Responsibilities as a Student Radiographer in Patient Care

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The Roles And Responsibilities Of Managers

It is very important if a manager wants cooperation from his team or employees, or to pay attention. A good manager practices empathy and respects the personal values, opinions and ideas of the people he interacts with. He should listen and respond and offer praises and encouragements when they make progress. By doing that he will enhance their self esteem and will build trust. As the boss, his ability to develop trust and confidence, resolve problems and issues will result in a productive, goal oriented work group. He should encourage his team to ask for help, get involved and participate. A capable manager is often described as having a vision of where to go and the ability to articulate it.
Communication skill
A manager is the middle person in between the top management level and the team that reports to him. He is also the team’s link to the larger organisation. He must have the ability to effectively negotiate and use persuasion when necessary to ensure the success of the team and project. Through effective communication, manager supports individual and team achievements by creating guidelines for the career advancement of team members and for accomplishing tasks. He has to ensure that communication between the two layers is smooth and is conveyed clearly to avoid misinterpretations and dissatisfaction. Good communication skills are useful to develop his negotiation and customer service skills, especially if he deals with clients.
A good planner
In order for a manager to achieve long term goals and commit to strategies for substantial earnings, he has to communicate the vision of the company to his subordinates. He should break down and clarify the goals that each team or individual have to perform and assign work schedules and strategies to them. It also involves thinking and planning out strategies on how to improve quality and also being cost conscious and effective. Having goals and planning out the directions allow for effective time management and saves cost and resources. Setting deadlines and goals helps keep employees focused, busy and motivates them to do their work. A good manager should talk to each of his employees about the company’s goals, and work with them to set individual goals directly linked to organization’s target mission. He should make sure that the employees understand their professional growth path in the company.
Decision Maker
The daily routine of making decisions for a manger includes determining how to approach an employee who is not performing or lacking progress and how to bring about change to the organization and its team. His day to day decision is based on what’s important, what’s right and not who’s right.
Leadership skill
This is one of the most important skill. His position entails him to guide and give direction so that the team can perform effectively. A good manager offers job coaching, training and support. In order for individuals to meet the needs and objectives, they may need extra input, information or skills. The performance of his team depends on his abilities to empower them. How well a person performs depends on his motivation. His task as the boss is to encourage and coach others to improve themselves and the quality of their work. He needs to implement in them the desire to excel and accept responsibility and self management.
Appraiser
A good manager need to have the capacity to evaluate and examine a process or procedure and decide on the best choice to produce an outcome. He looks at the importance, quality and values and then taking the best approach. He is also expected to track the progress of each individual’s activities and effectiveness, review them and offer feedback and counselling.
Recognize problems
It is impossible for a manager to know about personality conflicts, lagging productivity or other problems in the office if he has his head in the sand. If he notices a change in an employee’s work habits or attitude, he should try to get to the root of the problem before that problem starts to affect rest of the staff.
Provide Satisfaction
The subordinates of a manager are happy when they are provided with the necessary tools and resource. They feel secure if the management puts priority to health, safety and cleanliness issues. And this in turn helps in satisfying customers by giving good quality of service or product and taking care of their needs.
New methods and technologies
A manager should keep himself updated on methods and technologies that can make him and his team more efficient.
Proper use of power
In order to achieve the goal expected from a manger, he must have power and authority to act in a way that will stimulate a positive response from the workers. A manager depending on the situation, exercises different types of power, viz reward power and expert power. Besides the formal basis, the informal basis of power also has a more powerful impact on organizational effectiveness. A manager is only effective when his subordinates obey his orders. So, the manager uses appropriate power so that his subordinates willingly obey the orders and come forward with commitment.
Proper time management
Time is the most precious and vital thing in management. There are three dimensions of time
boss imposed time
system imposed time
self imposed time
As the manager has a thorough knowledge of the principle of time management such as preparing time charts, scheduling techniques, etc., he should utilize the time productively in the organization.
Relationship
Managerial behavior implies the existence of a manager managed relationship. This relationship arises in an organization. A manager should have a very good relationship with all his subordinates. It is very important for both his personal and official life.
Sources of influence
In case of a manager, authority is attached to his managerial position. In other words, managers obtain authority from his followers or subordinates.
Sanctions
A Manager has command over all allocation and distributions of sanctions between employees. For Example, Manager has control over the positive sanctions such as promotion and awards for his task performance and the contribution to organizational objectives. Manager is also in a position to exercises the negative sanctions such as with- holding promotions, or mistakes, etc. A leader has different type of sanctions to exercise and grant. He can generate or with hold access to satisfying the very purpose of joining the group’s social satisfactions and related task rewards. These informal sanctions are relevant to the individual with belongingness or ego needs: where as the organizational sanctions granted or exercised by the managers are geared to the physiological and security needs of individual.
Competence
Selection of managers in an organization is done on their ability to successfully lead others rather than on past technical expertise. A manager who has a winning track record is considered competent. Competence also requires expertise in management skills. A capable and competent manager has the ability to challenge, inspire, model, enable and encourage his employees.
Cool under pressure
In a perfect world, projects would be delivered on time, under budget and with no major problems or obstacles to overcome. This happens due to a manager who takes all these problems in stride. When efficient managers encounter a stressful event, they consider it interesting, they feel they can influence the outcome and they see it as an opportunity. They take these events as a challenge rather than a stress.
To be an exemplary role model
Managers who set high standards or goals and achieve them are great leaders by examples. The ability to tolerate stress and remain poise under job pressures and still maintain a high activity and energy level is the main quality of a manager. In order to be a respected and efficient manager, a manager needs to work hard in his personal growth.
EFFECTIVE DEALING OF PROBLEMS BY A MANAGER
In a workplace a manager suffers from a lot of problems from his employees. These problems may be personal or official. Some of the most common problems are briefed below : –
Poor performance
People think that poor performance occurs due to lack of skill but it is not always like that, it may also occur as employees are disorganised. Proper guidance can correct this problem. If performance difficulties relate to a lack of skills, additional training or coaching can solve these problems.
Job incompatibility
Sometimes skills of an employee aren’t compatible with their assigned tasks or regular duties. In this type of cases, offering the employee additional training or assigning them a different set of tasks is usually the most appropriate course of action.
Sloppy work
Whenever a manager notices that, an employee has made some errors, he should point out the mistakes to the employee and monitor their work more closely. If the problem persists, he should speak with the employee and detail the most serious examples of problems with their work. A good manager always remains positive and remembers the employee’s contribution to the company.
Create an effective message
A manager’s message should fit executives, middle managers, supervisors and employees. An effective message by a manager should also explain the employees´ day-to-day duties directly affect the company’s performance and he should touch on the values and pride of the employees. A direct face to face interaction by a manager can help to inspire employees and to reinforce positive attitude in them. This interaction helps the employees to adapt any change in the organization.
Listening to employees
Employees’ feedback is very important in an organization in case of managing change. Holding focus groups with employees is a great way to gauge reaction and monitor the progress of change. A manager can also ask his employees to provide feedback through email or company intranet. Even a blog can be used for this purpose which is quite popular now. For a successful change management proper communication is very important. Talking to your employees is not an one-time event, a good manager should reinforce his message by communicating quite often and on a regular basis.

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EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT MANAGERS
An efficient leader can be summarised as a person who has a lot of capability where as an effective leader is one whose works produce good results for an organization. Effectiveness and efficiency are mutually exclusive things. They are both fundamental preconditions for a manager. Being effective means that one has the ability to properly analyse the evolving environment and selecting the right things as the areas of strategic focus for the enterprise. On the other hand, being efficient requires a carefully carved cultural and operational framework which helps the manager to achieve a particular degree of success, given the level of resources applied to a particular objective.
Both the terms efficient and effective refer to the ability of a person, enterprise, or process to perform a function well. High efficiency refers to an efficient person while an effective person has high effectiveness. However there is a small but very significant difference between these two measure of performance. Efficiency refers to the economy in use of resources for performing a task, and effectiveness refers to the total output generated.
Efficiency is measured in terms of ratio of “output generated” divided by inputs used in the process – for example, widgets produced per kilogram of raw material used.
Effectiveness measures the total output produced – for example, total widgets produced in a day.
An example is given to understand the concept. Two different lathe operators, say X and Y, are assigned the task of making bushes on a lathe. Let us say A produces 200 bushes in a shift, and in the process uses up 8 kilogram of steel rod in the process. In comparison, B produces 120 bushes using 10.5 kilogram of steel rod.
The effectiveness and efficiency of these two lathe operators based on their performance is compared in table below:
Operator Effectiveness Efficiency
X 200 Bushes per shift 25 Bush per Kg of Steel
Y 320 Bushes per shift 18 Bush per Kg of Steel
So, we see that operator A has higher efficiency but lower effectiveness.
In management, both efficiency and effectiveness are very important. The relative emphasis to be given to efficiency and effectiveness depends from situation to situation. One more example will completely justify the concept. For example, we must be careful to control the quantity and cost of water used in a factory during routine operations. However, if the same factory is on fire, we will not think twice about using whatever water can be made available for putting out the fire.
Effective Versus Efficient
The difference between effective and efficient are loaded with some of the most important concepts : –
Efficient – doing things right
Effective – doing the right things
Both concepts are very important and both concepts are utilised in the management of work. These concept begins with organization and does not depend on the position of an employee whether he is a manager or a staff employee.
The great business writer Peter Drucker defined five functions in his writings : –
Objective setting
Organising the team or group
Communicating and motivating
Performance measurement
Developing people
Effectiveness means that the job was done correctly and was accomplished but does not regard whether the job was done inexpensively or on time. Whereas, efficiency means that the job was accomplished cheaply and on time yet may not be a very thorough and impressive accomplishment. “Efficient” is defined as working without waste or using a minimum of time, effort and expense. But, the definition does not define the goals of the operation. A person can be very efficient but still he cannot get a positive result because he is not doing the right things at the right time. That’s where “effective” comes in. “Effective” means “having the desired result”. Once the desired result is obtained, the tasks leading to the result can be isolated and these tasks can then be completed efficiently.
Some characteristics of an efficient manager are :
He is organized. He can find things quickly
He know how to use the tools on his computer to the nth degree
He writes readable and actionable emails
His meetings are well run
He processes all the financial reports properly and on a regular schedule
He knows how to work well with his employees
Some characteristics of an effective manager are :
Meeting deadline for reports and contributions
Making a quota
Earning the amount targeted
Leading the time to define and execute a project
We will consider an example to clear out the difference between the two qualities, i.e. how a manager solves a problem efficiently :
STEP 1: He defines the problem in detail. Once he satisfied that the problem is well defined, then he starts looking for a solution.
STEP 2: The second stage is the alternative courses of action that solve the problem. In this stage multiple potential solutions are generated. This step involves some research and asking others about their ideas. Here, the manager comes up with 2-3 alternative solutions.
STEP 3: The third stage is related with studying each option and the advantages and disadvantages related to it. One alternative may appear quicker but might be costlier whereas the other alternative might be less costly but requires a lot of effort and time. Proper understanding of each alternative helps to get the right solution.
STEP 4: This step is related to the selection and implementation of the best solution.
STEP 5: The final step is related to the monitoring of the implemented solution i.e. whether it worked or not. If the solution is not good enough then again need to follow step 1.
CONCLUSION
Efficiency and effectiveness are different but when combined leads to an unstoppable result orientation which feeds success. So, we can conclude that both efficiency and effectiveness are important for a successful manager. As a result of the manager’s hard work the employees work properly and in an efficient manner which as a result gives fruitful results to the company.
 

Evaluation of Marzano’s Twenty-One Responsibilities of the School Leader

Rubric A: Leadership Style Evaluation

The high school principal described in this task was hired to create change within a struggling high school using transformational leadership. Burns claims that transformational leadership occurs when leaders utilize positive relationships with employees in order to motivate the followers to understand the need for change and then to collaboratively create an instructional plan to improve student achievement (Green). However, this principal’s leadership style began to take on a situational leadership approach in that he adapted his approach to fit the abilities of his followers (Green). He saw that the ELA department appeared capable of creating a task to improve reading scores and allowed them to do so. Ultimately, a transformational leadership approach became a laissez – faire leadership approach (Green). The principal demonstrated a laissez – faire approach by giving is faculty complete autonomy in creating and executing a plan to improve reading scores across the high school. He did not provide any guidance nor directives in how the project should be completed, who should be involved in completing the project, or when the project should be completed.

Rubric A1: Leadership Style Recommendation

 Perhaps the Collective Efficacy Model of Distributive Leadership would have better served this principal. This model promotes shared leadership responsibilities between administration and followers with all faculty believing they have the necessary skills to positively effect students (Green). This approach also follows a democratic leadership belief rather than laissez – faire. Faculty still feels as if they have a say in decision making and program implementation, but the principal delegates and provides more guidelines instead of using a completely “hands – off” approach. The Collective Efficacy Model of Distributive Leadership would have still allowed faculty to feel as if they were valued participants in decision – making and program implementation; however, it also would have allowed the principal to delegate responsibilities such as determining which books to be added to the summer reading list, accessibility of those books, creating summer reading projects, and thoroughly reading and reviewing each book on the summer reading list. As the distributive leadership practice is more democratic in nature as opposed to laissez – faire, this leadership style also would have allowed the principal to establish needed guidelines, such as a time frame for project completion, as a plan was needed before the end of the school year which was quickly approaching.

Rubric B: Applied Leadership Responsibilities

The principal implemented several aspects of Marzano’s Twenty-One Responsibilities of the School Leader. To begin with, the principal demonstrated affirmation. He recognized there was a need to improve reading test data and saw a plan was developed (Marzano). Change was also demonstrated in the principal’s transformational leadership style. He acted as a change agent by deviating from the mantra of its – always – been – done – this – way. The normal routine was challenged by seeking to create a new program to improve reading scores (Marzano). Focus was well executed by the principal; before implementing any new programs or practices, he sought the school’s mission statement, vision statement, and values to ensure the new ideas aligned to the overall mission of the school (Marzano). With the limited knowledge possessed through the video, it does seem apparent that the principal had relationships with his staff. He felt comfortable enough to allow the English department to develop and execute their own plan without his own involvement (Marzano). Lastly, it would seem the principal was, indeed, an optimizer. He did seek to inspire a new idea among his staff in order to benefit student achievement (Marzano).

Rubric B1: Leadership Responsibilities Justification

 This principal did not demonstrate all of Marzano’s Twenty-One Responsibilities of School Leaders. The implementation of several of the omitted responsibilities would have yielded a much more favorable outcome for the principal. For example, if executed to the full extent, outreach could have had a positive impact on how the students and parents received the idea of summer reading (Marzano). While the principal did use outreach to ensure compliance with the school’s vision and district mandates, outreach among parents and students with the purpose of explaining the purpose of summer reading could have led to more students completing the required reading assignments. Secondly, being involved and knowledgeable about curriculum, instruction, and assessment would have been a wise choice (Marzano). While it is understandable that faculty can be trusted to design and implement certain programs, it is ultimately the principal who takes responsibility within the community when these programs go awry. Therefore, the principals should have closely reviewed the summer reading lists, checked with teachers to determine whether books were screened for age – appropriateness, and examined project requirements prior to approving its distribution.  In addition, resources – or the lack thereof – created a major problem among this educational community (Marzano). Had the principal enacted Marzano’s Leadership Responsibility regarding resources, he would have ensured teachers had enough materials to distribute to children before they left for summer vacation. This would have eliminated the limited accessibility of books as well as the excuse to not complete the required task.

Rubric C: Communication Plan

 Marzano claims “good communication is a critical feature of any endeavor in which people work in close proximity for a common purpose” (Marzano). Therefore, communication should constantly be at the forefront of any school leader’s thoughts. There is evidence to show the principal communicated various aspects of the summer reading program to teachers, students, and families. To being with, the principal communicated the need to create a program to improve reading scores to his staff and then allowed the staff to communicate with one another in order to determine what this program would entail. Then, once the program was established, the principal had teachers communicate the project’s requirements with students and parents. Teachers chose to include a written letter detailing the project to be sent home with every student. While the principal did do an adequate job communicating his desire to create a new initiative to increase test scores to his teachers, he did not communicate any expectations such as making sure to screen books for inappropriate content or how projects should be graded. Furthermore, he did not effectively communicate the intention and need for this program to students and families. This, unfortunately, resulted in only one – third of the student body participating.

Rubric C1: Communication Plan Improvements

 Changes in how the principal communicated his change management strategy could have led to a positive outcome within his new summer reading initiative. First, the principal should have communicated clear expectations for teachers who were designing this project. Consideration should have been given to whether the selected books were age appropriate for high schoolers, the accessibility of books, and how the projects would be graded to prevent failing and/or inflated grades. These changes would have eliminated anger from parents over sexually explicit material, student’s inability to complete the assignments, and confusion over grading amongst teachers. In addition, the principal should have directly communicated the purpose and intended goal of this assignment with students and parents. Considering this principal’s school district placed low priority on education, communicating the reasoning behind this change would have helped students and parents understand the importance of summer reading. Furthermore, perhaps a face to face meeting as opposed to a note would have illustrated the seriousness and importance of the project. The school could have hosted an informational meeting about the new initiative for where students and parents. The project could have been explained and students could pick – up books and project packets to take home for the summer.

Rubric D: School Culture

 School culture encompasses transparency, trust, and inclusiveness. The implementation of the summer reading program negativity impacted all aspects of the school’s culture. Transparency is essential to building a positive school culture. Rob Peters, CEO of Standard of Trust, says there are four strategies to being transparent; the strategies are: creating purpose, consistently communicating, focusing on relationship capital, and taking responsibility (Marin, 2018). The principal in this scenario does, indeed, create a purpose and aligns that purpose to the mission of the school. However, he did not consistently communicate. His retelling of the incident discusses one meeting with the reading department rather than numerous brainstorming sessions with all teachers from all departments of the school. Although the focus was specifically reading test scores, other teachers from other departments could have had valuable input as reading is fundamental in their courses as well. Holding multiple discussion with all faculty would have also made certain that all stakeholders were hearing the same message regarding the new initiative. A focus on relationships is also necessary to maintain transparency. As a part of relationships, there must be an “intentional creation of an environment where opposing viewpoints are celebrated” (Marin, 2018)) By all indications, the opposing viewpoints of concerned parents were not celebrated. Although the opposing viewpoints of parents angered by inappropriate reading content certainly should not be celebrated, these were not the only concerns. Parents who believed children’s brains needed the summers to rest should have had their viewpoints welcomed as opposition creates growth among all stakeholders. Finally, leaders who are transparent take responsibility for their actions. While it is unknown how this principal handled the outcome of this situation, in order to build transparency, he should have owned his mistakes whether those mistakes were not screening the summer reading books or not having adequate materials available. Transparency goes hand – in – hand with trust as one does not exist without the other. Seeing as this principal was not fully transparent, one can assume there were stakeholders who did not fully trust his judgement – especially in decision – making – after this incident. Parents will question his ability to lead well, and teachers will question his ability to implement new initiatives. Lastly, school culture also encompasses inclusiveness. Inclusiveness is the “practice of considering general education as the placement of first choice for all learners. This approach encourages educators to bring necessary supplemental supports, aids, and services into the classroom instead of removing students from the classroom for those services” (Villa and Thousand, 2003, p 20). The principal’s retelling does not explain whether SPED teachers were even aware of the summer reading project. Were SPED teachers contacted to contribute ideas which would be feasible for their students’ summer reading projects? If not, these teachers are certain to have a negative outlook on school culture as they may feel less valued.

Rubric D1: Alignment to Mission, Vision, and Values

 The principal was clearly aware of the school’s mission, vision, and values. He tried to make sure his new initiative aligned with the school’s ultimate purpose. The school’s mission statement seeks to “enable students to contribute to a changing and diverse world.” Reading well is certainly a part of this process; however, the mission statement also says that the school will work “with parents and the community to a comprehensive educational experience that is rigorous, and individualized.” Clearly, parents and the community were not involved in the process of determining the new initiative as parents were angered at the choice of literature and there were not enough books within the community. Additionally, was the summer reading program truly individualized? It is unclear from the video whether the reading department consisted of special education teachers; if not, this reading program might not have taken into consideration the needs of students with disabilities. What about students who work full time during the summer months – were they considered as well? The summer reading program does not seem to fully align to the school’s mission statement. The next item the principal considered was the school’s vison statement, which declares that all students will exhibit high standards of achievement and critical thinking skills and will be socially responsible for being successful members of their community. In theory, the new initiative does attempt to hold students to a higher standard of academic and critical thinking as it would require students to continue learning and developing over the summer; however, in practice the initiative did not support the vison statement as only two – thirds of students completed the assignment. The 35% who did not complete the assignment certainly were not held to any high standards. Lastly, the principal considered the core values of the school. Again, in theory, the new project does seem to put students first – an effort is being made to help them become better readers. In contrast, in practice, the summer reading program did not put students first as some students could not access the needed material. Students were also needlessly exposed to inappropriate content; this was not in their best interest, and it goes against the school’s core value of providing quality instruction for all students. Results matter is another of the core values. Clearly, results did not matter in this initiative as it was poorly planned, and the results were not successful. This also coincides with all being held accountable. Children who did not have access to the book or who were instructed by their parents not to read the questionable material could not be held accountable by the school for the program. The school’s values also state that parents and community relationships are essential yet there is not evidence that parents and/or community members were given an option to provide feedback on this initiative prior to it being green – lighted. It would seem the only core value truly honored in this process is that leadership provides transparency since the school principal answered to the public at school board meetings. Overall, the summer reading initiative met the school’s mission statement, vision statement, and core values in theory, but it failed to honor any of these in practice.

Rubric D1A: Improved Alignment

 Should the principal have taken a different approach with the summer reading initiative, it had the potential to be widely successful. To better align the initiative to the school’s mission statement, the principal should have given parents and/or community stakeholders an opportunity to hear the purpose of the program and to provide input on how the program would be structured. Also, as the mission statement says that individualization is a part of the school’s instruction, SPED teachers should have played an active roll in creating the summer reading list and projects. Furthermore, to align more closely to the school’s vision statement, the principal should have considered the literary materials. If the school’s vision statement says that the school will create students who are socially responsible members of society, it would be prudent to choose texts which exemplify these themes. Additionally, the principal should have collaborated with teachers in order to determine how the projects would be used in the classroom or scored in order to ensure students were reaching high standards of achievement and critical thinking skills as indicated by the school’s vision statement. Regarding the school’s core values, the principal did make decisions based on the school’s data as well as putting students first, which does align with the core values; however, in order to make sure the program was successful, all core values should have been honored. First, the principal should have communicated the purpose and expectations of the initiative with parents and/or community members and worked with the central office or community members to ensure enough materials were available for students to successfully complete the project. The principal should have required his reading department to screen summer reading materials to determine their educational worth as well as the rigor of the content, then worked with these teachers in order to develop a way to assess the summer reading packet which was fair to all students. Lastly, the principal should have been transparent to teachers, students, and parents and/or community members for both the programs successes and failures. Should each of these items been considered in greater detail, the summer reading initiative could have shown great success.

References

 

Responsibilities of an organisation

Task 3
In this task, I will discuss about the responsibilities of an organisation and how they achieve their desired responsibility.
Definition
First of all, one must know what the definition of an organisation’s responsibility is. An organisation’s responsibility is the ethical behaviour of an organisation when conducting or running its business. Organisation’s responsibility can also be referred as corporate social responsibility, sustainable responsible business, corporate social performance, corporate citizenship or responsible business.
So why is it important to act in an ethical manner? The answer is simple. In today’s world, acting in an unethical manner is highly frowned upon by the society. People are more educated right now and are more aware. If an organisation does not comply in ethical behaviour, they might not only lose customers but they might even not even get employees who are willing to work for the organisation.

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Being Ethically Responsible
Being ethical is easier said than done. There is no absolute definition of what is ethical and what is not. In a broader sense, ethical can be defined as a fair and morally correct behaviour. However, what maybe morally right to one individual may not be in the eye of another. At the same time, the main purpose of an organisation is to earn profit; hence it is questionable whether an organisation can solely run on moral grounds.
The Western philosophers classified ethics into three parts:
– Virtuous acts such as acts of justice, charity work and generous efforts done for the betterment of the society
– A rational individual’s moral duty towards another rational individual
– The principle of guidance that shows the path that benefits or produce the best form of happiness to the wider society
Ethic is something very subjective. Due to this, the value of ethic differs in depending on region, ethnic and era. However, more than implicated rules, opinions of a larger group of individuals have more impact on the society. After all, without an individual’s own sense of morality, he would not feel the obligation to follow the rules and regulations. Hence, it is absolutely very important not to undermine the importance of the ethical value in life.
Let us now look at ethical in terms of business. In order to run an ethical business, it is crucial to invest the money in an ethical manner. This is because, in order to successfully make a profit out of a large investment, it is subjected to the market forces which are greatly influenced by the public opinion. Ethical investment started gaining popularity since the 1970s but the very first ethical businesses can be traced back into the 1800s.
In traditional method of business, their main target is to solely earning profits regardless of the consequences. However, an ethically running business concentrates on HOW the organisation earns the profit.
Types
The ethical way of handling business seeks to maximise profits while avoiding as much as negative effects as possible. The types of issues concerned when it comes socially responsible activities are:
– Globalisation effect
– Animal rights
– Bioethics
– Business ethics
– Computer ethics
– Corruption and conflict issues
– Education ethics
– Environmental ethics
– Ethical management and leadership
– Fair-trade
– Hospitality ethics
– Human rights
– Legal ethics
– Local community
– Marketing ethics
– microfinance
– Research ethics
– Sexual ethics
– Social works ethics
– Social enterprise
– Sustainability
– Well being at work
The most current issues brought up in today’s world are:
– Animal experimentation
– Armaments
– Nuclear power
– Oppressive or corrupt government body
– Tobacco
This list can go on as the world changes. The paradox in this whole situation is that what that may be an unethical way of handling today may not be in the future. This kind of mind changing occurs for many reasons. Some may be due to the technological change, where the product was made safer for usage or sometimes due to a change in people’s opinion.
Ethics and Law
Many people have this mistaken believe that what is ethical is lawful but this not true. In reality this is far from the truth. What may be ethical may not be lawful or vice versa.
Many a times, there were cases when people of old times and even at the modern time where they feel that the laws are oppressing them. Cases such as encouraging slavery, outrageously high taxes, unfair legal systems and such can go against the moral codes of certain individuals. If they have a strong and large group to go against certain laws they are not happy about, they can put pressure to these laws and make a change. These kinds of cases are known as when ethical or moral code is placed above laws, where the power of ethic has more power than law. Fighting for the greater good though it is going against the law is not seen as unethical. Hence it can be concluded that not all ethical or moral codes are lawful or not all unethical acts are considered unlawful.
Ethics and Religion
In many people’s point of view, ethical judgement is primarily based on religious beliefs. However as convenient as it can be, especially religion does teach you a sense of morality and correct behaviour, it still not a very solid base to build the base to build an organisation’s ethical behaviour. There are numerous reasons for this issue.
The primary problem is the diversification of religion and people’s belief. If religion is used when it comes to decision making in an organisation, there will definitely be a conflict due to difference in people’s opinion. There were many cases also, sadly, when people use the name of religion as a safety net if anything goes wrong. A business needs making decision based on logic, not on faith and belief. Hence, it is not a very appropriate approach to use religious ways to conduct a business.
Ethics and Public Opinion
Just like the case of law and religion, ethical standards are not wholly decided on the view of majority. There are cases when the majority’s view can be unreliable:
– When the group of people are poorly informed of the situation
– When people start basing decisions on instinct instead of logic
– Majority of the decisions made in an organisation are decided after consulting the experts in the various fields who are obviously more informed then the public view who are not as aware as the happenings around that area. This is not to say that public opinion will be overlooked. Fair chances will be given to the public to have their say and their point of view. However, the final decision will be the one which should be the most appropriate for that certain issue.
The phrase ‘majority rules’ plays a very significant role when it comes to deciding what is ethical for a business however, this is not the only factor that should be considered when making ethical decisions. The decisions will vary depending on the situation since ethical itself is very inconsistent.
Being Unethical
Unethical act is something that is highly frowned upon no matter which part of the world it is. Examples of unethical acts are:
– Acts of dishonesty such as hiding information or distorting facts
– Misleading in the form of communication or advertisement
– Manipulating people’s feelings
– Deceiving people
– Exploiting people’s weaknesses
– Charging excessively to make profit
– Being greedy
– Anything that is harmful
– Breaching contracts
– Running away from penalties after doing a wrong act
– Inactive-based agreements
– Not informing people after making changes
– Not being transparent and refusing reasonable investigating
– Pressurising
– Harming the environment
– Making unnecessary waste or consumption
– Invading the privacy
– Being irresponsible in terms of authority
– Encouraging nepotism
– Playing favouritism
– Acts of discrimination
– Conflicts in terms of interests
– Negligence in duty
– Betrayal
– Making animals suffer
– Breaching in terms of confidentiality
– Failure to report wrong acts within the area of duty
– Unfair acts
– Unkind acts
– Uncompassionate and inhuman acts
Benefits of Being Ethical
The key for being ethical is to be objective, not your own personal belief, religion or power. Those people who make decisions for their own personal reasons such as wealth, power or reputation, totally miss the whole point of being ethical. Ethical behaviour provides a foundation for the modern organisation of today’s world. More people are realising the importance of social responsibility and ethical behaviour from an organisation. There are various benefits for an organisation if they operate their organisation in a responsible manner. They are:
– Having a competitive advantage since people nowadays are more willing to buy products from organisations that practices ethical behaviour
– Better chance of attracting and retaining employees since the people naturally like to work in an environment where it has a pleasant atmosphere and a good reputation
– Having more investors to invest on the organisation since investors prefers to invest money on an organisation that runs on integrity
– Boost in morale and culture within the employees since working in a highly socially responsible organisations are less stressful and more satisfying environment to work in
– Better reputation in the long run. It takes a long time to build up a good image and reputation of an organisation but it only takes one scandal to ruin it all. Organisations based on ethical grounds are less likely to be subjected to scandals
– Being ethical is part of the law and regulations. Sooner or later, this is a choice an organisation has to make so it might as well implement it before an organisation is forced into it or fined into it
How to be Ethically Responsible
Here are some tips a person can consider before making any ethical decision
– Look at every decision made in an objective manner. Sometimes exciting or demanding things can make a person decide things on impulse hence it is important to calm down and think rationally before making the final decision
– Be as fair as possible. It’s not possible to be fair to everyone but a person can always strive to come with fair solutions rather than imposing decisions on others unless they want it that way
– Learn from the past and try to improve the situation and implement it to the current situation. Some of the issues the organisation is facing may be already faced by another organisation in the past
– Have a boarder mind in order to get facts from every possible perspective. There are three main choices when facing a challenging issue; personal opinion, alternative solution or leaving the matter as it is. The third option can become a disaster and one of the most unwise choice to make in terms of crisis
– Planning out all possible scenarios
– Refer to the law to get a rough guideline
– Get opinions from people, especially those who are very critical and also those who are not too close to you to get an unbiased advice
– Take into consideration of anything that will be affected by the decision. This includes not only humans but the entire environment and the animals, basically the effect on the whole planet itself not only terms of present, but also a future perspective of it too
– Resistance to corruption such as greed for power and authority has to be practiced vigorously since these temptations will lead into delusion that ends up making unethical decisions
– Avoid using religious faith as point of decision-making. Though it is not wrong, there are too many risks involve in decision based on this
– Find solutions that are harmonious and objective. Do not try to impose or influence decisions upon other. Try to be as fair-minded as possible in order not create any misgiving feelings in the organisation
Lastly, One must also consider the fact that different people has different opinions depending on what is ethical or what is not. An organisation must learn how to read the situation and implement decisions based on what is ethical in an objective manner. I will take the globally successful company Mark & Spencer as an example in how they responded to today’s world of running businesses in a socially responsible environment.
 

Responsibilities of Health and Social Care Workplace

1.2. Assess the responsibilities in a specific health and social care workplace for the management of health and safety in relation to organisational structure.
The business dictionary defines organisational structure as:
The typically hierarchical arrangement of lines of authority, communications, rights and duties of an organization. Organizational structure determines how the roles, power and responsibilities are assigned, controlled, and coordinated, and how information flows between the different levels of management.
Chief executive/ directors/ managers /HR and supporting staffs

Health and Safety Commission:
The stakeholders and Directors will ensure that a Health and Safety Committee is established and supported. This committee will see to the development, implementation, arrangements of health and safety policies and procedures. They also ensure that the policies and procedures are undertaking and executed. This will be reasonable practicable without risk to the health and safety of those who engaged in, or affected by our operations. They ensure that the provision of this policy is kept under review with regard to changes in legislation, best practice.
They propose new Health and Safety Regulations to the Secretary of State.
Examples, Noise at work regulations 1989 the commissioner will ensure that a Health and Safety Committee is established and supported. They will come out with development and implementations, They will ensure that the policies and procedures are upheld and executed as reasonably practicable without risk to the health and safety of those carrying out operations.
We maintain high standard in the management of health and safety, with the prevention of accidents, the provision of a safe working environment and the safeguarding of employees’ health wellbeing, it is everyone’s responsibility to ensure that maintain and achieve our set objectives.
As an employer of labour, my organisation recognises the health, safety and the welfare of staff at work , guests , clients any contractors, so far as is realistically practicable.
We are committed to the continuous improvement of our Health and Safety system, policies, procedures and methods of working that are designed to ensure the safety, health and welfare of all employees, visitors and anyone else who is likely to be affected by our work activities.
COSHH Regulation 2002 stated that employers are responsible for providing, replacing and paying for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) which should be used by all staff as part of health and safety at work.
Health and Safety Committee
All representatives sitting on the Health and Safety Committee are to actively promote all aspects of health and safety within the organisation and the areas of responsibility. In particular they are to encourage discussion and understanding of these policies and procedures.
Our line Managers
Our line Managers are expected to device a method of implementing the over all objectives by demonstrating a positive, proactive approach to health and safety, by certifying that this policy, together with its related procedures are clearly communicated to employees and then implemented, monitored and reviewed.
Managers
The managers will establish open communication with everyone they are responsible for and will promote any changes in the Health and Safety Policy. It is the responsibility of the Health and Safety Manager to ensure suitable arrangements are in place and implemented.
Employees and others
Employees and others involved in the organisation’s activities, have a responsibility to take care of their own health and safety at work and that of any other people who may be affected by their acts. All training provided must be attended by the staff. They are required to conform with this policy and the related corporate procedures that are provided to them. They are to carry out their work without endangering themselves or others. Proactively contribute in the achievement of the organisation objectives of achieving a positive health and safety culture and to co-operate with line managers and colleagues in creating and maintaining a safe and healthy working environment. The staff must bring it to the consideration of line managers’ attention if there are any health and safety worries regarding unsafe practices, equipment or conditions we are encouraged to use the consultation channels provided, when necessary. We are to assist management in identifying any issues of health and safety including getting trained.

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All significant health and safety information will be circulated appropriately, making use of notice boards, poster, and newsletters or by direct mail. Where activities could affect the health and safety of members of the public, suitable steps will be taken to ensure they are up-to-date of the risks and how they will be measured; wherever possible, it is the wish of the organisation to establish effective consultation with the workforce to safeguard planned systems of work are effective in reducing employee exposure to risk.
In conclusion, we all are working together as professionals fully committed to the health and safety principles which enable the organisation to promote high standard of health and safety policy in the organisation. Everyone in the organisation is responsible for reporting and recording all incidents/accidents that happen within the workplace. It is the responsibilities of the client if they are to communicate to report to staff or management and it is the responsibility of the staff to report the incident /accidents to his/her line manager. It is responsibility of the manager to record the incidents/accident s and to report all serious incidents /accidents to the authorities according RIDDOR Regulations 2013
1.3 Analyse health and safety priorities appropriate for a specific health and social care workplace.
The Creation of Health and Safety at Work Regulations1999 require every employer to provide employees with information on the possible risks to their health and safety; preventive and protective methods for those risks; backup procedures to identify individuals who have a role within the organisation’s health and safety controlling system. This contains giving employee’s information on any process or task that might involve specific risk. This information must be broad and it must make sense to individuals concerned. Codes of Practice and other guidance notes should be made accessible, as well as the organisation’s own clarification in the form of policies and procedures. This means that data should be constantly reviewed and revised according to modern working practices.
The duties of my employer, what they must do regarding my health and safety.
Most duties are subject to “so far as is reasonably practicable” i.e. the protection must be worth the cost. To protect the health, safety and welfare of staff, to provide and maintain safe equipment and safe systems of work, safe use, handling, storage and transport of articles and substances.
Safe workplace with a safe entrance and exit. 
Provide information, instruction, training and supervision
Provide a written safety policy (if there are 5 or more staff)
Carry out risk assessments (in writing if 5 or more staff)
Provide a health and safety law poster entitled “Health and Safety law: What you should know” displayed in a prominent position and containing details of the enforcing authority.
“Employee” includes voluntary workers and persons on work experience.
Employees
The employees duties is to take care of themselves and others
To follow safety advice and instructions
Not interfere with any safety device
To report accidents
To report hazards and risks.
Staff can ask about health and safety in the work place directly from their managers or the
Yours supervisor will usually be your first contact if you have a health and safety issue at work.
Your safety representative – may come from the union if the workplace is unionised
If you have a serious complaint that cannot be settled in the workplace, the Inspector from health and safety executive (HSE)
Food hygiene Enforcement:

Food safety is one of the areas that health and safety pays close attention to being that majority of clients are vulnerable due to age and health challenging. This means they can be more seriously affected by food poisoning or allergy than some other group of people. As a care provider, food preparation is part of normal day to day services seeing that they are taking care of by following the guidelines under the food and hygiene law for ensuring that food is prepared, stored and handled in compliance with the food hygiene regulations. This includes keeping a record of opened food jars and emptying food from tins with the correct labelling actions are carried out to keep food safe for the maximum time located . According to the Food Standards Agency, the group charged with protecting the public in the United Kingdom with regard to food, avoiding cross-contamination between raw and ready-to-eat food is one of the most important aspects of food hygiene. Separate knives and cutting boards must be used for the different foods. Raw food must be stored below other food in the refrigerator to prevent drips that could contain bacteria. Food must be chilled to the proper temperature at all times and must be cooked to a temperature that kills bacteria. Disinfecting food preparation areas and cleaning used equipment also are important food hygiene practices.
What the Law Says
Keeping food safe is a legal requirement and failure to do so can lead to prosecution. It is essential that food and drink provided in the community and hospital health care environment is managed and handled in a manner that it does not pose any risk to children, families, visitors or staff. All staff involved in working with food must ensure good food hygiene practices at all times. Under the Food Safety Act (GB 1990), water and ice are classed as food and therefore must be handled with the same good food hygiene practices as food. Failure to do so could result in a serious outbreak of food poisoning and potential loss of life.

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Managers must put in place ‘food safety management procedures’ based on the principles of HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point). HACCP is a way of managing food safety. It is based on putting in place procedures to control hazards. In practice, this means that you must follow the procedures that have been put in place to manage food safety ‘hazards’ in your Trust.
The Health and Safety at Work Act HASAWA 1974, came the Manual Handling Operations regulations 1992 was reinforced in January 1993. Manual handling is a major source of injury and the HSE has provided a lot of guidance for employers on how to minimise risk involved in manual handling. Where it is not reasonably practicable to avoid the need for care workers to undertake any manual handling operations at work a risk assessment is done (Stretch & Whitehouse, 2007) to plan and asses the weight of the service user we need to transfer while at the same time encouraging clients to move independently. In SMART care, we use the hoist but we also fully engage the client to do certain things he can do by himself. Example moving forward or backward etc.
However, people can fall during hoisting for a variety of reasons such as using the wrong size of sling. This can result in discomfort if the sling is too small and a risk of the person slipping through the sling if it is too large. Selection of the wrong type of hoist or sling for the individual or for the specific task can result in inadequate support and increased risk of falling from the sling. For example, access/toileting slings give a great degree of access but very little support and their use should therefore be restricted to toileting purposes, where appropriate. For this and many reasons, the care workers in SMART care have taken short cuts and have ended up injuring their backs. On other occasion they have left a vulnerable person unattended in a hoist, or in a position where they might be at risk of falling.
References
www.businessdictionary.com/definition/communication
www.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/multimedia/pdfs/publication
www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/books/lawpocketcard.htm
http://www.hse.gov.uk/riddor
www.safenetwork.org.uk/getting_started/pages
Government “Working together to Safeguard Children March 2010”
www.businessdictionary.com/definition/communication
www.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/multimedia/pdfs/publication
www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/books/lawpocketcard.htm
http://www.hse.gov.uk/riddor
www.ofsted.gov.uk
www.safenetwork.org.uk/getting_started/pages

Skills and Responsibilities of a Nutritionist

Career Investigated: Nutrition/Diet Specialist
Part 1: Educational and Career Goals
There are many reasons why I chose to study nutrition. A) I will have opportunities in various fields that involve advising people on what to eat, so jobs often are easier to come by than they are in other fields. B) I will be able to work with those who are ill or need a special diet, in which case a hospital, nursing home or treatment center may be the best option for a job. C) I can become a private nutritionist, all types of people can come to me for advice on how to eat right.

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The nutrition industry is a field of healthcare focused on improving everyday health and state of well-being. I enjoy activities often associated with nutrition and fitness including yoga, running, outdoor activities, meditation, healthy diet, organic living, and more. My goal is to further my education, get certified and become a nutrition specialist. As the health and fitness trend is sweeping the world, it is affecting and revolutionizing the health industry like never before. The demand for young, ambitious health and wellness graduates is continuously rising and a myriad of great job opportunities are opening up in different fields of nutrition science. With the growth in this industry there is an increasing scope of enjoying a successful career in this exciting field of healthcare. It is hard work, and for the dedicated, the pay can be very good to excellent. But I would do it because I want to share my knowledge and help other people, not for the money.
Part 2: Employment Opportunities and Applications of Applied Learning

Potential Employers

Job title: Nutrition Specialist

GENERAL PURPOSE: Under close supervision, prepares hot and nutritious meals for homebound individuals and senior citizens.
Qualifications
Education and Experience: Two (2) years of meal preparation experience OR an equivalent combination of education and experience providing requisite skills to successfully perform position requirements.
Special Requirements: Must possess Food Handler’s Card at time of hire. Physical Demands / Work Environment: Works in an industrial kitchen and senior center facility. Must be able to lift up to 50 lbs. without assistance, greater than 50 lbs. with assistance or use of mechanical aid.
Miscellaneous Information
Reports To: Community Center Manager Supervision Exercised: None

Job Title: Nutrition Specialist/Outreach Worker

PREFERRED MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS
Graduation from high school or GED equivalent, with previous public contact work experience preferred. Previous supervisory experience preferred. Two years of Food Service training required.
Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities:
(A) Ability to learn standard Microsoft software and Food Works software.
(B) Ability to obtain yearly Food Safety & Sanitation Training.
(C) Ability to obtain CPR and First Aide training.
(D) Ability to drive a motor vehicle.
(E) Ability to handle stressful situations.
(F) Ability to perform duties with a high degree of attention to detail with a high degree of accuracy.
(G) Ability to establish and maintain effective working relationships with Older Americans staff and the general public.

Job Title: Nutrition Specialist

Qualifications:
Two years’ experience as a cook in a non-fast food restaurant or healthcare setting.
Familiarity with basic kitchen principles, portioning, stock management.
High School Diploma or equivalent,
Oregon Food Handler’s card
ServSafe Certification preferred.
Experience growth and development through our continuous training, as well as tuition and licensure reimbursement, or pursue opportunities to advance both clinically and administratively with Youth Villages.

Job Title: Nutrition Assistant

In this position you will:

Assemble and deliver patient, visitor, and staff meal orders in a high-volume, fast-paced environment to patients’ rooms or designated location.
Visit patients who did not place a meal order and assist them as appropriate
Maintain cash bank and process cash sale orders
Retrieve meal trays from patients rooms

Requiredqualifications for this position include:
-High school Diploma or GED
-Related customer service experience

Job Title: Nutrition Services Substitute

Essential job functions include the following:
– Assist with preparation of meals according to specifications from the Cook Manager, Head Satellite Cook or Nutrition Services Specialist.
– Clean all food service equipment and preparation and service areas; wash dishes, pots, pans and utensils used in preparation and service of meal.
– Set up serving line and gather carts, trays, napkins and utensils; place items in proper location for customers.
– Serve food to students and staff.
Other functions of the job include but are not limited to the following:
– Operate computerized register (Point of Sale System).
– Attend workshops and in-services for continued professional growth and training.
– Other duties as assigned.
Knowledge, Skills And Abilities Required:
To perform this job successfully, an individual must be able to perform each essential duty satisfactorily. The requirements listed below are representative of the knowledge, skill, and/or ability required. Reasonable accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions.

Understand and follow oral and written directions.
Understanding of sanitation and safety practices related to handling and serving food.
Ability to use standard kitchen equipment, utensils and measurements.
Basic food preparation including washing, cutting and assembling food items and ingredients.
Regular attendance.

Physical Requirements:
Continuously stand, reach with one or both hands, lift up to 15 pounds; frequently twist, lift up to 40 pounds, push and pull up to 15 pounds; occasionally crouch, kneel, stoop, lift up to 50 pounds.

Potential Customers In My Local Area

Rachel Geller – She is interested in getting a personal nutritionist. She is trying to eat healthier and shred some unwanted pounds.

In order to accomplish her goals, I have to discuss and tackle her personalized eating and exercise plan, she will have to start off slow and eventually work her way up, to an everyday “natural” routine. She will have to start a daily food diary; it will aid her in keeping track of her daily calorie intake. It will also aid her by showing what recommendations she need and how much of them she need, that way she can fulfill her daily nutritional recommendations.

The Skills I Have Obtained Nowadays, the requirement for academic achievement play less important role as compared to the soft skills. Competitive world has led the organizations set up their recruitment based on other non-academic factors. Knowledge is being gained through experience, not from the formulae from the prescribed syllabus. The knowledge gained from syllabus 3 years ago is not necessarily applicable in today’s scenario. Therefore, students like me have to update ourselves with general knowledge and current issues happening in the world.

I believe that in applying all of my lifelong studies, the lifelong study definitely increase my general knowledge and skills. I am more sensitive about the dynamic environment, have higher flexibility to make my future career as a nutritionist better.
Part 3: Continuing Education and Career Development
I want to further my education in nutrition sciences by researching and taking online programs. I believe in long life learning and self-paced studies. It will give me many opportunities to intensify my skills while pursuing my occupation. Having access to World Wide Web all over the world, with the information I need at my fingertips will propel me to a higher level of intellectual aptness. The immense number of nutrition programs available over the internet enables me to arm myself with the knowledge needed to aid me on any project or endeavor that I may attempt. Ashworth College is one of those ideal online institution that helped me pursue my dreams and ambitions to become a nutritionist. It goes above and beyond the call of duty to ensure that its students become useful members of society. As I commence my journey into real life challenges, Ashworth College will be my guide making sure that I follow the right track into the future.

Two Universities I plan to apply after Ashworth College:

Kaplan University – Bachelor of Science in Nutrition Science

Total Core Credits: 33
Total Program Credits: 180
In this program you will explore various topics, concepts, values, research methods, and applications in nutrition science.
Your coursework will focus on:
Exploring the principles and pharmacology of nutrition and how dietary choices can contribute to a healthy lifestyle
Acquiring an understanding of digestion, absorption, and metabolism of foods and nutritional needs at various stages of the life cycle
Developing the administrative, ethical, and professional skills necessary for leadership positions throughout the health care field
Completing an original comprehensive capstone project that demonstrates your ability to apply your nutrition science knowledge and skills to real-world scenarios

University of South Dakota – Bachelor in Health Sciences

This online Health Science degree program provides the opportunity for students with an interest in the health professions to explore the many opportunities in the field and to develop the knowledge, values and interpersonal skills needed to be successful in today’s health and human service settings.

Certifications Related to My Field of Study

The Certification Board for Nutrition Specialists (CBNS) – The Clinical Nutrition Certification Board (CNCB) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit

Tax-exempt certification agency which provides professional training, examination and certification for health care organizations, specialty credentialing programs and state license/certification examinations.
The Purpose of Certification
The Certified Clinical Nutritionist (CCN) Examination
Establishes reputable standards of excellence
* Creation of a quality examination, based on a validated scope of practice which appropriately represents the field of clinical nutrition
* Candidate access to the broad scope of clinical nutrition training and
* A mechanism for re-certification every five years, recognizing continued
competency in the field.
The CCN Examination Candidate must:
1. Satisfy the CORE Requirements
2. Submit Credential Review Application and College Transcripts
3. Obtain Credential Review Approval
4. Complete the Post Graduate Studies in Clinical Nutrition
Program (PGSCN) ™
5. Achieve a passing score on the written CCN Examination
The CCN Examination processes and the examination data bank are reviewed and revised annually, in accordance with the specifications of the Role Delineation Study.
The CNCB utilizes a criterion referenced passing point for each section of the certification examination.
To obtain a Certificate of Completion in the field of Clinical Nutrition ONLY:
Candidate does not meet the minimum standard in core coursework or degree(s).
1. Submit your Candidate Profile Page to the CNCB.
2. Complete the 56 hour PGSCN course to obtain a Certificate of Completion
in the field of Clinical Nutrition through the Clinical Nutrition Certification Board.
MAINTAINING THE CERTIFICATION
The CCN Credential requires on-going maintenance to verify that the practitioner is
continuing to update knowledge and skills:
Forty approved CE Hours every 2 years, fulfilled by the following;
1. Attendance at “three out of four” IAACN Annual Scientific Symposiums (60 CEs earned).
2. Payment of Annual CNCB Maintenance Fee. (No refunds in part or in full)
3. Recertification in the spring of your fifth year via annual study textbooks with contracted Open Book Exam. Recertification Text books total 24 CE hours.
The CCN Continuing Education Maintenance Requirement of attendance at
3-out-of-every-4 IAACN Scientific Symposiums will satisfy the above stated
CE requirements.
Part 4: Job Application Details

Applicant’s Name (last) Castro First
Middle Initial B. Monica Suzanne

Social Security #:
518-50-7839

 

Mailing Address (Number) Street
1632 N Normandie Avenue, Apt 315

Work Telephone #
(323) 345 5839

 

City Los Angeles Zip code 90027
State California

 
 

Education

 
 

Name of School
FT Career College
Ashworth College

Location of School
Los Angeles, CA
6625 The Corners Parkway,
Suite 500
Norcross, Georgia 30092

Degree or Course of Study
Certified Nursing Assistant
Nutrition, Diet and Health Science

Date Completed
May 2013
March 2014

 

Employment History – Begin with your most recent job. List Job Separately

 
 

Job Title: Nursing Assistant Dates worked from 2012 to Present

 
 

Name of Employer: Mark Auria

Name of Supervisor: Estelle Francia

 
 

Duties Performed:
Experienced ambulatory and non- ambulatory elderly patients. Administered medication, documented food and fluid intake, measured and charted vital signs, prepared meals, provided personal care including feeding, grooming and dressing.

 

PERSONAL REFERENCES: List the names of references that employers may contact.

1 Name
Noelia Black

Telephone #
(323) 345 8709

Relationship
Instructor

Address: City State
123 Easton Blvd., Los Angeles CA
Zip code 90078

2 Name
April Sky

Telephone #
(434) 346 7563

Relationship
Teacher

Address: City State
564 Walnut Drive Los Angeles CA
Zip code 90045

 

Employment Rights and Responsibilities

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Summery

Equality Legislation

The Employment Equality Acts 1998 and 2004

The Equal Status Acts 2000 to 2004

The National Disability Authority Act 1999

Health Safety and Welfare at Work

Employer’s duties

Among these are: Reporting accidents

Health and safety leave

Health and safety and young people

Bullying

Harassment

Violence in the workplace

Assault

Protective equipment and measures

Union Representation

Regulations relating to pay

Minimum Wage

Maternity leave

Parental leave

In this report, I will be outlining and going into detail on the different legislation in relation to:

Equality legislation

Health, safety and welfare at work

Union representation

Regulations relating to pay, including maternity leave, parental leave and minimum wage

Provide and maintain a safe working environment which uses safe plant and equipment

Prevent risks from use of any substance and, if necessary, exposure to physical agents, noise and vibration

Prevent any improper conduct likely to put the safety, health and welfare of employees at risk or in a vulnerable position

Provide instruction and training to employees on health and safety in the workplace

Provide protective clothing and equipment to employees if necessary

Appointing a reliable person as the companies Safety Officer

This is sort out into three acts:

The Employment Equality Acts 1998 and 2004

The Equal Status Acts 2000 to 2004

The National Disability Authority Act 1999

The Employment Equality Acts 1998 and 2004

The Employment Act 1998 was put into operation in October 1999. It was replaced by the Anti-Discrimination Act of 1947 and the Employment Equality Act of 1977. The most recent amendment if the Act was taken out in 2004. Together, they are known as the Employment Equality Acts of 1998 and 2004.

This act covers a few different elements of employment:

Equal pay

Access to employment

Advertising

Promotion or re-grading

Dismissal

The act aims to promote:

Prohibit discrimination

Equality

Require appropriate measures for people with disabilities in relation to access

Prohibit sexual harassment

Participation and training in employment.

Discrimination is outlawed by employers, a trade union, an employment agency, vocational training body, a professional body or a newspaper advertising job.

The act provides protection for employees in both the public and private sectors, including applicants for employment training. It enables employers to put in place some positive action measures in order to promote equal opportunities on gender grounds. It also enables positive actions focusing on over 50’s, individuals with disabilities and members of the travelling community.

The Equal Status Acts 2000 to 2004

The Equal Status Act, 2000 was amended by the Equality Act of 2004. They are now known as Equal Status Acts 2000 to 2004.

This act sets out a principle that everyone has a right to participate in the society. Individuals shouldn’t be excluded access to services or facilities because of their age, gender race, a disability, religion or being a member of a travelling community.  Everyone should be of equal worth and should always be treated on merits and not on the basis of a stereotype.

The act applies to people who obtain and sell a wide variety of goods or those who use or those that provide a wide range of services.

It isn’t only about people who encounter discrimination, it also sets forward the obligations imposed on the owners and operators of businesses.

Equality Act 2004 strives to enforce the EU Race Directive. This prohibits discrimination.

The National Disability Authority Act 1999

In 1999, the National Disability Authority Act was undertaking in order to underpin a mainstream idea for the provision of services to people that have disabilities. Under this Act, the National Disability Authority which is an independent statutory body, was established.

The main legislation providing for the health and safety of people in the workplace is the Health, Safety and Welfare of the 2005 Work Act. This applies to all employers, employees and self-employed people in their own workplaces. The Act highlights the rights and obligations of both employers and employees.

Most of the health and safety laws apply generally to all employments and are contained in the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Regulations 2007.

Employer’s duties

The employer has a duty of care to ensure employees’ safety, health and welfare in the workplace. Obviously, as far as practicable. In order to prevent injuries or ill-health at the workplace, employers are required to do certain things.

Among these are: Reporting accidents

All accidents in the workplace are required to be reported to the employer, the details of the incident are then recorded. Reporting an accident helps maintain social welfare and other rights that could arise as a result of an occupational accident. An employer is required to report any accident, resulting in the employee missing 3 consecutive days at work to the Health and Safety Authority.

Health and safety leave

An employer is required to carry out separate risk assessments when it comes to pregnant employees. If there are any risks to an employee’s pregnancy, the employee in question should have a change in post.

Time spent on health and safety leave is treated as if the employee is still in employment, this time can be included to annual leave. The employee in question is not entitled to take any public holidays that occur during health and safety leave. Employers must pay employees their normal wages for the first 3 weeks, after this time Health and Safety Benefit is paid.

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Health and safety and young people

An employer should carry out a separate risk assessment in relation to an employee under the age of 18. The risk assessment is usually carried out before the young person is employed. If a number of risks are present, including risks which may not be able to be avoided, eg. lack of experience, the young person shouldn’t be employed.

Bullying

One of the employer’s duties is to prevent bullying in the workplace. There should be procedures in place for dealing with complaints of bullying in the workplace and such complaints should be dealt with immediately. Ignoring complaints of bullying leaves an employer open to possible claims for damage by an employee. A grievance procedure should be set in place to deal with this kind of behaviour.

Harassment

The Employment Equality Acts 1998-2015 have an obligation on all employers to prevent harassment in the workplace, under any circumstances. Under this legislation, you are entitled to bring a claim to the Workplace Relations Commission. In this case, your employer may be asked to pay compensation if you are harassed because of certain aspects such as, family status, gender, race, age, disability or religious beliefs

Violence in the workplace

Violence towards employees should be addressed in the safety statement. Proper rules should be put in place to take away the risk of violence and the employee should be provided with appropriate means of minimising the remaining risk.

Assault

 Under the Non-Fatal Offences Against the Person Act 1997, assault is a criminal offence. It is also an offence if one is made to fear immediate assaults. Assault cases should be immediately reported to the employer and can also be reported to the Garda. If there is a direct assault from the employer, an employee should go straight to the Garda.

Protective equipment and measures

The employer is required to tell employees about any risks that require the use of protective equipment. There should be protective equipment together with training on how to use it provided, where necessary. An employee has a duty of care to take a certain amount of care for their own safety and to ensure the use any protective equipment supplied. This protective equipment should be provided free of charge to employees if it is intended for use at the workplace only. Usually, employees are provided with their own personal equipment.

A trade union is an organisation formed to protect the rights and interests of the members it represents. It can:

Be an important source of information for employees

Provide employees with protection on employment matters

Negotiate with the employer for better pay and conditions

It must have a negotiating licence in order to negotiate on employee wages and other conditions of employment. No employee can be dismissed from their job because they are a member of a union.

In practice, many terms and conditions of employment are negotiated between employers and trade unions on a collective basis.

Minimum Wage

Since 1st January 2018, under the National Minimum Wage Order 2017, minimum wage in Ireland for an experienced adult employee is €9.55 per hour. This act doesn’t stop the employer offering a higher wag to an employee.

Maternity leave

The Maternity Protection Act, 1994 and 2004 entitles you to maternity leave. It extends to all female employees in the workplace, including casual workers. This is regardless of how long you’ve been working for the organisation or the number of hours worked per week. There is also an option to avail of additional unpaid maternity leave. There is 26 weeks of ‘paid’ maternity leave with an additional 16 weeks ‘unpaid’ which begins immediately after the end of the maternity leave.

A period of 2 weeks must be taken by the employee before the baby’s due date.

Employers should be given at least 4 weeks written notice of intention to take maternity leave. A medical certificate must also be provided confirming the pregnancy and if you intend on taking the additional 16 weeks off.

Under section 11 of the Maternity Protection Act, a pregnant employee needing to start maternity leave early, for medical reason must supply a medical certificate. Appropriate notice must be given of what dates maternity leave is due to start.

Fathers entitlement to maternity leave: New parents, excluding mothers, can get 2 weeks statutory paternity leave from employment following the birth or adoption of a child. This legislation came into effect on 1st September 2016.

Parental leave

The Parental Leave Bill, 2017 has increased unpaid leave from 18 weeks to 26, to be taken over the lifetime of children up to age 12.

References

 

Roles and Responsibilities of a Nurse

healthcare professional is an organization or person(s), who delivers proper healthcare to any individual who is need of health care services. Today’s healthcare industry is considered to be one of the largest industries in the world. Currently the health care industry includes thousands and thousands of hospitals and institutions which provide primary, secondary and tertiary care. To deliver this, the industry needs healthcare workers and amongst these the largest number of workers seems to be nurses who are always busy in providing care to each and every patient. A nurse’s job is very demanding as it is a very physical and challenging profession. Health care professionals include physicians,dentists,physicians assistant,nurse practitioners,nurses,pharmaconomists/pharmacists,therapists, psychologists, chiropractors,physical therapists,optometrists,paramedics and a wide variety of other individuals regulated and/or licensed to provide some type of health care.

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The desire to be a nurse originated in one’s self from an early age when I knew that I always wanted to help others in some way. I first noticed and actually became fascinated with the nursing profession when I used to frequently visit the hospitals and had treatment there myself. This gave me first hand contact with nurses and I actually got to see for myself how they operate on a daily basis and what their role entails. I have found that one needs to be very compassionate and I felt that this is a necessary quality needed in nurses as I saw for myself. It takes a special type of person to be a nurse as it is a job where a lot of skills are needed and used on a daily basis. A lot of the times nurses have to put up with patients that are uncooperative, sometimes they are even abusive, yet the nurse still manages to treat the patient(s) with the same amount of dignity and care. In the time I spent observing these healthcare professionals I noticed that sometimes there actions go unpraised and yet the nurses still seemed unfazed by this and carry on with their daily tasks with the utmost professionalism. Having witnessed this first hand, my ambition to become a nurse became stronger and it made me more determined.
The roles and responsibilities of nurses are many and can be varied pending on the actual role. In basic terms they are responsible for the treatment and recovery of sick and injured patients. They are also involved in health maintenance and treating people in life threatening situations. They do this across all their specialities and different work settings. Nurses assess and treat patients as well as carry out procedures under the instruction of doctors and collaborate with other healthcare professionals. They will often coordinate the work of others involved in patient care such as doctors, other nurses, therapists and also liaise with the patient’s family. Another responsibility is to ensure that they protect the patient by ensuring a healthy and safe environment free from infection. They educate a patient and they’re family on any health issues and by doing this it gives the patient the best possible chance of recovery and helps with ongoing good health. Nurses also give grief counselling to family members of patients who are critically ill or who have died where necessary. Patients are the main responsibility of nurses and this is a 24 hour a day job and this includes making sure the patient can breathe properly and is hydrated and that they get sufficient rest. Their responsibilities might include tasks sometimes performed by doctors. While a doctor will usually conduct the surgery the nurse usually arranges intravenous therapy. They will usually set up an intravenous drip and provide the fluids and drugs needed. They will also administer the patient with an injection if required. Changing the patients dressing and monitoring the progress of the patient lies with the nurse. Monitoring a patient’s vital signs is a big responsibility for a nurse. They are also responsible for the accurate keeping of records. Accurate records are all aspects that are taken and might include medical history, symptoms, what the patient has eaten or drunk, medication, pulse, temperature, blood pressure, bowel movements and any visits by specialists etc. In some communities where doctors are few, the nurse will diagnose and treat basic illnesses, prescribe medication and conduct minor surgery. Nurses may conduct immunisation clinics, health screening, blood drives and seminars on health issues. Health promotion has become an increasingly important role where nurses educate and assist patients and the public to maintain a healthy lifestyle and diet. Nurses even sometimes have to visit patients in their own homes and provide similar care to that in hospitals. They will assess the home environment and care for, and give advice to the patient and their family.
The code of conduct is there to protect both medical staff and patients. As it clearly sets out the guidelines under which the staff should act upon. At the beginning the conduct clearly states that a person should act professionally as they are always accountable for their own actions and omissions. From this we can see that it already tells the medical staff how they should operate at all times and that there should not be any room for error in their judgements. It also protects them from any unruly patients. The other main points of the conduct from which they can gather information and should always adhere to are:- Subsection 1: that you make the care of people your first concern and that you should treat them as individuals and respect their dignity. Subsection 2: Work with others to protect and promote the health and wellbeing of those in your care, their families and carers, and the wider community. Subsection 3: Provide a high standard of practice and care at all times. Subsection 4: Be open and honest, act with integrity and uphold the reputation of your profession. From these rules, medical staff can get the guidance needed to help them perform their roles with ease and without any complications. If they adhere to these regulations it will always safeguard them from any actions that may arise from patients. For example when a patient that has been treated by them and feels that they did not get treated properly tries to take them to court to pursue any libel action, they would be protected if they followed the code of conduct and acted appropriately.
Scenario
A drunken driver rams his pickup truck into a stationary car, injuring a 55 year old Jehovah’s Witness woman who was behind the wheel of that car. She was then admitted into hospital with severe injuries, meaning that she was in need of an operation to save her life. Whilst having the operation it would mean that she would have to undergo a blood transfusion. As a nurse was preparing her for surgery she noticed a dated and signed card in her wallet that stated “that she was a Jehovah’s Witness and did not want to receive any blood transfusions under any circumstances”. Having found this, the nurse now faced a moral and ethical dilemma because under the NMC’s code of conduct it states that one must ensure that they gain the consent of a patient before any treatment is administered. On one hand the nurse knew that without the blood transfusion the patient would not survive. Yet if she were to go ahead and administer the blood transfusion it would go against the persons religious belief and what the code of conduct states. As the nurse did not know what to do she consulted a senor nurse in charge and asked her whether they should go ahead against the wishes of the patient and save her or follow the code of conduct down to the last word and let her be due to her religious beliefs? The senior nurse then told the nurse that their hands were tied due to fact that they could not proceed if a person does not give their consent to any treatment no matter how badly they are in need of it. A Jehovah’s Witness cannot accept a blood transfusion as it would make them an outcast from their faith. Even though they both knew that without the transfusion the women would not survive long they were still bound by the code of conduct. So now they were both in a moral and ethical quandary as they were debating on what they should do?
 

Changes In The Roles And Responsibilities Of Nurses

Nursing staff have seen their roles and responsibilities change considerably within the ‘modernisation’ of the NHS, but is this a good thing? There are some big changes in the nursing field in the last 50 years such as, uniform, salaries, job demand, the roles of nurses, the different roles for men and women nurses, the technology used, Litigation and Documentation, Holistic Care and patient load. Nurses are becoming more popular and demanding in all sorts of different working environments such as, working in nursing homes, hospitals, home help, travel nurse, school nurse and more. Years ago, nurses were seen just as little more than helpers or assistants for doctors. Today in 2010, nurses are health care professionals in their own right. They are bright, capable, and often have a clearer picture of the overall situation than the doctors they work alongside with. Nursing has not only changed on the face of it but the background work of a nurse has changed to, for example the education given to nurses, the scope of policies and practice, the structures of nurses and the principles of the care of the patient. People are lead to believe that the ‘modernisation’ of the NHS will be beneficial to the care of the patient, but is this really the case?

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Due to the increasingly shortage of nurses, they have learned to be more independent which is an outstanding way to increase skills and keep up to date with the new trends in health care. As well as nursing changing, health care in general has changed too. Within the modernisation of the NHS and nursing the care of the patients is still the everlasting goal. This means that there is more work for the nurses, which then has a knock on affect leading to less satisfaction of patient care. Although the NHS and government are doing their best to modernize nursing with the patients interests are heart, it seems like there is less time for care due to time, but more time for paperwork. The Department of Health has laid down certain policy initiatives, targets and structural and organizational changes that can improve the quality of care received by patients through the NHS. These changes are emphasized along with the need for multi-agency and multi-organizational collaborative working across disciplinary boundaries. The four key interfaces for which collaboration and coordination measures are being suggested are health and social care; general medical and community health services; primary and secondary care; and interface with carers (DoH, 1996).
The education of nurses now days are a lot more intense and harder than it was 10 years ago. Over the last 10 years, there has been a gradual shift for the education and training of nurses. Currently all nurses have to be trained to a degree university level before they can practice as a fully qualified nurse. Opportunities for nurses have increased by large, with one training opportunity being through the internet although this method of training has to be approved by the NHS. On the other hand, years ago nurses only had to have a diploma or LPN’S. Now days all nurses have to attend and complete continuing education courses to keep up to date with the new trends and information used in the current day.
In addition to the higher and more advanced education, which nurses now have to have, there comes an increases scope of practice. In the current worlds, nurses are doing more and going places that in the past they would not be allowed to have done. The scope of practice is an expression used for various professions that define the procedures, actions, and processes that are allowed to be used and practiced. In the health care profession, there are many different jobs with very different defined scope of practice laws and regulations. These include nursing, social workers, speech and language pathology, audiologists, training, radiography, nuclear medicine, dentists, surgeons, paramedics, physicians and many more. In the interest of the patients, it is a good thing that nurses are allowed to do more and more as there are more doctors than nurses, so the patients may be seen quicker, but on the other hand, it is not a good thing as nurses are doing more and maybe caring for the patient need and wished less.
Nowadays in hospitals, the wards are not gender mixed although the nurses are gender mixed between wards. The stereotypical roles of a nurse have change a lot since the 1990’s. There are more male nurses but still not enough. However although there are still not enough male nurses, the female domination of nurses is slowly decreasing and now more men are entering the caring profession. For patients the more male nurses is a good thing because some patients i.e. men prefer to be treated by a man. For example, a man may like to be washed by a man and not a woman for dignity reasons. In addition, for years, the majority of nursing was thought of as a female profession but every year more and more males are joining the nursing profession. Nowadays being a male nurse does not have a stigma attached to it and is now seen as a very good career.
The demand of nurses now in 2010 is by large massive. The NHS is always asking for more nurses. When the baby boom started there was a very large need for nurses but as the baby boom is decreasing now there is time and money for improvement of standards of living and disease control, our citizens are living longer. As the general population increases, so too does the demand for nurses. Now more than ever nurses are overworked but with the increasingly shortage of nurses they have to work harder and longer hours, which again is not benefiting the patients. Because of the nursing demand and staff shortage, staffs are taking more sick days due to excessive stress and lack of sleep and self-time. This is because nursing is very demanding on a person not just mentally but physically too. This is seriously compromising the NHS.
In 2010 compared to 1980, there is a lot more technology for nurses to use and to be trained to use. Nurses today have to keep up to date with a lot more technology than a nurse 50 years would have had to. Technology can be seen as a good gadget and as a bad gadget, because not only do nurses have to provide basic and skilled care, they also have to learn how to work with many types of equipment that are specific to their area of expertise. The more popular piece of technology used every day by a nurse is a computer. Nurses use them every day as a way to document the care given to a patient. Although new technology is a good advantage for health care, it has its negatives, for example training the staff to use it costs a lot of money, but on the other hand, it can save life’s. Other important technology that is used every day that benefits a patient is, air mattresses as they help to prevent DVT’s and assistance with IV insertion which has made things a lot simpler. All of the new high tech equipment being simplified is for user- friendliness, which means that the new methods are speeding things up. Lastly, infection control plays a big part in the NHS every day, so new technology is being developed all the time, although the basic hand washing procedures remain very much the same.
There are many different approaches to nursing care, one being the holistic care. This type of care has become more and more popular. The commutations between the Health and Allied Health services improving, a total Patient Care Model has come about. Resulting in decreased in-patient times and better health outcomes. The holistic care has been seen more popular within the complementary therapies and concepts.
The patient load that a nursed has is massive. In America, there was a debate about the amount of patients under care of nurses. In 1999, the debate was won and there was a cap of the amount of patients allowed under care of one nurse. The results have been very effective from happier staff and better care for patients. There should be a cap in the UK. The changes of nursing over the last 10 years have been welcomed with open arms, but there are still teething problems and views that need to be heard. Optimal patient care is in a constant battle with budget and we can expect to see new policy reforms, new technology, and new demands created in the decade to come. It remains the responsibility of not only the nurses, but also the patients of the future, to voice their opinions in order to guide the Industry in the right direction.
Nurses are now expected to come with a bigger patents load but more paper work as well. The importance of the paper work has increases over the last 10 years. This is due to the society that we now live in as it has been raised to need someone to blame for everything. As a nurse or doctor there are many emotional people around you every day as people are dying all the time. Therefore, sometimes people sue the nurses and doctors as they are upset and think the person died due to the NHS’s fault. Following this, nurses and doctors keep finding themselves in court. Even if they have not done anything, all allegations have to be investigated. This is the reason for paperwork there is to write up. Paperwork is the only solid setting stone and proof/ backup of a nurse’s care. A nurse is required to document every blood pressure reading, every medication, every incident, and every day. They have to account for every action, and put it all in writing. The problem with documentation is that it takes time. More time for documentation means less time for patients. Plain and simple.
The polices that nurses have to follow are very similar across the whole world. In Australia, the ‘no-lift’ policy was introduced in the late 1990’s. To date the policy is still used and the nurses are trained using this policy. No-Lift means using Lifting Machines to mobilise patients, using slide sheets to manoeuvre them around the bed and promoting back care in general. Although this concept is yet to be adopted in the UK, the benefits are becoming obvious and discussions have begun on the implementation of a similar policy in the UK.
There are many different types of nurses that work in the community and in the hospitals. These can range from, Adult nurses, mental health nurses, Children’s nurses, Learning disability nurses, District nurses, Neonatal nursing, Health visitors, Practice nurses, Prison nurses, School nurses and Healthcare assistants. There are also many different levels to being a nurse. A health care assistant is under a nurse, and then you have staff nurses, then sisters and ward sisters and then nurse manager/ matron. All in all these all make up our NHS and work as a team to provide the best possible care for the patient. There is a large scale of pay, which starts at around £13,000 to £67,000. The above table shows how the NHS works.
The last 40 years nurses’ uniform has changed but not that much. In the 1960’s nurses still wore dresses and stocking .In the 1970′s more changes came to the way nurses dressed. Dresses were a little shorter and the white caps were beginning to lose importance in some hospitals across the country. In the 1980′s there was an end of the nursing caps altogether. Nurses also began wearing disposable aprons at this point rather than cloth aprons and medical facilities became much less militant in regards to restrictions on jewellery and cosmetics. During the 1990′s and today, nursing dresses have been replaced with much more user-friendly scrub suits. Scrub suits can be found in a wide variety of colours and styles. Some hospitals have specific scrub suit colours for different types of hospital staff and others allow nurses and other staff to choose colours and styles that appeal to them. Today’s nursing uniforms are designed more for function than form but are also considered much more comfortable than those worn throughout history are.
There are many different theories towards nursing. The three main ones are needs based theories. The main point being that the focus of nursing is the assessment and care of the patients / clients’ needs, which they are unable to meet for themselves. The second theory is interactions theories. The main point of this being the focus of nursing is the relationship between the nurse and the patient / client. Lastly, the other theory is the goal-based theories. The main point again being that the focus of nursing is the outcome and emphasis is placed on facilitating the ability of the patient / client to adapt to changes in their health and regain stability and harmony.
Today in the NHS nursing takes on a role of the biomedical model. The biomedical model has been around since the mid- nineteenth century as the most common model used to diagnose diseases. The biomedical model states that All illness and symptoms arise from underlying abnormality in the body, all diseases give rise to symptoms and that health is absence of disease. The model overlooks the fact that the diagnosis is a result of commutation between doctor and patient. Biomedical model has no doubt led to huge medical advances although the patient has little responsibility for presence /cause of illness.
In conclusion, the changes in roles and responsibilities of nurses in the modernisation of the NHS can beneficial towards the patients but can also be damaging towards the patients. This is due to lack of staff and increased working hours, more paperwork, and more tasks that a nurse has to do and there are generally more patients now than 10 years ago. Therefore, a nurse has less time caring for the patients needs. On the other hand, the modernisation is seen as a good thing because there is more technology nowadays to make the nurses life easier, which also get a more persist result. Within the context of policies and procedures there are no many more rules than year ago, which does make a nurse’s life maybe easier but maybe harder. With all of these changes to nurses and the NHS in general, is the modernization is good thing, does it have the patients interests are heart or is it about saving money?
 

Roles and Responsibilities of a Qualified Nurse

Professional Role Development
The aim of this essay is to explore and discuss important aspects of the roles and responsibilities of the newly qualified nurse. It will look at and abroad discuss on different type of roles and responsibilities including transition. The roles and responsibilities of a qualified nurse include essential professional skills such as leading in care management and care delivery situations as well as maintaining standards of care. The focus of the essay will be discussing in detail two particular roles of the newly qualified nurse (delegation and patient group direction). It will discuss the meaning of these concepts and their importance for nurses and provide some practical contextual examples. It will also discuss the rational of chosen roles

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A new qualified nurse expected to be competent to work in all environments and situations. This emerging health care system requires a registered nurse workforce at all levels post initial registration capable of critical reflective thinking in order to create this system. Lofmark A (2006) claim that with registration comes a shift in professional accountability together with wider clinical management and teaching responsibilities. On becoming a qualified nurse, the expectations and dynamics of relationships changes fundamentally. Suddenly the newly qualified nurse is the one who must know the answer whether it is a query from a patient, a career, a work colleague or a student. The newly qualified nurse will encounter many challenging situations where she or he must lead care delivery. This includes dealing with care management within the team, dealing with patients/service users, dealing with other professionals and dealing with the required needs of the whole workplace environment. The NMC requires a student nurse to demonstrate professional and ethical practice, be competent in care delivery and care management and show personal and professional development in order to join the register NMC (2010). It is recognized that nurses should be provided with some form of preceptorship and supervision in their role for a period of four months time NMC (2006)) once qualified. Even in this period of preceptorship, there are new expectations and challenges faced by the newly qualified nurse.
Mooney (2007) found that newly qualified nurses were faced with assumptions from others that they should know everything. This was also a high expectation they had of themselves. In meeting the NMC standards of proficiency, the nurse should have demonstrated the relevant knowledge and skills in order to practise in their career. However, it is important to recognise that not every nurse knows everything about everything in their career especially if they are practising in highly specialized fields. What they need is to be able to develop and adapt to changing situations. Therefore, for the nurse it is impossible to know everything but they should have developed the skills to find out relevant information, reflect on it, and apply this to their practice. In essence they should have learnt how to learn. There is a great deal to be learnt once qualified especially related to a nurse’s new area of work and a good deal of the development needs to take place on the job Lofmark A (2006).
The study by Jackson. K (2005) suggested that a successful transition requires the nurse to develop a self-image relevant to the change in status to be able to do the job and that they meet the expectations with others with appropriate support. Mooney (2007) also points out that the duties faced by most newly qualified nurses were not patient contact centred. There were a lot of duties related to contacting and dealing with other professionals and services. These brought anxieties related to the responsibilities that might be faced as the nurses would become increasingly senior in their roles with others expecting them to provide the actions and the answers in complex situations. This highlights how the experience of nursing of transition from student to newly qualified nurse can be daunting. In the current environment there is an expectation that nurses have a preceptor one qualifying for aid in these transitions but the literature still suggests there is a difficulty in the transition process for such professionals. Hole. J, (2009) found that individual accountability, delegating duties without appearing bossy and some challenging clinical situations such as death and dying and specialised technological roles were found to be stressful by qualifying nurses. Issues of the preceptorship of newly qualified nurses become apparent and important in dealing with the transition from supervised student to autonomous practitioner.
The approach taken throughout the rest of this essay will be to provide a discussion of the main theories, concepts, and issues related to the roles and responsibilities of delegation and PGD for newly qualified nurses. It will discuss the meaning of these concepts and their importance for nurses, and provide some practical contextual examples. The rational of choosing these two roles are because: Firstly delegation is a huge newly qualified nurses concern. According Hole. J, (2005) newly qualified nurses are not capable to delegate tasks to someone else and they end up overloading themselves. This is because an accountability issue or not knowing the staffs well as they is new to the ward. Secondly, it is a legal requirement that newly qualified nurses need to have knowledge of PGDs in order to work within legal and ethical frameworks that underpin safe and effective medicines management NMC (2010). For this reason, I personally was interested and picked them to discuss in order to develop my understanding and prepare me to successfully make the transition from student nurse to a registered professional.
Delegation is a major function of an effective manager of patient care and is an essential skill when directing the activities of others at all levels in an organization. It is the means by which an individual is able to accomplish needed tasks with and through others. Although the delegator remains accountable for the task, the delegate is also accountable to the delegator for the responsibilities assumed. Delegation can help others to develop or enhance their skills, promotes teamwork and improves productivity Sollivan.E.J et al (2009). Therefore, delegation is the area where newly qualified staff experience huge difficulties. Often they do not feel confident enough to ask someone else to do something for them. Consequently, they try to do all of the work themselves and end up leaving late or providing less than adequate standards of care. Other members of staff will not mind if they delegate tasks to them as long as they apply the basic rules such as ensuring that it is something they are competent to do. When delegating, the delegator remain responsible for that care if he/she do not delegate appropriately as stated by NMC (2008). It is also important that the delegator explained clearly what it is he/she want them to do and why because he/she might genuinely busy or is it just something that he/she does not want to do.
Hole.J, (2005) point out that as long as he/she asks the other member of staff in a courteous manner and stick to the rules, there will be few problems. However, there may always be someone who has the potential to react in a negative way to his/her request. These people are often known for this type of behaviour and it should be dealt with swiftly by the manager. This type of reaction experience should be discussed with the member of staff or if he/she not feels confident enough to do this, he/she should talk to the manager.
As mention above this will be a difficult skill for a newly qualified nurse especially at first. They will need to get to know the other staff before they will feel truly comfortable delegating to others in the team. They may feel guilty about asking others to do tasks which they feel that they should be doing themselves. What they need to realise is that they cannot possibly do everything themselves and that they will need to work as a team in order to deliver good patient care. The new qualified nurses may well feel that they cannot ask others especially HCAs who have worked on the ward for years to do things for them. The nurse will probably feel self-conscious and embarrassed.
The answer is that it is not what the nurse asks them to do that are important. It is how he/she asks them. Good communication is the key to successful delegation. The nurse should take a few minutes to discuss with the HCA/student with whom he/she is working who will be doing what during that shift. Share the workload and be realistic. Therefore the newly qualified nurses must not overload themselves with care they do not really think they can give. The member of staff would rather know what their workload is at the beginning of the shift so that they can organise their time effectively. If the delegator has to ask them to take on extra work during the shift, they will find this difficult Ellis, J.R. and Hartley, C.L, (2005). So the delegator should keep communicating with them during the shift, and if he/she is held up with relatives or an acutely ill patient, he/she should tell them and explain that he/she will try to help them as soon as possible.
According to Hole.J, (2005) when the new qualified nurses are delegating, it is important to ensure that this is appropriate as it is their responsibility to ensure that the member of staff to whom they delegate is competent to perform the task. This means that if they delegate a task to a member of staff who is not competent and they perform the task wrongly, they are accountable for the harm caused to the patient. Although the member of staff responsible, they remain accountable. For example, they cannot assume that the HCA/student with whom they are working is competent in the skill of measuring and recording a patient’s blood pressure. Just because the member of staff has worked on that ward for a period of time, this does not mean that they have been taught correctly. They must assess their competence to perform the task before they allow them to do this independently. They can then justify their delegation of that skill if necessary.
A Patient Group Direction (PGD) is “a written instruction for the supply and/or administration of a licensed medicine (medicines) in an identified clinical situation signed by a doctor or a dentist and pharmacist. It applies to a group of patients who may not be individually identified before presenting for treatment” NPC (2009), page 11. In simple terms, a PGD is the supply and/or administration of a specified medicine or medicines by named authorised health professionals for a group of patients requiring treatment for the condition described in the PGD. Conversely the health professional must be registered.
RCN (2004) state that implementing PGDs may be appropriate both in circumstances where groups of patients may not have been previously identified for example, minor injuries and first contact services and in services where assessment and treatment follows a clearly predictable pattern such as immunisation, family planning and so on. Professionals using a PGD must be registered or equivalent members of their profession and act within their appropriate code of professional conduct. This differs from supplementary prescribers and independent prescribers who must also successfully complete specific prescribing training and be appropriately registered before they may prescribe. However, organisations using PGDs must designate an appropriate person within the organisation. For example, a clinical supervisor, line manager or General Practitioner to ensure that only fully competent, qualified and trained healthcare professionals use PGDs. Individual practitioners using a PGD must be named NPC (2009).
A Patient Group Direction allows specified registered health care professionals to supply or administer a medicine directly to a patient with an identified clinical condition without him/her necessarily seeing a prescriber. For example, patients may present directly to health care professionals using PGDs in their services without seeing a doctor. Alternatively, the patient may have been referred by a doctor to another service. Whichever way the patient presents, the healthcare professional who works under the PGD is responsible for assessing the patient to ensure that patient fits the criteria set out in the PGD. In general, a PGD is not meant to be a long-term means of managing a patient’s clinical condition. This is best achieved by a health care professional prescribing for an individual patient on a one-to-one basis NPC (2009).
The use of PGDs is widespread throughout the NHS and since April 2003, some non-NHS organisations have been able to use them suggested by NPC (2009). Organisations must ensure that staff responsible for the development / implementation of PGDs and those authorised to work under PGDs have the experience, knowledge and skills necessary to do so. However, different supplementary prescribers, nurse independent prescribers and healthcare professionals using PGDs do not have to become specifically qualified to do so. Alternatively, they must be assessed by their organisations as fully competent, qualified and trained to operate within a PGD.
A suitably competent and experienced health care professional who will be working under the PGD should be involved in the writing of the PGD to ensure that the PGD meets the needs of the service. NPC (2009) suggests that there is no specific national training for healthcare professionals producing PGDs. Therefore, the role by RCN (2004) for nurse proposes that the registered nurse must be assessed as competent in medicines administration, must be trained to operate within a PGD and must follow the 6 ‘R’s of medicines administration. Also In order to work under the PGD, register nurses need to be qualified for at least 6 months. They must assess the patients to ensure they fit the criteria as detailed in the PGD as well as ensuring the PGD meets the necessary legal requirements. Importantly, the supplying/dispensing or administration stage cannot delegate to another registered nurse or student nurse.
The newly qualified nurses are not expected to be able to operate under a PGD until competent in medicines administration. However, they need to have knowledge of PGDs for their patient safety. For example, if patient under PGD admitted to the ward, the nurse must ensure that the medicines not stopped. The NMC (2010) code of conduct outline that newly qualified nurses to be fully understood all methods of supplying medicines. This includes Medicines Act exemptions, patient group directions (PGDs), clinical management plans and other forms of prescribing. They are expected to demonstrate knowledge and application of the principles required for safe and effective supply and administration via a patient group direction including an understanding of role and accountability. And also demonstrate how to supply and administer via a patient group direction. The newly qualified nurses may be involved with PGDs such as assisting and identifying areas where a PGD would offer more benefits than a PSD, understand the principles and processes of PGDs and be fully conversant with all the principles associated with dispensing and administering medicines they may also be working in a variety of settings where PGDs are used for example prison health care setting, nurse led service, walk in centres
In my conclusion, I have learnt the roles and responsibilities of newly qualified nurses and I have developed skills and professional knowledge to work effectively with others. The Patient Group Direction helped me how the laws and policies are set up to ensure safe and effective delivery of care given to service users under a patient group direction. I am now prepared for the challenges I will face on being a newly qualified nurse by providing the knowledge and skills required to become effective and accountable practitioners. Clinical decisions will still have to be made in relation to meeting the needs of the people within my care. However, becoming a qualified nurse brings with its wider responsibilities in making and taking decisions related to the nursing team, other staff, and the work environment as a whole. These changes require a large shift from the experience of being a student and a mentored supervised learner, so it is essential that I am equipped with all the skills required to successfully make the transition.