Richard Hamilton Artist Analysis

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A Theoretical Analysis of Richard Ramirez

Between 1984 and 1985, Richard Ramirez embarked on an unprecedented criminal rampage in the Los Angeles and San Francisco metro areas, killing and raping at least 14 victims. Known for his penchant to hunt nocturnally, Ramirez was aptly nicknamed the “Night Stalker.” His activity shocked the nation with its gruesome and vigor, terrifying countless men and women across the United States. After his capture in 1985, Ramirez developed a cult-like following of supporters, one of whom married him in 1996 while he was on death row. Prior to his rampage, Ramirez was a ticking time-bomb, indoctrinated and afflicted by numerous key drivers that led to his string of disastrous deeds. However shocking his actions may be, theoretical analysis can be applied in order to explain and possibly understand how a human can be capable of such monstrosities.

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 Born on February 29, 1960, Richard Leyva Muñoz Ramirez was born in El Paso, Texas to Mexican immigrants Mercedes and Julian Ramirez. Julian, a former Juarez police officer, worked a steady job as a laborer for the Santa Fe railroad. Mercedes worked at the Texan bootmaker Tony Lama, painting and treating boots with chemicals such as benzene, toluene, and xylene. In the 1950s, the extreme toxicity of benzene, toluene, and xylene had not been discovered, so Mercedes worked with these chemicals without any form of ventilation or protection. When she was pregnant with Richard, her fifth and final child, she saw a specialist regarding the extreme pain and discomfort she was experiencing as a result of her ingestion of the toxic chemicals. Already at the fifth month of her pregnancy, the doctor informed her that she should immediately quit her job at the factory or her child would die before birth. She quit immediately and Richard was born without issue. As a baby, Richie, as he was referred to by his family, didn’t cry much and ate and slept well. He was by all means considered a healthy baby.

 When Richard was 2 years old, a large dresser fell on top of him leaving him unconscious. He was rushed to the hospital where he was given 30 stitches to his forehead. This was the first of two traumatic head injuries he sustained as a young child. Growing up, Richard was raised in a struggling household. Both of his parents worked most of the day and his older siblings frequently got in trouble. Richard’s father, Julian, had a flaring temper and routinely disciplined his children by severely beating them. When Julian was especially angry he would succumb to self-harm, beating his head against a wall or with a hammer. At the age of 5, Richard sustained his second traumatic head injury, receiving stitches after getting knocked unconscious by his sister on a swing. In the fifth grade, he was diagnosed with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy after having a seizure in school. As a child, he was considered a good student who paid attention in class and did not have discipline issues. According to testimonies, Richard may have been molested by a teacher who frequently preyed on his brothers, although he claims not to remember any specific incidents. He also witnessed a neighborhood pedophile sodomize a local boy with a candle stick.

 When Richard was 12, his cousin, a Green Beret, returned from Vietnam. His cousin, Miguel, was an idol to Richard and showed him numerous pictures from his time at war. One set of pictures involved him receiving fellatio from a Vietnamese woman while he held a gun to her head, and a subsequent picture of him holding the decapitated head of that same woman. Along with these pictures, Miguel told Richard extremely graphic stories of rape and murder during his time overseas. Richard quickly discovered that he was sexually aroused by these stories and images. At the age of 13, Richard witnessed Miguel shoot and kill his wife during an argument. After this incident, he lost completely lost interest in school and focused on stealing and smoking marijuana with friends. Around this period Richard visited Los Angeles for the first time to see his older brother. He was allured by the size and wealth of the city, and the endless opportunities to commit crime. As Richard aged, he became interested in heavy metal music, specifically AC/DC, and ran with a group that frequently smoked marijuana and robbed houses and cars. He also developed interests in martials arts, horror movies, and hunting. He would stalk and hunt rabbits, coyotes, and birds in order to gut them and feed the entrails to his dog.

 Richard quickly developed a reputation as a burglar and was subsequently sent to a Texas youth camp for juvenile delinquents at 17. Upon returning from the camp, he completely dropped out of school and soon after had his first sexual experience with a prostitute. At 18 he moved to Los Angeles and became a devout follower of the Church of Satan. While in Los Angeles, Richard became a heavy cocaine and alcohol user, habits he funded by his nightly bouts of theft. During this period he was arrested numerous occasions for various thefts. Richard spent most of his days alone shooting up cocaine and watching television. During the night he would rob houses and cars and pick up prostitutes. He completely stopped paying attention to his hygiene and maintained a diet consisting of mostly candy, causing tooth decay.

 On June 28, 1984 Richard committed his first of a string of murders. While an elderly woman named Jennie Vincow slept, he snuck in through her window and stabbed her to death. He then raped her dead body and fled the scene. Later in March 1985, Richard committed four more murders. First, he followed a young woman into her apartment, shooting but not killing her, and then shot and killed her roommate and fled the scene. Then around an hour later he murdered another young woman, pulling her from her car and shooting her in the road after she attempted to confront him for stalking her in his car. Richard believed that Satan guided and protected him while he committed his crimes, motivating him to continue and expand his acts of evil. Later that same month, Richard broke into an elderly couple’s house, shooting the husband in the head while he was sleeping. Then while Richard ransacked the house for valuables, the wife drew a shotgun and attempted to shoot him, but the gun was not loaded. Startled but unharmed, Richard proceeded to shoot her three times and then decided to mutilate her body. He carved an upside down cross into her chest, removed her eyes, and made an unsuccessful attempt to have sex with the corpse.

 A few months later Richard committed his next string of gruesome crimes. He snuck into the house of a retired trucking company sales manager and stealthily inspected the inside of the home. When Richard came across the retiree’s bedroom, the man heard him chamber his gun and he pulled out a firearm from his bedside drawer. However, his instincts were not quick enough and Richard shot him in the face. He then walked into the bedroom of the man’s handicapped wife, and proceeded to rape her. He then grabbed whatever valuables he could in the house and fled the scene. Somehow the man survived the shot and was able to call the police, but he unfortunately died in the ambulance. From the months of May to August 1985 he committed a massive series of rapes, robberies, and murders with a variety of weapons, including a tire iron, a variety of knives, and his .22 pistol. His victims ranged from the ages of 6 to 75 years old, and his crimes featured the mutilation of corpses and the painting and carving of pentagrams on the crime scenes and bodies. His final attack occurred on August 24, 1985. He snuck through the back door of a young couple’s house and shot the man three times in the head. He then bound the woman with neckties and proceeded to rape and sodomize her. Richard then searched the house for valuables and told the woman to say, “Tell them the Night Stalker was here,” before fleeing the scene (Carlo, 2011, p. 151). Miraculously the man survived the shots and the woman was able to give a detailed account of her encounter with the “Night Stalker” to the police. The police then located Richard’s stolen vehicle and were able to recover fingerprints from the interior, allowing them to identify Richard Ramirez as their suspect. After attempting to visit his brother in Tucson, Arizona, Richard returned to Los Angeles, unbeknownst of his status as a wanted criminal. Soon upon his return, he attempted to carjack a woman but was chased by an angry mob who beat him senselessly until the police arrived at the scene. Upon his arrest, Richard was charged with 13 counts of murder, 5 attempted murders, 11 sexual assaults, and 14 burglaries. He was consequently sentenced to death by gas chamber and spent the rest of his life sitting on death row. At the age of 53, Richard died of complications of B-cell lymphoma.

 Richard Ramirez impressively fits all three classification of a hedonistic killer. As a child, he discovered he derived intense sexual arousal from his cousin’s pictures and verbal accounts of rape and murder in Vietnam. This intense arousal was a key component of his brutal attacks, as he was sexually charged by the act of killing. He also frequently raped and sodomized his victims, identifying him as a lust-oriented killer. He was also motivated by the sadistic thrills of beating and torturing his victims, as he frequently mutilated the corpses by carving Satanic images in them or removed body parts such as the eyes, typical behavior of a thrill-oriented killer. His murders were also motivated by monetary gain, as he once robbed one of his victims for $30,000 shortly before his capture. He typically robbed his victims to support his drug habit and lifestyle, identifying him as a comfort-oriented killer.

 Richard can be considered an archetype of the disorganized asocial lust killer. He was below average intelligence, as he stopped paying attention in school at 13 and dropped out before graduation. He was socially inadequate, paying absolutely no attention to his hygiene or appearance to others. He was of low birth-order, the fifth of five children, and was the victim of extremely harsh discipline from his father. He lived completely alone, spending most of his days watching television and shooting up cocaine. He was sexually incompetent, resorting to prostitutes and his victims for sexual pleasure. He also exhibited significant behavior changes, such as his addiction to cocaine and his adoption of Satanism. He did not hold a job, relying on burglary to support his lifestyle. His crime scenes were also extremely typical of a disorganized asocial lust killer. He rarely if ever planned his crimes, usually the result of a spontaneous urge to kill while performing a robbery. When he did plan his murders, they were merely a simple plan to kill in the name of Satan, not involving any specifics. His victims were always complete strangers and he employed minimal conversation, with his rare dialogue usually involving something related to Satan. He rarely put any effort into hiding his victims or cleaning up the crime scene, although he would sometimes attempt to wipe for fingerprints. He also frequently attempted to have sex with the corpses of his victims.

 Richard was afflicted by organic mental illness. When his mother was pregnant with him, she ingested numerous toxic chemicals on a daily basis while working at a factory. Later as a child, he sustained two traumatic head injuries. Growing up, he was the victim of physical combat by his father as a form of discipline. As an adult, he was a heavy user of cocaine and other psychoactive substances. All of these factors are attributed to the development of severe brain damage. Richard’s behavior was consequently emblematic of extreme brain damage. He had little to no interest in social interaction, spending the majority of his days and nights alone. He spent no attention to his hygiene, as he was known for his disgusting smell as well as his rotting teeth. He exercised an indiscriminate selection of food and gluttony, with his diet consisting of mostly candy. Over time, he stopped exhibiting remorse for his crimes, “Once there was a time when he had some remorse–had second thoughts about killing; but that was all a long time ago.” (p. 81). This lack of concern regarding the consequences of his crimes is also typical of someone with extreme brain damage. Affective changes related to his brain damage include extreme manic states, where Richard would embark on killing sprees in order to grab the attention of the public eye and please Satan. The most dangerous type of person is an individual with a head injury on psychoactive drugs. Richard Ramirez suffered numerous brain injuries over the course of his life and was a heavy user of psychoactive substances, implying that he can be considered to be the most dangerous type of person.

 Richard’s experiences as a child precipitated his actions as an adult, demonstrating the efficacy of Social Learning Theory. This theory states that aggressive behavior is learned by observing what other do and seeing the consequences of those actions. In the household, Richard routinely witnessed extreme violence under the guise of parental discipline, as his father would severely beat him and his brothers. As he grew up, he began spending a lot of time with cousin who enjoyed gloating about his acts of extreme violence as a soldier. This same cousin shot his wife in front of Richard and subsequently only spent four years in a mental facility after pleading guilty by temporary insanity. Richard’s cousin and his brothers reinforced his actions as he grew older, accompanying him during burglaries and while ingesting psychoactive substances. Richard would also accompany his cousin secretly spying on women while they changed clothes. When Richard moved in with his sister temporarily, she disapproved of his behavior as a peeping Tom, however she never explicitly punished him, further reinforcing his behavior as a sexual deviant. Richard routinely imitated his family’s behavior with consistent reinforcement, influencing his devolution into a life of horrific crime.

 Another possible explanation for Richard’s deviant behavior is Classic Strain Theory. Strain Theory focuses on the deviant behavior of lower-class adolescent males. The theory claims that the inability to gain status and acceptance in conventional society produces strain. Richard faced societal challenges growing up as a low-income minority, resorting to burglary due to his inability to gain status and acceptance in conventional society. Richard attempted to fit in as a child, specifically in regards to athletics. He excelled as a football player and considered his time on the field as a form of solace. In the 9th grade, while playing his position of quarterback, Richard experienced a seizure on the field and was immediately cut from the team by the coach. This is an example of his inability to be accepted by traditional society despite his concerted efforts. Due to a multitude of factors including his home situation, the influence of his cousin, and brain damage, Richard succumbed to the strain of society, potentially explaining his deviant behavior.

 Richard’s criminal behavior can also be understood using Gottfredson and Hirschi’s General Theory of Crime. This theory focuses on childhood socialization which can produce an enduring criminal predisposition called low self-control. As covered above, Richard’s dangerous home environment heavily contributed to his low self-control. He exemplified the standard of low self-control. He acted impulsively, committing burglaries and murders without much thought. He preferred simpler tasks, targeting elderly people and young women for his various crimes. He sought out risk, as his daily activities were restricted to drug use, burglary, violence, and sexual encounters with prostitutes, all of which are high-risk activities. He also had an unrelenting temper, which according to Carlo was typical in the Ramirez family (p. 211). Richard’s low self-control, combined with his ample crime opportunity living on the streets of Los Angeles resulted in his lengthy rap sheet of crimes.

By applying research on the classifications of serial killers, information regarding organic mental illness, Social Learning Theory, Gottfredson and Hirschi’s General Theory of Crime, and Classic Strain Theory, one may attempt to understand and potentially explain Richard Ramirez’s despicable actions. However terrible his decisions may be, one must consider the multitude of factors that precipitated his descent into one of the most famous and prolific serial killers in American history.


Carlo, P. (2011). The Night Stalker: The Life and Crimes of One of LA’s Most Deadly Killers. London: Mainstream Digital.

Cummins, D. (Producer). (2018, March 30). Timesuck [Audio Podcast]. Retrieved from


Life And Work Of Little Richard Music Essay

For years, people all over the world have dubbed Elvis Presley the King of Rock N Roll. His notoriety spans throughout almost every country and references about him can be understood in every culture. Contrary to popular belief, though, Elvis was not the originator of so many controversial topics in the fifties and sixties. While Elvis appealed mainly to the white crowds, Richard Wayne Penniman, also known as ‘Little Richard’, was performing for multicultural audiences with the same erratic music and flamboyant dance moves that made Elvis so controversial; so why is Elvis considered the king? Little Richard was one of the most influential and innovative artists of the rock ‘n’ roll era, and did it in a time where no one else was doing anything like it. Regardless of popular belief, Little Richard is the first king of rock ‘n’ roll.

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Richard Wayne Penniman was born on December 5th, 1932 in Macon Georgia. He was third of twelve children in his family. He was born to Charlie and Leva Mae Penniman into the impoverished area of the city. The Penniman family was very religious, with both Richard’s father and grandfather working as preachers in the area. In fact, church is where his singing career began when his parents formed a family singing group called ‘The Penniman Singers’ that consisted of Richard, his parents, and his siblings. Continuing in his religion, Richard had the opportunity to experience many different types of religion and churches. His favorite was the Pentecostal church because of its fun, dancing, and music. Richard also became a ‘faith healer’ in the church so that he could place his hands on people, pray for them, and they claimed to feel better afterward.
Little Richard was influenced by many people throughout history. He was involved in many travelling performing shows such as Sugarfoot Sam’s International Show, Dr. Hudson’s Medicine Show, and Billy Brown and his Orchestra, where he gained his stage name, Little Richard. In this time period, he was heavily influenced by the gospel singers of the 30s and 40s, and one of the biggest impacts was made by Sister Rosetta Tharpe. When Richard was at one of her concerts in 1945, she called him on stage to sing a song with her because she had heard him singing in the lobby before the show. As she was one of his favorite singers at the time, this event had a big impact on Richard’s life. He was also heavily influenced by artists like Marion Williams, Mahalia Jackson, Brother Joe May, Esquerita, and Billy Wirght. Billy Wright also helped Richard get his start in the professional music career by setting him up with his first contract.
In 1951, Little Richard signed with RCA Camden records and began to try to find his sound without much success. He was struggling to find a sound that worked for him as an artist, and his label wanted him to sound more like other artists like Ray Charles, who was very popular in this time period. When Richard was out of his contract with RCA in mid 1953, he signed with Peacock Records. He was still having difficulties finding something that fit his personality and style. He released a record a year for four years and still didn’t have a hit. In 1955, his contract was bought from Peacock Records by Specialty Records and he began working with Robert ‘Bumps’ Blackwell. In a frustrating recording session, just when Blackwell was almost ready to give up on Richard and told the band to take a break, Richard jumped up on stage and started plunking out a tune on the piano that would eventually become one of his most popular songs, “Tutti Frutti”. Richard had been playing this song on stage for years prior when he wasn’t under contract and Blackwell was stunned by the fresh sound. He loved it so much that he immediately wanted Richard to record it. The only problem was that the song was not commercially acceptable as it was originally written. The label hired Dorothy La Boistre to clean up the lyrics in phrases such as, “Tutti frutti, good booty” to change them into, “Tutti Frutti, aw-rooty”. The song became very popular.
The success of this first hit was followed by 16 hit singles in the following three years. Little Richard was slowly but surely taking the music industry by storm. Some other hits that were notable were “Rip It Up”, “Long Tall Sally”, “Lucille”, “Good Golly, Miss Molly”, “Keep A-Knocking”, “Girl Can’t Help It”, and “Slippin’ and Slidin'”. “Long Tall Sally” was one of his most noted songs and hit number six on the R&B Billboard charts. Another favorite was “Girl Can’t Help It” because it was written for the movie with the same title starring Jane Mansfield. Richard appeared in a few movies during this time period, mainly to provide a movie soundtrack. When asked about those movies, Little Richard reports that the white executives tried to contain him and his style. He said, “They didn’t want me letting myself go. They kept wanting me to be stiffer, telling me ‘Here’s how a black man would perform this.’ I said. ‘Now how would you know that?'” Little Richard was a very unique person and he never stopped being himself.
Between 1955 and 1957, many of Little Richard’s popular songs were re-done by other artists including Elvis Presley, Pat Boone, and Bill Haley. His popularity as an artist was growing and his fan base was continuously growing and becoming more diversified. Elvis Presley and Pat Boone both covered “Tutti Frutti”. Boone’s version outdid Little Richard’s when it came to record sales. Almost directly after, Boone did a cover of “Long Tall Sally”, presumably expecting the same results. This time, however, Little Richard’s original recording got better reviews and peaked higher on Billboard’s pop charts. The same was true when Presley and Bill Haley each released a version of “Rip It Up” and neither gained the reaction that Little Richard did.
Little Richard was not only a role model for the sound of many of the pioneers of rock ‘n’ roll, he was an advocate for controversial issues of the time period. Little Richard’s concerts were known mainly for their tendency to get extremely out of control due to his outrageous personality and performance style. He made history at a concert in Baltimore, Maryland when there were reports of police having to restrain people from jumping off balconies, and the show had to be stopped twice so that police could remove screaming fans from the stage. The fans that got onstage were attempting to gain souvenirs from Richard by ripping them off his body. It also goes down in history as being one of the first concerts where ladies ever threw their undergarments onstage for the artists.
With this type of concert response, it’s no wonder Richard was caught up in constant parties and questionable acts throughout the mid 1950s.  

Historical Events in Shakespeare’s King Richard II

The writings of Shakespeare are not just stories alone but rather historical accounts. Throughout his work, he touches on three different histories over a span of time. These histories can be grouped into the categories of English and Roman history. Writings that are considered under English history include the titles of Richard II, Henry VI Part 1, Henry IV Part 2, and Henry V. Plays listed under Roman history include Julius Caesar and Antony and Cleopatra. Many of Shakespeare’s plays written about English history are focused on the history and life of English kings. His work mentions some of the less popular kings of Edward III and Henry VII.

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 Shakespeare’s tragedies not only include important historical figures but rather are a source of crucial historical events which he is able to incorporate into his works. Richard II is seen as one of Shakespeare’s most politically controversial plays because of Richard II’s defeat and Henry Bolingbroke’s seizing of the thrown to become King Henry VI. This play mainly drew from sources of Holinshed’s Chronicles for the character development of Richard. Shakespeare also drew from Halles The Union and Two Noble but had a lesser influence on the characters and development of the play than Holinshed’s Chronicles. Throughout the play, Richard II slowly creates his own downfall which inevitably leads to him losing the throne. The play begins with the conflict of Henry Bolingbroke accusing Thomas Mawbery of treason. This feud is settled by Richard II allowing the two in battle by combat. The feud between Bolingbroke and Mowbray closely follows accounts of Holinshed’s Chronicles. Events in Holinshed’s Chronicles are altered by Shakespeare when mentioned in Richard II through the changes of character traits in Gaunt and York which are used to emphasize the divine appointment of King Richard. 

Many of Shakespeare’s ties to the Chronicles are solely focused on the pronouncing of Richard II’s status as a divinely appointed king. The most prominent example is seen through the character changes of Gaunt. Through his character, Shakespeare alters the material within Holinshed the most. Within Holinshed’s Chronicles, the character Gaunt has a greedy attitude and a disorderly person. In Richard II, Gaunt’s character changes by being one which embodies a voice of reason, knowledge, and a strong sense of loyalty to his country. This loyalty to his country is shown through Gaunt’s emphasis on Richard’s divine right to rule. Within the play, Gaunt is seen making speeches which are focused on this divine right to rule. His first speech that is focused on this is seen in the beginning of Act II when Gaunt is addressing the Duchess of Gloucester.  Despite knowing the truth about the murder of Gloucester, Gaunt decides to not support any actions that could potentially put Richard’s crown at risk. These actions of Gaunt to remain silent about the truth of who murdered Gloucester is an example of how strongly he agrees with the idea of the divine right to rule. Also these speeches that Gaunt makes in act II scene 2 are able to foreshadow the actions of bolingbroke and the suffering that comes with it.

This transformation of Gaunt from Holinshed’s Chronicles to being a selfish, greedy, aristocrat to being written into Shakespeare’s works as a character who shows a strong level of loyalty to their country and defends the ideology of divine right to rule shows the changes that Shakespeare is able to implement on certain figures. By switching up Gaunt’s character from Holinshed’s Chronicles brings forth the importance of divine right to rule to Richard II.

This is not the only account that Shakespeare changes within Richard II. Within Holinshed’s Chronicles, York is left in charge while Richard is away in Ireland. While in charge, York works to get together a small army which is planned to be used to confront Bolingbroke and his men. This army deems to be useless because the men refuse to fight against Bolingbroke. York then “came foorth into the church that stood without the castell, and there communed with the duke of Lancaster”(Holinshed, Chronicles). These actions of York are strange because he clearly is obeying orders to fight Bolingbroke but then changes up and decides to join Bolingbroke without complications. In Richard II, York’s feelings and actions towards Bolingbroke are clear to show that he is not a friend. During the play, York is appalled by the thought that Bolingbroke would consider rebelling against Richard. He then gives a speech which is focused on the divine appointment of Richard. York has no other choices than to go along with Bolingbroke which he is not pleased about. “It may be I go with you./But yet I’ll pause/For I am loath to break our country’s laws.”(II.iii.166-168).

Within the writing of Shakespeare’s Richard II, many historical events were included in the text. Holinshed’s Chronicles are seen throughout the book but rather seen to be changed and glorified than they were in their original source. Shakespeare doesn’t make noticeable changes to the character Richard himself but rather makes subtle changes to other characters which works to reshape the play from being a recount of certain historical events. These changes that Shakespeare makes are regarding the ideas of Richard’s divine appointment. Gaunts character changes from being a greedy, selfish character in Holinshed’s Chronicles to becoming a character who has a sense of knowledge and power in Richard II. Gaunt not only has been changed into this intelligent character but he also seen to have respect for his country and embodies a strong sense of patriotism. Shakespeare also reworks York’s character from the chronicles. Within Holinshed’s Chronicles, York works to assemble this army while Richard is away to go up against Bolingbroke. After gathering this army, York decides that he would just join Bolingbroke and not go up against him. This is not the case in Richard II which has York and Bolingbroke not on the same page. In the play, when York hears about the idea of going up against Bolingbroke he is shocked. He then works to give a speech about Richard’s divine appointment which shows his support of the king. These changes that are made by Shakespeare work to dramatize the events that happened within Holinshed’s Chronicles but not completely alter the historical information. Specifically, these two changes of Gaunt and York and used to emphasize the divine appointment of King Richard. By reshaping these characters, Shakespeare has worked to pull away from writing a direct historical account which follows Holinshed’s Chronicles to writing a play in which the focus is shifted off of the responsibilities of the monarchs.

Works Cited:

Shakespeare, William. King Richard II. Peter Ure, Ed. Cambridge: University Press, 1946.

“Holinshed’s Chronicles.” The Holinshed Texts – Reign-Based Table of Contents for the 1587 Edition,


Richard Mayhew’s Character Development in Neverwhere

Richard Mayhew is a quiet, lonely, and, overall, average man from Scotland looking for a new life in London. He meets, who he believes is the, love of his life, and enjoys every minute of being in her company. Richard goes about his normal day job and lives a boring and relatively “normal” life. Until he meets Door and the parallel world of London Below. As an underground collection of those who don’t quite belong in London Above – a place where he would no sooner find himself facing a mythical creature than his boss. For in a foreign world full of dangers and adventure, it is here that Richard finds himself. Throughout the book, he realizes that he is more than what he had initially thought he had been. He is not one of the many who belong in the average version of London that everyone is familiar with; he belongs in London Below, where he is himself, not the boring mediocre man he had thought himself to be, but the courageous and loyal one he truly is.

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At the beginning of the novel, Neverwhere, Richard Mayhew is an average, young, Scottish man, looking to move to the heart of England – London. But once he arrives, he soon realizes that he does not truly know who he is as a person. He finds the love of his life, a woman named Jessica. He allows Jessica to control every aspect of his life and she sways every one of his decisions to something good for her; from the way he dresses, to the décor of his office, to even their engagement.

Jessica saw in Richard an enormous amount of potential … so she gave him books with titles like Dress for Success and A Hundred and Twenty-Five Habits of Successful Men. … She would pick out for him the kinds of clothes she thought that he should wear … and, a year to the day after their first encounter, she told him she thought it was time that they went shopping for an engagement ring. (11-13 Neverwhere, Kindle Edition)

Although Jessica micromanages Richard’s life, she doesn’t know him as well as someone would normally know their lover, especially after a year of dating. Their relationship is, most certainly, not a traditional one, based entirely on love; Jessica seems to enjoy bringing forth a more ambitious side to Richard, whereas Richard is only with her because she is something different in his otherwise tedious and boring life. He does everything Jessica tells him to do because he is completely and totally in love with her and wants to appease her, but in doing so, doesn’t give himself the opportunity to find out what he really wants in life. He seems to only be marrying Jessica because it is expected of him, and because he has a need to fill the emptiness of his life outside of work, with the presence of another person. He soon realizes that he does not need another person in his life in order to make it satisfy. When he saves a dying girl named Door and is thrust into the world of London Below, he begins to comprehend the extent of his own abilities.

After Richard met Door and had some excitement added to his life, he is still afraid of conflict during his time in London Above. After Richard seems to disappear to the people of the Above world, he witnesses his apartment being sold while he was still inside. After they left, he had a moment to himself to contemplate what to do, and he then “took the black sports bag from under the bed and put socks into it. Underpants. Some T-shirts. His passport. His wallet” (73, Kindle Edition). Instead of fighting for his home and for his normal life, although it would be in vain, he decides to pack his bags and leave. Richard is now just a lost soul on the streets of London who has lost everything and everyone he knows and loves. His passiveness and lack of will to continue forward is just heart breaking. Richard reaches his lowest and darkest moments during this time.

     Moving forward, once he finds his way back into London Below, he meets a rat-speaker named Anaesthesia who is then assigned to guide Richard to the Floating Market. Anaesthesia is the first person he is able to have a conversation with who he is able to relate to from London Below. After the crossing of Night’s Bridge Richard discovers Anaesthesia died on the bridge his immediate reaction was exclaiming that they must go back to get her, to save her. Hunter, his new companion at the time, tells him that it is impossible and that she is gone forever. Richard almost breaks down but is able to keep it together in order to continue his journey to find Door and the Marquis de Carabas. This display of emotion shows that Richard is desperate to have someone with him that he is comfortable with and is able to give him some of the answers that he needs. Losing Anaesthesia was like losing a protective blanket, and he was once again alone in the world of London Below.

The next major development in Richard’s growth as a character was after his trial, and almost death, to obtain the key for Islington. Once Richard goes through his trial, he comes out of it a noticeably different person. As Hunter describes him as,  “he looked less boyish. He looked as if he had begun to grow up” (278, Kindle Edition). Richard begins to develop into more of a man than he was before his experience. The encounter he had with the trial seemed to have really opened his eyes to how he used to be. As the mirages of his friends and loved ones were saying, he was in a very dark place, and the idea of suicide may have been an option for Richard at that time. But he realized that the person he was before is not the person that he is now. He gains a purpose due to Door and their other companions and continues to grow as a person as their adventures continue.

After all this, Richard moves towards his development of becoming more of a man.  During the fight with the Beast he is able to do what Hunter could not, kill the beast. Since Hunter failed, in her dying moments, she says to Richard “you’re the greatest hunter in London Below. The Warrior…” (351, Kindle Edition). This is an extraordinary growth for Richard as he has come from being a lost soul to now becoming “The Warrior.” In later events he meets with the Earl again and a comment is made about his growth and how he is “Not really a boy anymore…” (384, Kindle Edition). The Earl then knights Richard and he becomes “’Sir Richard of Maybury. With this knife I do give to you the freedom of the Underside. May you be allowed to walk freely, without let or hindrance’” (385, Kindle Edition).  Being given these titles represents a mile stone that signifies him no longer being the fresh-faced young man but, as an older, stronger person. In aftermath of the climax of Richard’s character development he is finally able to make his way back to existence as a member of society in London Above.

     Once Richard is in London Above, the developments he has made in his adventure begin to emerge and a new side of Richard is seen. This is made especially clear when he goes to deal with his landlord about his apartment being sold while he was on “vacation”.  After being told that his old apartment could not be given back to him Richard thought,

The old Richard, the one who had lived in what was now the Buchanans’ home, would have crumbled at this point, apologized for being a nuisance, and gone away. Instead, Richard said, “Really? Nothing you can do about it? You let out a property I was legally renting from your company to someone else, and in the process lost all my personal possessions, and there’s nothing you can do about it? Now, I happen to think, and I’m sure my lawyer will also think, that there is a great deal you can do about it. (397, Kindle Edition).

When he fights for the unit, he ends up gaining a better deal with a penthouse suite. At this point he notices the change in himself as he enters his new place, and, almost poetically, puts down the dagger as if he was putting down his new persona.

At the very end of the novel the character of Richard Mayhew realizes he does not want the life of London Above. Here Richard feels that life in London Above is not exciting enough, and he knows that if he were to go back to London Below, he would his have his titles, influence, and Lady Door to start and have a great life there. In his last act of the novel he walks back through the door into London Below to live this new life, and hopefully enjoy more adventures and excitement.

Richard’s new, no nonsense, attitude completely replaces his original passive and complacent attitude.  Through meeting new companions and forming strong bonds with other characters they came across; Richard was able to develop and become a strong character. He learned that his boring and repetitive lifestyle was not the way he wanted to live his life, and he changed to become a new person that fit his new lifestyle. By the end of the novel there was no more of the London Above Richard and there was only the new, strong, and independent London Below Richard Mayhew.


Gaiman, Neil. Neverwhere. Headline, 2017.


Richard Rogers Architect Biography

This report is written to acknowledge an architectural design icon, Richard Rogers. I will be looking at this man’s life and his accomplishments. Richard Rogers is my design icon because his buildings are bold, daring, eye-catching and of course, inspirational.
To get the information and research I need, I will be mainly gathering it from the internet, interviews and videos as well as any books I can come across.
Hopefully, after reading this report you will understand why Richard Rogers is considered a design icon not to just myself, but the rest of the world.
Richard Rogers
As a person, Richard Rogers has lead an incredible life, born in Italy, he trained at the AA (Architectural Association) and Yale University leaving with an impressive amount of qualifications.
Richard Rogers, his partner Norman Foster and their wives Su Brumwell and Wendy Cheesman, set up an architectural practice called Team 4, although this partnership only lasted a 4 years, Richard continued to marry Su, and create a new partnership with Renzo Piano when they then designed the first of many inspirational buildings, the Pompidou Centre.
Richard won various awards for many different buildings, even though he did have some problems with the public about his buildings, he did go on to design another building, the Lloyd’s building in London, which is much more popular today than it was when it was being built.
Richard has visited many different countries leaving his mark in many of them, including the United Kingdom, Spain, France, Germany, New York and Japan. He has inspired many people with his buildings and his determination. He has not being afraid of putting his ideas forward, and has been given both grief and praise by the public. He is committed to ensuring that his buildings should be “people’s places”.

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The BBC invited Richard as the first architect to give the BBC Reith Lectures for a series called ‘Cities for a Small Planet’. Richard even became the Chief Advisor on Architecture and Urbanism to the Mayor of London, he has also been a chairman of the Tate Gallery and Honorary Trustee of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. If that wasn’t enough, he even went on to be knighted and became Lord Rogers.
Richard Rogers has many achievements and has done many, many things over his lifetime, below is a short timeline of some of his most remarkable achievements.
Richard Rogers was born in Florence, Italy in 1933. Richard moved to London to go to the Architectural association. He then went on to gain a master’s degree from Yale University in 1962.
Richard met up with former Yale student Norman Foster and began an architectural practice called Team 4 with their wives, although the partnership only lasted a few years, Richard quickly found a new partner, Renzo Piano, who together won the Prizker Price their building the Pompidou Centre which was built in 1977.
His next main building was Lloyds building in London which was completed in 1986 which became just as much of a monument as big ben. The European Court of Human Rights (1995) is very popular in France, for its fantastic looks. The Barajas airport in Madrid was also a head turner. The Millennium Dome though really was a fantastic structure, representing so much in such a unique way, this was completed in 1999. Another big project was London Heathrow Terminal 5, there was so much to this project, but it was finally completed in 2008. And finally, a real monument, Three Word Trade Centre, it is said to be completed between 2011 and 2015, it is to stand next to two other towers built by other architects using the same style.
Richard Rogers has designed many buildings, most popular are the Pompidou Centre in Paris, in London he designed the Lloyd’s Building, the Millennium Dome and London Heathrow Terminal 5. The European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg, Barajas airport terminal 4 in Madrid and the National Assembly for Wales building were also fantastic structures.
The Pompidou Centre
The Centre Pompidou was Richards first building created alongside Renzo Piano in 1977, the design of which won the Prizker Prize in 2007 by basically creating the building inside out.
This meant that all the parts you would usually expect to see inside, like the stairs, air ducts, plumbing, cables, etc. were all on the outside of the building creating massive indoor space, which is particularly useful as this particular building was used as an art museum, in fact, it is the largest museum for modern art in Europe.
Not only was this building functional, it also complimented its use for an art museum, impressing its visitors before they even entered the building. In theory, having the internal maintenance, such as the plumbing and air ducts, should also make the building easier to maintain. Another complimenting aspect of the building is how each external part has being colour coded to make sure they stood out rather than blend in.
The Pompidou’s original plans were actually much more extravagant to start, including moving internal walls and adjustable floors, which unfortunately, did not make it into the final design. Richard was at first reluctant to put this design forward as he was confident that the French government would turn it down, but as it has it, they didn’t, and although it was criticized at first and claimed to be ‘ugly’ it is now complimented on being “one of the most remarkable buildings of the 20th century.”
The headquarters for Lloyd’s of London
Richard used the Pompidou center as an inspiration for his next building, the Lloyds building in London. This was a massive project as the previous building was created in steel where as this one of concrete.
Once again the building was designed with its internal parts, outside, this even included glass lifts which were the first of their kind in the UK, as well as the cables, stairs, pipes and even the toilets. This, of course, left large open spaces on the inside.
Once again the Lloyds building was brightly coloured and brightly lit. The public at first feared this would make this building an ‘alien’ is actually “regarded as one of the finest buildings on London since the 1980’s”
The Millennium Dome
The millennium dome is another one of Richards’s creations. It is a very clever design with 12 towers or ‘arms’ extruding from the white canopy which support the roof of the structure. Stretching out a massive 365m diameter, the Dome is the biggest one in the world. The design of the structure is also clever as you will notice 365m in diameter, one meter for each day of the year, as well as one tower for each month of the year. Although you would of never of realized until someone mentioned it, it’s still a remarkable thing to have built in.
On the inside there was a large open space with a skylight in the center of it all to fill with whatever the users would like, which for the millennium, was split into 13 different zones to educate the public in an interactive way, unfortunately, the £43 million building only brought in half the expected visitors and was finally converted into the 02 Arena.
The millennium dome was a remarkable structure built for the millennium and had been planned for since 1996, and was originally planned as a temporary structure to last only 1 year, but as it happens, it’s lasted much longer.
175 Greenwich Street
175 Greenwich Street is the future site of the 3rd world trade center. The structure will stretch up to 1155 feet with 71 stories, four of which will be below street level. The building will occupy 200x 198 feet.
The building itself has been designed to the highest energy efficiency ratings. It is to have a central concrete core using a steel frame on the outside of the building. It is planned to be completed between 2011and 2015 depending when the site is available to developers.
The building will also be accompanied by two other towers built by separate architects but hired by the same company, Silverstein Properties. All three buildings are to have the same style.
London Heathrow Terminal 5
Terminal 5 was finally approved in 2001 after a 46 month public inquiry, the longest public inquiry in British history. In 2002 work had finally started and was not completed until 2008. The new terminal means that the airport can support a much higher passenger capacity, but it will not have any more flights, although environmentalists say it will lead to more flights and pollution.
For the terminal to be built, two rivers had to be diverted. Using artificial waterways to successfully divert the rivers allowed the £4.2 billion building to be built. Terminal 5 had to include a railway station and several other buildings as well as a control tower; this really shows how big the project actually is.
Richard Rogers has been accused of having several different styles, he himself is committed on his buildings being “people places”, although this is not normally classed as a style, he certainly has made it into one with his structures have exceedingly large indoor spaces.
Bowellism is another style related to his first building, the Pompidou Centre. Having the internal components such as the lifts, pipes, stairs and cables externally, means that there is an unreal amount of floor space, which, for an art museum, is very useful.
Post-modern is referred to another one of his structures, the Lloyds building in London, having all the components clearly visible, and then brightly painted, and then brightly lit
When Richard was younger, he dreamed of building a Zip-up house where his parents would live, a zip-up house basically means ready to assemble or a flat pack house. Having walls, floors, panels and so on prebuilt and fabricated making the building energy efficient, and easy to adjust.
As you can see, Richard Rogers has lead a remarkable life, building many inspirational buildings such as the Pompidou Centre, leaving his mark in many countries such as England, and many cities such as Strasbourg, he has received many well deserved awards for his buildings and has even been knighted by the queen.
He has an incredible design eye, and is not afraid to go outside of the box, or in some cases, the building, and even though some of his buildings have been criticized badly, in the end, they always came out positive.
The fact that Richard is still designing, and his designs still make the public gasp is amazing, hopefully he will continue to build and design for as long as possible, and I’m sure that many people will be inspired by his work and his life. All of these things, and many, many more, defiantly make him a supreme choice of a design icon.
Trying to recommend anything for Richard Rogers is extremely difficult as he has done it all, he’s traveled, he’s married, he’s left his mark, he’s inspired, he’s lived, if anything people should look at his life and make recommendations for themselves. Do what you love doing, and do it until you die, don’t be afraid of putting your ideas forward, and fight for what you want.

Psychological Assessment of Richard Ramirez

Purpose of Assessment
Richard Ramirez, also known as the “Night Stalker” is currently sentenced to capital punishment for multiple counts of murder, attempted murder, sexual assaults, and burglaries. For a final request before his death, Mr. Ramirez has requested a psychological assessment be conducted as to evaluate his mental health when committing his crimes. In order to conduct the assessment, I will be reviewing Mr. Ramirez’s criminal history and prior events leading up to his crimes analyzing any patterns relevant to the assessment. In concluding the review of Mr. Ramirez’s history, I will conduct a psychological assessment and determine in my professional view any mental illness Mr. Ramirez has and state the symptoms he may have using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DMS-V; American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

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Description of the Crime
Between the years of 1984 and 1985, Mr. Ramirez committed several acts of sexual assault, murder, attempted murder, and burglaries until his arrest on August 29, 1985 (Crime Investigation, 2014). Mr. Ramirez’s first victim, Jennie Vincow, was burglarized and sexually assaulted during a burglary in her home (Crime Investigation, 2014). Nine months after the death of Jennie Vincow, Mr. Ramirez attacked Angela Barrios and killed her roommate, Dayle Okazaki (Crime Investigation, 2014). However, unsatisfied with the results from his assault that evening, Mr. Ramirez stabbed Tsai Lian Yu in the same night (Crime Investigation, 2014). Throughout the next five months, Mr. Ramirez repeated the same assault with his victims, in which, his attacks escalated rapidly that had murdered, injured, and sexually assaulted 22 other people until his arrest (Crime Investigation, 2014).
Prior to his criminal convictions, Mr. Ramirez had a criminal record from his youth that had began with petty crimes such as robberies in 1977 placing him in juvenile detention (Crime Investigation, 2014). Years later, Mr. Ramirez engaged in criminal acts such as burglary and car theft in 1983 which led to a sentence in jail where he was released in April 1984.
Psychological History
Mr. Ramirez’s social history has exhibited persistent patterns of exposure of criminal behaviour and violence. At and early age, Mr. Ramirez was exposed to an abusive nature as his father was abusive (Famous People, 2016). During his childhood, Mr. Ramirez was influenced by his older cousin, named Mike, which had told and shown pictures of violent acts that he acquired while serving in the Vietnamese War, introduced Mr. Ramirez to drugs, and had killed his wife in the presence of Mr. Ramirez (Crime Investigation, 2014). As an adolescent, Mr. Ramirez moved to San Francisco, then Los Angeles. While residing in San Francisco and Los Angeles, he had continued petty theft crimes to fuel his drug addiction as he then used cocaine and LSDs, which led Mr. Ramirez in an interest of Satanism (Famous People, 2016). With being exposed to violence and crime, Mr. Ramirez dropped out of high school and ventured into criminal acts (Famous People, 2016)
Current Psychological Functioning
In this section of the assessment, I will conduct an analysis of Mr. Ramirez’s criminal history and the relationship between any potential mental disorders that may lead to any recidivism. This section will discuss two subtopics. First, I will provide a quick assessment of Mr. Ramirez in relations to Conduct Disorder and the symptoms outlined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-V; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Second, I will then assess Mr. Ramirez for psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2016).
Conduct Disorder
According to the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Conduct Disorder refers to “a repetitive and persistent pattern of behaviour in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated” (p. 469). In order to be diagnosed with Conduct Disorder at least three of the following 15 criteria must be shown within 12 months, with at least one characteristic present within 6 months (American Psychiatric Association, 2013):

Bullies, threatens or intimidates others
Often initiates physical fights
Has used a weapon that can seriously cause physical harm to others
Has been physically cruel to people
Has been physically cruel to animals
Has stolen while confronting victim
Has forced someone into sexual activity
Deliberately engaged in fire setting with intention of causing serious damage
Destroyed others’ property (other than fire setting)
Broken into someone else’s house, building, or car
Often lies to obtain goods, favours, or to avoid obligations
Stolen items of nontrivial value without confronting the victim
Staying out at night despite parental prohibitions
Runs away from home overnight at least twice while living with a guardian or once without returning for a lengthy period of time
Is often missing from school

Based on the details of Mr. Ramirez’s report and the diagnosis of Conduct Disorder that Mr. Ramirez does acquire the symptoms of the mental illness. Mr. Ramirez exhibits ten out of the possible symptoms listed above. During childhood and adolescent years, Mr. Ramirez would have often dealt with using drugs with his older cousin, Mike, and missed/dropped out of school to pursue a life of crime. With all of his victims, Mr. Ramirez has displayed violent intentions by intimidating, torturing, and sexually assaulting his victims before physically harming or killing them with either a knife or a gun. In assaulting and murdering his victims, Mr. Ramirez would initially engage in burglarizing his victims’ houses and cars.
The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)
The definition of psychopathy can be defined as “persuasive emotional and interpersonal deficits, impulsivity and antisocially” (Hosker-Field, Molnar, & Book, 2016). To measure psychopathy on an individual, the use of a psychological instrument called a Psychopathy Checklist-Revised is used as it assesses the characteristics of psychopathy by reviewing any reports, interviews, or various sources of the individual to determine their level of psychopathy (Storey, Hart, Cooke, & Michie, 2016). During the assessment of the PCL-R, it is comprised of two factors. The first factor or Factor 1, is comprised of the interpersonal and affective characteristics of psychopathy (Hare & Neumann, 2010). The second factor or Factor 2 reflects more of the antisocial characteristics of the individual (Hare & Neumann, 2010). The total of characteristics being applied are 12 with six characteristics in both factors. On a point system of 0 to 2, a score of 18 and over out of 24 will determine that the individual is have psychopathy. A score that is 12 or under will determine that the individual is a non-psychopath. As a result of the PCL-R assessment, Mr. Ramirez had scored a 9 out of a possible 12 in Factor 1, and scored a 9 out of a possible 12 in Factor 2. In conclusion, Mr. Ramirez, in my professional opinion meets the criteria of being a psychopath in the assessment of the PCL-R.
Relevant Psychological Function
Based on Mr. Ramirez’s criminal history and the early exposure of violent and criminal life events, the most relevant theory for understanding his criminal behaviour is the trauma-control model. Trauma-control model argues that with the combination of predispositional factors, such as biological, sociological, and psychological factors, and early traumatic events interact with other factors over the individual’s life may determine their criminal psychopathy (Correction Service Canada, 2007). At a young age, Mr. Ramirez witnessed his cousin, Mike, killed his wife, which may have increased his development of psychopathy and with being surrounded with criminal and violent influences it could have increasingly developed his psychopathy even more when Mr. Ramirez started to use drugs such as cocaine and LSD (Famous People, 2016). Relating trauma-control model to Mr. Ramirez’s history, by residing in an environment that had engaged with criminal, violent, and drug abuse activities it increased the development of psychopathy.
Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2010). The role of antisociality in the psychopathy construct: Comment on Skeem and Cooke (2010). Psychological Assessment, 22(2), 446-454. doi:10.1037/a0013635
Hosker-Field, A. M., Molnar, D. S., & Book, A. S. (2016). Psychopathy and risk taking: Examining the role of risk perception. Personality and Individual Differences, 91, 123-132. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.11.059
Storey, J. E., Hart, S. D., Cooke, D. J., & Michie, C. (2016). Psychometric properties of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a representative sample of Canadian federal offenders. Law and Human Behavior, 40(2), 136-146. doi:10.1037/lhb0000174
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. (2013). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.
Richard Ramirez Biography. (2016). Retrieved November 15, 2016, from
Richard Ramirez: The Night Stalker. (2014). Retrieved November 13, 2016, from
The Role of Escalating Paraphilic Fantasies and Behaviours in Sexual, Sadistic, and Serial Violence: A Review of Theoretical Models. (2007). Retrieved November 13, 2016, from (2007). Retrieved November 13, 2016, from
Dhingra, K., & Boduszek, D. (2013). Psychopathy and criminal behaviour: A psychosocial research perspective. Journal of Criminal Psychology, 3(2), 83-107. doi:10.1108/jcp-06-2013-0014
Hare, R. D. (2016). Psychopathy, the PCL-R, and criminal justice: Some new findings and current issure. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadiene, 57 (1), 21-34. doi:10.1037/cap0000041
Hare, R. D., & Mcpherson, L. M. (1984). Violent and aggressive behavior by criminal psychopaths. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 7(1), 35-50. doi:10.1016/0160-2527(84)90005-0
Appendix A
Psychopathy-Checklist Revised (Class Version)
Factor 1 (Emotional/Interpersonal Symptoms)
Item 1: Glib and Superficial0 1 2

Presentation is shallow and difficult to believe
Display of emotions do not appear genuine
Attempts to portray self in a positive light
Tell unlikely stories; has convincing explanations for behaviour
Uses technical language and jargon, often inappropriately
Conversation and interpersonal behaviour are engaging

Item 2: Egocentric and Grandiose0 1 2

View of abilities and self worth are inflated
Self-assured and opinionated
Exaggerates status and reputation
Considers circumstances to be result of bad luck
Sees self as the victim of the system
Displays little concern for the future

Item 3: Lack of Remorse/Guilt..0 1 2

Appears to have no capacity for guilt/no conscience
Verbalizes remorse in an insincere manner
Displays little emotion to actions
Does not appreciate impact on others
Concerned more with own suffering than with that of others

Item 4: Lack of Empathy0 1 2

Cold and callous
Indifferent to the feelings of others
Unable to appreciate the emotional consequences of others

Item 5: Deceitful and Manipulative…0 1 2

Manipulates without concern for the rights of others
Distorts the truth
Deceives with self-assurance and with no apparent anxiety
A fraud artist or con man
Enjoys deceiving others

Item 6: Shallow Emotions..0 1 2

Expressed emotions are shallow and labile
Verbal and non-verbal expressions of emotion are inconsistent

Factor 2 (Social Deviance Symptoms)
Item 7: Impulsive.0 1 2

Does things on the “spur of the moment” (including crimes); spends little time considering the consequences of actions
Frequently changes jobs, schools, or relationships
A drifter; lives a nomadic lifestyle with frequent changes of residence

Item 8: Poor Behavioural Controls…0 1 2

Easily angered or frustrated, especially when drinking
Often verbally abusive (swears, makes threats)
Often physically abusive (breaks or throws objects; pushes, slaps, or punches people)
Abuse may be sudden and unprovoked
Outbursts are often short-lived

Item 9: Need for Excitement.0 1 2

Easily bored; has difficulty doing things that require sustained attention
Likes to do things that are exciting, risky, and dangerous

Item 10: Lack of Responsibility.0 1 2

Behaviour frequently causes hardship to others or puts them at risk
Unreliable as a spouse or parent; lacks commitment to relationships, fails to care adequate for children; etc.
Job performance is inadequate; is frequently late, absent, etc.,
Untrustworthy with money; has been in trouble for defaulting on loans, not paying bills, not paying child support

Item 11: Early Behaviour Problems.0 1 2

Conduct problems at home and at school as an adolescent
In trouble with the law as a youth/minor
Antisocial activities were varied and frequent

Item 12: Adult Anti-social Behaviour0 1 2

Disregards rules and regulations; has had legal problems as an adult
Has been charged with or convicted of criminal offences
Antisocial activities are varied and frequent

Richard Swinburne’s Arguments on Why God Allows Evil

The Evil of God

 The presence of evil and suffering in our world seems to challenge to in the existence of a perfect God. If God were omniscient, it seems that God would know about all the terrible things that happen in our world. If God were omnipotent, God would be able to do something about all the evil and misery. Furthermore, if God were Good, then surely God would want to do something about it. And yet we find that our world is filled with immeasurable occurrences of evil and suffering. However, Richard Swinburne believes that he can justify evil on behalf of an all-good God.

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 In “Why God Allows Evil”, Swinburne argues that God cannot give us the gift to choose without giving us the power of free will, and for free will to really exist, the meaningful choices between good and evil must be present. Swinburne thus believes, God allows evil to give humans a greater meaning to free will and the world. However, Swinburne’s views contradict the depiction of evil by pop culture, as pop culture displays that allowing one man, such as an evil villain, to kill millions of people cannot be justified by the potential good of the “gift” of free choice, unless we know that good wins in the end.

 In “Why God Allows Evil,” Richard Swinburne explains why God allows evil to take place. He puts a case forward to defend theism and how evil cannot be used to dismiss the existence of God. The theism supported by Swinburne is the hypothesis that there is one God, who is the creator of the cosmos. According to Swinburne, good God, though having the power to benefit or to harm us, would provide significant freedom and responsibility to his creation, rather than expel evil (Swinburne 262). God logically cannot give us the goods of significant freedom, responsibility and usefulness without thereby allowing for the possibility of lots of evil. Specifically, Swinburne argues God has grounds to creates a world with two types of evil, each of which has a purpose. The first is moral evil, which is perpetrated by humans who do things they are not supposed to (Swinburne 263). The second is natural evil, which does not result from the actions of humans, such as suffering caused by hurricanes, forest fires, diseases, animal suffering, etc.

  According to Swinburne, Humans have the responsibility to make free choices, whereby they can choose to do either good or bad things. The mere fact that God decided to grant humans this responsibility instead of keeping it to Himself is an indication that He is a good and just God (Swinburne 264). Suffering can serve as a beacon to redirect humans into making good decisions and involves major responsibilities. Significant responsibility includes the ability to freely choose what kind of person you will become, including the character traits you will have, responsibility for the welfare of our own lives, the lives of others, and our world (Swinburne 264). For Example, Swinburne suggests that it is good to suffer for a belief that is true, such as dying for one’s country. Swinburne opines that suffering takes place so that good is possible. He states that God has a right to make humans suffer to lead them into making the right choices. This quality of God is akin to a parent punishing a child to ensure they have a better future. Parents give their children life, shelter, food, love and with the motive to give them a good life. This permits them the limited right to have their children to suffer to achieve a greater good either for the child’s sake, or for someone else’s. Although God is the supreme parent, still there are limits to even God’s rights to let us suffer. He can’t let us suffer immeasurably, and/or forever as he has created us with morals, physiological and psychological limit. “Still there must be limit to the amount of suffering…. there are number of in-built into our physiology and psychology” (Swinburne 266). Moreover, Swinburne argues that Moral evil allows people the opportunity to perform brave acts, and to suffer to benefit others. In his argument, Swinburne quotes Aristotle saying: “we become just by doing just acts, prudent by doing prudent acts, brave by doing brave acts”. That being said, bravery, justice, and valor can only arise from free will; none of them have meaning when nothing is on the line. Without free will, no virtue could exist. If there is no injustice in the world, the motif to bring justice would not exist. When people experience pain, there are various responses they can have towards that pain. The person in pain can be aggrieved or exercise patience. At the same time, those around the person have the choice of either acting compassionately or being oblivious to the person’s pain (Swinburne 264). The pain brings about the chance to make good choices. By disallowing humans, the freedom of choice between good and evil, God would remove the possibility for people to be virtuous.

 In addition, Swinburne argues that Natural evil is necessary for us to be of use in realizing a world with genuine moral good and responsibility. Precisely, Swinburne focuses on pain and suffering caused by natural evil. He claims that in a natural world natural evil is necessary for us to act ethically mature and to be able to choose our own path. It is necessary for the greater good. The opportunity of courage sacrifice etc. can only arise in a world that has natural evil. Therefore, the harm of natural evil is outweighed by the greater good.

Lastly, Swinburne clams that free will result in evil as it provides temptation to do evil and without the temptation to do evil, no significant evil would be done.

 However, Swinburne’s view on why God allows evil is only partially reflected in the pop culture. The pop culture tends to portrays evil only when good ultimately wins In pop culture, disasters reflected in films such as 12 Monkeys (2012), 28 Weeks Later (2007) and The Walking Dead are a result of the irresponsibility of humans. In these films, a virus developed by human escapes and causes either mass deaths or transforms the dead into rabid zombies. The whole world is affected and becomes evil against a tiny number

of people that have not yet been affected by the calamity. Other films depict

 disasters caused by nuclear holocausts, overexploitation of earth’s resources, and climate change. Climate change is poised to be the greatest threat to civilization, and it is entirely caused by the industrial activities of humans. Evil is also often personified in a dictator, a terrorist, or an alien. Notice, however, that the suffering caused by the evil in pop culture is not enduring but lasts only for a short time before it is resolved. Further, there is a growth in the number of heroes in the pop culture spheres. Humans with super abilities take on the personified evil and eradicate it for the good of humanity. This is seen in films such as The Avengers (2012), Dare Devil, Jessica Jones among others. In these films, the good that is represented by the superhero usually triumphs in the end. These movies portray that evil might score a few victories first, and maybe even almost win in the darkest hour before Good can save the day at the last minute. In other words, pop culture often shows that evil is “justified” if only good wins the day ultimately.

 However, the feel-good factor in the pop culture of having good triumph over evil has been shaken by the films like Avengers: Infinity War (2018) and Alien: Covenant. In this film, evil in the form of Thanos triumphs by eliminating half of the life in the universe from existence. The argument of the superheroes in the film is that no one has a right to decide who is to die or live to preserve the resources of the universe. Thanos has the free choice to destroy millions of lives. In the movie, the villain considers killing half of the life in the universe to be the only way to save the universe from overstretching its resources due to overpopulation. Here, Pop Culture portrays that allowing one man to kill millions of people cannot be justified by the potential good of the “gift” of free choice no matter what the reason is. Additionally, Avengers: Infinity War poses a threat to the good as it wins at the end of the movie as a result the Avengers intends to go back in time to undo all the evil Thanos caused. This way the evil will win at last. This again shows how pop culture portrays evil through its movies.

 In addition, in Pop Culture Movies like Alien: Covenant, Se7en, Drag Me to Hell and The Vanishing portrays evil as far more powerful than good. In Alien: Covenant, David, the android is an enlightened monster. He is a far more powerful and complex than the heroes of the movie. David destroys the native life forms of a strange planet he lands on. This great perpetrator of evil kills thousands of innocent creatures and defeats the good with his power. The evil here signifies a demon that even his total defeat could not banish. These movies raise a question of the power of evil in this world. The argument can therefore be made that God has created unnecessary evil.

 Movies likeAlien: Covenant, Avengers: Infinity War give raise to some great philosophical argument against Swinburne’s theory. In such movies the audience feel that Allowing one man, such as Thanos or David, to kill millions of people cannot be justified by the potential good of the “gift” of free choice. To this, Swinburne might argue that without the ability to do evil cannot be separated with freedom of choice, and to take away freedom of choice would be to destroy that which is human. Furthermore, evil allows people the opportunity to perform brave acts, and to suffer to benefit others. Without free will, no virtue could exist. However, that could be refuted as the occurrence of evil in the world far surpasses the amount necessary to allow virtues to grow. Throughout history we have seen evil committed have been far more than the good that have created unnecessary suffering and misery. Take Hitler or Genghis Khan for example.

 This raises another argument to Swinburne and that is evil is far more prevalent and seems to win more often. How good can God be if the evil created by him wins in the end and causes suffering to the innocents? Evil takes over when there is power given to an individual. For example, in 1937, a soviet dictator Joseph Stalin murdered vast number of innocent and government officials to satisfy his paranoia that everyone is in his way. His regime is responsible for the death and suffering of millions of lives. Despite all the evil he committed Stalin got away with his crime for so many years. To this Swinburne would argue that without moral evil there would still be natural evil present. Natural evil is certainly prevalent outside of the realm of mankind, as living organisms must die to feed others who must die to feed others ad infinitum. Natural evils like tsunami, hurricane kills thousands of people each year. That is true indeed. However, without humans, there would be much less suffering on the earth, that much cannot be argued. Mankind has hunted with a proficiency never seen before. We are solely responsible for the extinction of thousands of species, maybe hundreds of thousands. Some of these extinctions came from a need to feed an ever-growing population, and creatures were hunted to extinction. Natural evil will exist without human but the much darker and much more intentionally bad form of evil, moral evil, would not.

Works Cited

Swinburne, Richard. “Why God Allows Evil?”, Exploring Philosophy. Oxford University Press, 2017. pp. 260-270


Was President Richard Nixon a Good Leader?

President Richard Nixon: A Great Leader?


Richard Milhous Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, a small town in Southern California in January 9, 1913. At the time his father was citrus farmer in the area. After being hit with an unseasonably cold winter the farm suffered. By age 6 his family his family moved to Whittier, California, where his father opened a small grocery store.

In 1918 when Richard Nixon was 12 years old, his youngest brother died at the age of 7 from tuberculosis. This tragic loss was extremely hard on the family especially Richard, however the loss gave him the will and determination to try to help his parents heal by replacing their heartache with pride from Richard’s accomplishments and successes. He was very bright and hardworking, not only in school, but he helped his father with the grocery store as well. He woke up every morning at 4:00 am to drive to Los Angeles to get produce and bring it back to the store to get it set up for the day. Afterwards, he went to school and did his homework only to return to the store to work every afternoon. In school he joined every organization he could and eventually became president of each organization. This was not because he was popular, but people had a certain respect for him. It was very hard for a young Richard Nixon to make true friends. He was seen as very serious and focused.

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During his time in high school his family faced another tragedy. His oldest brother, Harold, also contracted tuberculosis. Harold was the polar opposite from Richard. He was popular, friendly, and outgoing, where Richard was more of a loner and unapproachable. Their mother took Harold to Arizona to care and others suffering from tuberculosis with the hopes of a more successful recover in a dryer climate. This was very hard on the family emotionally and financially. Richard continued to do well in high school and graduated best all-around in his class. He was given a tuition paid scholarship to Harvard, but due to his family caring for his ill brother, they were unable to afford room and board. Having to turn down this scholarship was a major blow to Richard.

In the fall of 1930 Richard Nixon started in Whittier College where he excelled in his studies. Again, he joined everything he could, even football, even though he was rarely given a chance to play. While he was in his third year of college, his family brought Harold home. Their mother’s birthday was approaching, and Harold asked Richard to drive him to the store to get her a mixer for a birthday present. On his mother’s birthday, Harold was determined to have the strength to get up and give her the present himself. That day he died in her arms.

Richard Nixon, devastated of the loss of another brother, his oldest, now becomes even more determined to become the perfect son thinking it will help his parents heal from the painful loss. After he graduated Whittier College as a four-year honor student, he went to Duke University to receive a law degree. Even with competition much tougher at Duke, Nixon still remained driven and graduated third in his class.

After graduating with a law degree, he returned to Whittier, California at 24 years old to join a small law firm. He married Pat Ryan in 1940, and not long after they married, he and Pat moved to Washington, DC. He began working for the Office of Price Administration. This was a time when America was at war and Nixon volunteered to join the Navy. He could have refused war service because he was a government employee and a Quaker, but Nixon knew by this point that he wanted a future in politics, so to him refusing to join the military was not an option.

While in the Navy, Nixon became a great poker player who became very skilled at bluffing. He came home from the war with $10,000 that he won from a game, and he used his winnings to fund his first political campaign for California’s 12th congressional district, which he later won. In 1948 he was so well-liked that his congressional seat was uncontested. He later began campaigning for the Senate and won, and in 1952, Dwight Eisenhower even selected him as his running mate for the presidential election. Nixon was known to seek out and destroy reputations of every opponent he faced throughout his political career, while portraying himself as “holier-than-thou” (Ambrose). This tactic backfired when he was accused of using campaign funds for himself and giving special treatment to those who donated to the fund. In order to secure his seat on the ballot for vice president, Nixon became the first politician to use national television to reach supporters and plead his case. This speech, now famously known as the Checkers Speech, was a bold move that was a huge success because it reached the public on a personal level. He went on national television and disclosed all of his financial information from how much they paid for rent, to how much life insurance they had, and also all of their debt that was owed. At the end of the speech he told the nation the story of a black and white Cocker Spaniel named Checkers that was a gift from a campaign donor. He said that his daughters loved Checkers and that was the only donation that he was keeping and would be returning no matter what anyone said. Not only was this audacious move a triumphant success, but Eisenhower and Nixon won the election in an overwhelming victory.

Nixon served as Eisenhower’s Vice President for 8 years, but it was not until 1955 when Eisenhower had a heart attack that Nixon was suddenly in charge of the nation. It was then that he proved to the nation that he could handle the presidency. As Ambrose explains, “Nixon won praise from all quarters for his calm, skillful conduct in the crisis; a 1958 trip to South America, where communist demonstrators threatened to kill him, but he stood up to them, to his own great political advantage back in the States; and a 1959 trip to Russia where he engaged in a heated debate with the Soviet dictator and was so successful that he was called ‘the man who stood up to Khrushchev” (Ambrose).

The years during Nixon’s eight years as Vice President under Eisenhower were peaceful years for America, so it was thought that Nixon could win the 1960 presidential election against John F. Kennedy. Nixon resented Kennedy because came from a wealthy and affluent family. In November of 1960 Kennedy won the election in one of the closest elections to date. After his defeat, Nixon left politics to return to practice law in California, but only briefly. That lasted about a year and a half before he had the urge to get back into politics, and this time he was running for Governor of California. He lost badly this time, and in one of his most famous and calculated statements, he told the press in a statement to, “think how much you are going to be missing. You won’t have Nixon to kick around anymore, because, gentlemen, this is my last press conference.” He knew that other Republicans also felt that the press was biased with the Democratic party and this was his chance to confront them on national television.

He then moved to work in a high-profile law firm in New York where he continued to prepare himself by learning foreign policy abroad to once again enter back into politics and become President. By 1967, Richard Nixon was back. He won the Republican nomination in August of 1967. “He campaigned as the champion of the ‘silent majority’ –ordinary Americans who believed that change had gone too far –and called for a renewed commitment to “law and order“ (Foner 1011). He was elected president in 1968 not only because of this commitment to restore law and order, but also because he promised to end the Vietnam War. “Nixon pledged during the campaign that he could achieve ‘an honorable peace’ in Vietnam. (The standard phrase later became ‘peace with honor’)” (Monje). It was not until early 1973 that the he was able to establish the Paris Peace Agreement that ended the war. As Foner explains about the Vietnam War, “The only war the United States has ever lost, Vietnam was a military, political, and social disaster. By the time it ended, 58,000 Americans had been killed, along with 3 million Vietnamese” (Foner 1023).

In 1971, there was a newspaper article outlining the past United States government administrations’ negotiations with Vietnam. Nixon became afraid that these past diplomatic negotiations would become public knowledge and hurt his current negotiations. The justice department tried to get an injunction against the production of any more of these articles to try to stop anymore leaks. This was when he established a Special Investigations Unit, known as “the Plumbers”, because stopping leaks would be their main task. The Nixon administration started tapping the telephones of the reporters because he felt they sided with the anti-Vietnam people. They broke into a psychiatrist office to try to get dirt on Daniel Ellsberg, the man who leaked Pentagon Papers to the New York Times. They wiretapped foreign embassies.

All of these crimes led up to the start of Nixon’s downfall, which was the scandal we know today as Watergate. In 1973, five men were arrested after breaking into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex. Immediately, it was apparent that this was tied to the White House. One of the items they seized during the arrest was a telephone book with the phone number to the White House along with the direct extension to the head of the Plumbers’, Chuck Colson. As Mendolsohn describes, “it became increasingly clear that the Watergate burglary was one of several illegal operations that the president’s reelection committee had financed and organized” (Mendolsohn). Nixon did not originally know about the Watergate burglary, but as soon as he did, he “plotted a cover-up operation to prevent any connection between the burglars and his campaign” (Mendolsohn). It almost worked, except for the fact that Nixon taped all of his presidency at the Oval Office of the White House. The Supreme Court eventually ruled that the tapes did not belong to him and must be submitted into evidence. The calls for his impeachment began mid-1973, and the first article of impeachment came in on July 27. Two more articles were approved and more began to come in, but deliberations stopped on August 8, 1874 when President Nixon resigned from office.

Nixon became the only president to resign from office in disgrace, and unfortunately that became his biggest claim to fame. Even with all of the mistakes made by the Nixon administration, they also had many achievements. Nixon’s administration started the Environmental Protection Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. He asked Congress to establish pension reform to protect Americans from losing their pension if they lost their jobs. Nixon signed an executive order to continue the Philadelphia Plan which helped to increase employment of minorities on federal construction projects. He signed legislature on behalf of American Indians improving federal Indian policies, and he increased funding to African American colleges. Additionally, he funded the National Endowment for the Arts.

I do not feel that Nixon was ever a “crook”, but his drive to always win was enough temptation for him to be guilty of an abuse of power. He did not collect any major payouts from being President. He never released any national security secrets for bribe monies. He did not transfer missile technology, and he did not start any wars for the purpose of profiting. Among his greatest achievements he was instrumental in reducing nuclear arms and tensions with China and with the Soviet Union. He is also known for ending the Vietnam War, although it was one of the longest and costliest retreats in our history.

President Nixon was a visionary and winning meant everything to him. I would not consider him as having the best leadership skills; however, he was driven, brilliant, and demanding, and more importantly he kept the world at peace while in office with his knowledge and understanding of international affairs. He was often described with the phrase “when he was bad, he was really bad, but when he was good, he was great.”

Works Cited

Ambrose, Stephen E. “Nixon: An Important but Not a Great President.” World & I, vol. 9, no. 7, July 1994, p. 88. EBSCOhost,

Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty an American History. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2017.

Mendelsohn, James. “Of Washington D.C. and Watergate.” Barbara Jordan, Jan. 2000, p. 136. EBSCOhost,

Monje, Scott C. “CONFRONTATIONS WITH COMMUNISM: Richard Nixon: The ‘Silent Majority’ and ‘Vietnamization’.” Defining Documents: The 1960s, Apr. 2016, pp. 128–137. EBSCOhost,


Study On Shakespeare Richard II Drama Essay

The opening scene of Richard II is illuminating on several counts. On the one hand, Richard II, as king, appears to be acting out in full, his role as supreme arbiter of the land, by presiding over an appeal for treason. This medieval trial requires the presence of the king as both ruler and immediate dispenser of justice.
On the other hand, as the scene unfolds, we gradually learn that what is being undermined is not simply the respective reputations of the rival nobles, Bolingbroke and Mowbray, but the very claims of the king himself to his Divine Right to rule. We learn that what they are fighting about is the murder of Thomas of Woodstock, Richard II’s uncle. Bolingbroke appears to know that Richard had secretly ordered Woodstock’s death. Obviously, it is impossible for Bolingbroke to accuse Richard directly of his own crime.

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Nevertheless, his solution, amounts to a thinly-veiled accusation: he accuses Mowbray of murdering Woodstock while under his custody – knowing full well that Mowbray himself was carrying out Richard’s instructions. Meanwhile, for the same reason, Mowbray cannot publicly name the guilty man and resorts to a perfectly traditional game of returning Bolingbroke’s insults and accusations. The otherwise perfectly conventional solution proposed by the king, a joust, is as much deployed in defense of his royal power, as presented as an honorable solution for noblemen.
At the very moment when the king appears to be at his most powerful, we can already discern how precarious this hold on power really is and on what it rests: a conflation of political and divinely ordained authority.
The implication of the concept of the Divine Rights of Kings is that any challenge to royal power is unthinkable because it is not merely treason, as viewed in other cultures, but also tantamount to blasphemy. This becomes clear in scene 3 when Richard realizes that he may soon lose his crown. Richard refuses to acknowledge that royal power relies on human, rather than divine intervention:
Not all the water in the rough rude sea
Can wash the balm from an anointed king.
The breath of worldly men cannot depose
The deputy elected by the Lord. (3.2 50-53)
The notion that the ceremonial anointment of the king is divinely ordained and cannot be outdone is acted out in its full pathos when Richard II literally uncrowns himself in Act 4 in a bizarre mirror-ceremony.
On the face of it, Henry V as a character could not be more different from Richard II. Unlike Richard who merely ignores his subjects and provokes their rebellion through unwise policies, Henry is much more charismatic and popular, while at the same time, politically much more astute. Through a combination of eloquence and bravery he is able to inspire and unite his kingdom against an external enemy in a way that Richard could only have dreamt of.
Henry’s political skills are most in evidence in 2.2 when he plays a rather Machiavellian trick on the plotters Cambridge, Grey and Scrope. Henry asks their opinion on whether he should be lenient to traitors. Having received the expected, hypocritical responses, Henry pretends to hand them their written military commissions – to be carried out as his faithful subjects. In fact, they are letters informing them that Henry knows of their plot. They are promptly arrested.
This is far from being an isolated instance of Henry’s cunning side. During a pause in the battle in 4.1, he disguises himself as a common soldier and mixes with his infantry, engaging them in conversation. Their talk centers on the respective roles of king and subject. Henry maintains that despite the apparent gulf, the king is fundamentally the same as the common man:
I think the King is but a man, as I am. The violet smells to him as it doth to me;
the element shows to him as it doth to meHis ceremonies laid by, in his nakedness he appears but a man, and though his affections are higher mounted than ours, yet when they stoop, they stoop with the like wing. (4.1.99-104)
Yet a few lines later, he contradicts himself by countering Williams and Bates’ (the common soldiers) argument that the king also has greater moral responsibility that comes with power. Henry repudiates his earlier assertion of shared humanity by asserting his special position as king:
Twin-born with greatness: subject to the breath
Of every fool, whose sense no more can feel
But his own wringing. What infinite heartsease
Must kings neglect that private men enjoy?
(4.1, 216-219)
The implication is that because of his divinely ordained kingship, Henry’s actions cannot be held to account and scrutinized on the same level as commoners. Henry wants to maintain a problematic and dubious distinction between his own kingly violence and the violence of common men, which is merely criminal. It becomes clear that Henry not only likes power games, but wants to write the rules of the game too. This becomes apparent later, when he pardons Williams’s (unintentional) challenge to himself as the king.
This scene is then deployed to illustrate royal magnanimity. To these examples can be added Henry’s wooing of Catherine in 5.2. Whether or not Catherine is won over is frankly irrelevant because in fact, the French King had already, in scene 3, offered Catherine to Henry before his invasion of France. The wooing scene is thus, strictly, superfluous.
Back to: Example Essays…
We have seen how in both plays, the notion of the Divine Rights of Kings is mobilized to defend and extend royal prerogatives. In Richard II, Bolingbroke’s rebellion is portrayed as inherently unnatural because it is both treacherous and blasphemous. Yet it is plain how ineffective a monarch Richard is. In Henry V, royal power is likewise portrayed as god-given but as we have seen it deployed we are forced to confront the gulf between virtuous kingship and successful statecraft based on the Machiavellian model. Both plays raise the question that what makes someone an effective king may be very far removed from what makes a morally admirable one.
King Henry V – Arden Shakespeare, 1995
Richard II – Arden Shakespeare, 2002
Hamilton, Donna, The State of Law in Richard II Shakespeare Quarterly 34 (1983): 5-17
Greenblatt, Stephen, Invisible Bullets: Renaissance Authority and its Subversion, Henry IV and Henry V. Political Shakespeare: New Essays in Cultural Materialism. Ed Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1985.