Building Relationships when Working with Children


Summarise the current legal requirements for those working with children. This should include references to the 6 learning goals and how they could be implemented in a child care setting. Page 2

Explain what is meant by respecting and valuing individuality, and devise a plan of how this can be implement in the child care setting. A table format may be used for this task. Page 4

Evaluate the benefits of consistency with regard to positive and negative behaviour, and identify strategies that can be used to encourage positive behaviour in the child care setting. Page 6

Describe the process involved in managing conflict between children and adults. You should refer to at least one behavioural theorist in your answer. Page 8

Answer to task 1)
The Childcare Act was introduced on 11 July 2006. The act requires specific powers and duties of local authorities in England. These duties are:

Provide adequate information for parents.
To improve the outcomes of children aged 0-5
Provide information and training for childcare providers.
Local authorities must work with NHS and Job centre partners to improve the outcomes of all children up to 5.

The Children Act 2004 sets a duty to make certain that every child would have the support they need to:

be healthy
stay safe
enjoy and achieve and make a positive contribution to society
achieve economic well-being.

The Act has certain requirements that childcare providers will need to meet: welfare, learning, development. The requirements are set down in the Ofsted publication “Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage”. (Ref 1)
Childcare providers must guide the development of children’s capabilities with a view to ensuring that children in their care complete the EYFS ready to benefit fully from the opportunities ahead of them. accessed 26/05/12
The Early years Foundation Stage learning and development requirements comprise:

The assessment schedule must be arranged for children to establish their achievements.
the early learning goals, such as – the knowledge, skills and understanding.
The educational programmes.

These are the learning goals:

Communication, language and literacy. Children are extending thier vocabulary, learning to speak correctly using words to construct sentence, learning to write and read accurately. Children must be given access to range of books, poems, and other written materials. Child care providers must give encouragement to children to use their skills in varios situations. It helps develop confidence.

Physical development. Children must be involved in activities that develop their co-ordination, control and movement, and understand factors which lead into healthy lifestyle. Children must be supported in using all their senses to learn about the world.
Personal, social and emotional development. These goals are helping children develop a positive sense of themselves and others, positive relationship, respect others, manage their feelings and understand appropriate behaviour and positive disposition to learn. Childcare providers should help children to know themselves and what they can do.
Mathematics. Children should develop and improve their skills in counting, understanding and using numbers from 1-9, calculating simple addition and to describe shapes, spaces, and measures.
Knowledge and Understanding the world. Children will develop the knowledge; skills and understanding that will help them make sense of the world. They will learn of people, plants, and environment.
Creative development. Children are involved in dancing, music, art, play. It provides opportunities to share their thoughts and feelings. (Ref 2)

Answer to task 2)
The child has to know that they have values and should treasure them.
Parent and childcare providers must start teaching children about respect and valuing individuality from early age. Children like to observe adults and see them as an example the way they deal in certain situation. Childcare providers and parents should show children that they respect individuality, feelings, views, ideas and culture. We have different cultural backgrounds and it is important to teach children how to celebrate them. (Ref 3)

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Indoor and outdoor playtime, individual and group learning encourage children to respect themselves and others. Children will naturally respect those who use their influence in encouraging ways, helping them to learn and grow in safe surroundings. Children who feel valued growing up confident, it helps them to achieve goals in their lives. Good way for children to respect each other to use reward system.
Respecting and valuing individuality plan


Friendship is an important part of child development from birth.
Friendship is a source of fun.
Children give and receive practical help and emotional support.

Understanding feeling

Children experiencing wide range of feeling and learning to understand them with help from adults.
Every child is valued and differences are appreciated, everyone feels included and understood.


A welcoming atmosphere creates effective communication.
Effective communication flows information and knowledge.
All communication is important (gesture, signs and body language).
Posters and pictures are helping children and families recognise that they are valued.


Children have a lot to learn from adults.
It is important to review child’s progress regularly and contribute with their learning.

Effective practice

Encourage children to use greetings.
All children receive a friendly welcome.
Display list of the words that are used at home in their language.

Positive interaction

Building respectful and caring relationship with children.
Respond appropriately to encourage curiosity in learning.
Discover what children like to do.

Effective teaching

Help children to learn as a result they make connections in learning.
Support and extend each child’s learning.
Provide children with challenges. Teach them not to fear failure and be confident.

Listening to children

Young children and babies with speech delays communicate in other ways.
Children need time to respond, childcare provider must encourage their thinking.

Reflecting on practice

To show children that childcare provider is pleased to see them every day.
Get to know children and build positive relationship.

Secure attachment

Childcare provider helps children become familiar with setting and make them feel secure.
When children feel happy they are confident and like to explore new things.


When children depend on adults for reassurance and comfort they become independent.
Children are less independent in new situations, they can be unwell and anxious.

Answer to task 3)
Positive child behaviour can be promoted by using certain plan. It will teach what good behaviour is and how to reach it. Positive behaviour can be achieved working together with children and maintaining sensible expectations. Children behave differently depending on their age and surroundings. Childcare provider and parents must teach children that for negative behaviour there is negative consequence. Some forms of behaviour are acceptable while others are not.
Learning to manage behaviour can be as easy as A B C
Antecedent – what happens before the behaviour occurs.
Behaviour – resulting behaviour is either acceptable or unacceptable.
Consequence – results of behaviour can be positive or negative. accessed 18/07/12
Using positive and negative reinforcement are two ways to help children to identify good behavior and understand what is appropriate in certain situations.
Any type of reward increasing childs positive behaviour. Rewards tempt child to do their task more regularly and on time.
There are some strategies that can be used:

Children should experience the logical consequences and actions.
Children need guidance to understand positive behaviour.
Teach children the concept of self-control.
Rules and the reasons should be explained.
Some behaviour should be ignored.
Children should be congratulated for good behaviour.
Teaching children new skill and behaviour.
Children must learn that they will not achieve things by being selfish, destructive and angry. (Ref5)

Negative behaviour is one of the worst things that parent and childcare provider can experience. Childs negative behaviour can’t be ignored, because sometimes it can cause unwanted trouble. One type of the negative behaviour is aggression. Child can be angry, sometimes yell, refuse to listen and can be driven by his own thoughts.
Other type of negative behaviour is passiveness. Children remain silent and ignorant in all situations and don’t show any effort to respond. Usually children behave like this when they have something to hide from adults.
It is important to understand the cause of the problem and explain why something is wrong. Children should understand that to repeat the same behaviour is wrong. Children should understand what means “no”.
Every day routine can help improve positive behaviour. For example: teaching good manners when having meals, gathering everyone to the table and have food, being polite, teaching good hygiene habits.
Every parent and childcare providers main goal should be to teach children how to develop self-discipline, responsibility and humanity for others.
Childcare provider can make behaviour plan:

Make a list of desirable behaviour that children need to learn.
Make a list of undesirable behaviour that child may demonstrate.
Make a list of privileges that child can earn reward.

Answer to task 4)
Conflict can occur between children or children and adults every day and most adults and children experience stress.
”The parent-child relationship is one of the longest lasting social ties human beings establish,” said Kira Birditt, lead author of the study and a researcher at the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research. accessed
Parents and childcare providers are facing many challenges when raising children. It is very important that children would grow happy, safe and would be able to deal with the conflicts in non-violent ways. Solving the conflict can help child develop emotionally. Usually conflicts are seen as negative behaviour. Childcare providers and parents should teach children to manage conflicts and if it’s possible to stay neutral. Sometimes when conflict arise childcare provider and parent can listen and offer support. (Ref 6)
Children have different personalities and temperament and when facing the conflict have varying reactions:

Some children become angry when it comes to disagreement. It is important to help manage aggression.
Some children can be bossy.
Some children back down then it comes to the conflict, because they don’t want to upset anyone. It is important to help them to learn to speak up.

Learning principles
Many researches are carried out regarding conflicts. They believe that conflicts help develop major life skills.
Theorist Piaget believed that conflict in children was healthy, and if worked through, would help children to overcome their egocentric thought patterns (Arsenio & Cooperman, 1996). Erikson believed that life was full of conflict and in order to become a better person, one must resolve the conflict in each stage of life (Trawick-Smith, 2003). Vygotsky saw conflict as a learning experience. He believed that children, if in their zone of proximal development, would learn from the conflict and adult models to function better in social contexts. Looking at the beliefs of all of these well known theorists, one gets the feeling that conflict is a positive, healthy part of a child’s life. accessed
Researches show a difference between boys and girls and that they have different type of conflicts. It states that young children are more likely to have conflicts than older and that girls react to words while boys react with actions.
There are some causes of conflict:

Young children have difficulty sharing their things.
Lack of communication skills
When children are tired
Attention seeking children
Cultural differences
Opinions are not matching

Punishment is not good way to deal with conflict. It can be painful and create fear and not change child’s behaviour.
Adults need to be positive example for their children in handling conflict, smooth the progress of the conflict between children and interfere when children conflict becomes violent.
Ref1 – accessed
Ref 2 – accessed
Ref3 – accessed
Ref4 – accessed
Ref5 – accessed
Ref6 – accessed  

Psychological Contracts in Relationships

The contents of a psychological contract are determined by the individual and the relationship built between them and their employer. New graduates entering the workforce and those in the Millennial generation have higher expectations of implicit obligations than those of their older colleagues. Studies and surveys done throughout America and India reveal that the perceived commitments of psychological contracts involve long-term job security, promotion opportunities, and career development. These studies also explain the performance-related implications when an employer is fulfilling perceived obligations versus when they are not fulfilling perceived obligations. A study published in 2015 reports on post-breach resolutions and how they can affect employees’ work performance and loyalty.

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A psychological contract is an implicit agreement between the individual and the organization that specifies what each party is expected to give and receive in the relationship. It is not formally written in a letter of offer or employment contract. A breach of the psychological contract can be done by the employee or the organization. A violation occurs when one party in the relationship perceives the other has failed to fulfil the promised obligation(s). Psychological contract breaches are more intense than unmet expectations in that they cause a feeling of having been wronged (Peirce et al 2012). In a survey performed by Denise M. Rousseau, 224 graduating MBA students were asked what they believed their new employers’ implicit obligations to them were and the responses are as follows: promotions, high paying salary, pay based on current level of performance, training, long-term job security, career development, and support with personal problems. Obligations owed to the organization included: working extra hours, loyalty, volunteering to do non-required tasks on the job, willingness to accept a transfer, refusal to support the employer’s competitors, protection of proprietary information, and spending a minimum of two years in the organization (Rousseau 1990).

Psychological contracts are grounded in equity theory. Equity theory is a social exchange process approach to motivation that focuses on the interaction between an individual and the environment, this theory is concerned with the social processes that influence motivation and behaviour (Nelson & Quick 2019). Equity expectations are based on a balance of employee’s inputs like hard work and skill level, and an organization’s outputs like salary, benefits, and recognition. These expectations are less precise as they are derived from social cues and an individual’s standard of fairness. Inequities can generally be rectified, but perceived breaches of psychological contracts are not easily corrected (Peirce et al 2012).

Psychological contracts can be broken down into two categories; transactional obligations and relational obligations. These obligations represent opposite ends of the psychological contract spectrum. Transactional obligations are very basic obligations in that they consist of contractual fulfillment between the employee and organization, but also include perceived obligations like high pay and career advancement in exchange for hard work. Relational obligations involve higher expectations like job security and promotion opportunities in exchange for loyalty, long working hours and a minimum length of stay. For example, if an employee expects interesting work, but then finds the job to be lacklustre, they may be disappointed but do not necessarily feel that a promise has been broken. However, when a perceived obligation, transactional or relational, is unmet, a more emotional reaction will likely result (Rousseau 1990).

In a study done by Pant and Venkateswaran on the Millennial generation working in India, it was found that this generation born between the years 1981-1996 is more global, diverse, virtual, and hold different expectations than their older colleagues in the workforce. With a generation that makes up 25% of the world population, it is important to understand the perceived obligations and psychological contracts that are formed revised throughout their careers (Pant & Venkateswaran 2019). The psychological contracts surveyed by over 1,000 information technology employees reveal that the Millennial generation has a significant interest in training, development, and career advancement. This study finds that senior leadership in organizations are facing many challenges in retaining these workers. Senior leadership needs to meet the expectations of these psychological contracts because employees of this generation change loyalty very quickly if they feel wronged, usually only staying in one organization for two-three years (Pant & Venkateswaran 2019). Pant and Venkateswaran identify a sizeable difference between how employees feel and behave when they are perceived to be in favour or out of favour with the organization. Employees who are perceived to be identified as talented (or in favour) show more commitment to increasing performance demands and developing skills that are valuable to the organization. These employees show organizational citizenship behaviour- behaviour that is above and beyond the call of duty (Nelson & Quick 2019) and are more likely to help their co-workers, support strategic priorities, refrain from complaining, and have low turnover intent compared to the employees who are in the non-talent segment (out of favour) (Pant & Venkateswaran 2019). When employees become part of the valued talent segment their psychological contract expectations are revised and their attitude becomes more positive. Those that find themselves out of favour with management feel their voices are unheard, have low support, and report unfairness (Pant & Venkateswaran 2019). If psychological contract breaches can be resolved and employees feel they are in favour with the organization, their organizational citizenship behaviour improves, making the workplace more positive and job satisfaction rise.

An employee’s perception that the organization has failed to fulfil implicit obligations associated with perceived mutual promises is called a psychological contract breach. A breach of the psychological contract is different from unmet expectations and perceptions of inequity (Robinson & Rousseau 1994). A perceived breach of a psychological contract can alter an employee’s performance and commitment to an organization as well as lead the employee to consider leaving or to leave an organization. If an employer is unable to fulfil employees’ psychological contracts and expectations, it impacts their performance, attendance, productivity, in-role duties, loyalty and intention to stay. When organizations can fulfil psychological contracts, it promotes innovative behaviour, loyalty, obedience and greater participation (Pant & Venkateswaran 2019). Psychological contract breaches are, unfortunately, the rule and not the exception in workforces around the globe. A study among management graduates in the United States (surveyed once at graduation and once 2 years later) presented that 54.8% of respondents reported having psychological contracts violated by their employers (Rousseau 1990). A study done in the Pharmaceutical industry reveals that psychological contract breaches are more frequent and intense in organizations that are downsizing or restructuring (Peirce et al, 2012).

Scholars in the U.K. have done the first study on post-breach reactions and violation resolution and report that highly successful resolution of the breach will result in either psychological contract thriving or reactivation. Psychological contract thriving is a post-breach result in which the relationship between employee and employer has improved and has developed into a beneficial relationship. Reactivation is then the post-breach contract returns to the same expectations of the pre-breach contract. Omar Solinger and colleagues state that a, “less successful resolution will result in either psychological contract impairment or dissolution”. Impairment refers to a scenario where the contract post-breach isn’t as appealing and there is some discourse in the employee and employer relationship compared to the pre-breach contract. Finally, psychological contract dissolution is the disintegration of the relationship between employee and employer and a result in which the employee can no longer depend on the contract to decide their value with the organization (Solinger et al 2019).

The findings of multiple studies highlighted throughout this essay reveal that psychological contract violations are common in the workplace and the severity of the breach can determine if the employee continues to provide hard work and loyalty, or not. Solinger and his colleagues revealed that there can be resolve after a contract breach and that positive outcomes rely on how the organization handles the incident as well as how severely the employee feels the breach impacted their trusting relationship with the employer.


Nelson, D & Quick, J 2019, OrgB, 6e, Cengage Learning US

Pant, JJ & Venkateswaran, V 2019, ‘Exploring millennial psychological contract expectations across talent segments’, Employee Relations, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 773–792, viewed 3 September 2019, .

Peirce, G, Desselle, S, Draugalis, J, Spies, A, Davis, T & Bolino, M 2012, ‘Identifying Psychological Contract Breaches to Guide Improvements in Faculty Recruitment, Retention, and Development’, American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, Volume 76, Issue 6, Article 108, Accessed 15 September 2019,>

Robinson, S & Rousseau, D 1994, ‘Violating the psychological contract: Not the exception but the norm’, Journal Of Organizational Behavior, Volume 15, pp245-259, Accessed 15 September 2019,>

Rousseau, D 1990, ‘New Hire Perceptions of Their Own and Their Employers’ Obligations: A Study of Psychological Contracts’, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Volume 11, pp389-400, Accessed 3 September 2019,

Solinger, O, Hofmans, J, Bal, P. & Jansen, P 2015, ‘Bouncing back from psychological contract breach: How commitment recovers over time’, Journal of Organizational Behaviour, Volume 37, Issue 4, Accessed 10 September 2019,>


Strategic flexibility in interpersonal relationships.

How many times have you heard someone say something like this: “he just doesn’t understand me” or “there has been a breakdown in communications between us”? Lack of good communication between people is a constant problem. As the author, Richard, points out in the first chapter, “The Communication Process”, communication skills are crucial to both getting the best out of people and extricating oneself from difficult situations. Nowhere is this more evident than in the personal relationships we form with family and friends.

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The author introduces the idea of “Strategic Flexibility” (SF), which means that a person uses every communication tool he has in order to effectively get his point across in a given situation. SF is not limited to words but expands into a whole “communication repertoire” that can include gestures, expressions, body language and tone of voice. SF is characteristic of people who are successful not only in their professions but in their personal relationships as well. The author’s description of SF has six steps: anticipate circumstances; assess the factors and conditions you find yourself in; evaluate the current situation in relation to your own abilities; select the most relevant communication skills you possess; apply the first 4 steps carefully; and reassess your communication after receiving feedback. Finally, creativity is also key to communicating effectively as it allows the speaker flexibility and adaptability.
In applying this model to my own life, I began to consider some of my friendships and how they have either been strengthened or weakened because of a certain style of communication between us. Some years ago I had a friend I became quite close with very quickly called Julia. She was exuberant, funny and full of drama. We not only worked together but also went to bars together, out dancing, to comedy clubs and generally palled around. Hanging out with her was full of extreme ups and downs.
At one point, Julia was having a great deal of trouble getting what she needed from her immediate supervisor, Rob. Rob and I were also friends. Julia’s frustration with Rob and Rob’s frustration with Julia was beginning to affect everyone else who worked with them. I offered to speak to Rob alone on Julia’s behalf, thinking that hearing some of her complaints and concerns from a third party might make Rob more receptive – after all, he and I got along smoothly. I took Rob out for a drink and noticed immediately how uncomfortable he was. His body language said it all – he found it hard to make eye contact, was hunched over in a corner of the table and smiled nervously from time to time. He really did not want to hear any of what I had to say.
I had an idea in my head of the role I wanted to play with Rob. I planned to be firm and reasonable and to avoid raising my voice or showing anything but understanding that the dynamic between him and Julia was problematic. But I thought that I could help fix it if only I could get Rob to agree to have more regular and business-like meeting with Julia where they could discuss their issues and, with luck, sort them out effectively. But what wound up happening is that although I kept my voice even, all I did was put Rob on the defensive. I never really asked him for his side of the story and just assumed that everything Julia told me was the way things really were. I had arrived with this assumption because I knew others had occasionally found Rob difficult to communicate with. He could be a bit dry and sarcastic. But he was also very driven and good at his job, which was quite demanding in a number of ways. It did not occur to me to ask him how the pressures of his job and his frustrations with Julia’s work style might be affecting the outcome of the department he headed.
Needless to say, nothing came out of this meeting with Rob. As I spent more time around Julia, it became obvious to me that her way of dealing with problems was to give way to emotional outbursts rather than find a clam and thought-out way of telling people – including Rob and, by then me – what was troubling her. I myself made the mistake of confiding in Julia at a time when I was feeling very vulnerable and she wound up throwing back what I had told her in my face. I started to learn at that moment that being more careful about how and with whom I communicated with would have a direct effect on my happiness in both my work and personal life. The way to communicate with someone who tends towards being emotional is not to meet it with the same level of emotion but rather to step back and try to diffuse the situation by giving the person a chance to vent and then thinking before responding. This way, there is a better chance that ideas can flow peacefully between the parties.
I am also much more receptive to body language now. If I was trying to speak to someone who was hunched over and not meeting my eyes, I would know immediately that the style of communication I was using was making the other person uncomfortable. Using the SF tools, I would try to be more mindful of the sender-receiver mode the author writes about. I did not receive messages properly or chose to ignore them, acting only as a sender. This one-sided communication style was probably the reason my attempt at peacemaker failed. My nonverbal communication was equally lacking. I could have made Rob more at ease by leaning back in my seat instead of leaning forward as if ready to attack. I could also have given him a reassuring tap on the arm or shoulder to indicate friendship and empathy. I did not listen to the indirect feedback Rob was giving me. I did not respond to his obvious discomfort nor did I really give him a fair hearing. I think choosing a bar was not a bad idea as it was a neutral zone for both of us, but selecting a quieter bar than the one we went to also would have been a better choice, as it is hard to stay focused when people are playing pinball next to you!
By ignoring Rob’s side of the situation and not doing much to make him feel he was not under attack, I also did not apply the ethical standards the author outlines, such as treating opposing views with respect. I do make a concerted effort to apply many of the standards of ethical communication in my relationships now.
2. Perception
Self-perception, as well as perceiving the needs of others, plays a vital role in effective communication, an idea that is discussed at length in the second chapter, “Self, Perception and Communication.” The relationship between self-image and perception of both self and of others is immensely complicated. Low self-esteem can feed into other people’s perceptions of a person through signals in their body language, tone of voice and facial expressions. These in turn, can reinforce negative self-image when other people respond to the negative signals they are receiving and send them back again to the initial communicant.
Stepping outside one’s comfort zone by engaging in “risk-taking” can create a fundamental threat to self-identity. As the author points out, “to take that action, or have that experience, would so violate who you are that, should you do it, you would no longer be the same person. You would be forced to see yourself as someone different.” Yet this very act of questioning identity can be enormously empowering.
I grew up a fairly withdrawn child. I did not relate well to my peer group and was always more comfortable around adults or animals. I was afraid of judgment, or being teased. My grandmother had me outfitted at an expensive department store twice a year, which just created a further separation between my peers, whose parents tended to shop at Sears and local shops on an as-needed basis and me. My clothing communicated that I thought I was better than everyone else – even though that image could not have been further from the truth.
The author points out that “Social comparisons are pivotal to self-evaluations. They depend less on objective circumstances than on how you judge yourself in relation to others on particular attributes.” This was certainly true of my school days. Because of my distance from and fear of my classmates, I retreated into the library during most recess periods. My bookish behavior again reinforced that I was different. The fact that I did not voluntarily engage with my classmates on the playground – even though a big part of me wanted to – made me even more of a target for teasing. In short, every method of communication I was using, from my clothing, haircut, behavior and choice of pastimes – communicated that I was a snob, even though my self-esteem was shaky and all I really wanted was to fit in.
As I grew up and realized the value of a certain level of conformity, my fortunes shifted. I started to dress in the same brand jeans as the cool girls, wore the same style of shoes and makeup and made sure my hair was cut in one of the latest fashion trends. These changes told my peers that I was becoming like them. They started to treat me as a friend. Even so, I always felt a need to stand apart from the pack, to be noticed. The solution turned out to be through acting. I took up theater classes, dance and singing and performed in school plays. By pretending to be someone else on stage, I could feed that need for to be someone different while still being one of the gang. I could take risks as another persona that I could not take in my real life.
After many years, I am still learning how to read people better instead of assuming they think the worst of me automatically. I have found that it is important to try to read people, to try to understand their own self-perceptions and the way they view their environment. These observations act as the feedback mentioned in the SF description. In this way, I can better react to what people are actually saying to me (rather than acting out of irrational fears) and adjust my own body language, word choice, even my dress in order to establish a rapport. This becomes very important in interviews and work situations.
I have had jobs where my employer was excellent at communication and somewhere the communication was lacking. In the case of the former, I once worked for a professor who was very good at giving me work that matched my level of competence but that also helped stretch my skills set. When he gave criticism, it was also in a gentle tone of voice. He used words that were not judgmental but instead focused on showing me how I could improve my work with a few adjustments or a change of direction. An important quality Jeff had was that he was also always willing to listen to my ideas, help me develop them and would give me credit for work that was uniquely mine. Jeff was a great example of someone who had the SF concepts down pat and used them every day in his dealings with staff.
Jeff’s method of communication was a pivotal experience in my work life. It helped build my sense of ability and encouraged me to think for myself. Because Jeff was such a supportive boss, I also worked harder to please him and took greater pride in producing quality work. I began to learn how to argue a point effectively, and without becoming emotional. I did this by consciously separating my ideas for the project at hand from things I had been told as a child. I forced myself to listen to criticism because it was given in a gentle and well-intentioned way. Jeff’s style was one of the stepping-stones in transforming not only my perceptions about my own abilities but my ability to learn and grow in a job.
3. Listening
Listening is also a skill upon which I have improved, even though this has required a good deal of effort. True listening means often having to force yourself not to react, at least not immediately. Listening requires more than simply hearing what another person is saying. It involves paying attention to the use of words, body language and expressions, and also trying to put yourself in the shoes of the person speaking. The more you make an effort to understand the perspective from which they are communicating, the more I feel you are truly listening.
I have found this to be especially true with family. Often, there is a lot of emotional baggage we carry around from the things our parents and siblings said to us when we were very young, a point the author makes repeatedly. The author likens our self-perception to a map: “What this means for you is simply that your perception of reality is not reality itself, but it is your own version of it—your “maps.” But these maps are not necessarily complete pictures of who we are, or of who we are capable of becoming, just like a road map does not necessarily show every tree, brook and signpost on a route. You can always use a different map or a different route to get to the same, or even a different, place. Again, the idea of flexibility in the SF concepts applies, since taking a different road can make for a pleasanter journey.
This also means, however, that no two people are working from exactly the same map. Listening is therefore crucial to being able to find your way along another person’s route. Keeping in mind that the way one sees the world or a particular problem may not be the same as the person you are conversing with. Preconceived notions – or “perceptual filters”, as the author refers to them, can keep people from actually listening to each other. It is therefore important to try to keep both the mind as well as the ears open in order to foster communication. Conversely, shared experiences, where they arise, can also cement relationships. My siblings and I share many of the same experiences but have very different perspectives about them. I have learned a good deal about who they are as people by listening to them expand their views, and it has also influenced how I now see myself in relationship to them and our parents. Only by taking the time to listen can you find those synergies with other people and develop healthy and productive communication.

Reflection on Relationships that Develop in Care Work

Adam Nawrocki   

Identifying and Meeting the Needs of Individual Client
Reflection on relationships that develop in care work
The first day I started my practice as scheduled at 8 00, was invited to an interview with the CNM, in order to introduce me and I know a standard organization was given a tour on the place of work. After the induction I met (Kelly) HCA with whom I assisted at the morning activities Clients. I felt stressed but I tried to hide it from other, I watched perform work properly demonstrated by the HCA according to the standards organizations.
The day has passed very quickly and I still had energy to absorb knowledge, I was happy
With first day of work meeting new people.
Identification of interpersonal issues that can arise in care work such as recognising diversity and individuality in clients, families and co-workers
On my first day of practice I observed interpersonal problems most clients such as mental, emotional. The clients need my assistance with ADL’s. I participated in a situation where the client’s husband asked me if I had already experience with patient who suffers from dementia, I answered him that this is my first day of practice and would like to learn to perform this work as best I can. Family Clients always trying to look after a member of the family, as the most better, so sometimes it is concerned about seeing a new staff person at the nearest person. At the beginning of my co-operation with the staff, I had problems to understanding, with two members of staff who had different accent, because came from other countries.
Effective reflection on own interpersonal skills and personal effectiveness as a care worker and highlight personal strengths and weaknesses.
I observed that my weak side in the workplace is still the language of English is not my first language, but are given up and I know the more I use it in everyday life is more I am able to understand. I was positively surprised by how well orientated in the workplace I was and always get to where I wanted to go.Using verbal communication in relation to clients noticed the builds relationships between me and them, the trust at the beginning of our cooperation.
Completions of detailed skills audit (provide brief overview for the day here and include more detail in the Skills Audit Template)
On the first day of my practice in the organization, I started as an assist at the morning toilet, dressing with a few clients. I assisted also the issue of meals as well as the feeding clients. After the meal I assisted with transport clients to the Daily room and helping with the toileting and so I passed my first day of practice.
Observations on the experience of receiving guidance and direction, and giving and receiving feedback
During transport to the Client to the toilet I observed how to use a hoist in the correct way.
Using a hoist second time I asked if I can try, I transported the Client to the correct process
has been praised by (Kelly) HCA a job well done.
Reflection of interpersonal care work skills and procedures for safeguarding privacy and dignity of clients’ and caring for clients’ property
When assists during morning toilet, I used a towel to cover with his intimate zone, because the privacy and dignity of the Clients is very important to me, I did not want to make the Client felt embarrassed, worried. During the tour the Clients, noticed clothes lies on the floor so I put them back in the cabinet of client, I informed (Kelly) HCA about the incident remind her no name on the clients clothes.
Reflection of the structure of the health service in Ireland and legislation governing care of a person in residential care
I used a hoist and transported the Client in accordance with the manual handling
(Manual Handling Regulations The Safety Health & Welfare at Work (General Applications) Regulations 2007) in which I have been trained on the course Healthcare support in LOETB w Tullamore
Care Support Learner Record Day 2
Learner Name (please print):ADAM NAWROCKI Date: 27/01/2017
Reflection on relationships that develop in care work
On the second day of my practice I found out that I will assists with another person (Mary) HCA but it got a bigger impression on me because I felt comfortable, I knew what to do and where to go. HCA was surprised at my pace of work and freedom actions. The day passed me very quickly what I was surprised
Identification of interpersonal issues that can arise in care work such as recognising diversity and individuality in clients, families and co-workers
On the second day I was asked to feed the Client during the breakfasts, I agreed without queries. When I went to his room, I noticed that it is entirely dependent, problems with communication with paralyzed left side of the body, difficulty swallowing gentle movement right hand. After a while reflection I decided to get acquainted with the Documentation patient before proceeding to feeding.
Effective reflection on own interpersonal skills and personal effectiveness as a care worker and highlight personal strengths and weaknesses.
On the second day of my practice, I tried to be a man building reliable and trustworthy relationships with clients, while using the other method of matching communication as eye contact, body language, holding a hand, comforting. My weak side is not finished yet with the full course HCA and do not have the knowledge needed me to determine the difference between theory and practice in the organization. Individual strengths that have helped me perform his work in the highest level e.g. caring, friendly, communicative and focused.
Completions of detailed skills audit (provide brief overview for the day here and include more detail in the Skills Audit Template)
I started the day with (Mary) HCA assisted to her the morning toilet with several Clients, I assisted to Clients at breakfast, transporting clients to the toilet, daily room for activities, I assisted at lunch and dinner, transporting Clients to their rooms and just finished my second day practice in the organization.
Observations on the experience of receiving guidance and direction, and giving and receiving feedback
Today at dinner time I has been approved by the client to assist with his meal he give me guidance to help slowly. I did this and he enjoy his meal he thank me and I thanked him for co-operative.
Reflection of interpersonal care work skills and procedures for safeguarding privacy and dignity of clients’ and caring for clients’ property
Today in the living room I was asked by a client for keep an eye spectacles and beauticians clients box, because she had to go to the toilet. After the coming of the toilet she thanked me for caring about her things.
Reflection of the structure of the health service in Ireland and legislation governing care of a person in residential care
Every time when I assist at the client I use PPE and use the method of 5 moment hand hygiene (The Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005, Infection Control) to protect ourselves and the people around me.
Care Support Learner Record Day 3
Learner Name (please print): ADAM NAWROCKI Date: 02/02/2017
Reflection on relationships that develop in care work
I started the third day with (Ann) HCA I assisted to her the morning toilet with several Clients. Ann was stressed because of the previous day and negatively approaches to their duties. I tried to comfort her arouse her positive thinking. After some time, regained smile on her face. She felt at ease and we could continue our work. Day passed me very quickly.
Identification of interpersonal issues that can arise in care work such as recognising diversity and individuality in clients, families and co-workers
I was asked to assists clients with the toilet, and was informed by the Client does not allow assistants client was completely dependent, assisting the client yelled at me, I toned down my voice to calm down and I informed, this is my work and wants to help her, after a while she calmed down. When I finished I was pleased with myself and ended with this situation in an appropriate manner.
Effective reflection on own interpersonal skills and personal effectiveness as a care worker and highlight personal strengths and weaknesses.
When I acted as assistant HCA during the hours of activity, I observed that it I can mobilize Clients to team work as well as to the effort required during exercises. On this day, my weak side was that with not focused on one client because I had served 10 people in the low time.
Completion of detailed skills audit (provide brief overview for the day here and include more detail in the Skills Audit Template)
Check the Skills Audit Table at the Back.
Observations on the experience of receiving guidance and direction, and giving and receiving feedback
On the third day of my practice has been praised by the CNM for the work they carry out has been evaluated for its own contribution to job, punctuality. They say that I am doing good in my work and I am improving and I thank them and told them it is because they taught me well.
Reflection of interpersonal care work skills and procedures for safeguarding privacy and dignity of clients’ and caring for clients’ property
I noticed while sorting clothes in the wardrobe of a Client were mistaken for someone else’s. Some clothing are in the wrong wardrobe, so I decided to fix the problem and brought the right clothing to the right owner’s wardrobe.
Reflection of the structure of the health service in Ireland and legislation governing care of a person in residential care
Every time when I assist the Client I check risk assessment to lest my client to fell safe and protect self from any cases ( Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (2005) Risk Assessment).
Care Support Learner Record Day 4
Learner Name (please print): ADAM NAWROCKI Date: 03/02/2017
Reflection on relationships that develop in care work
On the fourth day of my practice I assisted with another person (Sharon) HCA, after the morning assists in the each of Clients I learned from her that I will assisted on the southern masses organized for Clients.I started to transport the clients into the Daily room where was to be carried out mass. After the mass, the Priest talking to me about my work, I answered him that I am on the practice and in the future I would like to perform this work depends on me for this to be able to help and care for people in their everyday life. Priest lent me good luck in getting qualifications and find a job so I thanked him.
Identification of interpersonal issues that can arise in care work such as recognising diversity and individuality in clients, families and co-workers
On the fourth day I observed that customer Paul has problems with memory and orientation in the environment, I learned from the nurse the Client has Alzheimer’s disease. Client is a person subsidiary which requires assistance in the toilet, I thought that the conversation n and during his walks, allow me to build relationships and trust between me and him. I learned also that causes problems in the toilet (aggressive), my confidence which I will give in the future to assist him without any problems.
Effective reflection on own interpersonal skills and personal effectiveness as a care worker and highlight personal strengths and weaknesses.
My good strengths, know how to use the equipment to transport people (hoist) and my weak side is that I have to wait for someone so I had used it, the law requires using a hoist two people.
Completion of detailed skills audit (provide brief overview for the day here and include more detail in the Skills Audit Template)
Check the Skills Audit Table at the Back.
Observations on the experience of receiving guidance and direction, and giving and receiving feedback
I have been praised by the daughter of the Client whom I am caring in the days of my practice. I have been informed that her mother is very satisfied with my work. I answered her that I am pleased with her opinion of me, because this is very important for me to know and it makes me happy that I am improving and that I know that my client is very satisfied with the duties that I have performed well in my work.
Reflection of interpersonal care work skills and procedures for safeguarding privacy and dignity of clients’ and caring for clients’ property
With the assistance of the Client to the toilet, I noticed that he had trouble with walking frame, I saw the does not belong to him but to another Clients, so I went to exchange for the relevant who was in his room.
Reflection of the structure of the health service in Ireland and legislation governing care of a person in residential care
Sometimes when I’m not sure what problems have my Client I use documentation which is a sharing in the nurses’ station for service users (Data Protection Acts 1988 and 2003)
Care Support Learner Record Day 5
Learner Name (please print): ADAM NAWROCKI Date: 09/01/2017
Reflection on relationships that develop in care work
I started my fifth day, with the (Polly) HCA. She is the new employee in the organization. She asked me if I could show her work looks like in the workplace, so we started from the morning toilet of a few Clients, then asked her to assist at breakfast at Betty clients. Switchable transported the Clients to daily room. We gave coffee tea for Clients, came time for dinner, I showed Polly which the client must assist and where not, after dinner we transported some Clients to toilets and move again to daily room for activities, the time going so fast and I finish my fifth day of my practice.
Identification of interpersonal issues that can arise in care work such as recognising diversity and individuality in clients, families and co-workers
On the fifth day I assisted clients with bathing, I observed the client has trouble maintaining balance, so I asked HCA (Polly) for help, I wanted to be sure the client does not fall to me if her will I bath.
Effective reflection on own interpersonal skills and personal effectiveness as a care worker and highlight personal strengths and weaknesses.
Fast accommodation in the workplace, teamwork, punctuality, loyalty these are my strengths which we make use, my weak side is that I am only a man and I can not to look at the suffering of another man selflessly.
Completion of detailed skills audit (provide brief overview for the day here and include more detail in the Skills Audit Template)
Check the Skills Audit Table at the Back.
Observations on the experience of receiving guidance and direction, and giving and receiving feedback
I have been called for an interview with the CNM has informed me of the management is very pleased with the work which is performed and offered me collaborating asked me belonged to the agency CPL because organization works with them, I replied with a thank you for the feedback and suggestions and point I would like to work.
Reflection of interpersonal care work skills and procedures for safeguarding privacy and dignity of clients’ and caring for clients’ property
The client asked me to rang her phone to her son, I called gave her the phone to talk in peace and got out of her room to respect her privacy. After a finite conversation she called buzzer so I went to her asked me plugged the phone to the charger, I plugged her phone and I asked if something needs, she answer with thanks for my help.
Reflection of the structure of the health service in Ireland and legislation governing care of a person in residential care
In the place of my practice I co-operative with people from different cultures, who speak different languages, religions, ages, races and I’m from outside from Ireland and English is not my first language, I don’t feel discriminate (The Employment Equality Acts 1998-2015 outlaw discrimination in a wide range of employment and employment-related areas).
Learner Signature
Care Support Skills Audit Template
Learner Name (please print): ADAM NAWROCKI Date: 27/02/2017
Personal Skills

Skills I hope to learn/ improve upon in the workplace

How I will improve these skills

Benefits of these skills to an employer or to a workplace

1. Understanding

Understanding the aspects of my job.

Not make a mistakes going true with the rules company.

2. Personal Hygiene

General Rules in the
Healthcare Sector
Use PPE every each Clients.
Wash the hand, recycle waste.

Prevent Infectious Agent
(Staff, Clients, People around me).

3. Cooperative

Cooperative is my advantage, in everyday life collaborates in private and professional life.

I always try to cooperate with respect to staff and my

4. Time Keeping

I start to work on time.

Fit in time for the implementation of my work place.

Interpersonal Skills

Skills I hope to learn/ improve upon in the workplace

How I will improve these skills

Benefits of these skills to an employer or to a workplace

1. Effective Listening

Listening Staff, Clients to understand them needs.

Effective listening gives me the opportunity to understand how it should look like properly performed work.

2. Verbal Communication

I speak with Client to build relationships, trust with them.

Conversation with the Client to satisfy their needs, it is a benefit for staff or employer.

3. Non Verbal

Use different method of communication e.g. (body language, eye contact) for Clients with speech disability.

Creativity is my asset who I would like to be used in my workplace to improve the quality of the company and Clients.

4. Trustworthy

I try to be a person reliable and trustworthy to build relationships with my Clients and service users.

I behave loyally in relation to my employer; the duties entrusted to perform due diligence and reliability.

Practical Skills

Skills I hope to learn/ improve upon in the workplace

How I will improve these skills

Benefits of these skills to an employer or to a workplace

1. Observation

Watching how the doing work right, shadowing my mentor

Observation Clients, any situation to not doing mistakes.

2. Hand Hygiene

5 Moments for Hand Hygiene I know how doing.

Prevent Infectious Agent
(Staff, Clients, People around me).

3. Assisting

Assisting with my mentor with the Client’s needs
(ADL, s).

I will be able to doing job in the future.

4. Risk Asses

Attention for details keeping eyes for any issues.

Motivation to keeping work place safe for service users and residents.

Technical Skills

Skills I hope to learn/ improve upon in the workplace

How I will improve these skills

Benefits of these skills to an employer or to a workplace

1. Team Work

Working with service users
To build trust and relationships.

Good atmosphere in the work place be a friendly

2. IT/Epicare

Mentor show me epicare software how use and for what.

Ergonomics in the workplace, fast access to patient data is an asset knowledge of the system

3. Hoist/Slide Sheet

Manual Handling, my mentor explain show my how use correct hoist and slide sheet.

I will be a able to use the Hoist and Slide Sheet because I have already Manual Handling Certificate

4. Customer Service

Speak with the Client Family

Communication, Customer Skills will be very important in the work place to keep ergonomic on the higher standards.

Learner Signature

Relationships Between Employees And Employers

The subject of this study is the relationships between employees, employers and their representatives in the United Kingdom and mainly the changes that have occurred in the last few years.
What is meant exactly by employee relations? What has changed since the Industrial Revolution? Salaman (2000) defines employee relations as a “reflection of the development of more diverse employment patterns, the growth of high tech and commercial sectors, reduced levels of unionisation and use of management strategies aimed at individualising the employment relationship”, in other terms it is the new management of all the variables which influence the work namely the management style, the level of employee’s motivation, the work environment, job satisfaction, the objectives of the company etc.
We can differentiate three phases in the evolution of employee relations since the end of the Second World War, the third one being the partnership approach.
Until 1979 (date of the election of the Conservative Party), work relations were based on collective bargaining and collective agreement aiming to “determine and regulate, in varying degrees, the terms on which individuals will be employed” (Flanders, 1968), with a strong voluntarism encouraged massively and informally. The trade unions (basically, it is an association of wage earners, totally independent of employer’s pressure, who struggle to improve work conditions) had a lot of power and everything was negotiated through deals. In fact, a Trade Union, through collective bargaining can “force employers to deal with labour as a collective identity, rather than isolated individuals, and so, secure better the terms and condition of employment” (Webb & Webb, 1920).
However, when the conservative party was elected in 1979, everything changed. The new government introduced a lot measures to limit the role of trade unions.
In addition, it “introduced an ‘enterprise culture’ in which individuals and organisations, rather than government, were to be held responsible for economic performance. Thus, as well as rejecting the maintenance of full employment as a major policy objective, they in effect abandoned the commitment of their predecessors to voluntary collective bargaining as the most effective method of determining pay and conditions”.
Then, there was a total break with the old work patterns but an explanation of this will be the economical context. In fact, after the war, there was a period of reconstruction that engendered a lot of work; manufacturing was the backbone of the economy, it was a period of full employment.
After that, there was a wave of privatisation, many companies became multinationals, and there was an internationalisation of business.
The aim of the study will be to analyse and evaluate the new approach to the management of employee relations. Firstly, the author will define and explore what the partnership approach is. Then, the study will continue by examining the advantages and the disadvantages of this approach to each stakeholder (employees, employers and Trade Unions). Finally, an evaluation of the prospects for success of the partnership approach and an expression of a critical comparison with the previous ones will be highlighted.

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The Employment Relation (ER)
Employment relationship is an economical exchange of labour capacity in return for the production of goods and services. It is very important to understand the implications of all the aspects of employment relations. High levels of collaboration between the workforce and management are likely to be consistent with greater reliability of production and quality of output, which in turn would bolster the organization’s market position. Thus, employment relation is one of the most significant areas that need to be invested (Rollinson, 1993).
Salaman (2000) defines employment relations as a reflection of the development of more diverse employment patterns, the growth of high tech and commercial sectors, reduced levels of unionisation and use of management strategies aimed at individualising the employment relationship, in other terms it is the new management of all the variables which influence the work namely the management style, the level of employee’s motivation, the work environment, job satisfaction, the objectives of the company etc.
The state (all levels of government) plays a crucial role in employment relations, both directly and indirectly. The roles undertaken by governments may be categorised into five components including maintaining protective standards; establishing rules for the interaction between the parties; ensuring that the results of such interaction were consistent with the apparent needs of economy; providing services for labour and management such as advice, conciliation, arbitration and training; and as a major employer.
The management of the ER system in Britain
Britain is a country of Western Europe comprising England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Until July 2003, the British population is 60,094,648. At the height of its power in the 19th century it ruled an empire that spanned the globe (Stewart, 2005: 23-25). It is the dominant industrial and maritime power of the 19th century, played a leading role in developing parliamentary democracy and in advancing literature and science. The first half of the 20th century saw the Britain’s strength seriously depleted in two World Wars. The second half witnessed the dismantling of the Empire and the Britain rebuilding itself into a modern and prosperous European nation. It is also a leading trading power and financial centre, is one of the quartets of trillion dollar economies of Western Europe.
The British industrial relations system has a long history and has undergone much change in recent years. There are three phases in the evolution of employee relations since the end of the World War II, the third one being the partnership approach. Until 1979 (date of the election of the Conservative Party), work relations were based on collective bargaining and collective agreement aiming to determine and regulate, in varying degrees, the terms on which individuals will be employed (Flanders, 1968), with a strong voluntarism encouraged massively and informally.
The partnership approach
What is it?
The use of this term is a relatively recent political phenomenon. Some people affirm that it is just a term used by the Government to attract popular support because nobody can be against ‘Partnership’ (Knell, 1999). Some others, more optimistic, see in this term a new pluralist approach to industrial relations. This concept comes from the idea that enterprises should recognise the interests of each stakeholder, namely employees, employers and their representatives, in order to satisfy each party. The aim of this approach is to find a common interest of management and labour, through “trust and mutual involvement, instilling a sense of belonging and involvement”.
The Involvement and Participation Association (IPA, 1992) identifies six key principles:
A shared commitment to the success of enterprise, including support for flexibility and the replacement of adversarial relations.
A recognition that interests of the partners may legitimately differ.
Employment security, including measures to improve the employability of staff as well as limit the use of compulsory redundancy.
A focus on the quality of working life.
A commitment to transparency, including a real sharing of hard, unvarnished information, an openness to discussing plans for the future, genuine consultation and preparedness to listen to the business case for alternative strategies.
Adding value – the hallmark of an effective partnership is that it taps into sources of commitment and / or resources that were not accessed by previous arrangement.
For the New Labour government, ‘partnership’ at work becomes an important objective.
B. Its dimensions
1. Who are the partners?
The partnership is between individual employer and individual employee and their representatives but the latter partner is weak in the new work relation. The partnership approach is more focused on individual relationships than a collective one, like in the past.
Indeed, New Labour insists on individual choice. For them, it is not an obligation to integrate a working union. It emphasises that “individuals are the best judges of their own individual interests”. That is to say that the individual has the choice of whether or not to join a trade union and whether or not to take part in the coverage by collective agreement.
It might mean the new government is not really in favour of the trade unions. In fact, some people think that a trade union would be an enemy of the partnership approach in the sense that trade unions defend the workers’ interests and they always have a confrontational relationship with the employers.
Then, how can a partnership be formed if one of the partners does not make an effort to find a common agreement? In this way, the trade unions’ role has to be redefined. They have to play a co-operative role with employers in order to find some common interests which satisfy both the employees and the employers.
The psychological contract
The psychological contract is the basis of a partnership approach. It is the link between employers and employees. It establishes the expectations, aspirations and understandings which they have of each other (Herriot, 1998).
The author has noticed that the psychological contract has changed since the last few years because of the changes of the work environment (change in workforce structure, re-engineering, downsizing.).
The old psychological contract was based on security and predictability, now it is “more situational and short term and assumes that each party is much less dependent on the other for survival and growth”.
According to Hiltrop (1995), the new contract can be defined as follows:
“There is no job security, the employee will be employed as long as he/she adds value to the organisation, and is personally responsible for finding new ways to add value. In return, the employee has the right to demand interesting and important work, has the freedom and resources to perform it well, receives, pay that reflects his or her contributions and get experience and training needed to be employable here or elsewhere”.
The psychological contract has to be strong and truthful to allow a partnership relation
The voluntary aspect of the partnership
New Labour insists on the voluntary aspect of the new work relation. The partnership should be introduced through cultural changes which will lead to “more positive relationships between employers and employees than the letter of the law can ever achieve”. That is to say that the law itself can not resolve the problem of employee relations, some cultural changes have to emerge first. Employers and employees have to make some effort to improve the work relationship.
The advantages and the disadvantages of the partnership approach:
A. For the employees
1. Advantages
With the partnership approach, employees benefit from a Family atmosphere with friendly policies. For example, they benefit from new working arrangements which allow a greater flexibility. There is a harmonisation of working conditions, policies and procedures for all employees under training. The partnership approach introduces a new pay structure: pay is monthly through credit transfer, and the traditional annual pay is replaced by an objective formula. Moreover, a reduction of the working week for manual and craft employees can be observed.
2. Disadvantages
However, the partnership approach introduces the notion of the individual worker. In this way, trade unions are less useful in the employer/employee relationship and lose their power. Then, the employee is in a weaker position than his/her employer (a caution has to be noticed because, trade unions have a right to accompany their members during the disciplinary or grievance interview).
B. For the employers
1. Advantages
Firstly, the partnership gives a good reputation to the enterprise which applies it. Moreover, it allows a greater stability of employment because employer talks to employee and establishes some rights and some obligations that each party has to respect (limit the turnover, strikes and so on). The relationship between both is more respectful and equal.
Furthermore, the partnership allows a greater openness over the enterprise. Through it, the employers know what is wrong with the employees and try to find how they can fix it. The work atmosphere is more friendly and truthful.
The partnership approach is, as well, a need for a change in approach to the trade unions. To date, the relation between employers and trade unions is based on confrontation. This new approach gives a secondary role to the trade unions and privileges the individual employer/employee relations, which is easier to manage.
Moreover, employers try to improve work conditions, in return they profit from a greater activity because workers feel good in the company.
In addition they can have greater performance appraisal and a new understanding of performance management through control and feed back.
2. Disadvantages
This approach demands a lot of administration and is quite constraining for a company. To fire an employee who has a poor performance for example, the employer has to give a first warning and propose a disciplinary interview in order to detect what is wrong with this employee. If nothing has changed, the employee can receive another warning, the last one, before the dismissal (or other sanctions). Sometimes, procedures take too much time and engender an economical loss.
Moreover, the enterprise can lose some power in relation to its employees. Previously, employers had the economic power over employees, now this power is more shared between both because their relationship is more interdependent.
C. For the trade unions
1. Advantages
There is a new stake in their role as representatives. They have to prove the value of the employers to the employees and the value of the employees to the employers.
Moreover, the trade unions can profit from a partnership fund in order that “employers and employee representatives work together to support innovative projects to develop the partnership approach in the workplace” (Lord McIntosh & Lord Hansard, May 1999).
2. Disadvantages
The partnership approach has more disadvantages than advantages for the trade unions. Through it, trade unions lose some power. Firstly, their recognition is limited. According to the government, the trade union has a secondary role in the employer/employee relationship. Then, their role has to be redefined in a more consultative sense; it has to focus on the information, the communication, the representation and the partnership. Their contribution to the partnership is potentially useful but far from being essential.
Thus, trade unions are worried about their traditional role which is to defend the worker’s interests. They think that in this new approach, employee representatives will become part of the management.
Moreover, according to the IPA, the partnership needs a different channel than the union one, because this model is not adequate anymore. In fact, the union presence is weak or non-existent in the majority of companies in Britain, therefore, the partnership needs a new representative structure.
Evaluation and criticism of the prospects for success of the partnership approach
The employment relation through the partnership approach becomes fairer. For example, union co-operation in more flexible work patterns, teamworking, the introduction of annualised hours and the harmonisation of terms and conditions of employment are all greater assets of the partnership approach. Concerning job security, the partnership approach remains limited:
“The job security guarantees have been identified as the hallmark of partnership approach by many of its advocates, although, they have no featured in all such agreements. In most cases, they amount to relatively limited management commitments to avoid the use of compulsory redundancy as a means of labour shedding- a fairly familiar practice in organisations that can attract sufficient candidates for early retirement and voluntary redundancy with enhanced severance payments. Moreover in some partnership agreement, trade unions and employees are required to co-operate with measures with make the avoidance of compulsory redundancy easier, including the acceptance of the company’s use of subcontracted, temporary or short-term contract staff” ( Taibly & Winchester, 2000 and Bach & Sisson,2000).
Moreover, the fundamental need for a successful approach requires some cultural changes; we have to break with the old practice (industrial/adversarial ones) because we cannot access a new form of management without this.
Furthermore, the partnership approach appeared in a particular political context. In fact, it was the end of the Conservative government (characterised by a policy of deregulation) and the beginning of the Labour party which developed the important idea of commitment to the partnership in the workplace. But, its aim has to be analysed very carefully because we can notice that the government refused to take part in some social policy proposals developed by the European commission. This reaction is contrary to the apparent willingness of the government to introduce fairness in work and at work.
However, some surveys show that employees feel better with the partnership agreement. We can notice that job satisfaction level is greater than before (Bach & Sisson, 2000) but this result has to be taken with caution if we refer to the recent strike of the Post Offices which occurred last month.
Then, the question is whether the partnership approach is successful?
In the historical, political and economical context, the author thinks that partnership and the willingness of each stakeholder are present. The difficulty is just trying to apply it in the best way.
Britain has made a lot of effort to improve work conditions. Compared to the past, this approach is the compromise between the two previous ones. Indeed, the first one (~1945-1979) was too dominated by the trade unions. The following one was too adversarial; the employees lost all their rights. Thus, this new approach tries to satisfy both parties.
The work is not finished. If the partnership approach succeeds in satisfying the stakeholders, it needs to be improved again. Britain needs to work on other more social law proposals and take part in the European ones.
However, the employment relations are governed by the variation of the market as well; hence, it is very difficult to satisfy everybody. But, the important thing is to try to do the best.
Moreover, there will always be some disagreements and unfairness in work and at work; we have to be patient because it takes time to change the mind of each person.

Building Positive Relationships with Children

Jodi Allan
Unit 3: Building Positive Relationships
Task 1)
All children deserve the best start in life, to be provided with endless support which will enable them to fulfill their potential and make the most of their individual talents and abilities as they continue to grow. Between birth to five years, children develop very quickly and their experiences through this time will have a major impact on their future. Enabling a happy, safe and secure childhood along with good parenting and high quality learning, all children will have the start they need for a successful future. The Childcare Act 2006 was introduced as a key piece of legislation and is the first ever Act to be exclusively for early years and childcare (which spans from birth to the 31st August that falls after the child’s 5th birthday). This means that all pre-school childcare providers, including reception classes in primary schools, are all governed by this Act. The legal requirements for any of those operating within the child care setting are in the Ofsted publication, ‘Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage’ which sets out the learning and development requirements, welfare requirements, all legal requirements as well as the legal adult to children ratios. The law requires specific duties to be carried out by various authorities, including:

Providing an information service for parents;
Providing training and advice for providers of child care;
Providing working parents with child care as required;
Achieving a reduction in equalities in children ages 0-5 through close work with Job Centre Plus, associated partners and the NHS;
Providing positive outcomes for any child at risk of poverty;
Bridging the inequalities that may exist between children, with particular reference to deprivation.

Learning and Development Requirements must be provided by the child care provider and all staff operating under any child care provision and any diversity of children within that provision. All resources are available to providers to ensure everyone required to is able to meet the outcomes, no exceptions.
“The Childcare Act 2006 provides for the Early Years Foundation Stage learning and development requirements to include these 3 elements:

The early learning goals-the required knowledge, skills and understanding which young children should have acquired by the end of the academic year in which they reach the age of 5;
The educational programmes- the matters, skills and processes which are required to be taught to young children within the provision;
The assessment arrangements for assessing young children to ascertain their achievements”.

The six areas covered under the learning goals are:

Personal, Social and Emotional Development- A group activity such as Show and Tell encourages a child to speak in front of their peers and for other children to learn to respect and listen to each other.
Understanding the World- If the provision has a large diversity of children, encouraging them to bring in something from their home that they are able to share with their peers, such as clothing or food, can help children explore and learn different aspects of their community.
Physical Development- A fun outside game, such as an obstacle course for the children to participate in would be a perfect opportunity for them to develop movement and co-ordination, or simple dancing games such as ‘head, shoulders, knees and toes’.
Mathematics- Practicing counting, shapes and measures together as a group whenever possible is always a perfect opportunity, eg: How many apple slices can count on your plate? How many letters are in your name? Ensuring there are plenty of images around them for them to look and question over.
Literacy- the provision has to ensure there are plenty of books and other reading materials around for children to explore whenever they want to. Group reading time is always positive and helping each child to recognise and write their own names.
Expressive Arts and Design- plenty of opportunities for children to explore and express themselves, such as role play, creative media, dance, music, arts and crafts. Providing the right materials so they are available to children all the time is the best way to ensure they can express themselves this way whenever they want to.

Task 2)
Teaching children from an early age to respect and value individuality enables them to learn that these values are very important within their society and for their future as these values will enable them to be decent young adults. Children learn these values from early on by observing everyday situations and mimicking the adults they interact with. The child care setting should be a positive, safe place for children to learn this respect for one another and should be filled with positive images, toys and electronic equipment that promote individuality and diversity as well as a positive perception of the world around them. The child care setting can easily focus entirely on each individual child by devising a plan which helps promote each child’s individuality and includes the parents or carers to participate in this plan too. This also helps other children to watch and listen to their peers and learn to understand, respect and value each others individuality. This can be a ‘show and tell’ chart or ‘achievement days’, where once a month, a child gets given a day where they can bring in anything from outside the child care setting that they have done to show and talk about to their child minder and peers, then after they are finished they are awarded a sticker to put onto the chart next to their name.

Name of Child






Brought in yummy cakes that he helped make with his Polish Grandma




Brought in a beautiful painting she did over the weekend and told us about all of the colours that she used




Went on holiday to Spain and brought in photos for us to see!


Task 3)
Children need consistency and the earlier they are given this the better, as it will benefit their ability to learn about respect and also to distinguish from right and wrong, otherwise they could become very confused in situations when beginning to learn about the outside world. Consistent routines at home and their child care setting helps children to keep calm and feel safe, but . Children need to learn that all actions will have a consequence, whether it is good or bad. This helps the children with establishing good and bad behaviour skills and embedding this in their every day life will promote their knowledge as they grow older. Initially to promote positive behaviour in the child care setting, the aim is to help them to want to be consistent in their own positive behaviour themselves by rewarding such behaviour, slowly making the rewards smaller and then taking them away, this will begin to let them realize that behaving well creates a happier environment for them and their peers. This is always a simple and effective way to teach them to not want to behave in a negative manner. Sticker charts, books or handing stickers out are always a popular treat for rewarding children, as well as asking them what activity they would like to do next, or which book they would like to read with the class? High appraisal from staff and peers gives children a positive feeling about themselves and their positive attitude. Negative behaviour must also have consequences, such as time out, but it is also important to sit the child down and discuss the situation to ensure the child isn’t left feeling confused or alone. Talking in a calming tone and keeping eye contact whilst letting the child know how they have made others feel when they have behaved in a negative manner will not only help them want to make positive choices but they will begin to understand empathy as well.
Task 4)
Conflicts between children and adults are common, particularly within a child care setting. There are various triggers that can create conflict which are listed below, such as the child having unmet needs resulting in them craving extra attention from their parent or teacher which can easily build into a heated conflict. Children find it very hard to be selfless at such a young age and often only see their point of view and find it difficult to understand someone elses views in a conflict situation. Due to their lack of social skills, children can easily escalate a small argument, such as over a toy, into a harsher argument as they don’t have the necessary communication skills to solve a conflict in a positive manner. Some children having a lack of suitable role models can easily give children a biased view in ways in which conflict can be handled and this can be very difficult to mend. Another trigger that can affect conflict is that when children are tired or hungry it can have a very suppressing effect on their mood and they may engage in conflicting behaviour. Often at home or any child care setting, a parent or teacher intervenes and solves an argument. Sometimes it’s simple when the conflict is between children and their peers but sometimes a child can create conflict with an adult and dealing with this in a positive way can be very distressing for both the child and the adult, making any reasoning very difficult. Many behavioural Theorists have contrasting views when it comes to whether conflict has a positive or negative effect on a childs development. Some feel that conflict helps to shape a child’s social skills for when they become adults and that learning to solve conflicts in a positive way equips them with the skills to continue this skill in their adult lives. Behavioural Theorist B.F Skinners believes in the system of positive and negative reinforcements. His theory is that reinforcers are used to strengthen both positive and negative behaviour and that humans of all ages respond to verbal operants such as taking advice, listening to the warnings of others and obeying given rules and laws. His theory suggests that without personally experiencing any negative consequences from disobeying, the child simply knowing what could happen when they decide to pursue negative behaviour will be enough for them to want to make positive choices instead. From this they can begin to learn from each incident for any future conflicts and they will want to repeat positive behaviour willingly. Ways of dealing with conflict in a positive manner could start with sitting down with the child and asking them questions about the conflict in question can make them feel like they do have a say in the situation, especially as some children find authority difficult. Letting a child know there is a positive solution to the conflict can calm them down and get them to sit down and think about the situation properly. Ask them what it is they are feeling, “are you angry? But also feeling hurt because you have had to wait for me to come and play?” Tell them how the other person could also be feeling, “I’m sad that you shouted at me, because I didn’t mean to ignore you, but I was very busy with the rest of the children too.” Ask them what they would now like to do, which would be the best way for everybody, a way for both of you to fix the situation in a positive way for a positive outcome. This strategy can let children feel safe and confident, but they may also see that conflict can most definitely be solved in a positive way.  

Effect of Early and Family Relationships on All Other Relationships

The purpose of this essay is to critically evaluate three core relational models using the following statement ‘Early relationships and family of origin experiences provide us with a lens through which all other relationships are understood’. The three core relational models that I will use are Transactional Analysis, Attachment theory, and Murray Bowen’s Genogram.

 Through the lens of Transactional analysis I will examine my lived experience, apply it to recurring themes in my relationships, and discuss how it could provide insight and awareness to the client in a clinical context. Through the lens of Attachment theory I will discuss how it can provide insight and awareness for the client as well as for the therapist. I will give a critical evaluation of Attachment theory, discussing briefly the nature/nurture debate. Through the lens of Murray Bowen’s Genogram I will discuss how it gives me insight and awareness into my own family system and describe how it could also give insight and awareness to the client in a clinical context. I will then critically evaluate Murray Bowen’s genogram.

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Transactional analysis is a theory based on personality and claims that people relate to each other through three ego states – child, adult, parent (Berne, 1964). The goal of transactional analysis is to disable games and to teach a person to have healthier relationships (Steiner, 2015). My early relationships and family of origin experiences provided me with a lens through which all other relationships are understood. The lens that is dominant in my life is that of fear of authority. Through the application of transactional analysis to my lived experience I discovered that I alternate between the ego states while I am in transaction with various different people and I notice that my ego state changes from Adult or Parent to negative adapted child when I come into contact with authority figures. This adaptive shift in ego states comes from a primary care-giver who transacted with me from a negative controlling parent ego state. The primary care-giver was an authority figure who instilled fear in me and then I projected fear onto authority figures thus forcing a change in my ego state to negative adapted child when I interacted with them. This understanding of my ego state in relation to authority figures led me further to understand my life position.

In a class exercise I did the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire – Revised (ECR-R) and discovered that I experience my primary care-giver as dismissive and my attachment style is avoidant. Research conducted by Boholst, Boholst & Mende (2005) correlated the attachment styles to the life positions as outlined by Harris (1995). The study has shown a correlation of the life position of ‘I’m OK – You’re Not OK’ to the dismissive attachment style. This in turn shows that my life position is very likely the life position of ‘I’m OK – You’re Not OK.’ This new awareness has provided an opening into how I interact with the world and the relationships I have in my life. From this new understanding I will now look at the recurring themes in my relationships through the lens of transactional analysis.

Recurring Themes in Relationships

The existential position of I’m OK – You’re Not OK is a position where the child has been abused and has learned to be tough and cruel and things are always ‘their fault’ and find it difficult to sustain intimate relationships (Harris, 1995; Solomon, 2003). Transactional analysis has provided me with a fresh perspective identifying concretely through theory the recurring themes in my relationships. Understanding my transaction with a previous therapist using transactional analysis helped me highlight my ego states and a recurring theme in my life – the fear of voicing my needs and fear of authority. I have a strongly developed negative adapted child ego state which takes precedence when I transact with a figure of authority. With my previous therapist I noted that my needs were not being met yet I continued on in therapy until I finally ended the therapy in a dishonest way. Through the application of transactional analysis, I noted from my lived experienced I was in the adapted child ego state with my therapist and since I was expressing myself from this ego state I was unable to voice my needs. At the social level I was talking to my therapist whereas at the psychological level I wanted to justify her inadequacy as a therapist. I was angry at her but I did not express it for fear of hurting my therapist because I had no idea how to voice it without inadvertently hurting her in my anger. The payoff is that I feel justified in my life position that ‘I’m OK, and You’re Not OK’. From an existential point of view – the world is not a good place. I introjected the traits of the Parent that I had been in contact with my Parents and I also introjected feelings of anxiety and fear toward authority figures.

Another theme that is recurrent in relationships in my life is indicative of the life position I’m OK – You’re Not OK, which is a difficulty in maintaining and forming intimate relationships. Reflecting on the game ‘Now I Got You, You Son of a Bitch’ as described by Berne (1964), I note that I am complicit in that game as the payoff from the game affirms my life position and the aim of the game is justification. This game reflects an introjection of the scripts learned in childhood that are played out later in life in the negative critical parent ego state.

Insight and Awareness

By using transactional analysis insight and awareness can be found by understanding the ego states we are in when we are interacting with certain people in our lives and understanding our life position. Solomon states that “one of the things that sets transactional analysis apart from some other therapies is the belief that we are each responsible for our own future, regardless of what happened to us in the past” (2003, p. 22). This statement brings a hope that our childhood fate does not condemn us to a determinism but rather opens the door to change despite the hardships faced as a child. Transactional analysis’ focuses on helping people change and understand their feelings and behaviours by helping clients understand the psychology of human transactions (Sani & Karim, 2005).

In his book I’m OK, You’re OK Thomas A. Harris gives a case study of a businessman who must decide whether to sign a petition that supports a fair housing bill for all races. He then has a lot of conflict over this decision. The scripts introjected from childhood come into play and he comes into conflict. Transactional analysis provides insight into the clients’ life by helping them look at their transactions through the ego states of parent, adult and child. It also helps us examine the games we play in our transactions that can be harmful to relationships. Game playing happens when the child and parent ego states dominate whereas when the Adult ego state takes charge game playing can end and change can happen (Harris, 1995). Harris states that the goal of Transactional Analysis is “to enable a person to have freedom of choice, the freedom to change at will, to change the responses to recurring and new stimuli” (1995, p. 56). A client’s behaviour may be determined by scripts that they learned as a child and play them out in their parent and child ego states but transactional analysis provides them with freedom to change from the position of determinism to freedom of will by knowing the truth of their Parent and Child ego states. This knowing provides the client with insight and aids awareness and “it matters only insofar as how much the re-experiencing of a past ego interferes with our current functioning in life” (Lapworth & Sills, 2011, p. 25).

However, there are some limitations with Transactional analysis, as it lacks empirical validation, and claims of success come from clinical observation (Corey, n.d.). It also lacks exploration of feelings and its focus tends to be cognitive so there needs to be a balance of feelings and cognition (Corey, n.d.).

I will now examine Attachment theory.

Insight and Awareness

Attachment theory can provide insight and aid awareness to the client by helping them understand that attachment is at the core of human relationships. By helping them understand their own attachment style they can then explore the implications in their own relationships. It is important for the therapist to know their own attachment as well because according to Cosentino & Dermer “attachment injuries occur when an attachment figure is unavailable or unresponsive in times of distress” (2015, p. 75). The therapist and the client are in relation to one another and form an attachment which mimics the secure attachment style and therefore the therapist provides a secure base from which the client can explore their anxious feelings about significant relationships in their life and “explore how to successfully express and fulfill attachment needs of self and others” (Cosentino & Dermer, 2015, p. 75). The role of the therapist then “may be a new attachment figure in relation to whom the patient can develop fresh patterns of attachment” (Wallin, 2007, p. 57). The goal then of attachment-based psychotherapy is to form a secure attachment which helps with the clients’ ability to regulate affect (Wallin, 2007). John Bowlby, the founder of attachment theory, believed that the client has the ability to change and wasn’t a determinist. This change occurs through the clinical relationship in which the therapist is attuned to the needs of the client through their “ability to hear, see, sense, interpret, and respond to the client’s verbal and nonverbal cues in a way that communicated to the client that he/she was genuinely seen, felt, and understood” (Wylie & Turner, 2015, n.p.).

As a therapist in training it is imperative to understand my own attachment style and to work out in my own therapy a secure attachment and to attune to my own needs. Wallin (2007) states that this necessary as we are the tools of our trade. Because of the intensity of attachment-based psychotherapy the therapist is inhibited by their own emotional vulnerabilities and these would need to be highlighted and worked on in personal therapy. Attachment theory can provide insight and aid awareness to a client but the therapist must be aware of their own needs to bring the client where they need to be – a secure attachment through the therapeutic relationship. Understanding my own attachment style and working through it in therapy is a way for me to attune to my needs as a person, and to be an effective psychotherapist.

Critical Evaluation

A criticism of attachment theory is that in its early development it was monotropic and its focus was on the mother-child relationship. Considering Bowlby’s attachment theory came about after the second world war, it could be used as a pretext to keep women at home and away from the work environment and raise the children (Beckett & Taylor, 2016). This presents a cultural problem as the monotropic mother-child relationship is the European/North American norm and ignores other important relationships such as the father and the grandparents. In other cultures, there is a communal relationship that is the norm that attachment theory does not consider. If a child relies too heavily on the primary caregiver, Beckett & Taylor argue that “this may in the long run itself be damaging, placing undue pressure on the mother which will itself harm the relationship if she is worn out, or bored, or becomes resentful of the child” (2016, p. 65).

An issue with attachment theory is whether attachment styles are singular or multiple. Hazan & Shaver (1994) posit the question of whether attachments are singular or multiple and this is an important question as infants do form multiple bonds however, is one more important than the others. They state that other attachments do not have equal value with the primary caregiver as the empirical evidence shows. Ainsworth (1967) has shown that if multiple caregivers are available infants will seek out their primary caregiver when tired or sick.

A critic of Bowlby’s attachment theory is Judith R. Harris (1998) who believes that a child’s personality and character are not nurtured by the attachment between the child and the primary caregiver but rather the child’s peers because of the need to fit in. Harris (1998) sits on the nature side of the nature/nurture debate and cites separated twin studies to disprove the influence of nurture in the child’s development. Harris (1998) critiques attachment theory because it is based on behaviours that occur during stressful situations rather than non-stressful situations and therefore no data of attachment during non-stressful situations has been proven.

Attachment theory has a very strong research background and has empirically validated Bowlby’s theories of attachment. Neuroscience research is giving strong evidence of the theory of attachment and recent developments has shown that the right brain is involved in the process of attachment, and the right brain is involved in unconscious processes and intuition (Beckett & Taylor, 2016). Louis Cozolino weighs in on the nature/nurture debate and states that “nature and nurture become one during development, and the line between organic and functional dissolves into what is now called experience-dependent plasticity” (2014, p. 77). What this means is that our brains are structured and restructured by our interactions with our environment. That means change is possible and that we are not fixed and static beings.

I will now examine the usefulness of using Murray Bowen’s Genogram.

Insight and Awareness

The genogram was developed by Murray Bowen “as a practical framework for understanding family patterns” (McGodrick, Gerson, & Petry, 2008, p. 1). By applying the genogram to my own life (Appendix A) has brought awareness of fractured and dysfunctional relationships in my own family system. I am highly aware of the dysfunction and the use of drugs and alcohol to satiate unmet needs. Through the application of Transactional Analysis to my own life I have found that my life position is I’m OK-You’re Not OK and that I would engage in the game of Now I Got You, You Son Of a Bitch with certain family members. Considering the dysfunctional family system, I grew up in it is understandable that I took this life position and that I play that particular game. New awareness of this has helped me seek an alternative and healthy position in life through the use of personal therapy. The use of the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire – Revised (ECR-R) helped me become aware of the dismissiveness I experience with my mother. Through the use of Murray Bowen’s genogram, I understand that my mother’s needs were never met in her family system and therefore does not understand that how to provide me with my needs. She re-enacted the dismissiveness her family had toward her with me and my siblings because she does not know how to not be dismissive. I cannot get my needs met by mother if she doesn’t know how to respond to them.

Wallin (2007) states that it is the therapist that provides the client with a secure base for them to get their needs met and this is a good place to get my own needs met as therapist in training. If I do not know how to get my needs met then how can I meet the needs of my clients. Understanding myself through the use of the above theoretical models have implications for clients. Examining my family system using the genogram gave me an opportunity to apply the theoretical models of Transactional Analysis and Attachment theory to understand my life. It provides me with enough knowledge to focus on areas that need attention to work on in therapy and provides me with a scope to change. By understanding the insight and awareness these theoretical models have provided me with it helps me understand my early relationships which is how I understand all my other relationships and gives scope to change and areas to change in therapy.

The genogram is a useful to help the client gain insight into their life in the context of their family system and provide them with enough knowledge and insight to facilitate change. Watson (2015) highlights the importance of using a genogram with clients as they can recognise relationships that are harmful or beneficial to them and can move clients towards their therapeutic goals. Watson also notes the benefit of understanding “relationships and influences that are recognized as damaging or destructive can be adapted, interrupted, […] stopping the patterns from being transmitted to future generations” (2015, p. 735).

Critical Evaluation

The use of Murray Bowen’s Genogram in therapy is useful for uncovering the emotional system of a family as well as patterns of relationships and functioning (McGodrick, Gerson, & Petry, 2008). Used in the clinical context it can help both the client and therapist to understand structural, relational, and functional information about the client’s family (McGodrick, Gerson, & Petry, 2008). Despite the usefulness of the genogram we must be aware of the social context in which Bowen developed the genogram.

Luepnitz (1988) notes that Bowenian therapy focuses heavily on the role of the mother in symptom formation developing in children. Bowenian therapy takes a patriarchal understanding of gender roles and places them in the context of family systems. Carter et al. (1988) points out that this is unfair to men as there is an assumption that men have a limited capacity in family relationships compared to the role of mothers. This is important to note as this may set the precedent of expectation in family systems that is believed to be healthy. Luepnitz (1988) criticises Bowen’s therapy for being too rational in relation to emotional responses and processes which does not give priority to the expression of emotions. Understanding emotions from a rational point of view may not helpful compared to the experience of emotions as Brown points out that “in practice it is the experience of the emotions, embedded in family of origin relationships that is a key motivator for the client to undertake family of origin work” (1999, p. 100).

The purpose of this essay was to critically evaluate three core relational models using the following statement ‘Early relationships and family of origin experiences provide us with a lens through which all other relationships are understood’. The three core relational models that I have discussed are Transactional Analysis, Attachment theory, and Murray Bowen’s Genogram.

 Through the lens of Transactional analysis I have examined my lived experience, applied it to recurring themes in my relationships, and discussed how it could provide insight and awareness to the client in a clinical context. Through the lens of Attachment theory I have discussed how it can provide insight and awareness for the client as well as for the therapist. I gave a critical evaluation of Attachment theory, having briefly discussed the nature/nurture debate. Through the lens of Murray Bowen’s Genogram I discussed how it gave me insight and awareness into my own family system and described how it could also give insight and awareness to the client in a clinical context. I then critically evaluated Murray Bowen’s genogram.

Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1967). Infancy in Uganda: Infant care and the growth of attachment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Beckett, C. & Taylor, H. (2016). Human Growth and Development. London: SAGE Publications.

Berne, E. (1964). Games People Play. Great Britain: Penguin.

Boholst, F. A., Boholst, G. B., & Mende, M. M. B. (2005). Life Positions and Attachment Styles: A Canonical Correlation Analysis. Transactional Analysis Journal, 35, 1, 62 – 67.

Brown, J. (1999). Bowen Family Systems Theory and Practice: Illustration and Critique. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy (ANZJFT), 20, 2, p. 94 – 103.

Carter, E., Walters, M., Papp, P., & Silverstein, O. The Invisible Web: Gender Patterns in Family Relationships. New York: Guilford Press.

Corey, G. (n.d.). Transactional Analysis. Retrieved from

Cosentino, A. & Dermer, S. (2015). Attachment Theory and Attachment Therapies. In Neukrug, E. S. (Ed.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Counselling and Psychotherapy. (p. 71-75). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

Cozolino, L. (2014). The Neuroscience of Human Relationships. USA: Norton.

Harris, J. R. (1998). The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do. New York: Free Press.

Harris, T. A. (1995). I’m OK – You’re OK. Great Britain: Arrow Books.

Hazan, C. & Shaver, P. R. (1994). Deeper Into Attachment Theory. Psychological Inquiry, 5, 1, 68-79.

Lapworth, P. & Sills, C. (2011). An Introduction to Transactional Analysis. London: Sage Publications.

Luepnitz, D. (1988). The Family Interpreted: Psychoanalysis, Feminism and Family Therapy. New York: Basic Books.

McGoldrick, M., Gerson, R., & Petry, S. (2008). Genograms: Assessment and Intervention. New York: Norton.

Sani, M. N. & Karim, S. F. (2005). Transactional Analysis Counselling: An Introduction. BRAC University Journal, 2, 1, 117-120.

Solomon, C. (2003). Transactional Analysis Theory: The Basics. Transactional Analysis Journal, 33, 1, 15-22.

Steiner, C. M. (2015). Transactional Analysis. In Neukrug, E. S. (Ed.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Counselling and Psychotherapy. (p. 1007-1010). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

Wallin, D. J. (2007). Attachment in Psychotherapy. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Watson, D. (2015). Genograms. In Neukrug, E. S. (Ed.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Counselling and Psychotherapy. (p. 734-737). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

 Wylie, M. S. & Turner, L. (2015). The Attuned Therapist: Does Attachment Really Matter? Retrieved from


Genogram Legend


Managing Customer Relationships: Case Studies on Loyalty

This component will focus on managing customer relationships with the organization in order to enhance customer loyalty. Moreover, it will also discuss on the aspects of the virtual world and the strategy which will be implemented to use YouTube as a vehicle to communicate with the customers.
Business Dilemma
Yes I believe that the most influential person in café is the customer. Customers can help the Broadway Café by increasing the sales of the café and also they can help in promoting our café. For instance, if a customer comes to our café and finds the service good and enjoys the food then that particular customer would definitely go and tell his/her friends and families about our café and in this way many more customers will start coming to our café. In order to attract more customers we need to understand the needs of the customers and we need to find ways in which our café can satisfy their needs. Customers will go away if the café does not meet their expectation since customers nowadays have become more demanding.

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Moving on, it is very essential to give proper service to customers because customers can also hurt the café. If proper service is not provided to them then they can easily make a complaint about our café and this can harm our reputation in the market. Sales of any business are based on customers and in order to maintain the customers we need to develop a customer relationship management strategy. We need to find ways in which we can improve our services and attract more customers because customers play an important role in the success of our café. As seen in I hate that customers and employees are allowed to post their complaints on websites so it is very important for every business to serve its customers properly so that they don’t post any complaints and hurt the reputation of the business. (SN Web Consulting), (I hate
Yes our employees also believe that customers are the most important part of the café. Employees who work in our café understand that it is very important to provide customers with proper service. Every top management expects their employees to practice a good customer relationship. Employees are employed in any company so that they can work and serve customers and they are judged upon how well they serve their customers. The Broadway café can offer reward programs such as bonus to its employees in order for them to work hard and maintain customer satisfaction.  Therefore, employee that is most helpful to customers can be rewarded.
Making Business Decision 1
“Virtual world can help people meet, collaborate, plan, visualize, train and learn together.” (How virtual world can help real world business, 2010). Second life and virtual world are playing an important role in a success of a business. Many businesses are developing virtual world in order to incorporate it into their business and increase profits. Also now businesses have realized that doing business in virtual world can solve problems which are faced in real world such as, communication, costs and training etc. In real world it is very hard for every employee to interact with other employees and work together but through virtual world it becomes easier to communicate with every employee and work together. (How virtual world can help real world business, 2010)
Moving on, Advertising in virtual world can maximize our customers and this will also lead to a reduction in production costs. Many customers nowadays like watching videos on internet and they mostly like those videos that are presented in funny structure and which has all information regarding the product. Hence, with the use of videos we can advertise and in this way it will reach to customers more quickly and it would be far more effective. Also there will be a reduction in travelling costs as people can communicate in virtual world and save time and costs on travelling down to each others office for meetings etc. (Lowe, 2009).
In virtual world products are displayed in different forms for different businesses and in some you can test out the product how it looks on you and it allow people to see or use them before you actually purchase the product. Virtual world is a very useful tool for people to be able to meet virtually and also get full information about a particular product. Also it increases brand visibility and facilitates a new customer base. Therefore, it could be said that virtual can really make work easier for business in real world. (Saltzman, 2008).
Customer relationship will be different in a virtual world is through that there will be no physical interaction amongst customers and employees. In virtual world customers can express themselves properly for what they want and they can also state their views on which type of product they are looking for. Here customers will get an experience of how things will be at store, the surrounding and the types of products that are sold. Moving on, in virtual world customers will be able to make complaints about the product but they will have to wait on the response from the company regarding their complaint.
In order to manage customer relationships in this new virtual environment you need to be prompt while providing feedback to customers. For instance you should try to answer a customer’s query within 24 hours. Also try to deal with customer complaints in correct manner so that they don’t get offended. You need to be polite and attentive with customers either in real world or virtual world customers are one of the major factor in contributing to business world. Furthermore try to follow up with every customer’s concern. (Baley, 2011).
Supporting traditional customers are the customers in real world. Supporting second life customers will be different in a way that in second life it will be more advanced and more expensive to implement. In second life only those users who are fully equipped with the latest computing hardware can have equal access to second life. Also in second life a new customer will need to take some time getting familiarize with the second life world while for traditional customers it is not so complicated. (Chia Yao Lee, 2007).
In second life customers can interact with the employees at the same time in its avatar forms but on web site customers are unable to interact they are just able to email each other. If any product is displayed on web site, then a customer can only view the image of the product and price of it and can just place an order while in second life customers get chance to try the product on themselves and if it suits them only then they purchase it. Advertising on web site is much cheaper compared to second life but in this modern world second life is more acceptable as it provides customers with maximum satisfaction in regards to what a customer actually wants and is looking for.
The security issue which you might encounter in second life is authentication and identity theft. People ‘interact in virtual world via avatars and new accounts can be opened”. (Beer, 2007)There will be times when there will be multiple avatars and it will be hard to ensure which avatar represents whom and even if that particular avatar represents to actual person then it will be hard to know to whom it is actually associated to. Moving on, confidential and sensitive information shouldn’t be discussed in a second life because it is not so secured. For instance, the information exchanged texts and chats may not be private. (Beer, 2007).
Also theft of virtual objects example, stealing of avatar clothes, virtual buildings designs etc. There can be unauthorized use of real world brand name and trade mark. Furthermore payment and transaction integrity can be an issue too. As there is a risk for virtual wallets and inventory to get stolen. (Chia Yao Lee, 2007).
Some of the ethical issue is “defamation and disparagement meaning spreading of false rumors and misleading information. There can be disparagement of virtual and real world products” (Chia Yao Lee, 2007) . Moving on, people having fake identity are not an ethical behavior. Also “vandalism and harassment” (Chia Yao Lee, 2007) is an ethical issue, damaging of virtual objects and virtual locations. (Chia Yao Lee, 2007).
Making business decision 2
YouTube would help in communicating with customers about the unusual long waits for frappachunios and cappuccinos through a video. As JetBlue’s founder apologized to its customers via YouTube for the cancellation of flights, that’s how Broadway café can show a video to their customers on the implementation of new espresso machine and how employees are still getting used to it. You can show in the video that customers who are willing to have frappachnios and cappuccinos, they can place their order in advance, so once it gets ready then the employee can contact their customers and then customers can come and have their farppachnios and cappuccinos and enjoy the drink rather then waiting in lines for the order and getting frustrated. Since most of the people go on YouTube so it will be best to upload a video about this problem on YouTube so that majority of the customers will see the video and place their order in advance.
Moving on, the four new employees who have been employed recently are having difficulty understanding the new machine, so the old employees are most of the time assisting the new ones. In this way much time is wasted and employees are not able to attain to customers. Therefore, you can also upload a video on YouTube regarding on the usage of the new machine so that new employees can view that video and can learn from there on how to use the new machine rather than always asking the old employees assistance. In this way the problems can be rectified.
Some of the Pros of using YouTube as a customer communication vehicle are that many people nowadays watch videos on YouTube and thus, advertising on it will be very beneficial for the café. You can watch the video for free and also Broadway Café can express its creativity of the café and its variety of products on YouTube easily and in more advanced form. Furthermore, advertising on YouTube will result in reduction in marketing cost and it is very useful and much effective then advertising in real world. (Feldman)
Some of the cons of using YouTube as a customer communication vehicle is that, the video uploaded on YouTube can be viewed by everyone. Since it is viewable by everyone so everyone who views it can post comment. Some times some people post bad comments which can harm Broadway café’s image and reputation. (Feldman).“Try to avoid spam approach otherwise viewers will stop watching any video that has been uploaded by the café.” (Feldman).
Yes there are other technologies which could be used as a customer communication vehicle. Websites such as social networking for instance, MySpace, Facebook. Nowadays people enjoy social networking, so publishing on website such as Facebook will be very beneficial since many people will get to view the Broadway Café’s website and this will attract more customers. We can also use Blogs. It can be used to promote products, therefore, Broadway café can use Blogs to promote their products and increase sales. (SN Web Consulting).
Apply Your Knowledge
Currently the Broadway café’s quality of data within the system is low. It has become difficult to determine which customers are ordering what type of food or music. Having quality information means, to have accurate and up to date information. As for Broadway café their data is not up to date and accurate. Quality information should be free from duplication error meaning not having two names for a particular product which becomes hard to identify under which product name the product should be charged. There shouldn’t be any confusion while obtaining certain information. (What is data quality).
It is very important to have high quality information because it will determine the success of the café in future and also enable for the café to have a good reputation in the market. Most of the times customers are dissatisfied with the low quality information presented by businesses therefore, it is extremely important to have high quality information so that customers are satisfied. Proper information makes it easy for customers to place orders and also it becomes easy for employees to understand the order and serve the customer with the correct order. High quality information would lead to better decisions to be made and boost more profitability for the business. It can obtain competitive advantage in the market and also achieve employees and customer satisfaction which would enable café to achieve the organisational goal.
Furthermore, low quality information simply means not having accurate and up to date information about a particular product. Low quality information mostly results in lose of customers because of customer dissatisfaction. Customers who places order expects to receive the correct product. Moving on, Cafe is facing difficulties in determining which customer has ordered which product. This is due to, the poor quality of data been entered into the system. Low quality information will result in poor decisions made .Also many customers who will be dissatisfied with the service provided will also stop coming to the café and this will affect the café and its profitability.
The way in which the Broadway Café could understand its customers is by knowing how much each customer purchases and who all are the valuable customers. This can be done by taking account of the customer ID and calculating the sales for the particular customer for all the years. In this way we will better understand our customers and find ways to retain them. Moreover, by evaluating the products and stock on hand figure. Broadway Café can focus on marketing of those products more which are selling fast, because this would satisfy the customers needs and also increase sales.
There are many data quality issues as noticed in CRM_AYK.xls. The data presented is very confusing. For instance, the product name ½ cup of coffee for coffee sales, it is stated two times differently. First it is named as ½ cup of coffee and then named as ½ Cup of Coffee, so when a customer places order for ½ cup of coffee the data is entered incorrectly. Therefore, to avoid confusion they should just keep one properly spelt name of ½ cup of coffee.
Also data presented under heading ‘Other’ it does not state any dollar value so we can not state that what actually the figures under the heading ‘Other’ depicts and how to take account of the figures. Some of the figures are negative so it is very hard to analyse that what the negative figure means. Maybe they are recording some products under one general heading as ‘Other’. To avoid this issue the company can just record the products under its respective headings rather then putting it all under one as ‘Other’ which is ambiguous. It also shows negative amounts which needs to be clarified as, what it means and how it should be taken into account.
The Café needs to keep track of the stock and the system should automatically depict that how much stock is left for instance, if a Music CD is sold then the system should automatically decrease one Music CD from the stock record and also show how many more Music CDs are left.
Moving on, when identifying the best selling product it is hard to indicate whether to take into account the highest number of sales of the highest number of product sold or the profitability of the products or whether to just take into account the highest number of product sold.
We have assumed and taken into account the customer ID and the total amount of sales for each customer for all the years and have analysed upon the highest number of sales as the best customer.
Upon analysing the customers with their highest number of sales amount for all the years we see that customer number 305668 has the highest sales amount of $49647.45 and is regraded as the best customer. In past 5years it could be said that these customers have purchased a lot from Broadway Café which is very good and we need to retain these customers by providing them with better service and meeting their expectations.
There are many marketing campaigns which need to be used in order to retain our valuable customers. The café should increase in its customer satisfaction and loyalty and try to understand a customers needs. The café can have a promotional activity such as rewards for best customer of the year and the best customer wins prizes. Moreover, café can offer discounts to valuable customers in order to retain those customers.
We have assumed that in order to determine the best selling product and the worst selling product we looked at the total sales figure of the best and worst types of products sold and not the units because it was a little confusing. We haven’t taken into account any value from column heading other because it is very ambiguous, it does not have dollar value so it is hard to determine whether the amounts are in terms of dollars or units. Also it has negative figures so if it is a sale amount then how can it be in negative and how to take account of it. Therefore, we have not taken any data from column heading other in calculation of all the questions above.

Developing Positive Relationships for Child Wellbeing

Recognise how positive relationships promote children’s well-being.
Developing and maintaining positive relationships with parents and other professionals is imperative as children pick up on behaviours they have observed around them because are very impressionable and pick up on their surroundings. By professionals working together they can provide the best quality of service to children. Practitioners should build up a mutual trust and respect with all parties within an early year setting.

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Children observe the people around them behaving in various ways. This is in Individuals that are observed are called models. In society children are surrounded by many influential models, such as parents within the family, characters on children’s TV, friends within their peer group and teachers at school. These models provide examples of masculine and feminine behaviour to observe and imitate. (
There are many different relationships that need to be built within the early years setting.
Children’s friendship- It’s important that children are encouraged to build friendships within an early years sitting this will allow them to feel more comfortable and enjoy learning and developing as individuals. Children are more confident when surrounded by other pupils as they are able to relate to them and build up a support system within their group of friends, this will help them develop into well rounded individuals and provide them vital skills for socialising which will help them later in life.
Key worker relationship- Children should have a close relationship with their practitioners so they feel at ease knowing that they have someone they can trust and turn to, if a child feels comfortable with their key worker they will be able to go to them with any hardship they may feel, for example if a child is upset about anything within the setting they should be able to go to their key worker.
Partnership with parents- The relationship between practitioners and parents is essential, communication is key between both parties and they will need to work closely in order to achieve the best possible outcome for all children. By practitioners and parents having a good relationship this makes it easier for the parents and children in being honest with each other. Parents will not feel at ease leaving their children unless they are completely satisfied and feel that the staff that their children are left with are honest and reliable. Vital information can be passed between parents and practitioners if there is a strong relationship and this will help with the development of the child should there be anything of concern that needs more attention, such as a child’s aversion to a certain toy due to fear.
Colleague relationship- All the staff members within an early years setting need to have a good relationship in order to communicate and pass around information that is needed. For example when a key worker is not in for their shift, they will need to ensure that another staff member will need to be informed about the children’s needs that is in their care. All practitioners will need to trust each other in order to have an effective environment to work in.
Multi-agency and integrated working- It’s essential that everyone working with the children and their families communicates well and understands their roles and responsibilities. A multi-agency is when professionals from different settings work together. A multi-agency approach is beneficial as professionals can share their information about the family’s needs with each other. It is fundamental that all professionals treat each other, parents and children with respect, make them feel welcomed and also comfort them if they are going through difficulties. A multi-agency is there to help parents and families through difficulties.
An early years setting should cater for every parents needs as well as the children’s, for example if a parent has hearing impairments and can only communicate through sign language, it would be important to locate a key worker to their child who can use sign language if not have another member of staff that is able to sign. Also there may be parents to whom English will be their second language so to have someone interoperate will be necessary, this should be done both through verbal and written communication.
Analyse the importance of the key worker system for children.
A key person has the responsibility for working with a small number of children, giving them the reassurance to feel safe and cared for with the absence of their parents. At such an early age children are dependent on their parents, it is vital that the key worker develops a close relationship with their key children because they will be the first point of contact for the child and the family.
Starting an early years setting can prove to be distressing for children, they are introduced to a new environment and new people this can be a lot to take in for children. Furthermore being left in the setting without their parents/guardians can result in the child experiencing separation anxiety, which can leave them feeling anxious, Erik Erikson, devised a theory of psychos social development. The first stage of his theory relates to children in their first years of life. Erikson believed that the quality of the care children in this age group receive depends on how well they develop trust in their carer. (Early Years Level 3-V1.0 page 32). In order for the practitioner to build trust with the child they will need to find out the child’s interest and know how to engage with them, make them feel comfortable, If a child is having difficulties settling in, they key worker should work alongside the child’s parents and have them in the classroom while the child can familiarise themselves with the setting and develop a bond with their key worker.
If a child feels at ease with their key worker, it’ll help them become independent. Children’s independence is most obvious when they’re comfortable with their surroundings, such as when they are in their own home with family, or with friends and family and familiar carers such as a key person. (Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation stage) When the practitioner is first introduced to their key child they will usually lead the ‘settling in session’. This is the period where the parents get introduced to the key worker, this will give them a chance to discuss their child and any important information. This can vary from what the child can and cannot have to due to religious or health reasons, any medical problems and what procedures may need to be carried out, if the parents of the child are not in a relationship the key worker will need to be informed of the routine on who will collect the child on what day and who to contact in case of emergency.
Some children may not respond well to settling in, many different circumstances can result in a child being distressed during this period. This is where the practitioner will have the duty to comfort them and make them feel at ease ‘Family linked in the literature to unemployment, divorce, financial difficulties and other stressors in family life, any and all of which can interfere with sensitive and consistent parenting’. (Child Development-Theory and Practice 0-11 Jonathan Doherty and Malcolm Hughes).
Explain the benefit of building positive partnership with parents for children’s learning and development.
One the most important relationship within an early years setting is the relationship between the practitioner and the parents, it is essential that they work together to achieve the best possible outcome for the child. Practitioners should regularly be communicating with the parents of their key child, this can be done in many different ways such as Open days, Parents evening, workshops and activities that involve the parents. It is imperative that every parent attend at open day, this will allow the parents to explore the environment their child will be in, get familiar with the staff in the setting, especially the key worker for their child. This will also allow the practitioner to familiarise themselves with the parent or carer of the child. All families are different some children may live with both or one of their parents, some may live with a foster parent or a carer or relatives and some with the same sex parents. This will give the practitioner an insight of the child’s background as well.
Practitioners should consistently be communicating with the parents of their key children to ensure an effective way of working. For example if the child is struggling on a certain aspect of their activities in the classroom, the practitioner should discuss this with the parents and advise them on how to motivate and guide the child at home. Both the practitioner and the parent should concentrate specifically on bettering the skills of the child when approaching the activity that they may lack confidence in. Parents and practitioners can interlink to achieve a more productive and enthusiastic attitude from the child.
A practitioner should welcome parents and inform them about all the activity is going to take place. If there any leaflets the practitioner has to give them to parents so that the parents are then aware of what is going on in the nursery. It is also very important that the practitioner and parents work as a team and provide a quality service for children for example if the teacher is planning out an activity for the children they can involve the parent in with the activity, as the parents have a better understanding of their children. They can work together and combine their knowledge in order to receive the best possible outcome for the children. It also paramount that practitioners respects all parents decisions on how they want to raise their child, practitioners should have a relationship where they can be open and honest with the parents but need to understand that the parents have the final say even though practitioners may not agree.
Describe how to develop positive relationships within the early years settings, making reference to principles of effective communication.
A multi-agency approach is beneficial as professionals can share their information about the family’s needs with each other. It is fundamental that all professionals treat each other, parents and children with respect, make them feel welcomed and also comfort them if they are going through difficulties. A multi-agency is there to help parents and families through difficulties. Professionals must respect parent’s spiritual beliefs, religion and accept them for who they are. Also ensuring there are no judgemental comments specified. A multi-agency is obliged to keep all information confidential and must remain between the professionals and parents and must not be discussed to an outsider. It is also important for practitioners to work together with the multi-agency team so they can identify the child’s needs through common assessments and then work together and take action on what services need to be provided to meet the child’s identified learning needs and in some cases some of the children’s needs cannot be met then they will have to decide what action needs to taken from there and then set a review date.
In an early years setting it should be the staff’s main priority to have a good relationship with other settings such as doctor surgeries, social services, health visitors. Forming a relationship with external settings will allow the practitioners to communicate in any issues to achieve the best possible result, for an example, if a practitioner becomes aware of bruising on a child consistently and the parent is not responding to the practitioner’s concerns then they should consider contacting social services.
As professionals it is required skill to understand and communicate with another member and share information for example if another organisation is offering some information then as a professional you are allowed to share it with individual, families, carers, groups and communities, it is a professionals job to make the parents feel comfortable with leaving their child in a child’s centre. Confidentiality is essential within the multi-agency team because the professionals have to keep the parents word confidential and make sure that they do not break the confidentiality policy. The EY requires that, ’confidential information and records about staff and children must be held securely and only accessible and available to those who have a right or professional need to see them’ By remaining professional and having good communication with everyone that has a part in the child’s life or development is essential. Confidentiality policy has to be maintained by all care setting practitioners. If parents are to be spoken to about their child’s progress or needs, then this must take place in a separate room to maintain confidentiality. Personal information about the children should not be left in an area where others can have access to it. However if information is to be breached the practitioner must ask the parents if they can pass this information on. A practitioner should always strive for high standards of care by following policies and procedures. The EYFS states the positive relationships and parents as partners. The practitioner should respect and achieve the best of their ability to provide a safe and welcoming environment.  

Authority-responsibility relationships

Modern organizations are constantly trying to incorporate a humanistic approach in order to keep their employees happy. Organizational behavior is greatly affected by changes that occur inside the company. One that is seen as most important is that of the changes in organizational structures. The old way of doing things with bureaucratic models have given way to modern models using project and matrix designs. Every organization has objectives and goals that it strives to achieve. In order to do so, the people in the organization must work together. The activities of each of these individuals are broken down by authority-responsibility relationships. These relationships are often formed on the basis of the job hierarchy (Organizational behavior and basics, n.d.).

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An organization is a group of individuals that are broken down into different levels of authority and segments based on specialty for the intention of achieving the goals and objectives that have been set by the organization. When objectives are established for these groups a process is used to identifying and group the work that is to be performed. Responsibility and authority roles are also defined and delegated while relationships are established for the purpose of enabling the people to work most effectively together (Organizational behavior and basics, n.d.).
Administration of an effective organization determines the goals that the company as a whole strives towards. Organizations often evolve out of a need clear, well defined system or structure, that allows people to execute their work responsibilities. This structure helps employees to relate to each other, organize their activities, and achieve the goals or objectives that have been set by the organization. It helps to minimize confusion, maintain an ideal environment and maximizes effectiveness (Organizational behavior and basics, n.d.).
Hewlett-Packard is an example of a company that uses modern organizational behavior in order to emphasize productivity and good employee relations. In 2000, Hewlett-Packard was one of five winners of the Ron Brown Award for Corporate Leadership. This company was founded in 1939 by Bill Hewlett and David Packard. Early on this company has a good philosophy that encouraged good employee relations. David Packard fashioned the concept of management by walking around as a means to achieve a high involvement and open work culture. HP has been both a leader in technology and in human resource management practices. As a leader in technology HP designed and produced the first handheld scientific calculator. As a management innovator HP introduced the radical notion of flexible work hours and removed time clocks as a way to show respect for and trust in its employees (Organizational Behavior in Changing Times, n.d.).
HP is a $41-billion-a-year business that consists of seven major product lines and three service lines. HP products include computer desktops and workstations, mobile products, printing and digital imaging products, storage products, servers, networking products, and software. The services lines include e-services, personal services, and business services. HP has approximately 88,500 employees and was one of the first companies to formalize telecommuting policies for its employees. The company has more than 540 sales and support offices and distributorships in 120 countries worldwide (Organizational Behavior in Changing Times, n.d.).
The Santa Rosa Systems Division of Hewlett Packard (SRSD) was created in 1992 in order to target a new systems integration opportunity in the ever growing communication business sector. In 1994 SRSD faced many challenges that threatened its success as well as that of its leadership team. Those in the organization saw the following things as major issues:

There were two competing strategies that were threatening to divide the organization
There were problems between two functions that were competing for common engineering resources. This problem was caused by a functional structure that had very poorly designed cross-functional business teams
The cross-functional teams that were not effectively led or managed and did not produce any needed coordination
There was a top team that was not effective.
There was a general manager who was not confronting and resolving key strategic and organizational issues.
There was low trust throughout the organization that prevented organizational problems from being discussed and managed.
There was underperformance in the rate of growth and profitability as well as low morale and turnover of key technical people (Beer, 2002).

In order to help address these issues HP used a technique know as Organizational Fitness Profiling (OFP). This process enabled the leadership team to bring these problems to the surface and make changes that allowed the business unit to capitalize on many market opportunities. The leadership team and many of the key managers in theSanta Rosadivision had grown up in Hewlett Packard’s traditional business environment. Fitness Profiling enabled the leadership team to have an honest organizational conversation about the behaviors that were silent killers and diagnose the root causes (Beer, 2002).
HP is a technology company that operates in more than 170 countries worldwide. They explore how technology and services can help people and companies address their problems and challenges while pursing their own possibilities, aspirations and dreams. They apply new thinking and ideas to create more simple, valuable and trusted experiences with technology. They are continuously improving the way that their customers live and work (Hewlett-Packard, 2009).
Not many other companies offer as complete a technology product portfolio as HP does. They provide infrastructure and business offerings that range from handheld devices to some of the world’s most powerful supercomputers. They offer consumers a wide range of products and services from digital photography to digital entertainment and from computing to home printing. This comprehensive portfolio helps them match the right products, services and solutions to their customers’ specific needs (Hewlett-Packard, 2009).
Hewlett Packard’s motto for their employees consists of Stretch. Strive. Succeed. This is a standard that they demand not only from themselves but from their employees as well. When a person goes to work at HP, they are given every opportunity to stretch their talents, strive for new solutions and succeed beyond what they thought was possible. And when the employee does this they are recognized and rewarded as they grow with the company (Hewlett-Packard, 2009).
This approach is what has made HP the world’s leading information Technology Company and keeps them moving in new and interesting directions. This is how they have been able to provide ideas that help people around the world connect, create and accomplish amazing things. It’s why their people are experts in so many areas including marketing, finance, HR, sales, IT infrastructure, personal computing and access devices, business technology solutions, global services, and imaging and printing for consumers, enterprises, and small and medium businesses. They believe that when you bring great minds together in over 170 countries, each person has a hand in driving the innovations that make the world a better place (Hewlett-Packard, 2009).
The Sociotechnical system (STS) redesign process that was used by HP in order to chronicle the process as it actually occurs includes documenting how changes in managers’ and employees’ beliefs and behaviors as they are produced. STS redesign is not a new management trend but was first detailed by Eric Trist and his associates of the Tavistock Institute in 1963. Central to STS redesign are two principles. The first is that work is comprised of both social and technical components, while the second is that organizations are open systems. The second concept is composed of two important concepts. Organizations are open meaning that they are constantly interacting and negotiating with their environment. Just as significant is the character of their system. Real change occurs only with attention to all aspects of the organization. In order to implement STS redesign, top management must sponsor and demonstrate commitment to the change and the redesign team must be composed of employees from all levels of the organization. This is a change process designed by the workers whose work is being redesigned. Guiding principles include employee involvement, the reallocation of power and authority down the hierarchical ladder, open communications, and system wide transformation. Structurally, the result is an organization composed of self-managing teams (Besser, 1999).