Managing Virtual Environments: Server Comparison

Table of Contents

Physical Server and Specifications

Vendor Selection

Hypervisor Comparison

VMware 6.5

Hyper-V 2016

VCenter deployment

Physical Server

Virtual Server

VMware VSphere Cluster settings

VSphere DRS Cluster with FT enabled

VSphere HA Cluster

DPM – Distributed Resource Schedule

VM Specifications

Virtual Machine Placement

Storage Requirements

VMFS DATASTORE

ISCSI Storage Protocol

ISCSI Storage design and configuration

Backup Solution

I have calculated the Hardware by researching the Average requirements for each server and allowed 20% for growth

Server Type

QTY

CPU

Total CPU

RAM

Total RAM

NIC

Total NIC

Mail Servers

5

2

10

2

10

1

5

Active directory

4

2

8

2

8

1

4

Windows File Server

10

2

20

6

60

1

10

Web Servers

8

2

16

6

48

1

8

Database Servers

4

2

8

4

16

1

4

Linux Servers

6

2

12

2

12

1

6

Total

37

 

74

 

154

37

Growth 20%

18

31

8

Total incl Growth

 

 

92

 

185

45

Server Hardware Vendor Comparison 

For vendor comparison I looked at the top two Server hardware vendors globally  

Dell 

Pros. Dell assembles and tests the hardware before shipping whereas HPE ship in parts and requires assembly and testing onsite which will be an extra workload on the Local team. (Schaller, 2018) 

Dell has Improved Manageability and Serviceability by integrating with industry leading management consoles like VMware and Hyper-V.  With Dell OpenManage Integrations with vCenter you can auto-detect a new server and automate the configuration of the new server and install the Operating system from the vCenter console. Dell offers excellent warranty and support and has many add on packages to support Enterprise business and offers user friendly services for support and hardware and warranty lookup.  Dell ProSupport Plus with SupportAssist technology resolves problems 90% faster than systems covered by standard warranty. (EdisonGroupInc, 2018) 

Dell enterprise support is noted as being one of the best  

Cons. Lead times can be longer for custom built Servers and very minimal flexibility with pricing. (Schaller, 2018) 

HPE 

Pros.  HPE provide predictive alerts for parts that may fail allowing you to replace before impacting on production environments. Ordering of hardware is done through HPE OneView management tools and use plug-ins to integrate with management tools for VMware vCenter and Hyper-V 

Cons. HPE ship hardware in pieces and needs to be put together onsite and tested which takes additional resources for IT teams, also their supply chain for replacement parts is not always reliable and their website can be difficult to navigate for information and support (Schaller, 2018) 

OneView integration with VMware and Hyper-V main activities for configuration and tuning requires the witching between two systems. Firmware updates require additional tools such as HPE System Update Manager (EdisonGroupInc, 2018) 

Comparing Dell and HPE with respect to compatibility and support Dell is the more obvious choice considering that their integration with Hypervisor choice of VMware allows for seamless management compared to HPE. The fact that Dell ships hardware already configured and tested is also a big plus and will reduce the workload of the local IT team. 

Hosts

3 plus 1 for redundancy

Model

Dell PowerEdge

No of CPU

2

Cores Per CPU

8 Cores

Network

2 x 10GE

Memory

2 x 32 DIMM

VMware ESXi

Vmware 6.5 build

Hypervisor Comparison

The following is an outline of the significant improvements made in VMware 6.5 and Hyper-V 2016 that make them better applications for enterprise development.

VMware 6.5

Pros. Significant improvements to the VMware 6.5 are as follows. They include The migration tool is built into the VCSA installer, appliance management improvements, VCSA Native high availability, vCenter Native Backup and Restore, performance enhancement of the vSphere Web Client, with inbuilt HTML 5 into the Windows and VCSA versions. Also, enhanced logging, proactive HA for Cisco, Dell, and HP so far, HA orchestrated restart, HA admission control improvements, HA support for vGPU, improvements done to FT, predictive DRS and additional options, Network-Aware DRS, vSphere Integrated Containers, Advanced Format and 512e Disk Support, Automated UNMAP, LUN Scalability, ISCSI Static Routing, and Dedicated Gateways for vmkernel ports. It has a content library, vSphere update manager. An AutoDeploy with GUI, VM encryptions, and SecureBoot options for VMS and ESXi (Shawn, 2017)

Cons. The significant challenges include compatibility issues with other VMware products and some hardware, the Log Insight 4.0 only works for a single host, and the cSphere C# is removed.

Hyper-V 2016

Pros. Some of the new additions to the Hyper-V 2016 include compatibility with connected standby, hot resource protection, hot add and remove for network adapters and memory. It updated the Hyper-V management improvements, integrates service delivery into the windows update, and introduced the Linux secure boot. It allocates more memory and processors for generation 2 virtual machines and hosts, allows discrete device assignment, and provides encryption support for the operating system disk in generation 1 virtual machines. Other features include nested virtualization, new networking features (RDMA, VMMQ, QoS), the introduction of production checkpoints, an upgrade on the Rolling Hyper-V cluster, updated shared virtual disks, new virtual machine backup, shielded virtual machine, virtual machine configuration updated introduction of windows containers, and Windows PowerShell Direct (Davies et al., 2016).

Cons. One of the significant downsides of the Hyper-V 2016 is that it does not include guest operating system licenses which can add up if one is looking to host several VMs.

Comparing the VMware and Hyper-V in relation to enterprise deployment, the former is much better regarding implementing complex virtualization features. These features function better with VMware as long as the licenses are paid for and running on supported hardware. While Hyper-V supports more hardware and is less complicated, it requires more steps to configure (Leoni, 2017). Hence, VMware would be much more manageable.

VCenter License

6.5

 

Target Server

ESXI 1

VCenter will be hosted on ESXI 1

Deployment Type

Embedded Platform Services controller

Connection to VCenter Server and the PSC is not over the network so less prone to outages

Less licenses required

NO Load balancing to distribute the load across PSC

Setup SSO

Create a new SSO Domain

Set application size

Tiny

Have less than 10 hosts and 100 VMs

Datastore

Datastore 6

120GB

Configure Database

Use an Embedded DB

Customer experience program

Enabled

Provide feedback for improvements

Physical Server

Pros. Would not be impacted in the case of Virtual Infrastructure outages

Cons. A dedicated physical server is required and backup and maintenance would also be necessary. May not be ideal when moving to a virtualised environment to still be using a Physical server for management. Snapshots cannot be used and no load balancing techniques.

Virtual Server

Pros. No additional physical server are required and virtual resources such as RAM and CPU can be increased. Easy to backup and restore and can use Snapshots for testing and upgrade management. Can utilise DRS and HA Cluster for high availability.

Cons. Must have HA enabled otherwise would be issues in the case of outage of Virtual Infrastructure. Must also compete for resources with other VM’s

 

I have chosen to deploy the VServer on a Virtual Machine as recommended by VMware and to take advantage of HA which can protect the Management server from a hardware failure.

I will be taking advantage of VCenter Service Appliance in 6.5 to link vCenter servers together as they will be part of the same SSO Domain. This will allow any changes made on any vServer to be replicated to all VServer’s. The VCSA also has an embedded Database that is sufficient for the deployment of this size.(under 20 hosts  Will required a disk size of Tiny – 120GB of storage on physical Server.

 

VMware VSphere Cluster settings

Name

Cluster_Site_1

Hosts

4

Datastore

Datastore 7

License

VMware 6.5

Lockdown Mode

Strict

Only want users to connect via VCenter Server

VMotion

Enabled

Used for planned outages and maintenance

DRS

Enabled

DRS

Fully Automated

Let DRS take care of managing resources.

Less time consuming for IT Staff

Predictive DRS

Enabled

Take advantage of this new feature in 6.5 which will allow DRS to respond to forecast metrics provided by realise Server

Virtual Machine Automation

Enabled

May need individual VM’s to set their own Automation

Automation Level

3

Leaving level at default setting

VMware DPM

Enabled

Save power when VM’s are idle by moving VM’s to a few hosts and puts hosts in Standby until needed

DPM Threshold

3

Leaving at Default setting, any lower wound not have any real impact and higher would be too aggressive

HA

Enabled

Host monitoring

Enabled

Host Failure Response

Restarts VM’s

Will restart VM’s once failure has occurred

Automation Level

Automated

Will allow hosts with problems or that need maintenance to be placed into quarantine or maintenance mode

Remediation

Mixed mode

Want to balance the performance and availability – want to leave HA be used to make such decisions

Admission control

Default settings

Leaving as default and can be changed later if need more control over failover capacity

Heartbeat Datastore

Automatically select Datastores accessible from the host

VSphere DRS Cluster with FT enabled

VSphere HA Cluster

DPM – Distributed Resource Schedule

Name

Mail Server

AD Server

File Server

Cluster

Cluster 1

Cluster 1

Cluster 1

CPU

2

2

2

RAM

2

2

6

Datastore

Datastore 2

Datastore 2

Datastore 1

OS

WS 2016

WS 2016

WS 2016

VNIC

1

1

1

VDisk Size

32GB

32GB

32GB

VDisk

Thin Provisioning

Thin Provisioning

Thin Provisioning

VDisk Option

Store with VM

Store with VM

Store with VM

 

Name

Database

Web Servers

Linux Servers

Cluster

Cluster

Cluster 1

Cluster 1

CPU

2

2

2

RAM

4

6

4

Datastore

Datastore 4

Datastore 5

Datastore 3

OS

WS 2016

WS 2016

Linux

VNIC

1

1

1

VDisk Size

32GB

32GB

32GB

VDisk

Thin Provisioning

Thin Provisioning

Thin Provisioning

VDisk Option

Store with VM

Store with VM

Store with VM

 

Virtual Machine Placement

To ensure that Mail Servers, AD Servers and File servers are spread across all hosts in the cluster to avoid downtime DRS Groups are created and associated with Affinity rules. The rules specify that a VM’ in the group will be spread across each host in the Cluster. The rule specifies that the VM’s should run on the host in the group meaning that if the cluster fails then VMotion will move the VM’s to another host. This will ensure the availability of business critical services. 

Rule 1 Mail Server

Group Type

DRS Groups VM

Group Name

MS_Group_DRS_VM

Group Members

5 Mail Server VM’s

Rule Name

MS_Affinity_Rule

Enable rule

Enabled

Type

Virtual Machine to Host

VM Group

MS_Group_DRS_VM + MS_Group_Host

Rule

Should run on host in Group

Host Group

Host_Group_1(ESXI 1, ESXI 2, ESXI 3, ESXI 4)

Rule 2 Active Directory rule

Group Type

DRS Groups VM

Group Name

AD_Group_DRS_VM

Group Members

4 Active Directory VM’s

Rule Name

AD_Affinity_Rule

Enable rule

Enabled

Type

Virtual Machine to Host

VM Group

AD_Group_DRS_VM + AD_Group_Host

Rule

Should run on host in Group

Host Group

Host_Group_1(ESXI 1, ESXI 2, ESXI 3, ESXI 4)

Rule 3 File Server rule

Group Type

DRS Groups VM

Group Name

FS_Group_DRS_VM

Group Members

10 File Servers VM’s

Rule Name

FS_Affinity_Rule

Enable rule

Enabled

Type

Virtual Machine to Host

VM Group

FS_Group_DRS_VM + FS_Group_Host

Rule

Should run on host in Group

Host Group

Host_Group_1(ESXI 1, ESXI 2, ESXI 3, ESXI 4)

 

Network

 

 

 

 

Server Type

Total Disk Space GB

Local Disk Space

Calculation and assumptions

Mail Servers 

400

160

I based my calculation on each user having

8GB of storage each

Active directory 

128 

Here I made an assumption of requirements

Windows File Server 

250 

320 

I based my calculation on each user having

5GB of storage required

Web Servers 

256 

Here I made an assumption of requirements

Database Servers 

128 

Here I made an assumption of requirements

Linux Servers 

192 

Here I made an assumption of requirements

Total 

650

1184

Capacity growth 20% 

130 

236 

Total Storage requirements  

780 

1420 

Total Storage required  

2200 GB 

Bottom of Form

 VMFS DATASTORE

The VMFS DATASTORE’s will be created for each of the below VM groups to allow to manage the storage for each Server type as a whole

DATASTORE 1 – File Servers 690GB Total Storage plus 20% for growth

DATASTORE 2 – Mail Servers – 680GB Total storage plus 20% for growth

DATASTORE 3 – Linux – 250GB – Total Storage plus 20% for growth

DATASTORE 4 – DB Servers – 160GB – Total Storage plus 20% for growth

DATASTORE 5 – Web Servers – 310GB – Total storage plus 20% for growth

DATASTORE 6 – Active Directory – 154GB – Total storage plus 20% for growth

DATASTORE 7 – Management

ISCSI Storage Protocol

ISCSI storage protocol is the choice for storage protocol

leverages the existing network and does not require additional Network design and equipment

Cost is lower  

Does not require additional training for IT Staff unlike FC deployments which can be difficult to deploy

Supports VMFS, DRS and VMotion

Supports booting from SAN

ISCSI Storage design and configuration

Veeam is chosen as the backup solution. Veeam was named as Gartner Peer Insights Customer’s choice for Data Center Backup and Recovery Software in 2018. VMware and Veeam have a very strong technical alliance. (Veeam, Veeam Hyper-Availability for VMware, 2018)

Veeam solutions guarantees business continuity, minimizes risk and fast-tracks innovation. Veeam Backup & Replication™ fully supports VMware VSphere 6.5 and offers an easy-to-use, reliable and agnostic solution for virtual, physical and cloud-based workloads which enable faster back-ups through smart logic that reduces network traffic and enables backup and restore according to your storage policy (Veeam, Veeam Hyper-Availability for VMware, 2018)

Veeam operates at the virtualization layer and uses an image based approach for VM back-up and no agent is required to be installed on the Guest OS.

High speed recovery with the ability to restore VM’s within minutes and recover individual files easily. Recover AD objects, Containers and OUs and user accounts and Restore to a point in time for Oracle and SQL DB’s

Ability to create backups from any storage with storage snapshots. 2 in 1 backup and replication allows you to maintain image based replicate onsite for HA or off site for disaster recovery and simplify failover and failback with minimum disruption to business with inbuilt WAN acceleration.

Veeam gives you the ability to work in a production like environment by allowing you to use Backups and replicas to test any new deployment prior to go live. (Veeam, Veeam, 2018)

Veeam Backup & Recovery Architecture

In order to provide an adequate backup strategy to restore operations in the event of any problem the 3-2-1 rule will be enforced.

3 – This will ensure that there are at least 3 copies of all the VMware environment and DATA. This will ensure that if one of the backup fails for any reason that there will be another backup recovery will still be possible 

2 – Keep backup’s in different locations. One backup will be held onsite on local storage and second will be held offsite in a different media.

1 – Keep one backup in a different location. One backup will be onsite and the second will be held offsite. For offsite Veeam Cloud Connect will be utilized to get backups off site (Veeam, 2014)

(Veeam, 2014)

References (What’s new in Hyper-V on Windows Server 2016, 2017)

EdisonGroupInc. (2018). Retrieved from www.TheEdison.com: www.TheEdison.com

Fenech, J. (2016). vCenter Server for Windows and vCSA compared. Retrieved from https://www.altaro.com/vmware/vcenter-server-windows-vcsa-compared/

Schaller, J. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.exittechnologies.com/blog/data-center/hpe-vs-dell-servers/

Shawn. (2017). VMware vSphere 6.5 – Is it all it’s cracked up to be? Retrieved from https://virtuallyinclined.com/2017/01/22/vmware-vsphere-6-5-cracked/

Veeam. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.veeam.com/blog/how-to-follow-the-3-2-1-backup-rule-with-veeam-backup-replication.html

Veeam. (2018). Retrieved from Veeam: https://www.veeam.com/vmware-software-defined-data-center-solution-brief_wp.pdf

Veeam. (2018). Veeam Hyper-Availability for VMware. Retrieved from https://www.veeam.com/vmware-vsphere-solutions.html

VMware. (2017). Performance Best Practices for. Retrieved from https://www.vmware.com/content/dam/digitalmarketing/vmware/en/pdf/techpaper/performance/Perf_Best_Practices_vSphere65.pdf

VMware. (2017). vSphere Networking. Retrieved from vmware.com: https://docs.vmware.com/en/VMware-vSphere/6.5/vsphere-esxi-vcenter-server-65-networking-guide.pdf

VMware. (2018). Veeam Backup & Replication. Retrieved from https://kb.vmware.com/s/article/52533

 

Client Server Computing and Content Management Systems

Table of Contents

Client-Server Computing

Uses of Client-Server Computing

Client-Server Computing evolved

Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages

Disadvantages

Content Management System

Types of Content Management System

CMS Comparison: Drupal and Joomla

CMS Installation

CMS 1 Installation(Drupal):

The process of acquiring and installing a theme for Drupal:

The  method to add plugins/modules to provide functionality for Drupal

To produce a simple site for Drupal:

What back end technologies do they make use of?

CMS 2 installation(Joomla):

The process of acquiring and installing a theme for Joomla:

The  method to add plugins/modules to provide functionality

Steps to produce a simple site for Joomla

What back end technologies do they make use of?

Recommendation and Justification

References

 

The client-server model is a model that communicate against each other via a computer network. It is designed for one or more users to share its data resources in a client-server network. There are plenty of data resources that can be shared such as songs album, mp3, mp4, or other contents from the service provider, called a server. A server is a service provider which store files and data and may works on multiple clients at the same time and share its resources to the client. While the clients are a requester which can ask requests from the server. For example, one of the famous gaming devices called the Playstation is a kind of Client-server model to serve the end-user. We can open the updated or completed network files by logging into it which allow the end-user to contact with the Playstation server website and retrieve their data such as games update, video collection, equipment store, games download and others.

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The uses of the client and server computing are the server itself should take request from the clients and share its data with all clients that are requested for. Just imagine, a client is waiting for a server in order to serve him, the client connects, communicate and ask for a request from the server via a network. A server then will make sure the data access is legit. After the server confirms that the data is legit, then the server will take the request from the client. So, the role of the client-server model is a client doesn’t provide any data to the server but only make requests to the server. However, a server may have its limited number by receiving requests from clients at once. Therefore, it uses priority rules to schedule that request. Although the client and server are communicated with each other on separate client’s devices, they remain to use the same system through a network. After that, the server will close the connection and move to serve another client when there is no other job request from the present client.

The client and server system started when the computers were increased hugely and being used individually. The organization started to demands of computing control and value. Then, the idea is to separate some personal computers and a mainframe. Therefore, the computers can communicate with each other via a network.

Advantages:  Security, data access, data resources and data integrity are under control by the dedicated server. It is because the data is centralized in a dedicated server. The unauthorized client cannot access the system without permission by the support staff. For example, any new unknown clients entered the network would require to enter the network’s username and passwords for new access to the network. Any new unrecognized clients will go through a centralized security system based before access through the network. That’s mean it is hard to be attacked by some unauthorized clients or maybe  Even if the issue happened, the support staff will be aware easily and protect the data.

Besides, support staff can set data backup in the servers which server can automatically recover data before the data being lost from the client devices. That is important because no one can guarantee that the hard drive will always work well in the client devices. When it comes to the issue of a hard drive failure, everybody must do a backup. However, one hard drive is not enough. The server can have two or more internal hard drives to do extra data backup. When the data accessed for the first one is failed, then the client can go to the second one for retrieving data.

The support team can also modify, update, or upgrade resources if they needed. It is easy for them to do that because all clients are requested data from only one server in the network. Therefore, the support team can only focus on the server to modify data. It is also a good way to improve teamwork and reduce human error at the same time when they have three or more people working together in that server.

The user can connect and access anytime by using any client devices they want because the server is always powered on. This is important for the client because it can help them to communicate with each other immediately whenever the other client devices are offline or broken down.

The support staff can strengthen, upgrade or add new nodes in the client-server computing. It is a great scalability in client-server computing. We can also increase the nodes if we want it to. It is because of all the nodes have the same task individually, which request data from the server. The client and support staff don’t have to get closer to the server and access it. They can connect with the server by using remote access. The data can be processed efficiently even if they are not in the server room. So, this makes them save much of their time if they live far away from there or having difficulties to come.

Disadvantages: Client and server computing are more lead to a network overload issue. The issue happens when more and more request from the clients contact with only one server contemporary. This can cause the server down by getting overloaded.

As we know, the server is a hub for all clients. When the server is broken down, the whole network will go down at the same time. All the download part may stop and start from 0 to redownload it again. The clients have to stop their work until the server is restored.

The failure of the server may happen anytime without any reason. When that happens,  the time to under maintenance might take about several minutes if it is a fortune, but sometimes it might take days to fix the whole systems’ server failure.

The setup cost is a little bit expensive compared to some other model such as peer to peer network.

Moreover, it is required to have some experienced IT field people to take control of the servers. The security, database, errors or problem-solving issues are not a regular person can do. And it needs some profession to be fast and get the solution. The bigger the company is, the faster they want it to solve the problem on that server because the more clients it has.

A content Management System is an application that is used to manage and modify content. It supports multiple users to add, organize and modify their publishing content. You can edit the page in the administrative page and then you can also preview it at the user site after you have done editing. Furthermore, you can add some plugins and themes to demonstrate the site and make the content different. All of those themes and plugins are mostly created by the support team from the CMS and a lot of that can be used for free and only one-click installation. Besides, a Content management system also can help you to manage menu, create a contact or online forms, create a blog, create an e-commerce platform, manage a security framework, manage store database and etc. Moreover, a content management system also allows you to create and manage webpages easily by separating the creation of your content from the mechanics required and present it on the web. A traditional CMS architecture still prefers to use the self-hosted open-source model to combine codes together with the CMS so that the developers can take control over it without share it to other people such as a vendor. Actually, it has another technology architecture to change the typical web CMS to a modern CMS called Headless CMS architecture. The Headless CMS can use open API to manage users content and send over to multiple client devices.

Types of Content Management System

There are five types of a content management system. First, the component content management system. It manages stores the components in a repository. The costs are reduced with the reuse of the content and it can publish in a different type of platform such as PDF, mobile and etc. Secondly, the document management system. It is to manage documents on a cloud-based platform. Thirdly, the Enterprise Content Management System. It can manage document and make sure information goes to a correct recipient every day. Then, it will delete unimportant files. Fourthly, the web content management system. It manages the webpage with its own content. Users can do it at zero knowledge of coding. Fifthly, the Digital Asset Management System. It can store content securely and let clients access their important data safely. Also, this system is a cloud-based platform too.

Drupal is a content management system run in PHP script. Drupal is a flexible CMS based on the LAMP stack such as Linux, Apache, My SQL and my PHP languages. With a modular design that allowing features to be added by installing new modules and allowing the entire appearance and feel of the whole website to be changed. All of those can be done by installing a theme. Drupal isn’t only a CMS platform but it is a variety and complete web development framework. By using Drupal, we are able to build many websites without any programming knowledge or coding experiences. Drupal is a free and open-source and it is same as Joomla, so that’s mean it is free to use for the user. About Drupal: two university students felt unusual to a permanent internet connection in the year of 2000. A new site with a web board has been developed and a small content framework is created. They set its domain name as dorp.org and “Drop” is known as a village in the Dutch language. They did a mistype from “dorp” to “drop”. When it is live on the web, it became attracted to people and they rename it to Drupal as the Dutch word means “drop”. There are some features about Drupal. It has a new theme engine called Twig.  It is a PHP based but it is written in syntax form. So it is more secure, fast and flexible. Another great feature is the quick edits. It allows a user to click on the edit button on the front page and that button links through backport for quick hands fixes from the front end. Also, It has a Guided Tour for people to understand better. It supports PHP 4 and 7. Drupal provides HTML 5, JSON, XML and Hypertext Application Language as a data source and output content to the users. The cost to develop a website project is a lot in Drupal. The estimated amount is between $15,000 to $100,000. There are several business problems faced by Drupal which is business themes issue and business rule module issue.

Joomla is a CMS which runs in a Model View Controller design pattern. About Joomla: It is an award-winning content management system. It allows users to build websites with zero coding experience. History of Joomla, An Australia company named Miro develops a CMS called MAMBO. It has given a General Public license under GNU. But, a copyright issue happened in 2005, caused the MAMBO teams to resign.  The second time the name of Mambo changed to Jumla and it launched on 16 September 2005. Then, it launched Joomla 1.5 on 21 January 2008. After that, Joomla has well known to the public since July 2009. There are some features about Joomla. It is an open-source(free), good content management allow the viewer to register and keep updating on their module and get core updated easily. Then it keeps newer version with users need by using 1 click step to complete the update process. It supports PHP 4 and 7 and over 70 viewing languages to the user. Major types of websites that can be created, for example, a blogging site, business to business online sales website, event website for a local event and others. Furthermore, it also great at user management, menu management, contact management, banner management and cache management. The search capabilities in Joomla provide the most popular search in plugins, themes, admin tools and others. The cost to develop a website project is less than Drupal. The estimated amount is between $99 to $100,000. There are several business problems faced by Joomla which is Jstring issues, Joomlaaxtc extension issue and framework issue.

The easier ways to install a content management system is by following:

First, I run a hosting provider called CPanel. Before we start, we should have a domain name like 27035574.2019.labnet.nz to access it. After that, to open the Cpanel is to type in your [domain name]/cpanel in the URL bar and enter.

You will go into the login page. Press login to enter your CPanel hosting account.

CMS 1 Installation(Drupal):

In the CPanel hosting environment, you can set up any kind of Content Management System quickly. Scroll down and go to the “SOFTACULOUS APPS INSTALLER” tab.

At the categories, Click on the Portals/CMS logo.

Find Drupal and press it.

Go to the install menu button, click on the arrow for the drop-down menu and choose Custom install

It will show this page.

Then, you will see an “in Directory”. This is for your root directory to install at, for example, Http://[domain]/[drupal8]/. Leave it empty if you don’t want to change the directory.

You can change the admin’s username and password. Recommended building a strong password to real website builder to prevent security loss.

After that, click on the install button and it will bring you to this page.

 

Press on the Administrative URL link to log in as an administrator.

You will be required to enter your admin username and password to access.

After login, you will see something has changed such as the extension bar and Tools menu.

 

The process of acquiring and installing a theme for Drupal:

First, you have to enter the link below: https://www.drupal.org/project/project_theme

Then, you will see the download and extend page, fill in the Core compatible mode to the mode that suits your Drupal version. I’m choosing, 8.x for myself. Type in zircon at the search themes bar and press on the Search button.

After pressing the search button, scroll down and choose zircon as shown below. Then press on Zircon link.

Scroll down the page and you will see two types of download file, you can choose either .gz or.zip file. For me, I have chosen the .gz file, right-click the link and copy link addresses.

Go back to you Drupal admin site, hover to the Appearance tab, and choose the install new theme option.

When the page loaded, paste the copy link address into the ”Install from a URL” bar and press the install button.

After the installation successful, press on the Appearance tab.

Zircon theme will be located on the Uninstall theme column. Go there and press on the install link.

Then you will get a confirmation message below.

.

Go to the Zircon theme and set the theme as default.

The  method to add plugins/modules to provide functionality for Drupal

First, you have to enter the link below: https://www.drupal.org/project/project_module

Then, you will see the download and extend page, fill in the Core compatible mode to the mode that suits your Drupal version. I’m choosing, 8.x for myself. Type in admin toolbar at the search themes bar and press on the Search button.

After pressing the search button, scroll down and choose Admin Toolbar module as shown below. Then press on Admin Toolbar link.

Scroll down the page and you will see the type of download file, you can choose either .gz or.zip file. For me, I have chosen the .gz file, right-click the link and copy link addresses.

Go back to you Drupal admin site, hover to the Extend tab, and choose the install new module option.

When the page loaded, paste the copy link address into the ”Install from a URL” bar and press the install button.

You will receive a confirmation message.

After that, press on the Extend tab, scroll down and find the Admin Toolbar, tick all 3 boxes as shown below.

A confirmation message will be shown at the top of the page as below.

Then, you can now update the module by using the Update option under the Extend tab.

To produce a simple site for Drupal:

First, go to the configuration tab and click on the Basic site settings.

Then, fill in the site name, email address and the file path. It will change the contents on the home page.

After that, go to content -> Add content

Fill in all the field.

Menu setting is a menu creator and settings for the content. Set up the weight from lower to higher means to display the menu in ascending order.

URL Alias is to make user access easier. After finished, save and close the settings.

To change the logo image or favicon: press on appearance -> find our theme -> site settings ->  you can change under logo image content and also favicon content. It uses the same function to change the colour background as well.

What back end technologies do they make use of?

Back end technologies have PHP code and other languages to write modules, web services, automate tests and etc.

https://befused.com/drupal/developer

CMS 2 installation(Joomla):

In the CPanel hosting environment, Scroll down and go to the “SOFTACULOUS APPS INSTALLER” tab. You can see there is a Joomla script, press on that.

Go to the install menu button, click on the arrow drop-down menu and choose Custom install.

It will show this page.

You can change the directory if you want. Otherwise, leave it empty.

Change the Admin Username and password if you like.

After that, click on the install button and it will bring you to this page.

Press on the Administrative URL link to log in as an administrator.

You will be required to enter your admin username and password to access.

It will bring you to the Joomla’s control panel page.

The process of acquiring and installing a theme for Joomla:

First, there are multiple websites for you to download a theme to Joomla, For me, I will enter the link: https://www.astemplates.com/free-joomla-templates.

I will Choose LT TECH SHOP as my template in Joomla, you can choose another template whenever you like. Press on the more button.

Then press on Download Free Version button.

Tick the accept term and condition check box and download it. It will ask to sign in the account for the first user.

After the registration completed, you will get two zip folders.

Open the Joomla admin site, go to extension tab -> manage. Then, browse both zip file that you downloaded and upload it.

After that, go to the extension tab -> template. The page will be shown as below, make the Lt Techshop as default by clicking on the star icon.

And you will see the change of homepage.

The  method to add plugins/modules to provide functionality

First, you should enter the link below: https://extensions.joomla.org/extension/

Search for “AllVideos” plugin and download it and it should show in the zip file.

Go back to the admin site. Then, go to the extension tab -> Manage

Drap and drop the plugin zip file into the upload link. Then, it will install automatically and show a confirmation message to you.

Go to extension tab -> Manage

Enable the plugin that has installed by clicking the disable folder icon and it will turn to green.

Then, go to Extension tab -> Plugins.

Press on the link to edit the “AllVideos” Plugin

Then, click on the “show full description” link.

Go down and select the “Documentation for AllVideos”.

You will beload this page.

Scroll down and copy the Youtube AllVideo tag that can be used in Joomla (if you want to use Youtube channel service).

GO back to Joomla admin site, and go to the article that you want to embed a video inside with HTML code. Then paste the “AllVideos” tag to shows the youtube channel. Then save and publish it. For example:

Steps to produce a simple site for Joomla

First, create an article for the website, go to content -> Articles.

Press the new button

Create a title for your article, save and close after finished.

Press the menu tab, go to Main Menu and choose Add New Menu Item.

Create a menu title, this is to link with the article, change the menu item type to a single article, and select About Article.

Check to confirm the menu items are added inside the menu items manager, you should have About Us page.

You can add some content inside an article. Press the content and select the article option.  Press the About Us link.

Put the content that you want to. Save and close. Then, you can view it on your user site.

What back end technologies do they make use of?

We could create a Model-view-Controller triptych and edit the admin entry point.

I have applied two software for the Social Media(twitter style)micro-messaging site. First one is called Social Engine. This is a mobile social community software. It has some great performance to create a custom branded social media site. Another one is a social analytics software called phpFox. About the phpFox is to give a solution for people who wants to create social media sites. It provides tools for group users such as group owners, admin, and community managers. Both are at the same cost and have similar product features.  If you want to get support in 24×7 from the active community, the phpFox should have the service but the Social media does not. Both software support above Php4.0 and PHP7 versions.

For my recommendation, I will choose phpFox as my choice. It is because phpFox is a powerful server platform to build social media online than Social Engine server platform. If you build the social media site in phpFox, you will like the script that has been built inside the phpFox compared to the Social Engine especially the hosting part with a virtual private server.

I have applied two software for the Content Streaming Website. First one is called Uscreen. Then, the second one is called Contus Vplay. Uscreen can turn users’ channel into a mobile application. So, it allows interested viewers to download it from Play Store on Android or Itunes on Apple and displays the content on their phone. For Contus Vplay, it is an online video streaming product that allows users to manage their video content. Both of the software has similar features such as. It is a one-time license for the Contus Vplay and the price is varied by the vendor. For Ugreen users, they have to pay 149 per month for the basic plan and 299 for the Plus. Ugreen has a great secure on its Billing system, while the Contus VPlay has fully secured the whole system from being access by hackers or unauthorized users.

For my recommendation, I will choose Contus VPlay as my choice. It is because live streaming is common nowadays. Contus V Play can live broadcast for my created videos on other mobile phones. It is cool, isn’t it? In addition, it has full protection at my video streaming contents from being stolen by other users.

I have applied two software for the Blogging Site. First one is called Gator. Then, the second one is called Blogger. Gator is a blogging platform created by HostGator. As we know, HostGator is a famous hosting service provider, but it also a blog creator management site. On the other hand, Blogger is a blogging platform running in a google hosting platform. Users can use Blogger as free by watching the provided advertisement. But if users want to create more, then they have to pay based on quota. But in other hand, Gator has to pay monthly with as low as 4 dollars to get a plan. Both have 24×7 technical support. The security of Gator is protected by the HostGator while the security of Blogger is protected by Google.

For my recommendation, I will choose Blogger as my choice. It is great to choose Blogger as my favourite Blogging site builder. It is because the trustworthy of linking with Google company and believe the platform is more secure than Gator. In addition, it is easy, simple, and understandable to manage or build my own content without using any of my technical or programming skills.

I have applied two software for the Business to business online sales websites. First one is called PrestaShop and the second one is called OpenCart. Both of this CMS is specially designed for eCommerce platform and has been placed in a top 10 list. Presta shop allows users to works on 25 languages while OpenCart is not good in client management.  However, OpenCart has its own community which give users certain commercial support to solve their issue. It is easy to build a website in PrestaShop than in the OpenCart.

For my recommendation, I will choose PrestaShop as my choice. When I work with some business clients and also some of the charge accounts, PrestaShop is a good choice for me. It is because PrestaShop provides stronger features in product management, SEO capabilities, customer care than using an OpenCart. This is important because it helps me to overcome several clients issue and also ranking up my website from the search engine site.

I have applied two software for the Micro jobbing sites. First one is called WordPress and the second one is Drupal. Drupal is a website builder to generate a solution with robust functionality for building general-purpose websites. While WordPress is more like a community platform. It can be said a Drupal can do more than a WordPress. In fact, Drupal is a little bit more complicated than WordPress to build a website because Drupal is neither for a starter nor zero skills developer, on the other hand, WordPress can start at a very basic level. Both are open sources Content Management System. There are 5000 more free themes and 53000 more plugins that can be used in WordPress compare to Drupal’s which has only 2500 more themes and 39000 more modules.

For my recommendation, I will choose WordPress as my choice. I choose WordPress because I know there are some themes available to create a micro jobbing site such as a Fiverr. It is important to get started with prebuilt themes rather than using a Drupal. Besides, the ease of use for WordPress can also help to save my time.

I have applied two software for Event websites for a local event. First one is called Wix and the second one is EventCreate. EventCreate is specially designed to create an Event website, while Wix is used to creating a variety of websites with different features in it. It is free cost for the starter plan in the EventCreate, while it has a free version for the Wix when I use the ad provided by Wix.

For my recommendation, I will choose EventCreate as my choice. It is because there is a limited choice of background to choose in Wix. EventCreate has a great design option for me to choose and create a quality background on the event website. EventCreate provides great tools and good technical support to help create a robust product that I need.

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Kenneth Crowder, R. S. (2019, January 30). A Brief History of Joomla. Retrieved from Oreilly Safari: https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/using-joomla/9781449377434/ch01s02.html

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Rode, J. (2016, June 9). What is the top 10 features of Joomla? Retrieved from Quora: https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-top-10-features-of-Joomla

Sameh, F. (2019, February 17). PRESTASHOP VS. OPENCART: A COMPARISON OF ECOMMERCE PLATFORMS. Retrieved from A Perzonalization Blog website: https://www.perzonalization.com/blog/prestashop-vs-opencart-comparison/

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Evaluation of Server Virtualization Infrastructure

Introduction
ICA. COM owns a domain based network and their datacenter is based on different physical server. For maintenance and upgrading of these physical server, the management is spending a lot of time and the money. Before attended to seminar, CEO realized that, in future it need to buy more hardware or physical server to offer IT services to the new and existing domain user. But after attending to the business seminar, CEO got ideas about the Green IT and virtualization technology. With the help of server virtualization ICA can save money, wore more efficiently. Server infrastructure administrator able to decide which server workload will run effectively in virtual machine and which server workload remain deployed in more traditional environment.

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The main objective of this report is to present the current server infrastructure and show that how to implement application and server virtualization platform for ICA.COM domain. Also it will present the suitable type of hypervisor for ICA.COM. This report has provide the detail about how easy it would be manage virtual server infrastructure as compared to physical server, benefits of network and storage virtualization to manage the data and network services.
Task 1:
A hypervisor is a crucial piece of software that makes virtualization possible. A hypervisor, also known as a virtual machine monitor, is a process that creates and runs virtual machines (VMs). A hypervisor allows one host computer to support multiple guest VMs by virtually sharing its resources, like memory and processing. As per the scenario given, type 1 hypervisor is physical server. Hence, below given answer discuss about suitable virtual server hypervisor type for the ICA.COM as compared to physical server.
There are two types of hypervisors:
Type 1 hypervisor: It is a physical server. It run directly on the system hardware – A “bare metal” embedded hypervisor.  A Type 1 hypervisor is proven in providing excellent performance and stability since it does not run inside Windows or any other operating system. Type 1 hypervisors are mainly found in enterprise environments.

Type 2 hypervisor: It run on a host operating system that provides virtualization services, such as I/O device support and memory management. Type 2 hypervisors don’t support over/dynamic allocation of RAM, so care is required when allocating resources to virtual machines. Type 2 hypervisors are typically found in environments with a small number of servers. (Yurtoğlu Nadir, 2018)

Performance of Type 2 Hypervisor: Hosted hypervisors essentially also act as management consoles for virtual machines, it can perform any task using the built-in functionalities. There is no need to install separate software on another machine to create and maintain virtual environment. It need to simply install and run a type 2 hypervisor any other application within OS. With it, it can create snapshots or clone your virtual machines, import or export appliances, etc.
Type 2 Hypervisor Operational factors, and support:  You do need to be careful when allocating actual resources with this type of hypervisor. We should critical to keep in mind, so as to avoid over-allocating resources and crashing the host machine. Type 2 hypervisors are convenient for testing new software and research projects. It is possible to use one physical machine to run multiple instances with different operating systems to test how an application behaves in each environment or to create a specific network environment.
Cost: Many type 2 hypervisors are free in their basic versions and provide sufficient functionalities. Some even provide advanced features and performance boosts when it install add-on packages, free of charge.
Technical features and support:

Higher server ability
Cheaper operating costs
Eliminate server complexity
Increased application performance
Deploy workload quicker

The common types of the Type 2 hypervisor are as:
1. VMware Workstation/Fusion/Player
It is a hosted hypervisor that runs on x64 versions of Windows and Linux operating systems. It enables users to set up virtual machines (VMs) on a single physical machine, and use them simultaneously along with the actual machine. There is a free-of-charge version. It may cost about $189. An operating systems license is needed to use proprietary ones such as Windows. Ready-made Linux VMs set up for different purposes are available from several sources.
VMware Workstation supports bridging existing host network adapters and sharing physical disk drives and USB devices with a virtual machine. VMware Workstation includes the ability to group multiple virtual machines in an inventory folder. VMware Workstation is a more robust hypervisor with some advanced features, such as record-and-replay and VM snapshot support.
VMware Workstation has four major technical feature and support

 running multiple different operating systems or versions of one OS on one desktop,
Use in labs and demonstration purposes.
It does come with a price tag, as there is no free version.
For MacOS users, VMware has developed Fusion that is similar to their Workstation product. It comes with somewhat fewer features, but also carries a smaller price tag.

2. VMware Server
It is a discontinued free-of-charge virtualization-software server suite developed and supplied by VMware, Inc. It have fewer features than VMware ESX, software available for purchase, but can create, edit, and play virtual machines. It uses a client–server model, allowing remote access to virtual machines, at the cost of some graphical performance (and 3D support). It can run virtual machines created by other VMware products and by Microsoft Virtual PC. (Muller Al, 2005)
VMware Server can preserve and revert to a single snapshot copy of each separate virtual machine. VMware Server is a free, hosted virtualization hypervisor that’s very similar to the VMware Workstation.
3. Parallels Desktop for Mac:
It is software providing hardware virtualization for Mac computers with Intel processors. Parallels Desktop for Mac is a hardware emulation virtualization software, using hypervisor technology that works by mapping the host computer’s hardware resources directly to the virtual machine’s resources. Each virtual machine thus operates identically to a standalone computer, with virtually all the resources of a physical computer. Parallels Desktop for Mac is able to virtualize a full set of standard PC hardware, including,

A virtualized CPU of the same type as the host’s physical processor,
ACPI compliance system,
A generic motherboard compatible with the Intel i965 chipset,
Up to 64 GB of RAM for guest virtual machines,
Up to 2 GB of video RAM (VRAM)

4. Oracle VM Virtual Box
Virtual Box hypervisor technology provides reasonable performance and features virtualize on a limited budget. Despite being a free, hosted product with a very small footprint, Virtual Box shares many features with VMware vSphere and Microsoft Hyper-V. Virtual Box is not resource demanding, and it has proven to be a good solution for both desktop and server virtualization. Operating system support. It can run software written for one operating system on another (say, Windows software on Linux) without having to reboot.
Task 2:
On the basis of the evaluation performed in TASK 1, Oracle VM Virtual Box make the most sense for given scenario. It is Functional and free software. It has passed through a few different hands but is now owned by Oracle. Its open-source, hence it’s free price tag, and has a large number of features to back it up. We describe virtual box as a full virtualization. It allows an unmodified operating system with all of its installed software to run in a special environment. This environment, called a “virtual machine”, is created by the virtualization software by introducing hardware components and certain features. The physical computer is then usually called the “host”, while the virtual machine is often called a “guest”. Most of the guest code runs unmodified, directly on the host computer, and the guest operating system “thinks” it’s running on real machine. (Vojnak Dejana, 2019)
The virtualization technique of Oracle VM Virtual Box are:

Operating system support: It can run software written for one operating system on another (say, Windows software on Linux) without having to reboot.

Infrastructure consolidation: Since the full performance of today’s computers is rarely needed full-time, instead of running many such physical computers, one can “pack” many virtual machines onto a few powerful hosts and balance the loads between them. This can save a lot of hardware costs: e.g. by consolidating many servers into a few.
Testing and disaster recovery: Especially with the use of snapshots one can mess with a computing environment by running it as a virtual machine. If something goes wrong, one can easily switch back to a previous snapshot and avoid the need of frequent backups and restores.

Task 3:
Windows Deployment Services
With increased dependency on Information Technology (IT) solutions, organizations are constantly looking for better ways to automate the OS installation process on their systems. Windows Deployment Services (WDS) is a Microsoft technology that enables you to deploy Windows operating system on computers without using physical media such as Compact Disc (CD) or Digital Versatile Disc (DVD). WDS reduces overall installation time, by deploying Windows operating systems on multiple client systems simultaneously through network installation. WDS is a redesigned version of Remote Installation Services (RIS) and offers many advantages over its predecessor.
Advantages of Windows Deployment Services
• WDS uses standard Windows setup technologies including image-based deployment, virtual hard disk (.vhd and .vhdx) image files, Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE), and Windows image (.wim) files
• WDS based installation is easy and efficient due to network-based installation
• WDS based installation reduces the cost and complexity of installation
• Support for mixed environments deployment
• Support for both server and client computers installation
Windows Deployment Service is effective to reinstall Virtual machines in several ways:

Images stored on the Windows Deployment Services server can be customized.
Images can be taken directly from the Windows DVD

Will contain no software applications
Will need the latest windows updates

Can create customized images

Operating system
Drivers
Windows updates
Applications and programs

Less administration required after deployment
Save the templates can be reuse to deployment new Virtual machine.

Task 4:
Network virtualization combine hardware and software network resources and network functionality into a single, software based administrative entity. Network virtualization can play many role within ICA network.
      Reduces the number of physical devices needed and power consumption: By using multiple servers and storage devices onto a single host machine, we can dramatically cut down on the space and costs required to run your network efficiently.
      Automated Management: It plays important role in reducing the burden of physical network. It allows to easily automate network and security protocols, ensuring that they are applied across an entire network infrastructure.
      Manage and prioritize traffic: In portions of a network that might be shared among different external networks.
      It allows administrators to use performance, resources, availability, and security more efficiently.
      Easily segment networks
      Permits rapid change / scalability and agile deployment
      Security from destruction of physical devices
      Failover mode: defective disk simply switches to a backup on the fly, and the failed component can be repaired, while the system continues to run
      Organizing your virtual network can be relatively easy, and immediately increase network efficiency.
      Improved Scalability: Network virtualization provides a quick and easily scalable solution. It allows business to respond to market demands with agility, expanding the services demanded by a specific group of users or providing new services as your business evolves.
Similarly, Storage virtualization is the process of grouping the physical storage from multiple network storage devices so that it looks like a single storage device. Storage virtualization is all about from buying additional hardware and adding in storages in file. Storage virtualization helps to address problem of management of storage and data by facilitating easy backup, archiving and recovery tasks by consuming less time.
The main role of implementing storage virtualization are as follows:
      Easy to move and shift around the data from one hardware to another hardware i.e. just moving or coping data or virtual file from one storage to another storage.
      Easy to move and transfer, no installation, no mechanical heads to be fail. However, we will have core level of hardware on separate storage.
      For setting goal with the network also you need to buy additional storages. All the server are posted in virtual environment and virtual switches to separate them
      You can create one server network switch and there we can apply ACL (Access control list) which traffic should come in and which is denied. Similarly, which code is allowed and not allow all those sort of access control.
      Improved storage management in a heterogeneous IT environment
      Better availability and estimation of down time with automated management
      Better storage utilization
      It creates better workflows
      It allows for the costs to become more predictable.
      It allows for migrations to be performed quickly: It makes the migration of data faster because there are fewer barriers to movement present.
      It allows more than one type of storage array: When using virtual storage, it is possible to assign more than one type of array to your SAN (Storage Area Network).
      It is a cheaper option for storage: Storage virtualization reduces the amount of hardware that is necessary to achieve a needed storage capacity. That makes it easier and cheaper for the required infrastructure to be installed
      It provides better access to your data: Resources are managing centrally instead, either with an on-site installation or through the Cloud.
Task 5:
Microsoft Application Virtualization or App-V is one of the most mature and popular technologies of this type available today. App-V takes a different approach to application delivery with app-v application are not installed but instead are virtual as such they can be streamed to users whenever they click on the application icon by separating the application layer from the operating system. App-V reduces application conflicts, brings patch and update management to a central location and accelerates the deployment of new application and updates. App-V also reduces the costs associated with testing and deploying applications under a new operating system such as windows 10. Regardless of form factor such as Laptop, PC, VDI Desktop. Thereby increasing the speed at which IT can deliver applications to users. Deploying Microsoft application virtualization can deliver many other immediate benefits to IT including reduced application packaging times to a fraction of the time, typically needed to create windows installer packages and reduced compatibility and regression testing by providing isolation that prevents application to application conflicts.  App-v runs on either 32- or 64-bit windows platforms including terminal services enabling more applications per server and allowing users to access their virtual applications from anywhere. Customers who choose to leverage VDI in their environment can reduce their SAN storage space requirements through app-v shared cache capacity and with App-V 5.0 or other version you can accelerate deployment of office programs for delivery of key productivity enhancement and seamless users experience.
Application Virtualization works in following steps:

App repackaged using Sequencer
Installation monitored to capture resources
All app resources stored in an app image (.SFT)
App image placed on server for distribution
App streamed to client over network
App-V runs app in Virtual Environment (VE)
App virtualization (V12N) layer handles resource requests

Application are Virtualized with the following steps:

Sequencer captures resources created at installation time. E.g., files, registry, etc.
Resources stored in an app image
Image optimized for network streaming
App image placed on server for distribution

Conclusion
This report presents the current server infrastructure and show that how to implement application and server virtualization platform for ICA.COM domain. Also, it presents the suitable type of hypervisor for ICA.COM. This report has also provided the detail about how easy it would be managed virtual server infrastructure as compared to physical server, benefits of network and storage virtualization to manage the data and network services. Similarly, above given answer include about the window deployment services and deployment of application virtualization as the infrastures administrators. Hence, virtualization helps the organization to save the physical hardware space, save the power and cooling cost, hardware and software installation cost and management.
References

Figure 2f from: Irimia R, Gottschling M (2016) Taxonomic revision of Rochefortia Sw. (Ehretiaceae, Boraginales). Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7720. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e7720
Nadir Yurtoğlu – History Studies International Journal of History – 2018 http%3a%2f%2fwww.historystudies.net%2fdergi%2f%2fbirinci-dunya-savasinda-bir-asayis-sorunu-sebinkarahisar-ermeni-isyani20181092a4a8f.pdf
Dejana Vojnak-Borislav Eordevic-Valentina Timcenko-Svetlana Strbac – 2019 27th Telecommunications Forum (TELFOR) – 2019 2:Task Performance Comparison of the type-2 hypervisor VirtualBox and VMWare Workstation
Al Muller-Seburn Wilson-Don Happe-Gary Humphrey-Ralph Troupe – Virtualization with VMware ESX Server – 2005. VMware Under the Covers

 

Server and Small Computer Hardware Specification and Operating Systems for Both Computers

CONTENT

 

       INTRODUCTION

       SERVER COMPUTER

       Server Hardware Components

Chassis Mid Tower

Motherboard Supermicro

Processor: Intel Xeon E5

Memory 16GB (2 x 8GB) 2133MHz ECC DDR4

Power Supply 500W – 80PLUS Bronze

Monitor Acer G276HL 27″ Full HD LED 1ms Gaming Monitor

Keyboard Keysonic Industrial Keyboard

Mouse Zowie EC2-B Black Medium Wired

 

     OPERATING SYSTEM AND SOFTWARES

 

     CLIENT COMPUTER

     Client Hardware Components

Case/Cabinet

Power Supply

Compact Disk Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM)

Motherboard MSI Intel Z270 GAMING PRO CARBON

Hard Disk Drive Seagate BarraCuda

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Random Access Memory (RAM)

 

     Peripheral Devices

Monitor Samsung LS19F355 18.5-inch LED

Keyboard ADVENT K122

Mouse HP X1500 wired USB optical

 

       OPERATING SYSTEM AND SOFTWARES

Windows-7 Professional

MS Offices

Anti-Virus / Anti-Malware

 

     Conclusion

 

     Installation of Triple Boot Machine Steps

Installing Windows XP

Installing Windows 7

Installing Mint-19 Linux

Setup Raid Array in Windows 7

 

 

     References

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Computers have become an integral part of human life and with the many requirements of this human was necessary to provide this computer in a manner that facilitates and meets the needs of this human and its requirements in various aspects of life.

The labour market depends directly and indirectly on the operation of all business transactions on computers. Depending on the nature of the work, the specifications of these computers will be automated to serve the purpose for which they came.

In this technical report, we will conduct a qualitative study on the forms of computers, such as the server computer and the client computer, and review the similarities and differences between them and the requirements and specifications that must be met in each of them so that each takes its specific form and fulfils the purposes that are built for.

 

 

 

SERVER COMPUTER

Regardless of whether it’s for your home or freelance venture, you presumably would like a server within the event that you simply have a system that maintained the business. Servers accustomed value an enormous variety of greenbacks, however, you’ll construct your terribly own freelance venture server for essential workplace quality. The server will store documents and host applications while not cost accounting you excellent several greenbacks.

After researching and checking the need for the company to a server that serve the purposes required by the company, in the completion of its work.

It was necessary to pass through a number of sites in the Internet search engine to find the website on the Internet called www.scan.co.uk where the computer server 3XS T100 Server, Intel Xeon E3, tower server that meets all the requirements required by the company and cost only £1,149.98.

Author: tower Scan 3XS T100 Server

Article title: Scan 3XS T100 Server, Intel Xeon E3, tower

Website title: Scan.co.uk URL: https://www.scan.co.uk/products/scan-3xs-t100-server-intel-xeon-e3-1220-v5-16gb-ram-2-x-1tb-hdd-towerAccessed 30 Nov 2018

 

This server is characterized by advantages that serve the company’s purpose. Economically, it does not exceed the budget available by the company to build a server that fulfills the minimum requirements for performing the company’s tasks and works in a distinctive way that facilitates the company’s work and contributes significantly to the productivity of the company. As a result of efficient work reduced time wasted in data processing, preservation and retrieval. The 3XS Tower server has its hardware specifications and features which we will discussed in detail below.

The Server Hardware Components:

 

Chassis Mid Tower (192 x 424 x 525.3mm)

This cabinet is characterized by it’s streamlined, modern way and also the flexibility that allow it to contain all accessories without the need to buy additional parts to be able to include these accessories.

Features and specifications for this chassis are shown below in the table.

Features

Specifications

4x 3.5″ internal SAS/SATA HDD Bays90° rotatable HDD cage design4x 2.5″ internal SAS/SATA HDD (opt.)

Peripheral Drive Bays: 2x 5.25″ and 1x 3.5″

1x 12cm Rear Exhaust Fan1x 12cm Front Cooling Fan (opt.)

7x Full-height, Full-length PCIExpansion Slots

Front I/O ports: 2x Audio (HD/AC97),2x USB 2.0 ports

High Efficiency Power Supply

Cost Effective Desktop, Embedded,Workstation Chassis

SuperChassis 732D2-500B (Black)

Expansion Slots

7x Full-height, Full-length I/O expansion slots

Front Panel

Buttons

LEDs

Power status LED

Hard drive activity LED

Network activity LED

System Overheat LED

Ports

2x Front USB 2.0 ports

2x Front HD/AC97 Audio ports

Power Supply

500W AC power supply w/ PFC

Website title: AVADirect Custom Computers, URL: https://www.avadirect.com/732D2-500B-Black-Mid-Tower-Server-Chassis-3-5-Hot-swap-SAS-SATA-HDD-4-ATX-E-ATX-Micro-ATX-500W-PSU-w-PFC/Product/5098933Accessed 30 Nov 2018

 

 

 

Figure 1.1 Mid-Tower Cabinet

 

 

Motherboard Supermicro 5039a-il

This motherboard that made it distinctive it’s the high efficiency and high speed in addition to many of the slots that enable us to add accessories, making the upgrade of the server in the future easier and less costs.

Key Features:

Intel® Xeon® Processor Skylake-W , Intel® Xeon® Processor W Family., Single Socket R4 (LGA 2066) supported, CPU TDP support Up to 140W

Intel® C422

Up to 256GB Registered ECC RDIMM, DDR4-2666MHz; Up to 512GB Registered ECC LRDIMM, in 8 DIMM slots

3 PCI-E 3.0 x16,

1 PCI-E 3.0 x4***3xPCI-E3.0 x16 Slots(8/16/16 (Skylake-W 48 lanes), 1xPCI-E3.0x4 slots***

M.2 Interface: 2 PCI-E 3.0 x4

M.2 Form Factor: 22110

M.2 Key: M-Key (RAID 0,1 support)

U.2 Interface: 2 PCI-E 3.0 x4

Intel® C422 controller for 6 SATA3 (6 Gbps) ports; RAID 0,1,5,10

*iRST enabled, only SATA2 to SATA5 support RAID.

Single LAN with Intel® PHY I219LM LAN controller

Single LAN with Aquantia 5G LAN chip AQC108

Article title: X11SRA | Motherboards | Products – Super Micro Computer, Inc.,

 Website title: Supermicro.com,

URL:https://www.supermicro.com/products/motherboard/Xeon/C420/X11SRA.cfm

Accessed 30 Nov 2018

Figure 1.2 supermicro 5039a-il motherboard

 

 

 

Processor: Intel Xeon E5 1225 v6 ‘Kaby Lake’ 3.3GHz Quad Core

This processor is designated by high speed and great efficiency makes it highly desirable in the work market.

The Intel Xeon E5 1225 processor features the power and speed required to meet the requirements and delivers fast response speed for fast file and program opening and seamless application and web page navigation without delay.

Features and Specifications

• Intel® Turbo Boost Technology 2.0• Intel® vPro Technology • Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology• Intel® Virtualization Technology (VT-x)• Intel® Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O (VT-d)• Intel® Trusted Execution Technology• AES New Instructions• Intel® 64• Idle States • Enhanced Intel SpeedStep® Technology• Intel® Demand Based Switching • Thermal Monitoring Technologies • Intel® Flex Memory Access • Execute Disable Bit

Author: Intel Bridge-EP

Articletitle: Intel Xeon E5-2643 Processor Sandy Bridge-EP

Websitetitle: Scan.co.uk

URL: https://www.scan.co.uk/products/intel-xeon-e5-2643-lga-2011-sandy-bridge-ep-quad-core-33ghz-base-35ghz-turbo-80gt-s-10mb-cache-130w-Accessed 30 Nov 2018

 

 

Figure 1.3 Intel Xeon E5 1225

Memory 16GB (2 x 8GB) 2133MHz ECC DDR4

RAM is a type of data and information storage memory in a computer, through which it can access any data stored in a random way, which makes it quickly accessible to stored data and access to certain specific information.

The 16GB (2 x 8GB) 2133MHz ECC DDR4 ram is identified by it is large storage capacity and it the high speed of access to the data and information that made it suitable for work in the servers because of the dynamic work in multiple ways that grantee a maximum rapidity in accessing all the required information.

Features and Specifications

Dual channel, 8 Layers PCB heatspreader, anodized aluminum heatspreader, Intel Extreme Memory Profiles (XMP 2.0), Vengeance LPX low profile heatspreader, unbuffered.

Figure 1.4 Memory 16GB (2 x 8GB) 2133MHz ECC DDR4

Power Supply 500W – 80PLUS Bronze

Despite the huge development in the hardware parts, providing sufficient energy and the ability to not consume large quantities of watts while maintaining the efficiency and performance, but the offer available in this power supply makes it incredibly appropriate for the job.

Features and Specifications

EasyRail™ Plus Technology allowing plenty of wattage headroom to handle your devices.

Extreme heat tested capacitors 

 Net Weight: 1.7kg 

Connectors: Full Wired

For more information regarding this power supply refer to the reference list.

 Figure 1.5 Power Supply

 

 

Monitor Acer G276HL 27″ Full HD LED 1ms Gaming Monitor

acer G6 series monitors area unit unbelievably fashionable with an incredible-slim portrait. outstanding performance eco-friendliness and sensible use of energy complement the sleek style all whereas staying well among budget £134.

It enables the user to set the display as he wishes to fit with acer e-colour management. the magnificent visions are made also better by charming colours via acer adaptive contrast superintendence.

Features and Specifications

• Screen: 68.6 cm (27″) Full HD (1920 x 1080)• Panel Technology: Twisted Nematic Film (TN Film) (170°x160°)• Inputs: HDMI, DVI, VGA• Response Time: 5 ms• Brightness: 250 cd/m²

   Figure 1.6 Acer Monitor

Keyboard Keysonic Industrial Keyboard, Full Size, Waterproof, USB – KSK-8030 IN

This keyboard is designated by its streamlined shape, which makes it easy to use and makes the pressing on the keys simple and the speed to access an unbelievable light, in addition to its cheap price compared to the features afforded and the possibilities provided by this keyboard an ease of use and the feature waterproof all of is addressed it more proper for our server.

Features and Specifications

ergonomically designed siloxane covered keyboard with one zero five keys. our keysonic keyboard has associate degree excellent tactile feedback and is watertight to ip68 norm and might so even be soaked in liquids. the facade of the keysonic keyboard is supplied with a special cover and thus combines a sensible manufacturing and substance immunity in order that you’ll be able to work with habitual disinfectants and therefore the keys print won’t dissolve.

    Figure 1.7 Keysonic Keyboard

8.     Mouse Zowie EC2-B Black Medium Wired eSports Gaming Mouse

The ergonomic structure just for right-gave users. It offers users a greater house for wrist joint developments. The state of the right facet of the mouse is balanced. It permits the client’s fingertips to hold/cover the mouse to manoeuvre simply.

Features and Specifications

No drivers needed, plug and play

Ergonomic design exclusively for right-handed users

Cable Length 2m / 6,6 ft

    Figure 1.8 Mouse Zowie EC2-B

 

OPERATING SYSTEM AND SOFTWARES

Linux Mint operating system is considered as one of the most elegant and powerful operating system easy to use, which made many companies depend on Linux Mint for the work of their servers and what distinguishes it in addition to the strength and speed that designate it comparing to many other OS such as windows server, as the most important also is free of charge to get it from the Internet https://linuxmint.com/ where it does not deceive to the right of a particular company and it is one of the open resources available on the Internet for free, therefore is would be suitable to our company server to use this open source and free of price operating system distribution.

Features and Specifications

Fast, safe and reliable

Has more than thirty thousand packages

Great software manager

Full multimedia support

Free of charge and open source.

   Figure 1.9 Linux Mint O.S.

 

 

 

 Libre Office

LibreOffice is free and open source software, originally based on OpenOffice.org (commonly known as OpenOffice), and is the most actively developed OpenOffice.org successor project.

Articletitle: Who are we? LibreOffice – Free Office Suite – Fun Project – Fantastic People

Websitetitle: Libreoffice.org

URL: https://www.libreoffice.org/about-us/who-are-we/

Accessed 06 DEC 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CLIENT COMPUTER

 

 

before begin buying the device components you need to have a concept and a tenet that helps you to remain within the scope of the budget you have already got and therefore the specification meets the necessities of the purchaser. its well and suggested to own an honest search on the net websites and examine the costs between them before buying thus you’ll get the most effective worth offered online that its appropriate to your budget. websites like (Scan, eBay, gumtree and newegg …etc). area unit invariably providing a competitive worth that may facilitate to stay the finances to the most profit.

Gathering an accurate specification of the component to build the device while keeping in mind the budget you have:

The Client Hardware Components:

 Computer hardware refers to the physical parts or components of a computer such as the monitor, mouse, keyboard, computer data storage, hard drive disk (HDD), system unit (graphic cards, sound cards, memory, motherboard and chips), etc. all of which are physical objects that can be touched.

Starting by the hardware parts the first purchase must be a case or the container of all the other hardware parts.

      Case/Cabinet this is the metal box that contains the computer hardware parts, in the case, you will find the power supply, floppy drive, CD ROM drive, the hard drive, motherboard and the central processing unit (CPU) …etc. for our small business client the best case which is decent for the office light use and fit our demand is CiT Dark Star Midi Case which cost around £34 only.

   Figure 2.1 CiT Dark Star Midi Case

 

      Power Supply the electrical component that supplies power to at least one electric load and it converts a different form of energy. The best option available to our project in online market is the Coolermaster Masterwatt Lite V2 400w PSU (Power Supply Unit) and it’s available on http://www.ebuyer.com which costs about GB £30.

Features and Specifications

 Advanced Circuit Design

Silent and Durable Fan

Green Power

Safety Guardian

80 Plus Standard 230v PSU

Figure 2.2 Coolermaster Masterwatt Lite V2 400w PSU

 

      Compact Disk Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM)

a device can read CD-ROMs, but can’t write to it, CD-ROM’s are not writable or erasable. It is designed to store computer data in the form of text and graphic. Its price in http://www.amazon.co.uk is about GB £13 which means good enough for our budget.

Figure 2.3 LiteOn IHAS124-14 24x SATA Internal DVD-RW

 

 

 

 

      Motherboard the heart of any computer system. Everything plugs into the computer’s motherboard, and its role is to allow all the different parts of the computer system to communicate with each other. Best option we can have for our device is MSI Intel Z270 GAMING PRO CARBON 7th/6th Gen. which it costs GB £141 in http://www.amazon.com with great specifications such as 6x SATA (Serial AT Attachment) 6GB/s ports and 2x M.2 slots.

Figure 2.4 MSI MSI Intel Z270 GAMING PRO CARBON

 

      Hard Disk Drive(HDD) stores the computers operating system, applications and saved files. The most important information on any hard disk specification is the amount of data it can store. One of the demands in our business computer for this project is to have a great storage capacity which it’s a significant part of the device is to store the data collected form the clients and the staff as well. Therefe for I found it according to our affordability and budget is to have a Seagate BarraCuda 1TB (Terabyte) HDD, its price in the market is not fixed from a place to another, but after a great research online I settle down in http://www.scan.co.uk website which offer the best price and it cost GB £40

 

Figure 2.5 Seagate BarraCuda ST1000LM048 /HDD

      Central Processing Unit (CPU) the component of the device that carries out all tasks and telling other component of the system what to do. A good offer for a cpu core i5-3230M with speed of 2.6GHZ (gigahertz) was available in http://www.encore-pc.co.uk which costs about GB £50. This CPU is more than compatible for the job a device designed for and an excellent choice in the range of our budget.

 

Figure 2.6 intel core i5-3230m processor

 

      Random Access Memory (RAM) it’s a type of storage that keeps a computer data and a machine code that currently being used. For the business office device, a perfect option is available in http://uk.crucial.com which it is a new crucial 4GB DDR3L-1600 SODIMM It’s price around GB £30.

Figure 2.7 Crucial 4GB DDR3L-1600 SODIMM

      Peripheral Devices

is that any kind of device that plugs into the case and provides input and output for the computer such as keyboard, mouse, monitor …etc. peripheral devices are not part of the essential computer component which cannot work without them (i.e., the memory and microprocessor).

Monitor it is one of the main peripheral devices which displays information and provide a visual output from a computer. Computer monitors use CRT (cathode ray tube), LCD (liquid crystal display) and LED (light-emitting diodes) technology.

For our business device the best monitor based in our budget it will be the Samsung LS19F355 18.5-inch LED monitor which it cost around GB £70 in http://www.pcworld.co.uk with features of a comfortable viewing due to a reduced blue light and slim design that can be easily wall mounted and portable.

Figure 2.8 SAMSUNG LS19F355 18.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keyboard an input device used to enter characters and functions into the system by pressing buttons or keys. Keyboards come in two major types of computer keyboard basic one and extended. The basic contains 104 keys and the extended may have additional buttons.

By searching for the most suitable keyboard it was advisable to look for the basic type of keyboards which it is enough to perform all the functions that can be done in Windows PC (personal computer) and less cost comparing to the extended one. Cheapest keyboard and compatible that fulfil the purpose is ADVENT K122 keyboard which cost as about GB £6 in http://www.currys.co.uk It is a great choice because of it is comfortable design and the features it has such as the USB (Universal Serial Bus) port standard that can be used with both desktop and laptop as well without any requires for setup.

Figure 2.9 ADVENT K112 Keyboard – Black

 

 

Mouse an input andhand-held pointing device that allows an easier control of the graphic user interface (GUI). Good and sufficient option with great compatibly to our need and budget is available in http://www.ao.com, the mouse HP X1500 wired USB optical has a great features such an easy set-up and smooth movement with optical technology and main thing with all the features it has it’s cost us GB £8.

 

 

Figure 2.10 mouse HP X1500 wired USB

 

Operating System the low-level software that supports a computer’s basic functions, such as scheduling tasks and controlling peripherals, as well as users, can interact right with the operating system through a user interface such as a command line interface (CLI) and graphical user interface (GUI). For an OS many examples that include versions of Microsoft Windows (Windows XP, Windows 7, Vista and so on) Apple’s macOS, iOS and Linux operating system.

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Windows-7 Professional this edition of Windows-7 includes all the features of Windows Home Premium and supports 32-bit and 64-bit CPU and 64-bit installation media are included. Windows-7 Professional – Provides access to the high graphics user-interface. This platform is chosen because it is more ideal for our business and suitable for the company budget. Its available at http://www.amazon.co.uk with good price of GB £11.

Software and Applications are a set of instructions and associated documentation that tells a computer what to do or how to perform a task. Applications are programs that do a specific thing, such as a game or MS-office.

MS Offices a suite of products developed by Microsoft Corporation that includes Microsoft Word, Excel, Access, PowerPoint, Publisher, and Outlook. It’s important for every business to have MS-Office application software which assists in performing many business tasks. For our company, was recommended to include it in our budget for the reasons we mentioned above. By searching for the most compatible and suitable to our business MS-Office product it was the only option which was good for our financial situation is that to have MS-Office 2016. For GB £27.

Anti-Virus/ Anti-malware a computer software which designed to prevent and protect the device form a deferent type of viruses that may affect in the computer performance and the data stored in the device, an antivirus software is used to detect the malware and remove it from the device. It’s recommended to use Kaspersky antivirus which it is top rated anti-virus program that prevents any form of virus/malware infecting the system and provides a firewall for the entire system. This firewall prevents intruders. This genuine software is available in http://www.kaspersky.co.uk with just GB £22.50, which means comparing to it is benefit is more attractable and preferable.

Conclusion

Finally, in conclusion, the main thing we can understand form building our own computing device, starting from the lowest levels of business body and home users to the highest business companies are all the same in how to plan for their devices demand and their business need for a computer.

But the only thing that makes a difference in a device to be built is the use of that device and for what is going to be used and the budget that is invested in the device computer.

Name: ALI EGAIL

ID No. 1806511

Email: aoe1crt@bolton.ac.uk

 

STEPS FOR INSTALLING A TRIPLEMACHINEBOOT (XP, Windows_7 and Mint-19 Linux)

Start Installing Windows XP first and using XP CD to create the portioning …

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INSTALLATION OF WINDOWS-7 STEPS:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

STEPS TO INSTALL MINT_19

 

Setup Raid Array in Windows-7

References

 

https://www.storagereview.com/ssd_vs_hdd

https://www.scan.co.uk

Accessed 28 Nov 2018

Author: Intel Bridge-EP

Article title: Intel Xeon E5-2643 Processor Sandy Bridge-EP

Website title: Scan.co.uk

URL: https://www.scan.co.uk/products/intel-xeon-e5-2643-lga-2011-sandy-bridge-ep-quad-core-33ghz-base-35ghz-turbo-80gt-s-10mb-cache-130w-

Accessed 30 Nov 2018

Author: tower Scan 3XS T100 Server

Article title: Scan 3XS T100 Server, Intel Xeon E3, tower

Website title: Scan.co.uk

URL: https://www.scan.co.uk/products/scan-3xs-t100-server-intel-xeon-e3-1220-v5-16gb-ram-2-x-1tb-hdd-tower

Accessed 30 Nov 2018

Author: BY JEFF TYSON & DAVE COUSTAN

Article title: How RAM Works

Website title: HowStuffWorks

URL: https://computer.howstuffworks.com/ram.htm

Accessed 30 Nov 2018

Article title: Corsair Vengeance LPX 16GB (2x8GB) DDR4 2133MHz DIMM 288-pin (CMK16GX4M2A2133C13) | BT Shop

Website title: BT Shop

URL:https://www.shop.bt.com/products/corsair-vengeance-lpx-16gb–2x8gb–ddr4-2133mhz-dimm-288-pin-cmk16gx4m2a2133c13-BMRW.html

Accessed 01 DEC 2018

Article title: XFX XT Series 500W 80 Plus Bronze Power Supply – Aria PC

Website title: Aria.co.uk

URL: https://www.aria.co.uk/Products/Components/Power+Supplies/Non-Modular+650W+or+less/XFX+XT+Series+500W+80+Plus+Bronze+Power+Supply+?productId=65947

Accessed 03 DEC 2018

Author: Acer Monitor

Article title: Acer G276HL 27″ Full HD LED 1ms Gaming Monitor

Website title: Scan.co.uk

URL: https://www.scan.co.uk/products/27-acer-g276hl-fhd-monitor-1920×1080-60hz-169-1ms-250cd-m-brightness-vesa-hdmi-dvi-d-vga

Accessed 02 DEC 2018

Author: USB – KSK-8030 IN Keysonic Industrial Keyboard

Article title: Keysonic Industrial Keyboard, Full Size, Waterproof, USB – KSK-8030 IN

Website title: Scan.co.uk

URL: https://www.scan.co.uk/products/keysonic-ksk-8030-in-full-sized-industrial-keyboard-ip68-rated-waterproof-usb

Accessed 03 DEC 2018

Author: Zowie Mouse

Article title: Zowie EC2-B Black Medium Wired eSports Gaming Mouse

Website title: Scan.co.uk

URL: https://www.scan.co.uk/products/zowie-ec2-b-medium-gaming-mouse-black

Accessed 05 DEC 2018

Author: Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols

Article title: Anonymous MSFT developer admits Linux is faster than Windows | ZDNet

Website title: ZDNet

URL: https://www.zdnet.com/article/anonymous-msft-developer-admits-linux-is-faster-than-windows/

Accessed 01 DEC 2018

Author: Carlos Drifter

Article title: About – Linux Mint

Website title: Linuxmint.com

URL: https://linuxmint.com/about.php

Accessed 03 DEC 2018

Website title: Amazon.co.uk

URL: https://www.amazon.co.uk/CiT-Dark-Star-Window-Panel/dp/B01MSE3M3W

Accessed 03 DEC 2018

Article title: Coolermaster Masterwatt Lite V2 400w – PSU Ebuyer

Website title: Ebuyer.com

URL: https://www.ebuyer.com/828324-coolermaster-masterwatt-lite-v2-400w-psu-mpx-4001-acabw-ks?mkwid=s_dc&pcrid=51482424299&pkw=&pmt=&gclid=EAIaIQobChMI4vS366iE3wIVE53VCh1COAycEAQYASABEgIKVvD_BwE

Accessed 13 OCT 2018

Website title: Amazon.co.uk

URL: https://www.amazon.co.uk/LiteOn-IHAS124-14-SATA-Internal-DVD-RW/dp/B00ERJXTE4?ref_=fsclp_pl_dp_

Accessed 23 OCT 2018

Website title: Amazon.co.uk

URL:https://www.amazon.co.uk/MSI-Intel-Z270-PLUS-Motherboard/dp/B01N5LSIYI/ref=pd_lpo_vtph_147_bs_t_1?_encoding=UTF8&psc=1&refRID=29DKBEFKEZPWYN3EKEWN

Accessed 23 NOV 2018

Author: Seagate drive/HDD

Article title: Seagate 1TB Guardian BarraCuda ST1000LM048 2.5″ 7mm Internal Hard drive/HDD

Website title: Scan.co.uk

URL: https://www.scan.co.uk/products/1tb-seagate-guardian-barracuda-hdd-25-7mm-form-factor-sata-iii-6gb-s-128mb-cache-5400rpm

Accessed 02 DEC 2018

Article title: Crucial 4GB DDR3L-1600 SODIMM | CT51264BF160B | Crucial UK

Website title: Crucial

URL: http://uk.crucial.com/gbr/en/ct51264bf160b

Accessed 04 DEC 2018

Article title: SAMSUNG LS19F355 18.5″ LED Monitor – Black

Website title: pcw

URL: https://www.pcworld.co.uk/gbuk/computing/pc-monitors/pc-monitors/samsung-ls19f355-18-5-led-monitor-black-10161976-pdt.html

Accessed 04 DEC 2018

Article title: ADVENT K112 Keyboard – Black

Website title: currys

URL: https://www.currys.co.uk/gbuk/computing-accessories/computer-accessories/mice-and-keyboards/keyboards/advent-k112-keyboard-black-13828361-pdt.html

Accessed 03 DEC 2018

Article title: H4K66AA#ABB | HP Wireless Mouse | ao.com

Website title: Ao.com

URL: https://ao.com/product/h4k66aaabb-hp-x1500-mice-black-49068-265.aspx

Accessed 04 DEC 2018

Website title: Amazon.co.uk

URL: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Microsoft-Windows-Home-Premium-Version/dp/B002DUCMT2

Accessed 04 DEC 2018

Author: Microsoft PC

Article title: Microsoft Office 2016 Professional Plus for Windows PC

Website title: TheKeyFactory

URL:https://www.thekeyfactory.uk/products/microsoft-office-2016-professional-plus-for-windows-pc.html?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIx4Wy4t6E3wIVyuR3Ch2ViQgmEAQYASABEgIZ-vD_BwE

Accessed 10 DEC 2018

Article title: Who are we? | LibreOffice – Free Office Suite – Fun Project – Fantastic People

Website title: Libreoffice.org

URL: https://www.libreoffice.org/about-us/who-are-we/

Accessed 06 DEC 2018