. The experience and skill of forensic artists was tested in a study by William Blake Erikson. In his research, himself and his colleagues performed two studies. The first aims at testing the validity of age progressed images, meaning, does the image look similar to the individual, while the second aims at testing the reliability of age progressed images, meaning, will the image look similar among a variety of forensic artists (Erickson, Lampinen, Frowd, & Mahoney, 2017). They performed the experiment by having eight different forensic artists, each having a different experience and skill level, create age progressions of eight individuals at three different ages in their life. When testing the validity of the progressions, researchers found that showing more recent photographs of an individual led to slightly more recognitions than the age progressions. However, the results from testing the reliability aspect of forensic art was significant. The study showed that the greater the difference in experience was between two forensic artists, the less alike their progressions of the same individual would look. The study also provided evidence that the larger the age range between age progressions, the less likely the image is to look like the target individual, raising the question as to whether or not other methods of forensic art should be used in missing or unidentified cases.

 One technique of forensic art that could be more beneficial than age progressed images in dealing with unidentified bodies is facial reconstruction, which is the art of rebuilding the face of a person using their remains. Marek Joukal and a team of forensic anthropologists conducted a research study that practices using a facial reconstruction technique to identify the victims of severe head wounds. As of 2015, Joukal and colleagues used the technique on seven different victims who died of severe head wounds after being struck by a train (Joukal & Frishons, 2015). The technique involves detaching the bone fragments of the skull, placing the soft tissue onto a polystyrene head model, stitching the dermatomuscular flaps, and adjusting. This method allows researchers and investigators to distinguish identifying features likes scars and facial lines, as well as the eyebrows and facial hair. With the model of the newly constructed face, researchers could show a picture of it to potential family members to achieve a positive identification of the victim. The technique has been successful in all seven cases and with further investigation and research, this method could prove to be extremely useful in the identification of unidentified bodies.

 To conclude, forensic art in the form of age progressions and facial reconstruction will never give a truly identical representation of a missing or unidentified person. Numerous studies prove that there is more work to be done to improve these techniques. With almost 55% of all missing persons cases going unsolved, and 85% of unknown bodies remaining unidentified, it is crucial that new and improved methods are being developed to generate the most accurate results possible. (Erickson et al., 2017).  However, based on research, it can be said that the current methods are of good use in the means of a last resort in an attempt to identify missing or unidentified persons.

References

Erickson, W. B., Lampinen, J. M., Frowd, C. D., & Mahoney, G. (2017). When age-processed images are unreliable: The roles of external features and age range. Science & Justice, 57(2), 136-143.

Frowd, C., Erickson, W. B., & Lampinen, J. M. (2014). Locating Missing Persons Using Age-Progression Images from Forensic Artists. International Conference on Emerging Security Technologies, Fifth, 132.

Joukal, M., & Frishons, J. (2015). A facial reconstruction and identification technique for seriously devastating head wounds. Forensic Science International, 252, 82-86.

Lanitis, A., & Tsapatsoulis, N. (2014). Assessing facial age similarity: A framework for evaluating the robustness of different feature sets. International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG).

Lanitis, A., Tsapatsoulis, N., Soteriou, K., Kuwahara, D., & Morishima, S. (2015). FG2015 age progression evaluation. IEEE International Conference and Workshops on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FG), 11th.

Patterson, E., Sethuram, A., & Ricanek, K. (2013). An improved rendering technique for active-appearance-model-based automated age progression. SIGGRAHPH 2013, 115.

Patterson, E., Simpson, D., & Sethuram, A. (2014). Establishing a test set and initial comparisons for quantitatively evaluating synthetic progression for adult aging. IEEE International Joint Conference on Biometrics.

 

BIM-Based 3D Reconstruction Technology

Optimization Model of BIM-based three-dimensional reconstruction technology and engineering model of visual perception
Keywords: Three-dimensional reconstruction, visual perceptual model, engineering optimization, modeling, analysis.
Abstract.Vision-based reconstruction is still there is a big limitation. Through its research-based approach introduces the primary visual three-dimensional reconstruction techniques, advantages and disadvantages of various methods were compared, it is desirable in this area can have a more comprehensive grasp, to further clarify the direction of future research. In order to improve the efficiency of the design and construction of bridge engineering, building information modeling (BIM) is introduced into the bridge project in the past. By analyzing the characteristics of bridge design and construction and the problems proposed bridge design and construction BIM-based optimization solutions, including preliminary design optimization, optimization of construction design, construction process optimization, optimization of the construction schedule and construction management optimization, combined with practical engineering project the applicability and effect analysis. Case application shows, BIM Bridge Project is applicable, can provide effective support for the bridge design and construction, thereby reducing rework and improve efficiency. The study may be large or complex bridge engineering BIM improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the design and construction of reference.
Introduction
The relevant information and data building information model is based on building projects as the basis for the model, building model were established by the real information of the digital information simulation building has, it has the visibility, coordination, simulated sex, optimality and showing of five characteristics. The BIM technology in the field of bridge engineering construction is currently in the early stages, preliminary exploration in the design, construction, and post-operation maintenance and repair of the entire life cycle of how to use BIM technology to improve design efficiency, improved design quality, strengthen the construction organization and post operations management, specific method and the application of BIM technology can bring benefits, hoping to BIM in bridge engineering to develop ideas.

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In recent years, domestic construction projects in the field of non-BIM is none other than the hottest technology in the construction industry has achieved good results after the application, the state began to vigorously promote the railway, highway, water conservancy and hydropower industry application of BIM technology in fields such as engineering, and bridge engineering in the construction field and a large proportion, especially high-speed railway, mountain railway, roads, bridges, often accounting for a larger significance in bridge engineering applications BIM technology on the entire major project, the paper will design, three stages of construction, operation and maintenance of the latter part of the project life cycle are the practical application of research needs and the effect of BIM technology.
In recent years, should the needs of economic development, large, extra large bridge project more and more, such as China, Hangzhou Bay Bridge, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, which bridge design and construction of a higher requirement. Bridge construction project not only involves complex geographical environment, and involves a number of complex projects, the most typical is the Steel Bridge. Currently, the design of large bridge projects usually rely on the traditional two-dimensional drawings and graphs to analyze the design by closing existing in conflict; construction planning is largely dependent on the experience of project managers to develop and implement, and is also a two-dimensional drawings to show. However, since the bridge project their own characteristics, its design complexity, component many rely solely on the traditional two-dimensional drawings difficult to detect in advance or found conflicts existing in the design; these design problems usually can be found in the construction phase, thus affecting the construction schedule and cost, will also affect construction safety. At the same time, in order to resolve the problem of engineering design and construction, we had to deploy more staff, which is also a significant increase in management costs. Therefore, to ensure the feasibility of the bridge may be constructed of engineering design and construction programs for efficient implementation of the bridge project is very important.
Preliminary design stage is divided into two stages of design and post-design, including pre-design project approval, feasibility studies and scheme comparison and other parts, three-dimensional solid model of the bridge by using parametric modeling tools can be easily established according to the actual need to adjust the size, and the actual effect of the bridge into the real-time dynamic display, to achieve WYSIWYG, can intuitively design concept, design effects directly model the three-dimensional visualization of the project as a carrier to deliver policy-makers, which greatly facilitate the adjustment of the design, be revised in accordance with amendments and rendering, and cost control by adding information to keep abreast of changes after the investment increases and decreases, so that the bridge-bridge quickly determine preliminary program is very convenient and efficient. Figure 1 is a railway bridge stayed Bridge main bridge model, we need to establish a special bridge structure according to the characteristics of the family library for complex bridge structure using three-dimensional expression of BIM model than the traditional two-dimensional drawings clearer and easier to understand.
The Proposed Methodology
Three-dimensional modeling techniques.The use of modeling software for three-dimensional modeling is commonly used method, but modeling the need to spend a lot of manpower and material resources are often prohibitive, reconstruction effect is often unsatisfactory. Vision-based reconstruction technique to solve this problem and provides a new way of thinking.
Three-dimensional vision-based three-dimensional reconstruction technology, which uses computer vision methods of three-dimensional model reconstruction of the object, is the use of a digital camera as the image sensor, the integrated use of image processing, visual computing technologies such as non-contact dimensional measurement, obtaining object using a computer program information. The advantage is that the shape of the object is not restricted to rebuild faster, can achieve automatic or semi-automatic modeling, three-dimensional reconstruction is an important direction of development, can be widely used, including autonomous mobile robot navigation systems, remote sensing and aerospace, industrial fields of automation systems, etc., the economic benefits generated by this technology is very impressive.
As an important branch of computer vision technology, vision-based three-dimensional reconstruction of Marr visual theoretical framework is based on the formation of a variety of theoretical approaches. For example, according to the number of cameras can be divided into monocular vision method, binocular vision method, three monocular vision or monocular vision method; according to different principles, vision-based method can be divided into regions, feature-based visual method , model-based and rule-based visual methods; according to the obtained data the way, can be divided into active and passive visual method visual method.

Figure.1 Three dimensional reconstruction technique
According to research at home and abroad in recent years, were selected based on visual presentation of three-dimensional reconstruction of research and practical application of several methods and more comparative analysis, pointed out the main challenges for the future and the future direction of development. Depending on the number of cameras to use, this article will be divided into three-dimensional reconstruction method based on the visual method of monocular vision, binocular vision trinocular vision method and three methods were introduced, focusing on the monocular vision method.

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Monocular vision method.Monocular vision method is the use of a camera for three-dimensional reconstruction method. Images used can be a single point of view of single or multiple images can also be a multi-view multiple images. The former is mainly characterized by a two-dimensional image depth information deduced, these features include two-dimensional shading, texture, focus, contour, etc., it is also referred to as X shape recovery method. This simple device structure class methods, the use of single or small number of several images can be reconstructed three-dimensional object model; less than that normally required conditions more idealistic, practical application is not very satisfactory, the effects of reconstruction in general. The latter by matching different images of the same feature points matching using these coordinates in space constraint obtaining information in order to achieve a three-dimensional reconstruction. This method can be implemented in the reconstruction process of camera calibration, to meet the needs of large-scale reconstruction of three-dimensional scene, and in the case of resource-rich image reconstruction is better; the downside is that a greater amount of computing, a long time to rebuild. The following describes several major monocular vision method.
Shading method.Shading method, that the brightness of the shape recovery method (SFS). This approach by analyzing image brightness information, using reflected light model, restore the normal to the surface of three-dimensional reconstruction information. Horn in 1970 first proposed the concept SFS methods, and gives a non-linear relationship between the two-dimensional image showing the brightness of each pixel in the corresponding three-dimensional point of law to the reflectance of light and the direction of Partial Differential Equations , the brightness of the equation.
However, this method is a SFS under-constrained problem and needs to solve other constraints. Therefore, the traditional method of SFS also based on three assumptions. The main advantage of the brightness of the method is that it can recover from a single image in a more precise three-dimensional model can be applied in addition to mirror the object almost all types of objects. However, the brightness of the reconstruction of relying solely on mathematical calculations, results are poor, but because of the lighting conditions more stringent requirements, the need to know the precise position and orientation of the light source and other information, so that the brightness of the method is difficult to apply in the case of an outdoor scene lighting and other complex three-dimensional reconstruction on.
Photometric stereo.Although the shading method to support the reconstruction of three-dimensional model from a single image, but less information is available in a single image, the actual reconstruction of the general effect. So Woodham of SFS method is proposed to improve the photometric stereo.
Photometric stereo by a plurality of non-collinear light source to obtain multiple images of the object, and then a different image brightness simultaneous equations, solving the surface normal direction of the object, and ultimately restore the shape of the object. Technically, the use of two light sources can be obtained method object to the information, but the use of multiple sources of data redundancy can be resolved by the shadows and specular reflections caused by such factors can not solve the problem, better robustness, reconstruction effect It can be improved, so the current method basically using a plurality of (four to six) three-dimensional reconstruction of the light source.
Photometric stereo advantages and brightness of the same law, the use of multiple images at the same time avoids the problems of ill shading method, and the use of multiple light sources also increased constraints, to improve the accuracy and robustness of the method; it the disadvantage is difficult to apply a mirror surface object and three-dimensional reconstruction of outdoor scenes and objects.
Texture law.Humans can surface texture by projection on the retina perceive three-dimensional shape of the object, so the visual image information gradient texture can be used as information for Shape and depth cues. Based on this theory, the analysis can be repeated by surface texture unit image size, the shape, the recovery of the normal object, the depth information to obtain three-dimensional geometric model of the object, i.e., texture profile method for recovery.
Texture is the basic theory of law: For a smooth surface and having a repeating texture units covering the object of which, when projected on the two-dimensional image, texture unit on which will be deformed, this deformation is divided into projection distortion (projective distortion ) and perspective shrinkage. Projection distortion so the farther away from the image plane texture unit looks smaller foreshortening distortion and image plane makes an angle greater texture unit looks shorter. Because these two variants can be measured from the image, so it can be analyzed after deformation texture units, reverse strike the surface normal and depth of information, three-dimensional reconstruction.
Profile method. This method of contour images of objects through a plurality of angles to give a three-dimensional model of the object. Profile method can be divided based on voxel cone prime three methods based on visual and shell.

Figure.2 Visual perception model
Conclusion
Reconstruction of 3D Vision technology is still in the exploratory stage, the practical application of the various methods is still some distance away from a variety of application needs to be urgently met. Therefore, in the future for a long period of time, we also need to do more intensive research in this field. This study shows that, BIM can provide effective support for the bridge design and construction. This study was expected to provide reference for increasing large, complex bridge design and construction efficiency and effectiveness, as well as assist in the promotion and application of BIM in the field of civil engineering. I believe that with the continuous promotion of theory and technology of BIM, BIM applications in civil engineering will become increasingly widespread, so as to improve their quality, efficiency and management level. Safety-critical structural bridge engineering, maintenance and repair of the late, operations management, file management can take advantage of powerful information technology BIM, visualization capabilities to achieve.

DNA Analysis and Facial Reconstruction of Human Skull

The mystery of box 9

Introduction

Box 9 encompassed a complete skull, articulated pelvis and right femur, all from a single, unknown individual. Sex, age, ethnicity, height and pathology was determined using both metric and morphological forensic anthropological methods. Metric analysis is advantageous because it’s easier to learn and reproduce, relies on standard landmarks, and results in fewer indeterminate conclusions (Giles, 1970). However, disadvantages include the need for unfragmented bones and population-specific formulae. Therefore, if remains are burned or fragmented, a qualitative method is needed, however, these can be subjective and lack of consistency (Giles, 1970). Alongside this, facial reconstruction and DNA profiling provided further evidence to help identify this individual.

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Pathological conditions

Pathology is important to consider before determining sex, age and ethnicity to prevent bias. This individual has many common characteristics of acromegaly- a rare disorder caused by over-production of growth hormone from the pituitary gland, these include an enlarged skull, protruding mandible, mispositioned teeth and excessive bone outgrowth around sutures (Chapman, 2017). Although these features could also indicate gigantism, this individual’s pelvis and femur are within normal ranges, suggesting the condition was acquired in adulthood which only occurs in acromegaly patients (NIDDK, 2012). Acromegaly progression is often linked to type 2 diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis and severe muscle weakness, which, if left untreated, could lead to premature death- it may have also caused this individual to have a stooped posture and frequent cardiovascular complications (Chapman, 2017). As the pelvis and femur have no signs of disease or damage, it’s unlikely this individual had osteoarthritis, however, absence of organs and muscles means other conditions cannot be ruled out as cause of death.

Sex

Ferembach’s (1980) qualitative method for skull sex determination indicated most features were hyper-male (see figure 1), however, a rough but medium thickness zygomatic process and a somewhat flexed posterior border of the mandibular ramus showed neither male or female characteristics. Despite this, overall, one can predict that this individual was male.

4

3

5

1

2

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Figure 1 shows features of the cranium and mandible that indicated hyper-male traits using Ferembach’s (1980) method. 1: prominent glabella, 2: vertical mastoid process, 3: blunted supraorbital ridges, 4: inclined forehead, 5: quadrectangular orbitals and 6: robust, broad mandible.

Alternatively, Giles and Elliot’s (1963) discrimination function is a quicker method with similar accuracy of 86.6%. Using formula 1, outlined in Appendix D, a value of 2994.9 is obtained, also suggesting this individual was male, increasing reliability of conclusions. Krogman (1962) found that sexing the skull alone is 90% accurate, however, sexing the skull and pelvis together is 98% accurate. Thus, to increase accuracy of final conclusions, the pelvis and femur need to be analysed too.

The pelvis is the best indicator of sex due to its adaptation for childbirth in females. Phenice’s (1969) morphological technique uses 3 pubis characteristics to determine sex- one of which is the ventral arc, said to be 96% accurate in determining sex (Sutherland and Suchey, 1991). Unfortunately, this technique produced mixed results for this pelvis, therefore, alternatively, Albanese’s (2003) metric analysis, outlined in Appendix B, uses the whole pelvis and femur to increase accuracy and reduce subjectivity of sex determination. Using model 1, which has 98% accuracy, a value of 0.26 is obtained, suggesting this individual was female. Yet, model 2 and 3, which have 97% and 96.3% accuracy respectively, obtain 0.62 and 0.94, clearly indicating male. Although model 2 and 3 have lower accuracy, their matching outcome increases confidence and validity, allowing one to conclude this individual was male.

Bass (1978) discovered that a femur head diameter >47.5mm indicates male while

However, cranial suture closure is considered unreliable and inaccurate because it frequently under‐ages older adults and over‐ages sub-adults (Molleson and Cox 1993). Moreover, this individual’s acromegaly caused excessive outgrowth of bone around the sutures, potentially affecting their closure and, thus, impacting age determination. As a result, a more reliable method of ageing the skull involves looking at dentition.

Teeth are the least destructible part of the body, making them excellent for age estimation. No deciduous dentition and evidence of tooth 8 alveolar processes indicate this individual was at least 18 years old (Carr, 1962). Dental wear analysis provides more accurate age determination than those previously mentioned because it examines enamel which cannot be remodelled. A widely used method involves analysing of mandibular molar wear (Miles 1963), however, as shown in figure 5 and 6, excessive ante- and postmortem tooth loss means only two mandibular molars are present, preventing any valid age estimation.

 

Figure 5, photographs showing mandibular (A) and maxillary (B) dentition. 1) identifies the sites of postmortem tooth loss, 2) shows antemortem tooth loss, 3) indicates alveolar processes of molar 3 and 4) indicates areas of decay.

Figure 6, using the University of Sheffield dental chart, shows which teeth are present, which have been extracted and any fractures seen. It appears teeth 13, 15, 16, 24, 27, 31, 36, 42, and 46 were removed at a while before death as they have had time to heal over.

These forensic age estimation techniques conclude that this individual could be anywhere between 25 and 48.1 years old. However, after combining all results and analysing their accuracy and validity, it is likely that this individual is between 32 and 43 years old.

Facial reconstruction

During facial reconstruction, 16 osteometric points were measured and attached to the skull, then, facial muscles, features, fat and skin were created from wax to produce a potential antemortem model of this individual- see figure 7. After completion, it was clear that this individual was a male with a very prominent jaw and forehead which links to previous conclusions.

C

B

A

Figure 7 shows the stages of facial reconstruction. A) shows the skull with osteometric points in place, B) shows the addition of some facial muscles, eyeball and nose, and C) shows the final, completed facial reconstruction.

Despite this, as this is an artistic interpretation completed by a group of untrained individuals without any soft tissue or portrait to work alongside, this method is very subjective and therefore not very reliable at recreating an individual’s morphological traits for identification. Therefore, this could be improved using computerised 3D facial reconstruction.

DNA profiling

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), a highly reproducible DNA profiling technique, was carried out to identify the common D1S80 variable nucleotide tandem repeat within this individual’s DNA sample and compared to those of 7 missing people. However, absence of any bands in this individual’s DNA sample, shown in figure 10, prevents matching to known genotypes. This could be due to poor primer specificity or synthesis or inadequate, faulty DNA in the sample (McPherson, Quirke & Taylor, 1992).

Figure 10 shows the results from 2% agarose gel electrophoresis of the PCR products. Lane 1 and 12 – 100bp ladder; 2- water control; 3- DNA sample A; 4- DNA sample B; 5- DNA sample C; 6- this individuals DNA sample; 7- DNA sample D; 8- DNA sample E; 9- DNA sample F;   10- DNA sample G; 11- water.

Therefore, to find a match, AFLP should be repeated ensuring there is adequate, unfragmented DNA along with an appropriate, high specificity primer. Primer dimers at the bottom of lane 9 suggests the primer concentration was too high, therefore, to avoid allelic dropout which may assume homozygosity, lower concentrations should be used when repeating.

AFLP requires high quality and quantity of DNA to prevent allelic dropout, however, it’s likely that this cannot be achieved from this DNA sample. Therefore, DNA-17 may provide better results because it requires less DNA due to improved sensitivity and discrimination between profiles (Crown Prosecution Service, 2019).

Conclusion

After analysing all results, one can estimate this was a European male aged between 32 and 43 who was 174cm tall, living with acromegaly. The likely cause of death is co-morbidity associated with acromegaly progression. Unfortunately, these conclusions cannot be confirmed through DNA fingerprinting which reduces validation and reliability, therefore, further analysis to confirm this individual’s identity could include more reliable methods involving molecular biology and bone chemistry.

References

Albanese, J., (2003).  A Metric Method for Sex Determination Using the Hipbone and the Femur. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 48(2), 2001378. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs2001378.

Bass, W., (1978). Human osteology. Columbia, Mo., Missouri Archaeological Society, 196-208.

Black, T., (1978). Sexual dimorphism in the tooth-crown diameters of the deciduous teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 48(1), 77-82. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330480111.

Brooks, S. and Suchey, J., (1990). Skeletal age determination based on the os pubis: A comparison of the Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks methods. Human Evolution. 5(3), 227-238. Available from: doi:10.1007/bf02437238.

Carr, L., (1962). Eruption ages of permanent teeth. Australian Dental Journal. 7(5), 367-373. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.1962.tb04884.x.

Chapman, I., (2017). Gigantism and Acromegaly – Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders – MSD Manual Consumer Version. [Online]. 2017. MSD Manual Consumer Version. Available from: https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-gb/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/pituitary-gland-disorders/gigantism-and-acromegaly [Accessed: 27 April 2019].

Church, MS., (1995). Determination of Race from the Skeleton through Forensic Anthropological Methods. Forensic Science Review. 7(1), 1-39

Crown Prosecution Service., (2019). DNA-17 Profiling. [Online]. 2019. Crown Prosecution Service. Available from: https://www.cps.gov.uk/legal-guidance/dna-17-profiling [Accessed: 5 May 2019].

Ferembach, D., (1980). Recommendations for age and sex diagnoses of skeletons. Journal of Human Evolution. 9(7), 517-549. Available from: doi:10.1016/0047-2484(80)90061-5.

Giles, E. and Elliot, O., (1963). Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of crania. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 21(1), 53-68. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330210108

Giles, E., (1970). Discriminant function sexing of the human skeleton. Personal Identification in Mass Disasters. In Stewart TD (ed.)99-107.

Krogman, W., (1962). The human skeleton in forensic medicine. American Journal of Orthodontics. 49(6), 474. Available from: doi:10.1016/0002-9416(63)90175-1.

McPherson, M., Quirke, P. & Taylor, G., (1992). PCR: a practical approach. Oxford, IRL.

Meindl, R. and Lovejoy, C., (1985). Ectocranial suture closure: A revised method for the determination of skeletal age at death based on the lateral-anterior sutures. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 68(1), 57-66. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330680106.

Miles, A., (1963). Dentition in the Estimation of Age. Journal of Dental Research. 42(1), 255-263. Available from: doi:10.1177/00220345630420012701

Molleson, T and Cox, M., (1993). The Spitalfields Project, Vol. 2: The Anthropology. The Middling Sort, Research Report 86. Council for British Archaeology: York.

NIDDK., (2012). Acromegaly | NIDDK. [online] National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/acromegaly [Viewed 21 April 2019].

Phenice, T., (1969). A newly developed visual method of sexing the os pubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 30(2), 297-301. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330300214.

Rissech, C., Estabrook, G., Cunha, E. and Malgosa, A., (2006). Using the Acetabulum to Estimate Age at Death of Adult Males*. Journal of Forensic Sciences.  51(2), 213-229. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00060.x

Scheuer, L. & Black, S., (2004). The juvenile skeleton. London, Elsevier Academic Press.

Sutherland, L. and Suchey, J., (1991) Use of the Ventral Arc in Pubic Sex Determination. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 36(2), 13051J. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs13051j.

Todd, T., (1921). Age changes in the pubic bone. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 4(1), 1-70. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330040102

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Appendices

Appendix A

Feature

Measurement (mm)

Cranial length

187.22

Cranial breadth

111.47

Basion-bregma height

138.67

Bizygomatic breadth

131.39

Basion prosthion length

121.63

Nasion-prosthion line

68.21

Maxillo-alveolar breadth

67.25

Height of the processus mastoideus

36.67

These measurements were then inputted into the formula below to determine sex from the skull.

Discriminant function formula (Giles & Elliot, 1963):

(Cranial length*3.107) + (Cranial breadth*-4.643) + (Basion-bregma height*5.786) + (bizygomatic breadth*14.821) + (Basion prosthion length*1.000) + (Nasion-prosthion line*2.714) + (Maxillo-alveolar breadth*-5.179) + (Height of the processus mastoideus*6.071)

If result is larger than 2676.39, the individual is male, if smaller than 2676.39, the individual is female.

Appendix B

Feature

Measurement (mm)

Hipbone height (A)

212

Iliac breadth (B)

161

Pubis length (C)

71.675

Ischium length (D)

88.41

Femur head diameter (E)

45.45

Epicondylar breadth of femur (F)

75.26

There measurements where then inputted into the formula below Albanese’s (2003) to determine sex from the pelvis and femur.
Probability M/F=1(1+e–Z)

Model 1, Z = -61.5345 + (0.595*A) – (0.5192*B) – (1.1104*D) + (1.1696*E) + (0.5893*F)

Model 2, Z = -40.5313 + (0.2572*A) – (0.9852*C) + (0.7303*E) + (0.3177*F)

Model 3, Z = -30.359 + (0.4323*A) – (0.2217*B) – (0.7404*C) + (0.3412*D)

If P is greater than 0.5, the individual is male, if P is less than 0.5, the individual is female.

Appendix C

List of corresponding states and ages for each of the 7 acetabulum variables Rissech’s (2006)

Acetabular groove

State 1 – predicted age: 41.6

Acetabular rim shape

State 3 – predicted age: 45.9

Acetabular rim porosity

State 2 – predicted age: 39

Apex activity

State 1 – predicted age: 38.2

Activity on the outer edge of the acetabular fossa

State 2 – predicted age: 32.3

Activity of the acetabular fossa

State 3 – predicted age: 48.1

Porosities of the acetabular fossa

State 2 – predicted age: 34.3