Naviance Interactions and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Among 11th and 12 Grade Students With Disabilities

The Correlation Between Naviance Interactions and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Among 11th and 12 Grade Students With Disabilities

Abstract

One of the major functions of school is to provide students the skills and knowledge to succeed in post-secondary aspirations. Research evidence shows that colleges and employers report that high school graduates are underprepared. Students with disabilities experience more difficulty in transitioning out of high school, even though IDEA 2004 mandates that transition is addressed through the Individual Education Program. Interventions to provide students with disabilities must be effective in order to meet transition goals. One intervention program is the online platform Naviance. Naviance features career and college exploration, goal-setting, and interest profiler components.  Using Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy as a quantitative measure, this study will determine any correlation between it and the interactions of the Naviance platform. Interactions will include the number of login occurrences among students along with other specific activities within the Naviance framework. It is hypothesized that increased interactions with Naviance among the student sample will strongly correlate with higher scores in Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy among those students.

Keywords: Naviance, Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, transition

The Correlation Between Naviance Interactions and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Among 11th and 12 Grade Students With Disabilities

As curriculums around the globe integrate 21st century skills, there is a renewed focus on high school graduates being college and career ready. In the United States, different states have various definitions for the term college and career readiness (College, 2014). Ultimately, each definition encompasses the abilities needed to preparedly transition to college or employment. However, there is evidence that suggests high schools are not effectively preparing students for collegiate or vocational endeavors. One third of high school graduates are not prepared for college level courses (Petrilli, 2017). Of the graduates that do enter college, over 50% do not earn a degree (DiBenedetto & Myers, 2016). In a 2016 Education Reform Now report, data collected showed that over 500,000 families spent more than one billion dollars on remedial interventions during the 2011-2012 academic year (Barry & Dannenberg, 2016). Compounding this problem is the projection that by 2020, a majority of careers in the United States will require post-secondary education (Carnevale, Smith, & Strohl, 2010).

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 There are similar concerns in regard to students’ preparedness for post-secondary employment, especially for students with disabilities. According to the National Center for Learning Disabilities (2017), adults with learning disabilities are twice as likely to be unemployed compared to non-disabled peers. Nineteen percent of employees with learning disabilities reported that their employers were not informed of the employees’ disability (National, 2017). The rate at which students with learning disabilities attend four-year colleges is half the total amount of the general population; those that do are less likely to complete a degree program (National, 2017).

 The growing burden of school guidance counselors is compounding the issue of college and career readiness. Guidance counselors are designated the task of helping students gain knowledge surrounding college or career aspirations. Evidence has shown, however, that school counselors are frequently assigned secondary tasks including administrative roles and mental health facilitators (Christian, Lawrence, & Dampman, 2017). Christian et al. (2017) also point out that the national average for student to school counselor ratios is 491:1. As guidance counselors address varying social-emotional needs of students, the job of preparing students for post-secondary plans is becoming more difficult to accomplish effectively without having assessments and tools available to provide effective counseling services (Lapan, Poynton, Marland, & Milam, 2017).

 Students, parents, counselors, teachers, post-secondary institutions, and employers are all direct stakeholders in addressing this gap in post-secondary preparations. There are a multitude of interventions and assessments that are employed by counselors and special education teachers to aide in the transition process. A closer look into what actually works is necessary to help students with disabilities successfully transition to adult life.

Career Planning Interventions

In a study conducted by Cook and Maree (2016), an intervention program attempted to measure student attitudes towards future transitions to careers. The research consisted of 45 participants that engaged with traditional lessons specific to transition planning, while another group of 42 students took part in what the researchers call a career intervention program. This program consisted of eight lessons. The first step in the program was the administration of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale assessment. A career interest profile followed next. This activity’s purpose was for students to identify interests and meaningful aspects of their lives. Next, students engaged in activities including creating a collage and timeline of their lives that included their future plans. These steps in the intervention were again used to identify meaningful, personal matters in their lives, but also to tell their life story and make projections into their future (Cook & Maree, 2016).

The research on career decision-making self-efficacy has investigated interventions applied in the middle school settings (Knezek, Christensen, Tyler-Wood & Periathiruvadi, 2013). One research study by Glessner, Rockinson-Szapkiw, and Lopez (2017) tested a computer-based program paired with a college visit. Both the computer program and college visit components were tied to theory of how self-efficacy is developed and moderated, specifically 1) mastery experiences 2) vicarious experiences 3) verbal influence and 4) emotional arousal (Bandura, 1986). Using pre and post tests measuring college-going self-efficacy career self-efficacy on 173 eighth grade students, Glessner et al.’s (2017) intervention resulted in significant increases in both areas. Mean scores of college-going self-efficacy rose from 91.57 to 97.83 and mean scores of career decision self-efficacy increased form 99.46 to 103.00. The online modules and college visits incorporated career exploration, goal setting, and career planning (Glessner et al., 2017). Moreover, these activities reflect the impactful influences of self-efficacy put forth by Albert Bandura (1986).

In a study by Creed and Hennessy (2016), 283 university undergraduates in Southeast of Queensland, Australia were identified into three categories of goal orientation: mastery approach, performance approach, and performance avoidance. To summarize briefly, each profile is motivated by different factors. Mastery-approach involves intrinsic motivation and holds the view that skills and competencies can be developed. Performance-approach, conversely, holds the view that ability is fixed. People with this approach tend to set high goals, but they do so to receive positive feedback from others. Performance-avoidance individuals seek to avoid negative outcomes out of fear of being perceived as incompetent. They tend to set low goals and tend to withdraw from engaging with accomplishing goals. The authors used measures to identify the goal orientations of the research sample using the Achievement Goals Questionnaire. These goal orientations were then connected to other variables through use of structural equation modeling. One noteworthy result is that the goal orientation of performance avoidance individuals had no association with the career exploration variable. This is worrisome as a lack of career exploration may lead to hardship for individuals in the future. Career exploration is one component of building self-efficacy in the area of career decision-making. Performance avoidance characteristics also connect to the theories of self-efficacy. This study illustrates the importance of addressing levels of low self-efficacy and using interventions that can increase it (Creed & Hennessy, 2016).

Another example of a successful intervention built upon the tenets of self-efficacy theory is a case study by Reddan (2015). This study set out to examine the effects of an intervention called Field Project A on career decision-making self efficacy of undergraduate students majoring in Exercise Science. This intervention provides students an array of learning opportunities that are linked to the strategies proposed by proponents of self efficacy theory (performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal). The results from a pretest and posttest administration of the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale Short-Form (CDMSE-SF) indicated that the participants improved in areas of vocational information, planning, and problem-solving (Reddan, 2015).

Gaylor and Nicol (2016) also utilized the CDMSE-SF to measure findings in a study consisting of an intervention titled Career and Work Exploration 30 (CWE30). This intervention lasted for a semester and emphasized work experience in the field. Participants in the study were 14 11th and 12th grade students. The researchers used a pretest and posttest design to measure career decision-making self-efficacy of the students enrolled in the CWE30 intervention. Mean scores of the pretest was 3.72 on a scale of 1 to 5. While this score fell into the “good confidence” range it was actually closer to the “moderate confidence” category. After the CWE30 intervention, the mean score of CDMSE-SF measures was 4.09, more established within the “good confidence” range (Gaylor & Nicol, 2016). The results of this study confirms other reviews stating that work experience programs are among the most impactful interventions regarding vocational transitions (Landmark, Ju, & Zhang, 2012).

Career and college readiness curriculums are most impactful when they are delivered by qualified guidance counselors (Martinez, Baker, & Young, 2017). One study investigating the curricular intervention titled Preparing for Post-High School Education: Motivated, Informed, and Ready (PPHSE:MIR) showed the impact that guidance counselors can make. Martinez et al. (2017) investigated the efficacy of the PPHSE:MIR curriculum. The questions posed by these researchers involved the effects on post-secondary education-going knowledge and post-secondary education-going career aspiration. More central to this review, the researchers also questioned the effects of the curriculum intervention on career and college readiness self-efficacy. The treatment group consisted of 88 students while the control group was made up of 75. In short, the control group completed the PPHSE:MIR curriculum with little to no guidance from guidance counselors. Conversely, the treatment group completed the curriculum with engaging activities, interactions with social media, and encouraged conversations between participants and instructors. Using the Career and College Readiness Self-Efficacy Inventory (CCRSI) as a measurement, the results indicated the pretreatment mean score for the treatment group was 0.04. After the intervention, the mean score on the CCRSI increased to 0.83, a significant statistical increase. This study indicates the influence that guidance counselors have in improving career self-efficacy for students. In addition, the intervention is an established curriculum targeted to improve knowledge and self-efficacy of students in regard to post-secondary goals (Martinez et al, 2017).

Naviance by Hobsons

A final research study to review is an exploratory study of an intervention titled Naviance. Naviance is an education solution by the Hobsons organization that targets career and college readiness. Christian, Lawrence, and Dampman (2017) found that utilizing the Naviance system strongly correlated with college application rate. Naviance is an online platform that exposes users to data regarding careers and colleges, houses information regarding goal-setting, and also serves as a liaison between students, teachers, and guidance counselors. The study followed four total classes at a public high school in the southwest of the United States, totaling at 1,917 participants. Although this study focused on college application rate, it is uncertain if there are any correlative relationships to career decision-making self-efficacy.

Social Cognitive Theory

Student perceptions are another important component to college and career readiness. There is a wealth of research that is built upon the foundations of Bandura’s (1986) Social Cognitive Theory and theories on the term self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977). Social Cognitive Theory is the act of observing a model complete a task and learning from that observation (Bandura, 1986). Self-efficacy is a person’s beliefs regarding their abilities to perform a task or behavior (Bandura, 1977). Varying levels of self-efficacy can lead to different approaches to do tasks. For example, a person with high self-efficacy believes that they can execute the given task and, therefore, be more likely to approach that behavior. On the contrary, a person with low self efficacy doubts his ability to complete a given task and will likely avoid the task. Furthermore, Bandura put forth four sources from where self-efficacy expectations are learned and molded. These include the following: performance mastery (an experience where a behavior is performed with success), vicarious learning, verbal persuasion or encouragement from others, and levels of emotional response related to the behavior (Bandura, 1997).

Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy

  From these theoretical views, researchers have applied self efficacy to career and vocational competencies. Researchers such as Taylor and Betz (1983) have applied Bandura’s concepts of self-efficacy to vocational issues among young people. Since, many researchers have used Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy (CDMSE) and the CDMSE Short Form scale as measurement (multiple author citation needed here).  A new tool that targets post-secondary preparation among high-school students is the Naviance online platform. This tool allows students to independently access information and materials regarding transition to post-secondary goals, with limited interactions needed between students and guidance counselors. This intervention should result in a significant increase in career decision-making self-efficacy among the students that engage with the Naviance tool (Christian et al., 2017).

Many graduates are not prepared to make decisions for post-secondary education or careers. This is leading to many college-bound students paying for remedial courses or students that simply do not have skills necessary to begin a career. Past interventions include making a career exploration a school-wide responsibility, not just a duty of guidance counselors. Another approach to solving this educational issue is building a stronger relationship between schools and post-secondary institutions, and providing interventions connected to the areas of self-efficacy (vicarious, persuasion, etc.)The proposed intervention for this correlational study is the Naviance Online platform. This platform provides opportunities to gain impactful experiences and knowledge that are rooted in self-efficacy theory: namely, mastery experiences, vicarious learning, encouragement and persuasion, and mitigation of negative emotional arousal. Therefore, the Naviance platform can be expected to impact the problem of insufficient preparedness of high school graduates. Does the Naviance program impact the preparedness of students with disabilities? A central measure of this impact is the career decision-making self-efficacy of these graduates.

Purpose Statement

There is reason for stakeholders across society to be concerned with the successful transitions of students from high school to post-secondary life. Much of the research in the realm of career readiness has utilized interventions that incorporate self-efficacy theory and how it is influenced. The proposed intervention in promoting career decision-making self-efficacy for this study is the Naviance Online platform. This program may provide opportunities for students to set goals, explore careers, and identify vocational competencies. Very little research has been conducted in regards to the use of Naviance and its impact on students with disabilities. Of the research that has been done, it suggests that students may be more likely to apply for a college, but there has been little research into how Naviance may affect vocational identities of students. Therefore, this study is an attempt to establish a correlation between the career decision-making self-efficacy of students with disabilities and their interactions with the Naviance online platform.

This study will utilize a correlational design. Therefore, there will not be an independent variable and dependent variable. Instead, the study will attempt to identify a correlational relationship between usage of the Naviance program and student Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy. It is hypothesized there will be a positive correlation between the number of Naviance activities completed by students with disabilities and the CDMSE scales reported of the same student sample.

References

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191.

Barry, M. N., & Dannenberg, M. (2016). Out of pocket: The high cost of inadequate high schools and high school student achievement on college affordability. Education Reform Now.

Carnevale, A. P., Smith, N., & Strohl, J. (2010). Help wanted: Projections of job and education requirements through 2018. Lumina Foundation.

Christian, D., Lawrence, A., & Dampman, N. (2017). Increasing college access through the implementation of Naviance: An exploratory study. Journal of College Access, 3(2), 4.

Cline, Z., Bissell, J., Hafner, A., & Katz, M. L. (2007). Closing the college readiness gap. Leadership, 37.

Cook, A., & Maree, J. G. (2016). Efficacy of using career and self-construction to help learners manage career-related transitions. South African Journal of Education, 36(1).

Creed, P. A., & Hennessy, D. A. (2016). Evaluation of a goal orientation model of vocational identity. The Career Development Quarterly, 64(4), 345-359.

Gaylor, L., & Nicol, J. J. (2016). Experiential High School Career Education, Self-Efficacy, and Motivation. Canadian Journal of Education, 39(2), n2.

Glessner, K., Rockinson‐Szapkiw, A. J., & Lopez, M. L. (2017). “Yes, I Can”: Testing an Intervention to Increase Middle School Students’ College and Career Self‐Efficacy. The Career Development Quarterly, 65(4), 315-325.

Knezek, G., Christensen, R., Tyler-Wood, T., & Periathiruvadi, S. (2013). Impact of Environmental Power Monitoring Activities on Middle School Student Perceptions of STEM. Science Education International, 24(1), 98-123.

Landmark, L. J., Ju, S., & Zhang, D. (2010). Substantiated best practices in transition: Fifteen plus years later. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 33(3), 165-176.

Lapan, R. T., Poynton, T., Marcotte, A., Marland, J., & Milam, C. M. (2017). College and career readiness counseling support scales. Journal of Counseling & Development, 95(1), 77-86.

Martinez, R. R., Baker, S. B., & Young, T. (2017). Promoting Career and College Readiness, Aspirations, and Self‐Efficacy: Curriculum Field Test. The Career Development Quarterly, 65(2), 173-188.

Mishkind, Anne (2014). Overview: State Definitions of College and Career Readiness. College and Career Readiness and Success Center. 

National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2017). The State of LD: Transitioning to Life After High School. Retrieved from https://www.ncld.org/transitioning-to-life-after-high-school

Petrilli, M. J. (2017). Common confusion: most kids in America aren’t on track for success. Why don’t they and their parents know it?. Education Next, 17(1), 84-86.

Reddan, G. (2015). Enhancing Students’ Self-Efficacy in Making Positive Career Decisions. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 16(4), 291-300.

Taylor, K. M., & Betz, N. E. (1983). Applications of self-efficacy theory to the understanding and treatment of career indecision. Journal of vocational behavior, 22(1), 63-81.

 

Investigating the Effect of the Flipped Classroom on Student Attainment and Self-efficacy in CTE

Introduction                                                         

The access Millenials have to technology, information and digital media has become the driving factor behind the sense of urgency to change learning environments around the world. With technology playing such an important role in everyday life it is undoubtedly reshaping the way the world communicates. As technical evolutions occur, educational atmospheres maintain progress (Sommer & Ritzhaupt, 2018). The work of Bergmann and Sams (2007) was particularly progressive. Their studies pioneered flipped learning as a method of teaching. Extensive technological advancements offer educational innovations as a means of enhancing teaching approaches, delivery of the learning experience and competence development. Efforts to understand the purpose for learning environments were caused as a result of societal shifts in expectations forcing the education system to find ways of adapting.  Huang and Chiu (2015) found that the learning environment structure and pedagogical strategy greatly increased student achievement. The overall effectiveness of teaching methods has been questioned for decades by educators. Despite innovations in technology enabling the assessment of student retention by means of evolving methodologies and advance innovative techniques conveying development of educational aids (Roehl, 2013).

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The Flipped Classroom Model (FCM) has attracted an overwhelming amount of consideration from both practitioners and scholars (O’Flaherty & Phillips, 2015). Flipped Classroom approach delivers an adaptable educational nature allowing learners to engage in a cooperative and dynamic surrounding as they are able to access the course content from anywhere at any time. Although its numerous advantages and potential, implementing the flipped classroom method as the latest instructional method is among reservations indicated in the literature as a result in the lack of experience creating unforeseen challenges indicating more time would be required to redesign the course to account for these possibilities. The objective of this report involves discussion into the overall effectiveness of the flipped classroom model on learner achievement and self-efficacy related to the traditional teacher-centered instruction teaching method in an introductory computer course.

Review of the Literature

The Flipped Classroom Model aims to enable educators to integrate both face-to-face sessions via group discussions, decrease teacher lectures, and allow distance learning that includes watching asynchronous video lessons increasing students active learning, collaboration and framework. A flipped classroom focuses on educator guidance while keeping student learning at the center of instruction. Years of research have established that there are various types of amount of Flipped Learning practices associated with increased academic achievement and learning self-efficacy.

The concept of self-efficacy is central to Albery Bandura’s social cognitive theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, social experience and reciprocal determinism in developing a personality. Research indicates self-efficacy to be one of the most important factors affecting student performance (Arslan, 2013). Data produce from research studies showed results that demonstrated a direct positive correlation between self-efficacy and academic achievement (Klomegah, 2007: Richardson, Abraham & Bond, 2012). According to Bandura (1986), self-efficacy is a person’s confidence in in their abilities to complete a certain task successfully.

According to Bishop and Verleger (2013), student-centered learning embodies a set of theories that include active learning, peer-assisted learning, and collaborative learning. Active learning can be defined as “any instructional method that engages students in the learning process” (Prince, 2004, p. 223). Peer-assisted learning is “the acquisition of knowledge and skills through active helping and supporting among status equals or matched companions” (Topping & Ehly, 1998, p. 1). Collaborative learning broadly “is a situation in which learners interact in a collaborative way” (Dillenbourg, 1999, p. 8).

Team-based learning goes beyond the flipped classroom by including structured learning activities (Michaelsen and Sweet, 2008; Wallace et al. , 2014) is novel and give both students and educators insight s into learning processes required for effective pre-learning for active engagement in student-centered classes. This approach would advocate to implement and introductory class session that prepares and engages students to be successful participants in courses requiring pre-learning. To add value to their services schools have sought to use teaching strategies focusing on the function needs of students. In practice, educators prepare materials for their students in the form of recordings or documents or use selected public content on internet web sites such as TED-Ed or Khan Academy.

Problems | Challenges with the Flipped Classroom

 The latest technological advances and accessibility to use them, have forced our education system to create, design, and develop new strategies and teaching methods to replace the traditional approaches that have been around for decades. Some examples of technical and technological challenges presented include access to the necessary technology required to succeed, poor quality of video lectures, unreasonable length of video lectures, increased teacher workload to pre-record lectures and prepare materials. In particular, librarians will need to be heavily involved to create supporting materials (such as ensuring the school internet permits particular websites, allowing students to utilize the library computers to complete work, determining if specific web browsers with proper plug-ins are required to watch material and creating white pages for students to access with guided instructions, etc.), prepare to be able to accommodate specific aspects of the class assignments to determine what technology device can support it, constantly learn and stay up to date with new technology and be able to guide students applying knowledge.

 The theoretical framework for the problem and is proven as a foundation for reviewing the literature on the flipped classroom model and the following principles (a) broad-spectrum explanation of blended learning (b) benefits / opportunities provided to students and teachers (c) advantages of implementation and (d) diverse avenues, educational levels, and various subject areas.

Impact of Implementing Flipped Classroom

Student populations are changing everyday due to factors beyond our reach. As a result, there

have been documented Flipped Classroom implementations that have different effects in different stages

of the course. An effective and logical solution would be to implement the “pre-course” so students can

avoid any challenges presented and be able to take solace in increasing their readiness level through

teaching methods that are designed activities to develop a positive learning culture where students

understand their obligations regarding pre-learning and are prepared for engagement in the course. This is

also a valuable way for the instructor to gain information for understanding the learning motivations,

expectations and perceptions of student learners to allow teaching approached to be tailed to the needs of

the class.

 In the midst of the constant struggle to engage students and find ways of connecting to them, educators look to creative minded researchers who have already explored strategies, conclusions and suggestions. With the increase in blended learning options, researchers sought to determine which factors most influenced student achievement in the blended learning environment (Baeten et al., 2010; De George-Walker & Keeffe, 2010; Donnelley, 2010; Lopez-Perez et al., 2011; Nie & Lau, 2010; Ning & Downing, 2012; Taylor & Parsons, 2011). Level of achievement in education is typically measured by assessment scores (Rastegar et al., 2010).

One researcher found that the retention levels of students increased as a result of implementing the Flipped Classroom Model. The flipped classroom experience promotes retention and accountability for learning because of the learning materials used within appeal to many sensory organs and this can be effective in ensuing more permanent learning. The more sensory organs the learning environment appeals to, the more permanent the learning is (Nalçacı & Ercoşkun, 2005; Yalın, 2006).  Additionally, a study by Boyraz (2014) and another similar study by Kim et al. (2014) concluded that the flipped classroom had a positive effect on academic achievement and retention.

In the traditional teacher-centered model, the teacher is the primary source of information. By contrast, the Flipped Learning model deliberately shifts instruction to a learner-centered approach, where in-class time is dedicated to exploring topics in greater depth and creating rich learning opportunities. As a result, students are actively involved in knowledge construction as they participate in and evaluate their learning in a manner that is personally meaningful (The Flipped Learning Network, 2014). There has been extensive work that implies that the flipped model yields positive academic achievement of Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs) in CTE. According to our reviewed studies, the flipped model also enhances student satisfaction, improved learning performance, more effective engagement, enhances confidence, promotes creativity, increases problem-solving skills and promote a high level of student satisfaction.

Flipped Learning Educators continually think about how they can use the Flipped Learning model to help students develop conceptual understanding, as well as procedural fluency. They determine what they need to teach and what materials students should explore on their own. Educators use Intentional Content to maximize classroom time in order to adopt methods of student-centered, active learning strategies, depending on grade level and subject matter.

 The role of a Professional Educator is even more important, and often more demanding, in a Flipped Classroom than in a traditional one. During class time, they continually observe their students, providing them with feedback relevant in the moment, and assessing their work. Professional Educators are reflective in their practice, connect with each other to improve their instruction, accept constructive criticism, and tolerate controlled chaos in their classrooms. While Professional Educators take on less visibly prominent roles in a flipped classroom, they remain the essential ingredient that enables Flipped Learning to occur.

 This research studies the effects of the flipped classroom model on a computer class and student achievement.  Technology courses, such as the Introductory to Computer course are constructed upon the basis of a student’s prior knowledge. The Introductory course is Computer Skills and Applications which covers Digital Literacy and Keyboarding and Basic Word Processing and is a prerequisite for other Information Technology Education Electives. It is imperative that student’s mastery this prerequisite course prior to moving on to Advanced Computer Skills and Applications. Students must retain an master understanding of basic computer skills such as ability to understand and apply the touch method in operating the alpha keys, understand and apply the touch method in operating number and symbol keys, understand and apply the touch method in operating the keyboard while increasing speed and accuracy, understand formatting skills in document processing and mastery of digital literacy. Failure to accomplish this, could result in the inability to advance to the next computer course. 

The theoretical basis for the present work draws from Blooms Taxonomy. This model uses different domains of comprehension beginning with simple retention of specifics to the ability to apply said knowledge. Bloom considers the three areas of learning: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. Then these areas are separated further as cognitive domains broken into six categorized levels: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.  The application of this revised model to The Flipped Classroom Method considers lower levels  of critical thinking that include applying, understanding and remembering which is where outside of class students are introduced to new material and are allowed to take their time, work at their own pace and master concepts. The higher levels correspond to creative and abstract thoughts that include creating, evaluating and analyzing which are focused on in class, where student and instructors work together on these types of learning. Comparatively the traditional approach’s critical thinking occurs in class as instructors introduce new material to students who must attempt to follow the teachers chosen instructional delivery method. The creative and abstract thoughts are carried out at home where students are responsible for homework given on a higher level of cognitive thinking. 

Method

 The majority of these research articles

Analysis

The Flipped Classroom Model’s main priority resides in utilizing technology to make class time most effective (Bergmann and Sams, 2013). The research suggests the incorporation of technology tools provided added value to education and promoted differentiated instructional methods. This type of differentiation strategy has the potential to enhance the learning, engage in hands-on learning activities, which allowed for the participation in realistic and collaborative learning environments.   The Flipped Classroom approach has many potential practices for implementation. As such, it allows students to use cooperative learning activities and problem-solving processes by presenting learning materials to them during extracurricular times. For an approach, that traditionally would be performed within a conventional educational environment the Flipped Classrom Method has the ability to be converted into a more flexible personalized format. There has been a push from educators for years to implement and incorporate active learning environments where there is student-centered learning and constructivist learning approaches that yield successful results. The common notion is to be able to accommodate all students when there is a conflict of extracurricular activities that hinder traditional education for those. Additionally, this would eliminate the issues and accommodations that are currently in place for those with learning deficiencies or disabilities that do not allow them or need special accommodations where they cannot fulfill an entire day in the classroom to still prohibit them an environment to maintain their current educational grade level and be able to keep up with any and all work. There are also those students whose personal learning speed is above grade level and since North Carolina has strict rules about skipping grades to find a personalized education plan to fit their needs. Since the flipped classroom provides a flexible learning environment, students are able to perform a more collaborative and active learning by accessing course content anytime and from anywhere. It also provides a change in the learning culture since learning is achieved during activities conducted outside of the classroom and an in-depth learning is provided in activities carried out in the classroom. It facilitates the use of appropriate content in accordance with the objectives and is also effective in sharing multimedia elements with students. It contributes to the development of professional educational skills, since the instructor is always active in the process and will guide students during the learning process, it has an important impact on preparing the content and guidance of the teacher. Students can now access tools such as presentation files, video and, audio recording etc. can be used effectively in these practices (McDonald and Smith, 2013). Lastly, activities such as online evaluation and messaging are also effective tools that can be used frequently in the Flipped Classroom implementations (Hamdan, McKnight, McKnight and Arfstrom (2013). Limitations occurred within the study that fall within a scope of importance. They are as follows: the study was conducted in a single semester, the working group was limited to 34 students, and the computer hardware course that was suitable for application was preferred.

Conclusions

The advances that technology has made over the past two decades has made it much easier to teachers to flip the classroom. While, the reputation of FCM continues to grow and the action research reviewed provides promising data regarding the potential of implementing FCM, additional research to explore the effects of implementing are essential. Research to date signifies that FCM has a multitude of advantages, it is important that educators understand the time commitment and costs related to developing and implementing The Flipped Classroom Model.  The literature provided in-depth insight on what The Flipped Learning Model is, difference between Flipped Model practices and traditional learning approaches, the theoretical framework, the challenges and limitations associated with implementing the flipped learning model, the advantages of the flipped learning model, and the impacts / effects the flipped model has in regards to academic achievement and student self-efficacy in and Introductory computer class. Despite the challenges that may arise from implementing the flipped classroom model, if used properly and in conjunction with a variety of instructional methods, the flipped classroom can be an invaluable resource. To make the best use of the FCM, educators are provided and opportunity to utilize the significantly more class time to stress important concepts or integrate and involve students in problem-solving strategies.  Educators willing to implement and apply this new method, need to periodically reflect and assess their teaching effectiveness.

References

Akçayır, Gökçe, & Akçayır, Murat. (2018). The flipped classroom: A review of its advantages and challenges. Computers & Education, 126, 334–345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.07.021

Betihavas, V., Bridgman, H., Kornhaber, R., & Cross, M. (2016). The evidence for ‘flipping out’: A systematic review of the flipped classroom in nursing education. Nurse Education Today, 38, 15–21.

Bishop, J. L., & Verleger, M. A. (2013). The flipped classroom: A survey of the research. Paper presented at the 120th ASEE annual & exposition, Atlanta, USA.

Boyraz, S. (2014). Evaluating flipped classroom/education method in English teaching. (Unpublished Master thesis, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyon).

Hamdan, N., McKnight, P., McKnight, K., & Arfstrom, K. M. (2013). The flipped learning model: A white paper based on the literature review titled “A Review of Flipped Learning.” Arlington, VA: Flipped Learning Network.

Flipped Learning Network (FLN). (2014) The Four Pillars of F-L-I-P™

Fung, F. M. (2015). Using First-Person Perspective Filming Techniques for a Chemistry Laboratory Demonstration To Facilitate a Flipped Pre-Lab. Journal of Chemical Education.

Kim, G. J. Patrick, E. E., Srivastava, R., & Law, M. E. (2014). Perspective on flipping circuits I. IEEETransactions on Education, 57(3),188-192.

Lai, C.-L., & Hwang, G.-J. (2016). A self-regulated flipped classroom approach to improving students’ learning performance in a mathematics course. Computers & Education, 100, 126–140.

McDonald, K., & Smith, C. M. (2013). The flipped classroom for professional development: part I. Benefits and strategies. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 44(10), 437.

Nalçacı, A. & Ercoşkun, M.H. (2005). The materials used in primary education social studies lesson. Journalof Kazim Karabekir Education Faculty,11.

Sun, J. C.-Y., Wu, Y.-T., & Lee, W.-I. (2017). The effect of the flipped classroom approach to OpenCourseWare instruction on students’ self-regulation. British Journal of Educational Technology, 48(3), 713–729.

 

The General Self-Efficacy Scale

Self-efficacy can be defined as an “individual’s belief concerning their ability to meet desired outcomes in life” (Azizli et al., 2015) and was first introduced by Albert Bandura. Bandura sets an establishment of relationship between a person’s own perceived self-efficacy and their attempt he/she is willing to expend to face challenges and goals throughout their life, specifically cognitive, affective, and motivational (Barahona et al., 2018). The Cognitive Social Theory was framed by Bandura and his perceived self-efficacy which then became widespread as Mathias Jerusalem and Ralf Schwarzer established the one-dimensional, universal construct of the General Self-Efficacy Scale.

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The General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) was later created by  Jerusalem and Schwarzer which was developed in German in 1979 (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995). It later was adapted into 26 other languages by a various number of co-authors and was originally twenty items but was reduced to 10 in 1981 (Luszczynska & Gutiérrez-Doña, 2005). Actions can be seen as preshaped in thought (Luszczynska & Gutiérrez-Doña, 2005) and once certain actions are thought of or acted upon – individuals with high self-efficacy are known to invest more time, effort and persistence to situations than those with low self-efficacy. A study done Ultimately circling back to the way individuals look at themselves and their personality, well-being, how they handle stressful situations, self-regulation and self-esteem (Luszczynska & Gutiérrez-Doña, 2005).
The main goal of the GSE is for individuals to take the test and answer honestly to the 10 item questions they are given. Based on the number they rank themselves decides whether they have high or low self-efficacy. The scale is almost always self-administered and is more of a questionnaire than a test, it is ten items and requires an average of four minutes to complete. All questions are answered on a scale from one to four: one being not at all true, two: hardly true, three: moderately true and four being exactly true. The English version of the GSE has questions such as: “I can always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough” to “I can remain calm when facing difficulties because I can rely on my coping abilities”.  When answering the items, the one to four response format is recorded and the total score is then calculated by adding all the items which can range between ten to forty. Results are based out of a ten to forty scale, the closer to 10 the lower self-efficacy and individual has and the closer to forty,  indicate the individual having more self-efficacy (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995).
There are no administrator requirements nor does it cost to administer as well. Many forms can be found in the internet and specifically on the GSE website where it is available in thirty-two different languages ranging from Arabic to Slovenian. The GSE is also mainly targeted toward the adult population including some adolescents, any individuals below the age of twelve should not be tested due to the lack of experience and unreliable information that may be given (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995). Time allotted for the administration of the scale can range anywhere from two to four minutes depending on the individual and does not take long to calculate the results. A study done by Aleksandra Luszczynska and Benicio Gutiérrez-Doña looked at the relations between many factors and were even examined among 8,796 participants from Costa Rica, Germany, Poland, Turkey, and the United States. Many findings provided evidence that associate perceived self-efficacy and the selected variables such as: personality, well-being and achievements (Luszczynska & Gutiérrez-Doña, 2005).
The reliability of the GSE has samples from twenty-three different nations where majority used Cronbach’s alpha. These ranged anywhere from .76 to .90 with the mean being in the high .80’s (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995). In another study done by Rudolf Bosscher and Johannes Smit, they looked at confirmatory factor analysis of the GSE and how it relates to the elderly population which related to similar finding from Schwarzer and Jerusalem, such as older individuals had scores at around .60 (Bosscher & Smit, 1998). There are also several latent measure out there that help to adopt a better understanding of the strength and boundaries of the GSE and how it relates to the reliability of the scale (Zhou, 2016). Validity of the GSE is criterion-related and can be seen and documented in various correlation studies. These correlation studies have found “favorable emotions, dispositional optimism and work satisfaction” but there was also negative coefficients found such as “depression, anxiety, stress, burnout, and health complaints” (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995).
Along with the reliability and validity of the scale, there are also many strengths and weaknesses to the GSE as well. Many strengths include how long the scale has been used, for over two decades it has been used and internationally. It can be suitable in a range of application such as personality types, job opportunities, and coping strategies and is a suitable indicator of an individual’s quality of life and may also be able to predict adaptation to major life changes such as life after surgery or after a devastating even such as a family member passing away (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995). A major weakness is that the scale does not tap into specific changes to behaviors. For example, the scale does not say or show how an individual should change their outlook on life or other factors such as self-esteem and in most applications it is necessary to add a few extra items to cover certain content of the scale and what it is measuring (Zhou, 2016).
Overall the General Self-Efficacy Scale is a positive indicator of an individual’s outlook on  life and how well they may do in many social and professional situations based on the results and research done with the scale. It is a simple and useful scale to use and does not require rigorous work or time to find out the scores from individuals. There has been enough studies done for the scale to be a reliable and valid source to determine individuals self-efficacy and a good indicator of characteristics it correlates to.
References

Azizli, N., Atkinson, B. E., Baughman, H. M., & Giammarco, E. A. (2015). Relationships between General Self-Efficacy, planning for the future, and life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Difference, 82, 58-60. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.006
Barahona, G. V., García, N. G., Sánchez-García, A. B., Barba, M. S., & Galindao-Villardón, M. P. (2018). Seven methods to determine the dimensionality of tests: Application to the General Self-Efficacy Scale in twenty-six countries. Psicothema, 30, 442-228. doi:10.7334/psicothem2018.113
Bosschler, R. J., & Smit, J. H. (1998). Confirmatory factor analysis of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Behavior Research and Therapy, 36, 339-343. doi:S0005-7967(98)00025-4
Luszczynska, A., & Gutiérrez-Doña, B. (2005). General Self-Efficacy in various domains of human functioning: Evidence from five countries. International Journal of Psychology, 40, 80-89. doi:10.1080/00207590444000041
Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston, Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs, 35-37,  Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.
Zhou, M. (2016). A revist of General Self-Efficacy Scale: Uni- or multi-dimensional? Current Psychology, 35, 427-436. doi:10.1007/s12144-015-9311-4

 

Self-Efficacy in Young Children

1. Children’s activity addressing self-efficacy.

Objectives regarding the activity.

I would like to create independent learners, work on increasing the children’s self-esteem, work on improving their own thoughts and voice in the classroom.

Positive Sam Activity.

This activity involves listing and gluing items on to a paper in a pattern form. The teacher will read a story or a scenario of a young boy’s morning routine and how his thinking can improve him as a better person and build upon his self-efficacy skills.

Materials:

White construction paper for the background, to be given to each student. The teacher will give each students pieces of Sam in construction paper form.

Glue sticks

Markers, Crayons and Colored Pencils.

Cut outs Sam, the following parts of his body. Torso, two legs and two arms.

The students will be at their desk with all the materials in front of them, they will need to have their listing ears on. As the teacher reads parts of Sam’s day, they will need to glue down a different part of Sam’s body on to the white construction paper.

Introduction of the story:

Sam is a young boy around the age of 4. It’s morning time in his house. Sam’s mom goes to wake him up the first time, but Sam does not get up. Then she walks into his bedroom the second time. Ask the students “What do they think Sam’s mother said to him.” Write down some of the student’s answers on a chart paper as they express what the Mother had said to Sam to get him up out of his bed. The Mother then proceeds to say to Sam “Now it’s up to you to get up, get dressed and be on time for school. Sam says to himself; I can get up and I can be ready in time for school. Sam’s is self-efficient and has positive thinking.

*Have the students glue the torso of Sam’s body down on the piece of white paper.

Next part is breakfast, Sam’s mom asks him to be careful were he places his elbows. Sam accidentally spills over a cup of tea. Ask the students what they think Sam’s Mother says to Sam? Write some of the comments down on the chart paper. Sam’s mom responds to him that she gets upset when something spills something all over her table. She asked Sam to clean it up. Sam thought to himself, I need to be more careful at the table next time.

*Have the students glue on one leg.

Next Sam could not find his backpack, He had asked him mom where it was. She responds, try and think where you left it last. Then Sam thought to himself, I will find my bag. He then remembers where he had left it.

*Next have the students glue and attach an arm to the paper.

Next Sam forgets his lunchbox as he is leaving the front door. Sam felt bad for holding up his sister, but he thought to himself that he will remember to put the lunchbox in his backpack the night before so he will not forget it.

*Have the students glue and arm and a leg on to same.

Once Sam arrived at school, he thought to himself, that he has his own strengths. Sam feels good about what he can do.

*Have the students finish gluing on all the body parts. They will have to add facial features to the face and finish it up with a smile, I would ask the students if they can they relate

to any of the scenarios that were presented in Sam’s morning routine. Also, it gives the students an idea of how they can do better in life. I would go around the class and ask each student what part of the story they liked the best and why. I would put a tally mark on the board to see what seen in the story received the most likes. Some other idea on questions would be, Did Sam

make choices about different things in his day? Some of his choices turned out well, some of his choices did not turn out so well.

Explain to the children that people learn to do new things by watching, trying and experimenting. Try to do somethings by yourself and see how it turns out. It just might turn out great. Bandura’s research on self-efficacy states “people may regulate their own behavior or through motivation, thought processes, affective states and actions or changing environmental conditions based around their efficacy beliefs. Perceived self-efficacy provides guidelines for enabling people to exercise some influence over how they love their lives.” (Garvis & Pendergast, 2011).

2. Erik Erikson Theory of Psychosocial Development.

Trust versus Mistrust, trust is defined as trust in oneself, trust in one’s caregiver and trust in the world. Mistrust is defined as a sense of homelessness and suspicion. This stage occurs between the age of birth through the 18 months of age. The trust versus mistrust stage is the most important period in a person’s life because it shapes our views of the world. As well as our personalities. One of the major questions regarding this stage is “Can I trust people around me? Not only does this question pertain to an infant’s life, but it also affects their adulthood. As an infant they will develop and learn to be able to trust the world or not to trust. The most critical component to an infant life is the care that they will receive from their parents or any other adult that is caring for them. The infant is entirely dependent upon their caregiver for the quilty of care and food. This will shape the childs personality. I chose food also, because the adult’s responsibility is to provide proper nutrition to the child, not fast food and convince store food. The food needs to be healthy fruits and vegetables for the child to be able to grow. During this stage children will learn to see if they can trust the people around them. For example, if the child cry’s is there a parent around to see what is wrong. When the child is scared, will someone comfort them. When the child is hungry, will the parent provide them a proper meal. When a caregiver provides all these needs to the child a foundation of trust is beginning to be established. When the child sees that their needs are consistently being met, they will be able to trust that person. When the child has fully accepted trust in their lives, they will feel safe and secure in their world. If the child does not feel trust in their lives, then they will mistrust the people around them. Some studies show that a mistrustful person has learned this from either family or social influences, it is not a genetic trait, mistrust. There are different stages of Psychosocial Development in a person’s life. I am at stage seven in my life. Generativity means making your mark on the world by caring for others as well as creating and accomplishing things that make the world a better place. One question, is how can I contribute to the world? For me it’s teaching young children to feel good about themselves and giving them positive thoughts to caring on with them. By me working with children and making an impact on their lives makes me feel and want to be productive in my students lives. I feel at this stage that Self-Knowledge and Self-Understanding play an important role in my life. Now referring to mistrust. This still comes in to play, even in the work setting. When working with such a huge number of coworkers, it’s very hard to trust anyone with your information. May this information be personal or a project that your team is working on. There may be one person it that group that will lead you to mistrust them. With me once that trust is broken, it will take me a long time to rebuild the trust back up. Mistrust also applies to a young child. It will take some time to trust again. Erikson believed that a “person must go beyond the few intimate relationships established in young adulthood and become concerned with the next generation by taking his or her place in the community and aiding in its development. The adult should feel that giving ranks higher than getting, and loving ranks higher than being loved.” (Bae, 1999).

3. Social Stories:

Social stories are used to improve children’s social skills through a combination of visual and verbal clues. Children who have a disability like Autism or Aspersers will find social stories very beneficial to them. The teacher can teach the child skills on how to respond to cues, how to maintain a conversation and hoe to use prompting. Social stories can increase children’s social acceptance and improve on their independence. Children with disables gain confidence and communication when they are playing alongside their peers. Social Stories emphasize on cognitive growth, social skills, emotional and self-regulation. Children with Autism process information from their senses differently. Some will try to filter out the noises by putting their hands over their ears. The senses that are affected can be touch, sight, smell and taste. The biggest sensory issue is noise. “Studies say that 30 percent to more than 90 percent of people with Autism either ignore or overreact to ordinary sights, sounds, smells or other sensations.” (Sarris, 2015).

The social story will be about loud noises and how it affects a child with autism.

Loud Noises

I dislike hearing loud noises. When I hear them, it hurts my ears and my head.

When people talk loudly, I get very angry with them, I want to hit them and yell at them to make the noise stop.

Instead of getting mad at them. I will use my words. I will ask them if they can please lower their voices?

I have an option to ask my teacher to help me out.

I have no control over loud noises, I will control my behavior over the noises.

I will be nice and ask kindly to please quite down.

In the beginning of the story there is a lot of frustrating because the child’s head hurts. Then the child forms aggression towards the people making the noise. Then the student turns the aggression in to a verbal yell and a physical hit to stop the noise. In the next part of the story, the student learns to control their anger and aggression by asking for help and using nice kind words to address the noise issue. At the end of the story, the child understands that the noise level can be out of their control and now they know different skills to use to cope with the noise around them.

References:

Garvis, S., & Pendergast, D. (2011). An investigation of early childhood teacher self-efficacy beliefs in the teaching of arts education. International Journal of Education & the Arts, 12(9), 1-16. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/898322660?accountid=34574

Bae, Y. (1999). Human development: Theories and learning futures. Futurics, 23(3), 12-33. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/219813343?accountid=34574

Sarris, M. (2016, May 19). What Do We Know about Noise Sensitivity in Autism? Retrieved from https://iancommunity.org/ssc/noise-sensitivity-autism